STANDARD TREATMENT GUIDELINES AND ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST FOR SOUTH AFRICA

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1 STANDARD TREATMENT GUIDELINES AND ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST FOR SOUTH AFRICA HOSPITAL LEVEL ADULTS 2012 EDITION

2 Copies may be obtained from: The Directorate: Affordable Medicines Private Bag X828 Pretoria 0001 OR Department of Health Website: First printed 1998 Second edition 2006 Third edition 2012 ISBN: NOTE: The information presented in these guidelines conforms to the current medical, nursing and pharmaceutical practice. Contributors and editors cannot be held responsible for errors, individual responses to drugs and other consequences. Copyright 2012, The National Department of Health. Any part of this material may be reproduced, copied or adapted to meet local needs, without permission from the Committee or the Department of Health, provided that the parts reproduced are distributed free of charge or at no cost not for profit. Published by: The National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa

3 FOREWORD I am proud to present the third edition of the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List for Hospital level. Access to affordable essential medicines is a vital component of an effi cient health care system. In our resource-constrained environment with the high burden of disease, the value of the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List in ensuring affordable and equitable access to medicines should not be underestimated. Practice guidelines should keep pace with changes in health care. A continuous review of the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List is imperative to provide access to quality and needed health care to all South Africans. I am pleased to note that evidence based medicine principles were, once again, applied during the review of this edition. We can be confi dent that using these guidelines will contribute to achieving positive health outcomes for our patients. I am grateful to the members of the National Essential Drugs List Committee and the Expert Review Committees for completing the review despite their demanding schedules. I am also pleased with the number of contributions received in the form of comments and remarks. It is our sincere wish that doctors and pharmacists, particularly those working at District and Regional Hospitals, will continue to incorporate the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List in their daily practice. This will contribute to realising our vision of a long and healthy life for all citizens. DR A MOTSOALEDI, MP MINISTER OF HEALTH DATE: 16/4/2012 i

4 INTRODUCTION It is my pleasure to introduce the third edition of the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List for Hospital Level. This edition marks the culmination of an intense and thorough review process. The Standard Treatment Guidelines have been aligned with current developments in medicine and scientifi c advances. Clinical evidence was used in the selection of medicines. In addition, prevailing medicine cost, affordability, as well as practice implications were taken into consideration. Furthermore, harmonisation with priority guidelines within the Department of Health has also been attained. An integral part of the review process is the consultation with key stakeholders. This positive interaction has substantially contributed to the improvement and usability of the Standard Treatment Guidelines. I would like to thank everyone who took the time to comment when called upon to do so. Users are encouraged to provide feedback by following the recommended guidelines at the back of the book when submitting comments or requesting additions or deletions of medicines from the list. Once again, the Adverse Drug Reaction Report Form has been included in the book. Health care workers are requested to use the reporting form so that patient safety and medicine selection in the future is not compromised. Implementation of the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List is still a major challenge. The ineffi cient use of resources has a negative impact on equitable access to essential medicines, and therefore on the quality of care. Provincial Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Committees are encouraged to use the Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List to attain economic effi ciencies in terms of optimising available resources and the rational use of medicines. The National Essential Drugs List Committee and the Hospital Level Expert Review Committees are to be commended for this excellent achievement. Their dedication and commitment has contributed towards realising our vision of an accessible, caring and high quality health system. MS MP MATSOSO DIRECTOR-GENERAL: HEALTH DATE: 20/4/2012 ii

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our heartfelt thanks go to the National Essential Drugs List Committee and, in particular, the Expert Review Committee for the Hospital Level EDL (Adult) for their continued dedication and commitment to the process. Without your passion and technical expertise, this publication would not have been possible. We would also like to thank the many doctors, pharmacists, professional societies and other health care professionals who contributed by way of comment, remarks and the supply of appropriate evidence. Your involvement in the consultative process is an integral part of the review and has undoubtedly contributed to the excellence of this edition. NATIONAL ESSENTIAL DRUGS LIST COMMITTEE Ms H Zeeman (Chairperson) Prof L Bamford Dr F Benson Prof M Blockman Prof GPG Boon Prof H Brits Mr V Dalmini Prof M Freeman Prof BB Hoek Prof PM Jeena Ms Y Johnson Prof G Maartens Prof B Maharaj Ms HM Marais Dr T Mbengashe Mr HT Mphaka Ms M Ndwandwe Ms MNM Ntshangase Prof AG Parrish Dr L Pein Dr T Pillay Dr H Saeed Mr GS Steel Ms N Thipa Prof BW van de Wal ADULT EXPERT COMMITTEE Mr GS Steel (Chairperson) Prof M Blockman Dr I Hassen Prof B Maharaj Ms J Munsamy Dr H Prozesky Dr P Sinxadi CONSULTANTS Prof J Anthony Dr K Bateman Prof F Cilliers Dr M Giaquinto Prof D Hall Dr Khan Dr KA Lecuona Prof NS Levitt Dr E Bera Dr R de Waal Prof G Maartens Dr M Mashabane Prof AG Parrish Dr H Saeed Prof S Arulkumaran Prof J Carr Prof PJ Commerford Dr T Habib Dr F Henning Dr L Koning Prof S Levin Prof P Manga iii

6 Dr J Moodley Dr N Moran Prof K Newton Dr Sossa Dr C van Deventer Dr L Weich Prof J Moodley Dr C Nel Prof RC Pattison Prof G Todd Prof Z van der Spuy COMMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Prof Jamila Aboobaker Ms Gayle Adams Prof Gillian Ainsley Ms Gail Anderson Prof John Anthony Prof BH Ascott-Evans Dr KJ Bateman Dr S Beningfi eld Prof Ahmed Bhigjee Dr Ulla Botha Dr Belinda Bruwer Prof Alan Bryer Prof Trevor Carmichael Prof James Carr Dr Jan Chabalala Prof Patrick Commerford Dr Halima Dawood Dr Elma de Vries Dr Charles Dreyer Ms A DuToit Dr H Duvenage Prof Roland Eastman Prof Robin Emsley Dr LN Goldstein Dr Trevor Gould Dr Franclo Henning Dr Linda Hering Dr S Hitchcock Prof Margaret Hoffman Dr L Jenkins Prof R Jewkes Dr R Jina Dr KD Jivan Dr Gregory Johnson Dr Gerhard Jordaan Prof Francois Jordaan Dr John Joska Prof PM Joubert Dr E Karim Prof Bryan Kies Prof Liezl Koen Prof AJ Kruger Dr Karin Lecuona Dr E LeePan Prof Dinky (Naomi) Levitt Prof BG Lindeque Dr Richard Llewellyn Prof Pravin Manga Prof David Marais Prof Marc Mendelson Dr Estie Meyer Prof David Meyer Dr Andre Mochan Dr Jennifer Moodley Dr Z Moola Dr Neil Moran Prof Ayesha Motala Dr GJ Muller Dr Trusha Nana Dr Charles P Nel Prof Dana Niehaus Prof Nicolas Novitsky Dr S Oliver Dr S Oosthuizen Dr Heidi Orth Dr Muhammed Osman Dr S Paruk Dr Patel Prof Willie Pienaar Dr Anersha Pillay Dr Manesh Pillay Prof Fraser Pirie Prof PJ Pretorius Prof FJ Raal Dr Ramlall Dr KI Ranchod Dr Robyn Rautenbach Dr A Rawlins iv

7 Prof Brian Rayner Dr JC Roberts Dr Polla Roux Dr MGL Spruyt Prof Mohamed Tikly Dr Marius Van Dyk Dr P van Zyl Dr Jacqui Venturas Dr Lize Weich Prof David Whitelaw EDITORIAL Ms K Jamaloodien Dr R de Waal Assistance was provided by: Ms Jane Riddin Mr Vishen Jugathpal Ms Trudy Leong Prof Guy Richards Dr Andre KL Robinson Dr Shamima Saloojee Dr Klaas Stempels Prof Gail Todd Dr Surita van Heerden Dr Claire Van Deventer Dr Chris Verster Dr Nicky Welsh Ms J Munsamy Prof D Pudifi n (Clinical editor) Ms Ruth Lancaster Dr Sarisha Singh Dr Dorah Diale SECRETARIAT Ms K Jamaloodien Ms Trudy Leong Dr Dorah Diale LOGISTICS Mr M Molewa Ms P Ngobese Mr S Sello Ms H Zeeman Acting Cluster Manager: Sector Wide Procurement v

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword Introduction Acknowledgements The Essential Medicines Concept How to use this book A guide to patient adherence in chronic conditions vi i ii iii xv xvii xxiii CHAPTER 1 - ALIMENTARY TRACT Gastrointestinal disorders Colitis, ulcerative (UC) Crohn s disease (CD) Constipation/ faecal impaction Diverticulosis Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) Hiatus hernia Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Pancreatitis, acute Pancreatitis, chronic Peptic ulcer Hepatic disorders Hepatitis, non-viral Liver failure Portal hypertension and cirrhosis Hepatitis, viral Liver abscess, pyogenic Liver abscess, amoebic Acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis Diarrhoea, gastrointestinal Cholera Diarrhoea, acute inflammatory (dysentery) Diarrhoea, acute non-inflammatory Diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated Amoebic dysentery Giardiasis Typhoid Peritonitis 1.20 CHAPTER 2 - BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMING ORGANS Anaemia, aplastic Anaemia, chronic disorder Anaemia, haemolytic Anaemia, iron deficiency Anaemia, megaloblastic Anaemia, sickle cell Febrile neutropenia Myelodysplastic syndromes Bleeding disorders Haemophilia A and B, von Willebrand s disease 2.10

9 2.10 Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-haemolytic uraemic syndrome (TTP-HUS) Acquired coagulation defects Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Venous thrombo-embolism 2.17 CHAPTER 3 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Ischaemic heart disease and atherosclerosis, prevention Acute coronary syndromes ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) 3.7 and unstable angina (UA) Chronic management of STEMI / NSTEMI / UA Angina pectoris, stable Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease Cardiac dysrhythmias Narrow QRS complex (supraventricular) tachydysrhythmias Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter AV junctional re-entry tachycardias Wide QRS (ventricular) tachyarrhythmias Regular wide QRS tachycardias Sustained (>30 seconds) irregular wide QRS tachycardias Non-sustained (< 30 seconds) irregular wide QRS tachycardias Torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia (VT) Heart block (second or third degree) Sinus bradycardia Sinus arrest Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) Endocarditis, infective Hypertension Hypertension, severe Hypertensive urgency Hypertensive crisis, hypertensive emergency Rheumatic heart disease 3.33 CHAPTER 4 DERMATOLOGY Acne Cellulitis and erysipelas Impetigo Furuncles and abscesses Eczema 4.4 vii

10 4.6 Erythema multiforme, Stevens Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis Leg ulcers, complicated Psoriasis Urticaria Papular urticaria Fungal infections Viral infections Viral warts/anogenital warts Shingles (Herpes zoster) 4.13 CHAPTER 5 GYNAECOLOGY Dysmenorrhoea Uterine bleeding, abnormal Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Endometriosis Amenorrhoea Hirsutism and virilisation Infertility Miscarriage Silent miscarriage or early fetal demise Incomplete miscarriage in the first trimester Midtrimester miscarriage (from weeks 5.8 gestation) Septic miscarriage Trophoblastic neoplasia ( Hydatidiform mole ) Termination of pregnancy (TOP) Gestation up to 13 weeks Gestation 13+ to 20 weeks Sexual assault Genital prolapse and urinary incontinence Menopause and perimenopausal syndrome 5.15 CHAPTER 6 OBSTETRICS Anaemia in pregnancy Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy Heart disease in pregnancy Pre-eclampsia Eclampsia Hypertension, chronic HIV in pregnancy Syphilis Jaundice in pregnancy Hyperemesis gravidarum Preterm labour (PTL) and preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) Suppression of labour Labour induction 6.17 viii

11 6.14 Labour pain, severe Dehydration/ketosis in labour Postpartum fever Postpartum haemorrhage The Rhesus negative woman 6.22 CHAPTER 7 - NEPHROLOGICAL/UROLOGICAL DISORDERS Nephrology section Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Glomerular disease (GN) Glomerular disease and nephritic syndrome Glomerular disease and nephrotic syndrome Acute renal failure (ARF) End stage renal disease (ESRD) - CKD stage Renal replacement therapy Urinary tract infection (UTI) Recurrent UTI Prostatitis Urology section Haematuria Benign prostatic hyperplasia Overactive bladder Impotence Renal calculi 7.17 CHAPTER 8 - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Acromegaly Adrenal insufficiency (Addison s disease) Androgen deficiency Cushing s syndrome Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus type Diabetes mellitus type Diabetic emergencies Hypoglycaemia Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma (HONK) Complications of diabetes Diabetic neuropathies Diabetic kidney disease Diabetic foot ulcers Dyslipidaemia Hypercalcaemia, including primary hyperparathyroidism Hypocalcaemia Hypothyroidism Osteoporosis Osteomalacia/rickets Paget s disease 8.23 ix

12 8.15 Pituitary disorders Prolactinoma Anterior hypopituitarism Diabetes insipidus (posterior hypopituitarism) Phaeochromocytoma Primary aldosteronism Hyperthyroidism Graves hyperthyroidism Toxic multinodular goiter Single toxic nodules Thyroiditis Thyroid crisis 8.31 CHAPTER 9 - SYSTEMIC AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Hospital-acquired infections Intravascular line infections Surgical wound infections Hospital-acquired pneumonia Urinary tract infections Adult vaccination Rabies vaccination Brucellosis Haemorrhagic fever syndrome Hydatid disease Malaria Malaria, non-severe Malaria, severe Tetanus Tick bite fever Typhoid fever Varicella (chickenpox) Zoster (shingles) 9.16 CHAPTER 10 - HIV AND AIDS Antiretroviral therapy Management of selected antiretroviral adverse 10.4 drug reactions Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) Opportunistic diseases Candidiasis of oesophagus/trachea/bronchi Cryptococcosis Cryptosporidiosis diarrhoea Cytomegalovirus (cmv) Isosporiasis Mycobacteriosis disseminated non-tuberculous Pneumocystis pneumonia Cerebral toxoplasmosis Kaposi s sarcoma (KS) x

13 10.4 Post-exposure prophylaxis, occupational Post-exposure prophylaxis for penetrative anal or vaginal sexual assault CHAPTER 11 - SURGICAL ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS 11.1 CHAPTER 12 PAIN Pain, chronic Peri-operative analgesia 12.4 CHAPTER 13 - MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Arthritis, rheumatoid (RA) Arthritis, septic and osteomyelitis, acute Osteo-arthritis/osteo-arthrosis Gout Seronegative spondylarthritis Arthritis, reactive/reiter syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 13.8 CHAPTER 14 - NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS Cerebrovascular disease Stroke Subarachnoid haemorrhage Dementia Epilepsy Status epilepticus Headache and facial pain syndromes Migraine Cluster headache Trigeminal neuralgia Tension headache Idiopathic (benign) intracranial hypertension (pseudotumour cerebri) Infectious and parasitic conditions Meningitis Viral meningoencephalitis Meningovascular syphilis Brain abscess Antimicrobial use in patients with head injuries Neurocysticercosis Movement disorders Parkinson s disease Essential tremor Myoclonus Chorea Neuropathy Acute myelopathy Multiple sclerosis xi

14 14.10 Oedema, cerebral Brain oedema due to tumours and inflammation Brain oedema due to traumatic injury CHAPTER 15 - PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS Bipolar disorder Confusional states/delirium Depressive disorder, major Dysthymic disorder Generalised anxiety disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Panic disorder Acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder Psychosis, acute Schizophrenia Withdrawal from substances of abuse Alcohol withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens) Opiate withdrawal, e.g. heroin Stimulants including methamphetamines and cocaine Methaqualone and/or cannabis Benzodiazepines CHAPTER 16 - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Asthma, acute Asthma, chronic persistent Bronchiectasis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Lung abscess Pneumonia, community acquired Pneumonia, aspiration Empyema Tuberculosis, pulmonary Tuberculosis, pleural (TB pleurisy) Multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB CHAPTER 17 - EAR, NOSE AND THROAT DISORDERS Epiglottitis Epistaxis Rhinitis, allergic, persistent Sinusitis, bacterial, complicated Otitis media, acute Otitis media, chronic, suppurative Mastoiditis Otitis externa Otitis externa, necrotising Abscess, peritonsillar Vertigo, acute 17.7 xii

15 CHAPTER 18 - EYE DISORDERS Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, adenoviral Conjunctivitis, allergic Conjunctivitis, bacterial Endophthalmitis, bacterial Glaucoma Herpes zoster ophthalmicus Keratitis Keratitis, herpes simplex Keratitis, suppurative Retinitis, HIV CMV Uveitis Surgical and diagnostic products 18.9 CHAPTER 19 POISONING 19.1 Envenomation Insect bites and stings Snakebites Boomslang snake bite Venom in the eye Scorpion envenomation Spider envenomation 19.7 Exposure to poisonous substances Analgesic poisoning Paracetamol poisoning Salicylate poisoning Opioid poisoning Antidepressant poisoning Tricyclic antidepressant (tca) poisoning Iron poisoning Theophylline poisoning Sedative hypnotic poisoning Benzodiazepine poisoning Lithium poisoning Isoniazid poisoning Illicit drug poisoning Cocaine poisoning Poisoning with amphetamine derivatives Hydrocarbon poisoning Ingestion of caustic substances Alcohol poisoning Ethanol poisoning Ethylene glycol poisoning Methanol poisoning Pesticides and rodenticides Amitraz poisoning Organophosphate poisoning xiii

16 Paraquat poisoning Anticoagulant poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning Heavy metal poisoning Poisoning with nitrates, nitroprusside, nitroglycerine chlorates, sulphonamides and others Poison centres CHAPTER 20 - EMERGENCIES AND INJURIES Emergencies Angioedema Anaphylaxis/anaphylactic shock Hypovolaemic shock Distributive shock Neurogenic shock Septic shock Cardiogenic shock Obstructive shock Pulmonary oedema, acute Injuries Burns Cardiac arrest cardiopulmonary resuscitation Cardiac arrest adults General aspects applicable to all trauma patients CHAPTER 21 - MEDICINES USED FOR ANAESTHESIOLOGY, 21.1 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS 21.1 Anaesthesiology for adults Nutritional support Diagnostic contrast agents and related substances Malignancies 21.3 Guidelines for the motivation of a new medicine on the National Essential Medicines List Guidelines for Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Disease notification procedures Index of disease conditions Index of medicines Abbreviations xxix xxxiii xl xliv liv lxvi xiv

17 THE ESSENTIAL MEDICINES CONCEPT The WHO describes Essential medicines as those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate quantities, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at a price the individual and the community can afford. The concept of essential medicines is forward-looking. It incorporates the need to regularly update medicines selections to:» refl ect new therapeutic options and changing therapeutic needs;» the need to ensure medicine quality; and» the need for continued development of better medicines, medicines for emerging diseases, and medicines to meet changing resistance patterns. Effective health care requires a judicious balance between preventive and curative services. A crucial and often defi cient element in curative services is an adequate supply of appropriate medicines. In the health objectives of the National Drug Policy, the government of South Africa clearly outlines its commitment to ensuring availability and accessibility of medicines for all people. These are as follows:» To ensure the availability and accessibility of essential medicines to all citizens.» To ensure the safety, effi cacy and quality of drugs.» To ensure good prescribing and dispensing practices.» To promote the rational use of drugs by prescribers, dispensers and patients through provision of the necessary training, education and information.» To promote the concept of individual responsibility for health, preventive care and informed decision-making. Achieving these objectives requires a comprehensive strategy that not only includes improved supply and distribution, but also appropriate and extensive human resource development. The implementation of an Essential Drugs Programme (EDP) forms an integral part of this strategy, with continued xv

18 rationalisation of the variety of medicines available in the public sector as a fi rst priority. The private sector is encouraged to use these guidelines and drug list wherever appropriate. The criteria for the selection of essential drugs for Primary Health Care in South Africa were based on the WHO guidelines for drawing up a national EDL. Essential medicines are selected with due regard to disease prevalence, evidence on effi cacy and safety, and comparative cost. The implementation of the concept of essential medicines is intended to be fl exible and adaptable to many different situations. It remains a national responsibility to determine which medicines are regarded as essential. It should be noted that the Primary Health Care Essential Medicines List (EML) refl ects only the minimum requirements for Primary Health Care level facilities. In keeping with the objectives of the National Drug Policy, provincial and local Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees should provide additional drugs from the Hospital level EDL based on the services offered and the competency of the staff at each facility. xvi

19 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Principles The National Drug Policy makes provision for an Essential Medicines Program (EMP) which is a key component in promoting rational medicines. Each treatment guideline in the Adult Hospital Level Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) and Essential Medicines List (EML) has been design as a progression in care from the current Primary Health Care (PHC) STGs and EML. In addition where a referral is recommended the relevant medicines have either been reviewed and included in the tertiary level EML, or is in the process of being reviewed. Given that the PHC STGs are reviewed prior to the Adult Hospital level technical consideration may dictate that there is a period when the two STGs are not always perfectly aligned. All reasonable steps have been taken to align the STGs with Department of Health guidelines that are available at the time of review. A medicine is included or removed from the list using an evidence based medicine review of safety and effectiveness followed by consideration of cost and other relevant practice factors. The EML has been developed down to generic or International Non-propriety Name (INN) level. It is anticipated that each Province will review the EML and prevailing tenders to compile a formulary which: Lists formulations and pack sizes that will facilitate care in alignment with the STG. Select the preferred member of the therapeutic class based on cost. Implement formulary restrictions consistent with the local environment. Provides information regarding the prices of medicines. Therapeutic classes are designated in the Medicine treatment section of the STG which provides a class of medicines followed by example such as, HMGCoA reductase inhibitors (statins) e.g. Simvastatin, These therapeutic classes have been designated where none of the members offer a significant benefit over the other registered members of the class. It is anticipated that by limiting the listing to a class there is increased competition and hence an improved chance of obtaining the best possible price in the tender process. In circumstances where you encounter such a class always consult the local formulary to identify the example that has been approved for use in your facility. The perspective adopted is that of a competent medical officer practicing in a public sector hospital. As such the STGs serves as a standard for practice but does not replace sound clinical judgment. xvii

20 Navigating the book The STGs are arranged into chapters according to the organ systems of the body. Conditions and medicines are cross referenced in two separate indexes of the book. In some therapeutic areas that are not easily amenable to the development of a STG, the section is limited to a list of medicines. The standard treatment guideline begins with the ICD-10 code which is an international classification system used for epidemiological and health management purposes. This is followed by a brief description which may relevant clinical information such as diagnostic criteria, radiological and laboratory tests to assist the medical officer in arriving at a diagnosis. This is followed by medicine treatment which lists the approved medicines and provides fundamental prescribing information. The dosing regimens provide the recommended doses used in usual circumstances however the final dose should take into consideration capacity to eliminate the medicine, interactions and comorbid states. This edition of the Adult Hospital Level Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List provides additional information regarding Patient Adherence in Chronic Conditions, Measuring Medication Level and Prescription Writing. In the preface of the book guidance has been provided regarding dosing modification for reduced kidney function as well as therapeutic monitoring. Finally the guidelines make provision for referral of patients with more complex and uncommon conditions to facilities with the resources for further investigation and management. Medicines Safety Provincial and local Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Committees (PTCs) should develop medicines safety systems to obtain information regarding medication errors, prevalence and importance of adverse drug events, interactions and medicines quality. These systems should not only support the regulatory pharmacovigilance plan but should also provide pharmacoepidemiology data that will be required to inform future essential medicines decisions as well as local interventions that may be required to improve safety. In accordance with the Medicines control Council s guidance on reporting adverse drug reactions in South Africa, the medical office with the support of the PTC should report the relevant adverse reactions to the National Adverse Drug Event Monitoring Centre (NADEMC). To facilitate reporting a copy of the form and guidance on its use has provided at the back of the book. Feedback Comments that aim to improve these treatment guidelines will be appreciated. The submission form and guidelines for completing the form are included in the book. Motivations will only be accepted from the Provincial PTC. xviii

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