A Methodology for the Development of Robot Software Architecture (MDASR)

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1 1 A Methodology for the Development of oftware Architecture (MDAR) Nelson de J Londoño Ospina Abstract The Methodology for the Development of oftware Architecture (MDAR) follows the most significant concepts and standard languages in all the stages of the process of development (pecification, Analysis, Development, Implementation, Validation and Testing) In this paper, basic steps are presented in a graphic representation as well as the methodology, which is exemplified in a proposal of representative architecture giving support and enlightening every stage The methodology is grounded on software engineering paradigms by applying methods and languages widely accepted by the scientific community Key words Architecture, oftware Engineering, Unified Modelling Process, oftware Development, oftware Methodologies I INTRODUCTION software architectures [1]-[8], strategies and approaches to achieve proper operation, set of sensors, actuators and processing hardware [9]-[15], are currently extended fields of study that enhance and uphold the science of ics The particular complexity and inconveniences of these systems along with the large variety of approaches and representations of Architectures, especially when it comes to Mobile s, have hindered communication and understanding of those not directly involved in the subject, and obstruct the interrelation between the engineer proposing the architecture (robotics engineer) and the engineer who applies the architecture (commonly a software systems specialist) uch pitfall in communication is clearly noticeable given the variance of experiences and languages handled by every expert These problems prompted a research project proposal to assess different alternatives aimed at overcoming the encumbrances between conception, representation and development of these systems Through the analysis of multiple approaches of representation, conception methods and development techniques, a need to underpin the process in the proper paradigms of software engineering [16]-[27] became evident; specifically, as regards methodologies and methods applied to develop a software system with high complexity levels [22], [28]-[34] In fact, this provides systematic procedures and fully-grown representation languages for the design and development of oftware Architecture, which give support to a methodology of systems conception, design and validation The Unified Process of oftware Development [34] suggests guidelines and procedures enclosed within the Object-Oriented Concept, based on (UML) [35]-[40] It was adopted as the cornerstone of the proposal, accompanied by typical elements of software engineering and applied on the specific case for oftware of Mobile s II MDAR MDAR (Methodology for the development of oftware Architecture), follows the paradigms of oftware Engineering, which are based on the assembly of interrelated steps that capture the main features of the system and its environment [17], [18], [19], [22], [37], though defined and applied to the issue of oftware Architecture As any methodology, this is a systematic process that benefits the development of said architectures MDAR involves, the vast majority of stages in developing a project, provides the operation and speed up its conception, analysis, design, implementation and validation; it fosters and illustrates the use of an easy-tounderstand language and engages other actors in the process: - The robotics engineer, whose objective is to have a well designed system able to comply with the expected specifications and functional structure - The computer engineer, who shall know the requirements in a basic language, in order to turn such requirements into a software program that shall comply with the customer s demands In Fig 1, the general methodology outline is presented Every single step to be considered in the development of oftware ystems is given herein III PROPOED ARCHITECTURE In order to illustrate all steps as planned, which require at the same time a set of tasks and activities, an architecture involving many of the most recurrent elements in today s architectural proposals, is taken as basis In Fig 2, a generic outline of this architecture is shown

2 2 Desarrollador Desarrollador Desarrollador VIION GENERAL DEL ITEMA El -Entorno EPECIFICACION de la Arquitectura ANALII Arquitectura oftware DIEÑO IMPLEMENTACION - Visión General del istema - Arquitectura - objeto de desarrollo - Requisitos (Casos de Uso) - istemas o Paquetes Arquitectura oftware - ubpaquetes y ubsistemas de Análisis - Identificar Análisis - Diagrama de Interacción - Nodos - istemas y ubsistemas - Casos de Uso Diseño - Clase (diagrams) MODELO (CAO DE UO) MODELO DE ANALII Arquitectura oftware para s Preliminares: Entorno, Consideraciones, Arquitectura General MODELO DE DIEÑO Arquitectura oftware Propósito Objetivo Actual Propuesto Requisitos(CU) Arquitectura Paquetes ub-paquetes Modelo Anal Arquitectura /Objeto s Modelo Diseño IV APLICATION OF METHODOLOGY Having as starting point the architecture proposed by the robotics engineer, all the steps shown in Fig 1 are illustrated in this section, thereby it is expected to provide a general development overview as suggested by MDAR A ystem Overview The first stage deals with a general feature identification which shall rule the software architecture These features are: hardware system, operation environment, tasks to be completed, special considerations, general architecture B pecification The specification of requirements stage is outlined in the diagram of Fig 3 This proceeding is subject to the characteristics required on each case, and might be extended or modified EPECIFICACION de la Arquitectura -Hardware - Entorno - Tareas -Consideraciones especiales -, - Componentes - Empaquetar - Dependencias ARQUITECTURA OFTWARE Visión General Del itema Especificación del Problema La Arquitectura como Objeto de Desarrollo - Propósito - Alcances - Objetivo - Plataforma utilizada Fig 1 MDAR General Diagram Estado Actual Del Arquitectura oftware Propuesta - Identificación - Descripción - Modelación Requisitos - Requisitos no funcionales Conocimiento Aprendizaje Panorama General de la Arquitectura Captura de requisitos INTERFAZ UUARIO Identificar y Definir Actores Describir Requisitos Identificar y Definir Casos de Uso PLANIFICADOR GLOBAL (Planificador Misiones) MODELO CAO DE UO Requisitos No Funcionales I T E M A MODELO DE ENTORNO PLANIFICADOR LOCAL ( Alto Nivel) (Navegación) (Pilotaje Eurística y Experiencia) Diagramas de Casos de Uso Detalles de Casos de Uso Fig 3 pecification Flowchart C O N T R O L Diagnóstico Recuperación Conocimiento Aprendizaje UPERVIOR YGETOR DE COMPORTAMIENTO ( medio) (ubsistema Motor AuRA) CONTROL REACTIVO 1) Purpose of the ystem The purpose of the system intended to be developed is to implement a software architecture to control a mobile robot with different modes of operation: Remote led, semi-autonomous and autonomous, involved in unknown static environments and running in a PCcontrolled Kephera [41] robot I T E M A E N O R I A L ITEMAENORIAL (Percepción Encontrar Onstáculo, Referencias, caminos) ETADO INTERNO (itema homeostático) INTERFAZ/ACTUADORE ENTORNO ITEMA ACTUADOR EXPERTICIA 2) Current ystem Within the framework of the above-mentioned methodology, that the architecture intended to be developed shall be implemented on a basic robot platform must be assumed, thus making relevant the identification, during this stage, of the system characteristics by giving details of both software and hardware This information is commonly available in the user s manual or in the technical information of the robot It is suggested to represent its characteristics supported in a UML scheme In Fig 4, the characteristics of the Khepra system represented on UML are presented There both the system and the corresponding actors that interact with the system are specified Fig 2 Proposed architecture

3 3 Almacenar Trayectoria- Tarea de -PC Puerto PC Cargar Parámetros Mostrar EjectModo Manuel EjectModo emeiautom Leer EjectModo Automnomo de - sensor/ actuador Entorno Fig 6 Use Case Model of the oftware Architecture for Mobile s Básico Fig 4 Current Model Base de Datos Operaciones y Procesos d ) Use Case Analysis The use cases specified in the previous section are herein closely described For this purpose, a form to describe its operation and functional relationship with every actor involved or use case of the system is provided 3) Requirements Capture a) Description of "oftware Architecture" The Arquitecture allows the robot to move in response to an order given by the operator It shall allow functioning in any of the three basic operation modes, selected via interface: autonomous, semi-autonomous, remote controlled (manual) In fig 5, the architecture wished-for to be implemented is presented This is the first description that widely identifies the architecture and its relationship with the environment and user (Actors) e ) Use Case Refinement To identify use cases that require specifications with a higher degree of detail is common in the general use case model In fact, this entails checking of every single use case On that account, it is important to identify those use cases comprising a more general scope To set an illustrative example, the use case Ejecutar_Modo_ Manual is presented: - Use Case: Execute Manual Mode (Remote led) Manual mode requires a series of functions and services captured as use cases uch proceeding shall be developed following the foregoing procedures Entorno Ecuaciones Tablas Algormos Otros de Actuadores Otros métodos Almacenar trayectoria Captura manual Leer Modelos Perifericos Estrategias de Modelos de entorno Base de datos ARQUITECTURA OFTWARE EjectModo Manuel Iniciarl Fig 5 Representation of oftware Paro Normal Para Emergencia se Velocidad b) Identification of Actors The actors are institutions, individuals or oftware/ Hardware elements interacting with the system A categorization of actors is given in detail and some others that were not previously considered are identified c ) Use Case Models The use case model is the resulting product after a close evaluation of the functions and services that the architecture shall offer It is summarized in a UML diagram which provides a first overview of the system specification Fig 6 relates the general use case diagram of the proposed architecture se Posicion Fig 7 Use Case: Execute Manual Mode (Remote led) Fig 7 shows the final product and use case model obtained through the specification of Use Case: Ejecutar_ Modo Manual

4 4 C Analysis The second stage involving MDAR methodology, after having been specified, suggests the analysis of the system to be developed, and the identification of the general solution Fig 8 outlines the steps suggested in the MDAR for this stage of the analysis are presented as a preliminary solution to the system to be developed A more detailed examination of each of the packages previously proposed requires inspection of the subpackages comprising the above-mentioned ones, following, likewise, a process of analysis and evaluation based upon use cases Interza 1) Analysis of the oftware Architecture (First Level of Detail) Being the development methodology inspired in the PUD, both the analysis and the specification stages shall be iterative and incremental A first analysis of the general solution is suggested on the first stage ubsequently, through consecutive iterations, repeat the specification and analysis steps to architectural specific packages ist istmotori BaseDatos istensor ANALII Arquitectura oftware EPECIFICACIÓN A partir de los Casos de Uso - istemas o Paquetes Arquitectura oftware ubpaquetes y ubsistemas de Análisis: - Identificar - Relación y - Dependencia) Identificar Análisis A partir de A partir de ubsistemas Caos de Uso Fig 10 - architecture, packages and their interrelation MODELO DE ANALII Arquitectura oftware para s Fig 8 Analysis Flowchart Diagram Diagrama de Interacción Análisis de - Responsabilidad - Atributos - Asociaciones Agregaciones - Generalización a ) Identification of the architecture systems Analysis packages - Based on the system specification, through use case models, the analysis packages that implement the use cases are identified and classified according to their features and functionality - ystems As a response to the case _, an analysis package that implement the basic control functions is detected In Fig 9, the package named as ist is shown ystem - Refinement- A second iteration allows greater details of packages that apply more specific use cases, such as the subpackage Deliberative, which puts into effect the use cases shown in Fig 11 corresponding to the refinement of the "ist package A diagram of the ystem and its interrelation is presented in Fig 12 as a consequence of the analysis of every single subpackage identified CDeliberativo Ejecutar Modo Deliberativo upervisar y gestionar tareas Procesar modelo de entorno ist Ejecutar Modo manual Planificar trayectoria Planificar trayectoria local Ejecutar Modo emi-autónomo Ejecutar Modo Autónomo Fig 11 Use Cases CDeliberativo Fig 9 Package istema b) Definition of general packages (ubsystems) and their interrelation After a close identification, definition and analysis of the analysis packages that implement all the use cases, a pattern of analysis of the general system is obtained (Fig 10), where the packages conceived and their interrelation

5 5 istema_i Gestor_uperv_Tareas CDeliberativo CComportamiento s C process, on which the different uses cases required to implement the above-mentioned use case have been detailed and justified The scheme shows the diagram globally, however every single one of the cases has passed through a detailed and more specified process of specification, description, identification, analysis and particular refinement resulting in a comprehensive description of all the use cases required by the system Activar/Desactivar_ Modo _ Comandos_Basicos Tomar Info_ensor es Fig 12 Relationship diagram, package elements of ystem 2 ) Analysis of Architecture ubpackages (econd Iteration) Rectiva Ejecutar tarea Evaluar_Info _ensorica Evaluar comportamiento _a_ Activar Activar_ Comportamiento Evaluar Calcular_ Acion_ eguridad Leer Preventivo Navegacion During a second iteration, execution of the same previous proceedings is suggested for those packages that might be handled as systems almost independent A representative example of this occurrence is the reactive control system, which might be considered as an independent system (Architecture), and therefore, a complete inspection of all the steps proposed including a detailed specification of the system is accomplished EjectModo Automo Gestion_ Fallas Gestion_ Alarmas Fig15 Detailed Use Case Diagram Ejecutar a ) pecification of Reactive ubpackage - ystem Overview Fig 13 shows, from the standpoint of the ics engineer, an overview of a system on which a Reactive control architecture has been created and implemented on a predefined robot (Khepera) Inicio Paro Comportam Estado Fig 13 Reactive ystem The generic use case diagram, a product of the process of specification of the proposed reactive control system is shown in Fig 14 The actors and their corresponding use cases are clearly identified thereby conceiving the new system (Reactive Architecture) as a process of software development nearly independent Ejecutar_Rectiva Leer b ) ubpackage pecification: Deliberative To illustrate another example, the deliberative control is implemented by using inclusion relationships along with more specific use cases such as those detailed in Fig 16 EjectModo Automo Ejecutar Tarea Deliberativo Planificar RePlanificar Almacenar Traect-Local Almacenar Trayectoria Definir trayectoria Dividir en ubtareas Evalaur Estado Actual Fig 16 Detailed Use Case Diagram implementing Deliberative c ) Analysis of Reactive ubsystem In a second iteration, identification of packages and subpackages of all the systems created during the process shall be done For instance, Fig 17 illustrates an analysis diagram, the Navigation ystem, which corresponds to a subpackage identified in the Reactive, from the use cases that it implements Fig 14 Use Case "Ejecutar " - Use Case "Ejecutar " After a refinement process of the use cases identified on the previous stage, a more detailed diagram is obtained in Fig 15 This type of diagrams results from a prior specification

6 6 Ejecutar_comporta mietnos_navegación ist_navegacion Ejec_Comp_ Braitenberg Ejec_Comp_V argar-explorar Gesto_ Estados Requeridos Ejec_Comp_ eguir Trayectoria alir_zonas _ Muertas Bordea_Muro Otros Fig 17 Identification of the analysis package "ist_navegacion" from its use cases imilarly, the other system packages of the reactive control are introduced, which, obviously lead to package architecture proposals as shown in Fig 18 Fig 20 Unblock ubpackage ClassModel e) Model -Analysis- Reactive oftware Architecture :Operador 1:Orden eguir muro eguir muro 2:Iniciar eguir muro Generador et Poin 13:et Point (n) 13:et Point istema i 11:Leer Valores límite 12:Valores Limite) 3:Calcular dirección ist_navegacion ist_ ist_preventivo ist_eguridad Velocidad consigna 10:Nueva consigana 5:Leer (Dirección y ángulos) 4:Hay cambio de estado? Proximidad 9:Hay Algoritmo Evaluar 7:Lectura cambio eguimiento sensores Normalizada de estado muros 6:Valores Leídos _ Fig 18 Architecture through Reactive ystem Packages 8:Loop Evaluar hasta Cambio de estado (a) Flowchart of occurrence-track Wall (Normal Condition) 12:Iformar estado 1:Orden eguir muro bloqueado 11:Parara motores 13:et Point :Operador eguir muro Generador et Poin (n) d ) Identification of Classes Founded on the packages and subpackages defined in the latest iterations of the previous control system, a series of Classes executed by every single one of these is suggested - Reactive The reactive control, defined as a set of packages supporting this control structure, might be suggested as a model of Classes executed by each one of these packages In Fig 19 and 20, this item is illustrated by subpackages Navigation and Unblock Each one of these Classes must be defined and detailed by giving its features and functionality within the general design of the package Either text, chart, sketch, or diagram may be useful to such purpose, eg a description of the Classe Bordear_muro is presented in Fig 21 It shows the flowchart of occurrences and events that must be implemented by this Class Navegacion Evadir Gesto_ Navegación Ir_a_Onjetivo eguir trayectoria Vagar/Explorar Fig 19 Navigation ubpackage ClassModel Otros Estados Requeridos Velocidad consigna 10:istema Bloqueado) 3:C alcular dirección Algoritmo eguimiento muros 4:Hay cambio de estado? 9:Hay cambio de estado Evaluar sensores 8:Loop Evaluar hasta Cambio de estado 5:Leer Proximidad 7:Lectura Normalizada _ 6:Valores Leídos (b) Flowchart occurrences- Track Wall (Blocking Condition) Fig 21 Interrelation and flowchart of occurrences eguir_muro The analysis model of the robot system is illustrated in Fig 22 There, each one of the Classes of the system is identified and the reactive control software architecture ensuing from the previous analysis is highlighted Every single one of the Classes shall be reviewed in detail and presented in such a way that it must provide identification of its function and interrelation with the system Due to the restrains of this paper, previous processes are not detailed, however they are clearly explained in the methodology All the elements identified in the architecture (packages and subpackages) shall be closely specified and subject to strict analysis During this stage, active involvement of both robotics engineers and computer engineers shall be interactive and well recorded

7 7 Experticia Mapas Mapas Modelo Modelo Parámetros Parámetros Actuadores Tareas Objetvo Modos de y Tareas Planificador Global Modelo Entorno Gestor_Base_Datos Acople Arrastre upervisor_gestor Comportamientos Planificador Local :Operador I_Inp IU I_Out Interprete_ Comandos Gestor_ upersor_ Tares Gestor_ Comportamiento Planificador Busqueda_ Objetivo eguimiento_ Objeto Estado Actual Evaluador_ Planificad_ istema_ Trayectoria Local Localizacion Otros _ Actuadores istema ensorial Algoritmos_ Especiales _ Comandos Básicos _ Comandos istema del Librerías Capa Intermedia de Aplicación Paro_ Emergencia Giro_ Emergencia eguridad Fuga Preventivos Evadir_ Abismo eguir_ Evadir_ Muro Ostáculo alir_zona_ Muerta Pasar_Zona_ Estrecha Navegación Ir_Zona_ Libre eguir_ Trayectoria Ir_a_ Objetivo Vagar Evadir_ Obstaculos Actuadores Capa Hardware del istema Fig 25 oftware Architecture Levels of Abstraction- Fig 22 Illustrating a Model of Classes of a oftware Architecture for s D Design Navegación eguridad DIEÑO Identificación Nodos Identificación istemas y ubsistemas ubsistemas Identificar Clase Casos de Uso Diseño Diagramas de ecuencia Estados Métodos Preventivos Interfases Diagrama de Diseño de Atributos Dependencias Operaciones Modelo de Diseño Fig 26 ubsystems of _ Fig 23 Design Activities The steps suggested in MDAR for this stage of the Design is summarized in Fige 23 On the subsequent sections, brief descriptions of these steps are presented, highlighting the graphic charts as suggested by the methodology 1) Architecture Design a ) Nodes Identification Two nodes conceived for the proposed architecture are presented graphically in Fig 24 c ) Refinement of the olution Continuing with the example of reactive control, refinement of the solution implies to define a set of Classes as shown in Fig 26, which in turn is to be split in accordance with the results obtained in previous stages (Fig 27) Navegación Vagar eguir_linea Atraccion_ a_punto PC PC /µp Fig 24 Nodes configuration of the robot system Zonas_Libres Arrastrar_ Objetos b ) ubsystems Identification A diagram of proposed packages is presented in Fig 25 whose purpose is to identify clearly the packages and Classes to be defined in the Design stage Fig 27 ubsistemas de Navegación d) Identification of ubsystems Interfaces Visibility and interrelationship among Classes for particular cases of the designed system are presented in Fig 28 and 29

8 8 Arrastrar_Objetos :Teclado :Pantalla :Parametros :eguir_ Muros :Calculo_ etpoint :Procesad_ :Procesad_ :Gestor_ Alarmas Orden egumiento Leer sensores Proximidad Estado Arrastrar Fig 28 Object Interface Representation Leer_Distancia_Límite Evalua (no critico) Define dirección y ángulo Valores consigan para cada motor Navegación Paro_Emergencia eguridad Comandos Básicos Comandos Básicos Giro_Emrgencia Fig 31 equences Diagram eguirmuro Comandos Básicos Preventivos f ) Classes of Design Model Zonas _Libres eguir_muro Fig 29 Interfaces Relationship between ubsystems and Classes Evadir The general design process concludes with a clear definition of Classes, their interfaces and essential relationship for the subsequent stage, where full understanding of the solution proposal (software architecture) is required _ upervisor_gestor_ Comportamientos Modelo_Entorno e ) Objects- Classes Design Classes and objects of the system might be identified from the use cases, and once more based on previous analysis Identification - Classes of design by Use Cases is shown in Fig 30 as an example of this step An example of a sequence diagram leaned on a previous one as seen in the analysis stage is presented in Fig 31 Pantalla eguridad Botones Teclado Comandos Preventivo Desbloque Navegacion istema Actuador Planificador_ Global Estado_Actual istema_ensor ensor_infraroj ensor_ultraso o ensor_ eguir_muro eguir Muro N-Aleatoria Atracción_Punt o Ir-Z_Libre eguim_muro Teclado Fig 32 Diagram Example of Classes of oftware Architecture Pantalla Botones Comandos Parametros eguir_muros Calculo et Poin Procesador_en sores Procesador_Mo tores Gestor Alarmas Analysis model corresponding to the control architecture proposal is shown in Fig 32 ome of the Classes are presented there aimed at providing a close insight of the general scheme of the architecture As a subsequent step suggested in the chart of Fig 23, the corresponding design of every Class shall be carried out detailing their own features, methods and characteristics Fig 30 Identification of Classes that intervene in the Use case eguir_muro D) Implementation and Testing The general scheme proposed in the methodology MDAR for the stages of architecture implementation connected to the programming language selected and the steps to be followed in the test stage of the final software is presented in Fig 33 and 34

9 9 IMPLEMENTACION Implementar Componentes -Ficheros Fuente -Ejecutables Interfaces -Paquetes Empaquetar componentes - Organizar - Definir dependencias Fig 33 Diagram of activities proposed for Implementation of oftware Architecture PRUEBA Planificar Describir casos -Modelos -Casos -Procedimiento -Componentes -Evaluación Diseñar Describir e identificar procedimientos Implementar De integración Evaluar Del istema Fig 34 Diagram of activities proposed for Testing V CONCLUION The Methodology for the Development of oftware Architecture (MDAR) has been conceived as a tool to shorten the communication gap existing between the actors involved in the process, such as the robotics engineer and the computer engineer It has become an essential tool in the development of oftware Architectures The methodology that allows specification, analysis, design and implementation of oftware Architecture leads the development stages of mobile robot systems in a natural way, which, due to their complexity, require identification of systematic processes that may be of any help when facing troubles emerged between the representation proposed by the robotics engineer, and the implementation itself, which is the task of the computer engineer In order to exemplify one of the troubles, the following suggestion is given: given a basic robot, work in the development of a complex system that may satisfy the needs of the different actors by maximizing all the strengths of those experts involved in the process: the final user, who defines the problems intended to be solved; the robotics engineer, who defines the most accurate strategy, and the software engineers, who assist the design phase and implement the final system Despite the fact that the design and development of robot architectures is a relatively mature process, identification of standard procedures to tackle such problem turned out to be a more complicated problem than expected, as great amount of tendencies and approaches emerged from knowledge engineering and methodologies of representation, conception and languages that offer parcial solutions to this issue ince MDAR rely on the strategies of software engineering, and particularly, in the PU, it has proven to be a good choice to accomplish the goal proposed due to its intelligibility and standarization of all the aspects involved in the development process (pecification, Analysis, Design, Validation, Testing) In order to illustrate the methodology, a software architecture that may ensure its functioning in three operation modes (manual, semi-autonomous, autonomous) is presented As a result, most of the typical applications of mobile robot systems are covered After conceptual constraint prompted by hardware characteristics and purposes of the robot, the methodology process proposal is then illustrated with the purpose to present clearly every single one of the steps and methods through a standard language (UML) The stages considered of high relevance are explained in further detail in order to achieve a more solid and fluid communication between the robotics engineer (who proposes and defines the architecture) and the team in charge of developing in fact the software system itself (who implements the system) For that reason, the systematic process is detailed in the specification stage stressing on the needs and expectations proposed in the architecture Likewise, the analysis stage implies a closer involvement between the robotics engineer and the engineers in charge of software development, since the conceptual solution of the architecture is grounded on this stage, thus allowing a more immediate participation to those engineers involved by using, both of them, the right and easy-to-follow charts, diagrams and languages During the design stage, the stress lays on the presentation of charts and diagram oriented towards the interests of the software engineer, and thus, Classes and packages identification make use of a more software-like language The elements introduced as examples of such stage are conceived to illustrate the concept They require, however, an exhausting development, which implies a more specific and specialized team work Although the implementation and testing stage are assumed in the methodology, they also require participation of specialists and the application of a programming language consistent with the needs and characteristics of the architecture VI REFERENCE [ I ] Brooks, Rodney "A Robust Layered ystem for a Mobile " IEEE Journal of ics and Automation, Vol 2, No 1, March 1986, pp 14-23; 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Tornero, Josep, "Análisis de la Metodología HOOD para la Implementación de Arquitecturas Aplicadas a s" VIII Latinamerican Congress on Automation, Viña del Mar, Chile, Nov 1988 HOOD_Afrbdoc [13] Montano, Luis; Garcia, F José; Villa, José "Using the time Petri Net Formalism for specification, Validation and Code Generation in Applications" Universidad Zalamanca - Universidad la Rioja, Jul, 1999 [14] Drake, José M; Medina, Julio L " Teleoperado:Ejemplo UM-Mast" Grupo de computación y tiempo Real, Universidad de Cantabria 2001 Available on the Web: <http://mastunicanes /umlmast/ umlmast-examplepdf> [Last access on Feb 2009] [15] Hornby, G; Lipson, H; Pollack, JB "Generative representations for the automated design of modular physical robots" IEEE Transactions on ics and Automation Volume: 19, Issue: 4 Aug 2003 pp [16] Farley, Rochard "oftware Enguneering Concepts" McGraw-Hill, 1 st ed 1987 [17] ommer, Ian "Ingeniería de oftware" 2 a Ed Addison WesleyIberoamericana 1988 [18] Cerrada, J A y Collado, M "Introducción a la Ingeniería del oftware" UNED, 1995 [19] ommerville I "oftware Engineering" Addison- Wesley: Reading, MA, 5th edition, 1995 [20] Pressman, Roger "oftware engineering" IEEE Computer ociety, 1997 pags [21] Zavala R 2000 "Diseño de un istema de Información Geográfica sobre internet" Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias de la Computación Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco México, DF [22] Brengge, Bernard; Dutoit, Allen H "Ingeniería de oftware Orientada a Objetos" Pearson Educación,, Mexico, 2002 [23] ilva, Darío Andrés; Mercerat, Bárbara "Construyendo Aplicaciones web con una metodología de diseño orientada a objetos" 2_art5_cpdf [24] Farley, Rochard "oftware Enguneering Concepts" McGraw-Hill, 1 st ed 1987 [25] Giret Boggino, Adriana "Anemona: Una Metodologíia Multi-Agentepara istemas Holónicos de Fabricación"PHD Thesis, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia; Valencia, pain July 2005 [26] oftware Engineering Institute Available on the Web: <http://wwwseicmuedu/>, [Last access on July, 2009] [27] The Rational Edge Available on the Web:<http://wwwtherationaledgecom/>, [Last Access on July, 2009] [28] Douglass, Bruce Poewl "DOING HARD TIME Developing Real-Time ystems with UML, Objects, Frameworks, and Patterns" Addison- Wesley, 1999 [29] Rumbaugh, J Et al "Object Oriented Modeling and Design" Prentice Hall 1991 [30] Jacobson, I; Christerson, M; Jonson, P; Overgaard, G "Object Oriented oftware Engineering - A Use Case Driven Approach" Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992 [31] Booch, Grady "Object Oriented Analysis and Design" 2nd ed Benjamin Cummings 1994 [32] OMG "Unified Modeling Language pecification Retrieved" March 18, 2003 Available on the Web: <http://wwwomgorg/technology/documents/ formal/umlhtm>, [Last Access on March 2009] [33] halloway, Alan; Trott, James R "Design Patterns Explained: A New Perspective on Object Oriented Design" 2a EdAddison Wesley Professional, 2005 [34] Jacobson, Ivar; Booch, Grady; Rumbaugh, James "El Proceso Unificado de Desarrollo de oftware" Adison Westley 2000 [35] Booch, G; Jacobson,, I y J Runbaugh "El Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado" México : Addison Wesley, 1999 [36] Rumbaugh, James; Jacobson, Ivar; Booch, Grady "El lenguaje Unificado de Modelado, Manual de Referencia" Racional oftware Corporation 2000 [37] Booch, Grady; Rumbaugh, James; Jacobson, Ivar "The Unified Modeling Language User Guide" 2nd Ed Addison Wesley Professional 2005 [38] OMG "Unified Modeling Language pecification Retrieved" March 18, 2003, from <http://wwwomgorg/technology/documents/formal/ umlhtm> [39] European pace Agency, HOOD Working Group, "HOOD Reference Manual" Issue 40, 1995 HOOD, User Group "HOOD User " Issue 10, 1996 [40] K-Team Available on the Web: <http://wwwkteamcom/kteam/homephp> [Last access on 2009] VII BIOGRAPHY Nelson Londono Ospina was born on July 31, 1955, in Medellin, Colombia He is an Electronics Engineer graduated from Universidad de Antioquia (University of Antioquia) of Medellin, Colombia, who has practiced his profession as a Maintenance and Design Engineer in different companies throughout the country (Colombia) At present, he is an Associate Professor of Universidad de Antioquia in the electronics, automation and control fields of the Electrical Engineering department Engineer Londono Ospina is a member of the Electric Power Efficiency Research Team- GIMEL (Grupo de Investigación en Manejo Eficiente de la energía Eléctrica GIMEL), and is in charge of the automation and robotics area He has also been a member of research projects carried out with some colleges in Colombia He has completed doctorate studies at Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (pain) and is currently studying at Universidad del Valle (Colombia)

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