1 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina Marine sediment quality in Mar del Plata city sewage discharge area -period Gabriela von Haeften*, Marcelo cagliola**, na Paula Comino *, Roberto Gonzalez* * Waters Laboratory, Mar del Plata Public anitation Works. Municipality of General Pueyrredón County, rgentina. ( ; ; ) ** Quality Management Division, Mar del Plata Public anitation Works. Municipality of General Pueyrredón County, rgentina. ( ) bstract The city of Mar del Plata, located on the coast of the tlantic Ocean is the main seaside resort of rgentina and has a stable population of about 6,000 inhabitants, however, during the summer receives the main tourist flow of the country. t present, the wastewater is pre-treated by filtration with milliscreens (0. mm apertures) and discharged at a unique point to the coastal marine waters. The submarine outfall for the city is actually under construction. Mar del Plata Public anitation Works (OE) has been evaluating the impact produced by the sewage discharge to the receiving marine environment through the last two decades and the Quality Management Division implemented in 999 a monitoring sediment programme in order to have a baseline before the submarine outfall construction, that provides a fundamental tool to evaluate the environmental situation achieved after the outfall. Marine sediments were sampled in a surface around 36 km2 near the wastewater discharge. The sampling designs considered the geographical and the seasonal variability and the variability caused by episodic storms. The parameters analyzed were grain-size distribution, organic matter and heavy metals in total fraction and in fraction less than 63 micrometers. The general results obtained, shows the stability in the natural conditions but within a broad range of natural variability. The levels of metals did not exceed the Provisory Binational Reference Values (VRBPs, 2006) based on the Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life (2002). Organic matter data shows a strong sedimentary dynamics in the area. This monitoring programme provides baseline chemical data and the comparison tools to evaluate the influence of the Mar del Plata s sewage outfall, in order to achieve and maintain the quality objectives by the implementation of future improvements if necessary. Keywords Wastewater discharge, metals levels, sediment, ocean outfall, integrated coastal management INTRODUCTION The city of Mar del Plata (38º, 7º W), located on the coast of the tlantic Ocean is the main seaside resort of rgentina and has a stable population of about 6,000 inhabitants, however, during the summer receives the main tourist flow of the country. t present, the wastewater that generates a flow average of 2.8 m3. seg- in winter increasing to 3. m3. seg- in summer, is pre-treated by filtration with milliscreens (0. mm apertures) and discharged at a unique point to the coastal marine waters. Different studies that OE requested to several institutions,2,3,4, recommended the construction of marine outfall as an alternative to meet local health problems with regard to the recreational quality of the coast. In 200 there was a failed attempt to construct the outfall that has served to evaluate the impact due to the dredging works. The submarine outfall for the city is actually under construction. Taking into account other studies in the area 6,7,8, Mar del Plata Public anitation Works (OE) has been evaluating the impact produced by the sewage discharge to the receiving marine environment through the last two decades and the Quality Management Division implemented in 999 a monitoring sediment programme in order to have a baseline before the submarine outfall construction, that provides a fundamental tool to evaluate the future environmental situation.
2 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina The aim of this communication is to present the baseline data for trace metals in sediments near the wastewater discharge, compare results with reference values and evaluate variability due to seasonal and climate changes and the impact of dredging during the m deep outfall trench construction. MTERIL ND METHOD ampling and processing ince 999 marine sediments were sampled in a surface around 36 km2 near the wastewater discharge (Fig., Fig.2, Fig. 3 and Fig 4). The sampling designs considered the geographical and the seasonal variability and the variability caused by episodic storms. Table summarize the sampling campaigns since 999. In order to evaluate s 8 samples have been taken quarterly in the period (Fig. 3). These evaluations match dredging during the m deep outfall trench construction. Two campaigns were performed in 2003 to evaluate the effects of the storms (Fig. 2). In 2007 seven sampling sites, located in the transect of 3800 m in the outfall trench made in 200, have been sampled (Fig 4). Table - ummary of sampling campaigns Year Nº of locations ampling frecuency Nº of sampling campaigns Objective Baseline study (Fig ) easonal variability evaluation of impact due to outfall trench construction (Fig 3) Climate influence variability (Fig 2) Baseline update (Fig 4) Figure rea sampled in 999 Figure 2 rea sampled in
3 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina Futuro Emisario Planta de Pretratamiento Ing. Baltar silo Unzue Mareografo Cbo. Corrientes Medio Marino Receptor Figure 3 - rea sampled in km ewage discharge 8 Distance to the coast silo Unzue 300 m m m 4 00 m 2000 m m m m Mareografo Cbo. Corrientes Figure 4 - rea sampled in
4 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina ediments were collected using a stainless-steel Van Veen grab, and stored deep freeze (-8ºC) in a plastic bag in the laboratory until analyses. The samples were dried (T<60ºC), lightly ground in a mortar and pestle to break up aggregates 9. ediment analyses. Grain size distribution was determined using the classical sieving methods (4.7,, 0., 0.2, 0.2, mm sieves). The fine sediment fraction (<63 µm) was microwave acid digested with concentrated nitric acid. Metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr) in sediment digests were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry 0 and Hg in the silt clay fraction was analyzed using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (nalyst 300 Perkin Elmer). Organic matter was determined using ignition at 0 ºC until constant weight. 0 Quality control procedures. Blanks were included in each batch of analyses. The Quality ssurance Programme for Waters Laboratory (OE) included the participation in the Laboratory Performance tudies developed for the EU Quasimeme Programme (Quality ssurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring). The test materials corresponding to the rounds 46, 48, 0 y 2 (M- Trace metals in sediments, ) were analysed with satisfactory results for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Hg. 2 ediment data analyses: to evaluate the differences between sample sites, s and temporal trends, analyses of variance were performed with P software with a 0.0 significance level (NOV test) 3. REULT ND DICUION The general results obtained, shows the stability in the natural conditions but within a broad range of natural variability. The sediments in the area near to the shore shows a predominance of fine sand, while the deepest areas (>0 m) shows coarse sand with shells. Even when the total and the fine (<63 µm) sediment fraction were analysed, in order to evaluate the level of metal concentrations in the area the comparison was made with the data corresponding to the fine fraction. No statistical significant differences (P<0.0) were observed in the heavy metal levels found in sediments from locations near shore, under direct anthropogenic influence, and those sampled in blank zones. lso there were no seasonal significant differences in the data. During the campaigns in , organic matter data shows differences related with the occurrence of storms. This effect was evaluated in 2003 when 2 sites (Fig. 2) were sampled before and after a storm. Organic matter data shows significant differences among same sample sites, due to processes related with the transportation of sediments in the area as a result of currents and climate conditions (Fig. ). ediments provide habitat for benthic organisms and also act as a sink where contaminants can be stored, acting then as a source of these contaminants to the overlying water and biota. In highenergy environments with high energy of the overlying flow, the sorptive capacity of the sediments for contaminants is small with consequent low depositional rates. 4. The studied area is very hydrodynamic, with high energy and a strong sedimentary dynamic associated to the action of winds, currents and waves, favourable for dilution and dispersion of waste water. This effect has been seen in 200 when the bathyimetry after 7 days of the trench dredging during the failed attempt of the outfall construction shows a range of sand accumulation from 3 to 4 m. 4
5 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina s mentioned before, during the sample campaigns performed in 200 some of the works related to construction of the outfall were developed. Particular importance has the dredging of the trench, with a high volume of mobilized sediment. In broad terms, between 80m and 00m from the shore, the trench is 2 meters wide at the base; between 00m and 3300m, it is meters wide at the base and has almost vertical slopes and finally, the remainder line until 3800m has gradually smoother slopes. The depth of the digging ranges from 3 to 4 meters % organic matter % org mat 2,0 2,00,0,00 0,0 0, site location antes tormenta despues tormenta Fig. Organic matter obtained in samples before and after a storm (2003). ites location in Fig. 2 The littoral current flows from south to north 6, so the dredged sediment was carried out north of the area to avoid the refilling of the trench. The data evaluation (campaigns ) shows no significant differences (P<0.0) among metals concentration in the north and south area. For cadmium all values fell below the analytical detection limit (Cd < 0.03 mg/kg), and for mercury, several results fell below the analytical detection limit (Hg < 0. mg/kg) with a maximum value detected of 0. mg/kg. Based in the Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life (2002), 7 rgentina and Uruguay set in 2006 the VRBP (Valores de Referencia Binacionales Provisorios) 8 as quality guidelines. In general, the levels of metals found in sediment samples taken during the sampling campaigns since 999 did not exceed VRBP (Figure 6). This is consistent with the predominance of food industry in the city of Mar del Plata. Only in a few cases, some values were slightly higher than the VRBP, but were always below the probable effect level (PEL) so no incidence of adverse biological effects can be expected 7, 9, 20. The evaluations of data since 999 to 2007 do not indicate a temporal trend in the level of trace metal concentrations in the fine sediment fraction. CONCLUION The concentration ranges of metals found in sediment samples taken since 999 are below the VRBP, do not present high levels of contaminants and no adverse biological effects are expected. The evaluation of trace metals data in the fine sediment fraction shows no geographical, seasonal or temporal trends.
6 Pb (mg/kg) Cr (mg/kg) Zn (mg/kg) Cu (mg/kg) % < 63 um International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina PRTICLE IZE ORGNIC MTTER % organic matter bef ore storm 0 n=30 n=7 n=0 bef ore st orm n=2 af ter st orm n=8 n=47 n= n=7 n=7 n=2 n=8 OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE 20.0 COPPER VRBP : 8.7 mg/kg 20.0 ZINC VRBP : 24 mg/kg n=29 n= n=0 before storm n=2 n= n=29 n=0 bef ore storm n= n=2 n=8 OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE LED CHROM IUM 30.0 VRBP : 30.2 mg/kg VRBP: 2.3 mg/kg n=29 n= bef ore storm n=0 n=2 n= n=29 n= n=0 bef ore storm n=2 n=8 OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE OCT 99 NOV 00 JN 02 FEB 03 MR 04 MY 0 JUN 06 JUL 07 MPLING DTE Fig. 6- Box plot presentation for particle size, organic matter and metal concentrations in sediment fraction < 63 µm. 6
7 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina The dredging of a trench around four kilometers long, perpendicular to the coast, during the failed attempt to build the outfall in 200, would be the anthropogenic actions of greater impact on the coastal ecosystem but showed no effect on the quality of marine sediments. That evidences the strong drift of sediments in a south-north direction which led to the partial filling of the trench. This monitoring programme provides baseline chemical data and the comparison tools to evaluate the influence of the Mar del Plata s sewage outfall, in order to achieve and maintain the quality objectives by the implementation of future improvements if necessary REFERENCE Instituto Nacional de Ciencia y Técnica Hídricas (INCyTH): Estudio de la factibilidad de la disposición en el mar de los efluentes cloacales de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. (984). 2 Isla,F.: Estudio del sector de plataforma receptor de la descarga cloacal de Camet, Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, ENOH Convenio de asistencia técnica a Obras anitarias de Mar del Plata (OE). Tratamiento y disposición final de los efluentes cloacales en Camet. Informe Final Marti, José,. Manejo de los efluentes de la Planta Camet de Mar del Plata, rgentina. Informe Final. 997 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (FCEyN- UNMDP) Evaluación de Impacto mbiental. egunda etapa de la Estación Depuradora de guas Residuales de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. Tomo y 2. (998). 6 cagliola,m.: Metales pesados en sedimentos, material particulado y organismos bentónicos del medio marino receptor del efluente cloacal de Mar del Plata Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Unpublished Thesis (993). 7 Prefectura Naval rgentina (PN). Informe Final. nálisis físico bacteriológico del Río de la Plata y su frente marítimo. FREPLT Carsen,.E, Perdomo,., rriola, M. -Río de la Plata y su frente marítimo. Contaminación de aguas, sedimentos y biota.proyecto FREPLT. Mayo U.. Environmental Protection gency: Methods for Collection, torage and Manipulation of ediments for Chemical and Toxicological analyses: Technical Manual. EP-823-B October PH, WW, WEF (eds.) (998) - tandard Methods for the Determination of Water and Wastewater, 20 th edition Lobring, L.; Potter, B. Determination of Mercury in ediments by Cold Vapor tomic bsorption pectrometry, Method 24..Environmental Monitoring ystems Laboratory Office of Research and Development. U.. Environmental Protection gency. Cincinnati, Ohio. Pp (99) 7
8 International ymposium on Outfall ystems, May -8, 20, Mar del Plata, rgentina 2 ICE Chemical measurements in the Baltic ea: Guidelines on quality assurance. Ed. by E. Lysiak-Pastuszak and M. Krysell. ICE Techniques in Marine Environmental ciences, No pp. 3 Walpole,R.E.; Myers, R.H.; Myers,.L. Probabilidad y estadística para ingenieros, 6ta ed. Edit. Prentice-Hall. 739 pp antos, C., Paulo-Martins,C., Barreiros,., Pestana, P., Cardoso,., Freire,. Quality assessment of water and sediments of eight submarine outfalls west coast of Portugal Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Marine Waste Water Disposal and Marine Environment. P -6. ntalya, nov. 6-0, 2006 cagliola, M., Furchi,P. ewage outfall project of Mar del Plata city (rgentina): n effective intervention to achieve quality objectives on the marine environment Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Marine Waste Water Disposal and Marine Environment - ntalya, nov. 6-0, cagliola,m-reta,r-ferrante,.: Medición de corrientes superficiales en un sector del litoral costero de Mar del Plata durante el período estival 997/98. OE UNMdP, Unpublished work (998). 7 Canadian Council of Ministres of the Environment Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: ummary tables. Updated. In: Canadian environmental quality guidelines, 999, Canadian Council of Ministres of the Environment, Winnipeg 8 Valores de referencia binacionales provisorios de Calidad de agua y sedimentos para la protección de la biota acuática (VRBPBs), NEXO. En Objetivos de Calidad de gua y sedimentos para el área común del Río de la Plata y su frente marítimo. FREPLT Proyecto PNUD/GEF RL/99/G3.Octubre The development of a common set of water and sediment quality guidelines for the coastal zone of the BCLME. Project BEHP/LBMP/03/04.CIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, outh frica, enero Buchman,M.F, NO creening Quick Reference Tables, NO HZMT Report 99-, eattle W, Coastal Protection and Restoration Division, National Oceanic and tmospheric dministration, 2 pages 8
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