1 P erito More no M.Magallanes Mus ters Lago Colhué Huapi Lago Manantiales B ehr S armiento Escalante Las Flores Cerro Drag ón Ant.Grande Valle El Tordillo Hermoso Cañadon ANT.FUNES Grande Oriental Zorro ANT.GRANDE Escorial C.DRAGÓN L.P erales L.Mesetas Las Heras C.Vasco PIEDRA CLAVADA KOLUEL KA IKE EL VALLE El Huemul El Cordón Pico Truncad o M.E spinosa C.León P.Truncado C.Perdido C.Minerales Caleta Olivia SPE Design and Surveillance of Development Projects Through Specific Software Tools: Importance of Data Management in Mature and Complex Fields in the Golfo San Jorge Basin, Argentina Ricardo Mazzola, Isabel Cano Frers, and Dario R. Baldassa, Pan American Energy LLC; Jorge Valle and Alejandro Lacivita, Interfaces SA; and Carlos A. Ponce, Alfredo F. Viola, and Miguel A. Laffitte, Pan American Energy LLC Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Latin American & Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, April This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box , Richardson, TX , U.S.A., fax Proposal Cerro Dragon is a mature Area located in the Argentine Republic, 90 km to the West of Comodoro Rivadavia and 1,900 km to the South of Buenos Aires, with a surface of 3,480 km² and with 3,738 perforated wells. Since its discovery in1958, and after a long history of production, a change of strategy on 1999 resulted in an important increase in Production and Reserves Decision making at every level, such as people health, environment care, and strategic, organizational, structural, operative and technological planning, was key for the rebirth of this field. The selected software tools additionally let us integrate the projects into the Long Term Plan, and Budget, taking advantage of the virtuous Circle of Plan-Do-Control-Learn. A project simulation is solved in a period substantially shorter than the one it demands a conventional simulator, which is of great advantage at the time of analyzing different scenarios in an area where the structural complexity and the meager petrophysical information are important barriers at the time of making a study. The control and daily pursuit of the Projects through these systems have favored substantially the fast decision making, the correct lease of resources and a better operative answer. To complete the description of our Optimization options other tools and practices are described. Introduction Cerro Dragon fields are located at the Northern flank of the San Jorge Gulf Basin, in the province of Chubut and Santa Cruz, Argentina. The work is centered in how we handle the information, the entailment of the data bases and the use of systems we have built to contribute to maintain the production growth of the Cerro Dragón Asset. Based on the field complexity we recognized that it was necessary to implement new tools that would allow us to make production and investments prognoses, integrating information from different sources, as well as to detect improvement opportunities. R í o S e n g u e r 40 Lago Buenos Aires CERRO CERRO DRAGON DRAGON R ío D e s e a d o PIEDRA CLAVADA PIEDRA CLAVADA KOLUEL KAIKE KOLUEL KAIKE 43 R í o C h ic o 26 Comodoro Rivadavia 3 G O L F O S A N J O R G E ATLANTIC OCEAN The selected software tools allowed us to perform simulations and dynamically survey the projects. The information used came from geological, geophysical, physical production, interventions, measurements, and automation databases, among others. Some of them were developed during the 2 initial years ( ). Figure 1 Cerro Dragon Areas Location Plat OIL FIELDS km
2 SPE The Cerro Dragón Contract Area, consists of approximately 50 fields. The area has been operated by Amoco since In 1997, Pan American Energy, become the operator following the formation of a joint venture between Amoco (now BP Amoco) and Bridas. Cerro Dragon has been under development as an oil producing area since 1959 through a combination of infill and extension drilling for additional primary oil production and Waterflooding Projects in some selected fields. Approximately 60% of the area is now under water flood. Cumulative oil recovery to date from both primary and secondary development exceeds 760 million barrels. There are currently 2410 Oil producing wells and 405 water injection wells in the area. Cuenca San Jorge Area Cerro Dragón Historia de Producción y Actividad PRODUCCION (BOPD) WP TOTAL DE POZOS EN PRODUCCION TOTAL POZOS WI INYECTORES NUMERO DE EQUIPOS DE PERFORACION OIL PRODUCCION TOTAL DE PETROLEO VENTAS DE GAS RECUPERACION SECUNDARIA CANTIDAD DE POZOS PRODUCTORES 2000 IW Gas VENTAS DE GAS (M M ft 3 /d ) Figure 3. A schematic cross-section show the Field complexity Some keys of the Cerro Dragon rebirth A Development Master Plan 3D Record and Processing An electrification plan Facilities expansion DATA MANAGEMENT AND SOFT INTEGRATION General Geologic Setting & Reservoir Description 30 JUL 2006 In 1999 more than 90 % of the fields and wells information was available only in hard copies, the challenge was integrate it into Databases. The Cerro Dragon asset comprises 800,000 acres in a roughly rectangular block located on the north flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin, a Mesozoic extensional basin filled with Jurassic lacustrian and Cretaceous fluvial deposit with Tertiary compression and wrenching superimposed on earlier extensional features. The main reservoir consists of sandstones of the Comodoro Rivadavia Formation and altered tuffaceous sandstones and siltstones in the Mina Del Carmen Formation. Hidrocarbons Traps consist of tilted horst blocks, faulted anticlines and structurally enhanced stratigraphic pinch outs. Wells are produced commingled from stacked individual reservoirs 1 to 8 meters thick, each one with different initial reservoir pressure and fluid properties and contacts. First step: Digitalization of old logs Develop and copy Wells File INFOPROD and BDIEP data entry (3500 wells) Detailed geological studies in the waterflooding blocks Second step: A virtuous circle Planning, Doing, Control, Learn was a very useful tool, associated with more friendly and empowered softwares. Sotware tools objectives goals: 1. Adjust the Production Forecast 2. Improve CAPEX and OPEX 3. Identify and Qualify the information required to share in the new Databases.
3 SPE Cuenca del Golfo de San Jorge (C.G.S.J) TOTAL FIELD HISTORY MATCH 0 P CD-80/P CD-81/P CD-149/P CD-153/... Plannig Doing Learning Control 10 0 Figure 4. A virtuous circle The core of the new way for our work was SAHARA a friendly software to history matching the production wells and forecasting. Along the years this software was empowered with new options of connectivity with our data bases and new options of calculations and simulation became available. Waterflooding Projects, Workovers and Drillings Plan were simulated block by block in each field of Cerro Dragon. WF MANGEMENT TOOLS New Tools qlp [m³/d] qo P [m³/d] qlalp [m³/d] qoalp [m³/d] Figure 6. History Match and forecast Sahara project expansion Design & surveillance Injection rate Liquid rate Oil rate Oil production wells Injection rate forecast Liquid rate forecast Oil rate forecast i-choke INFOPROD (PAE Production DB) BDIEP (Drlg, WO & Completion DB) Injectors wells DYNA PACK (Artificial Lift DB) SAHARA Reservoir Simulation Reservoir Management LANDMARK (geological & geophysical) Figure 7. Some case of design CDIII: Expansion Horizontal Arena J4E New Projects Simulation Forecasts & Reserves Estimation PCD-80 PCD-196 PCD-149 PCD-273 Current Project Management Figure 5. Inputs and outputs from SAHARA The source of the Geological models was Landmark Software, the production and operation information source was INFOPROD, the completion and work over information including test was BDIEP SLPOS, the beam pumping information source was Dynapack. For each one of these sources data loading processes were added to SAHARA. The simulation time in Sahara was reduced dramatically compared with conventional simulators, less information or simplification of it to simulate is very important when you have around a hundred layers in each well, with different fluid properties, only a SFT pressure by layer and completion or workover test for each one by swabbing. The layer wf was improved with new injectors and infill well perforation PCD-81 P CD-847 PCD-845 PCD-259 PCD-274 PCG-26 PCD-848 PCD-0A PCD-164 PCD-0L PCD-0R PCD-191 PCG-157 PCD-240 PCD-187 PCD-195 PCD-0M P CD-258 PCD-160 P CD-852 PCD-0P PCD-183 P CD-220 PCD-192 PCG-153 PCG-86 PCD-257 PCD-180 PCD-184 PCD-159 PCD-179 PCD-804 PCG-109 P CG-251 PCD-850 PCG-819 PCD-851 PCD-186 PCD-173 PCD PCD-153 PCD-832 Figure 8. How you see each layer and the injection pattern PCD-0T PCD-0K PCD-0B PCD-0O PCD-0F PCD-0I PCD-0H PCD-0J PCD-0D PCG-113
4 4 SPE The exploitation status, dynamic and statics parameters of the wells, dinamometer studies, artificial lift system conditions, monitoring, Pulling Frequence, Production Meeting comments, references, bottomhole installation, operating conditions, changes, formation water injection by injector well and by layer can be monitored very quickly. Early detection can be achieved for taking right decisions. Sahara surveillance - Well analysis Well sketch 100 Artificial Lift System changes Decisions taken Waterfooding response Workover- Puling Perforations PCD-172 Jobs 2400 Liquid Production & Produciton tests 2000 Artificial List 1600 system Change to ESP Oil Produciton & Production Tests 800 Sumergency Figure 9. Well producing Chart For Injector Wells: In these charts it is possible to detect water distribution problems and injectivity reductions. Lifting Optimization Workover PC-49 Jobs 0 Total Water injected Figure 11. How look a view of a typical well sketch Sahara surveillance 3-D visualization Wells Sand J4 Sand M1 Sand M7 Sand O6 100 Layer 110 Sand S4 Layer 115 Layer 150 Layer 113 Figure 12. Layers view in a 3D Screen qw ip PC-49[m³/DC] qw ic PC [m³/DC] qw ic PC [m³/DC] qw ic PC [m³/DC] qw ic PC [m³/DC] Figure 10. Well Injector Chart Water Injection Distribution per Mandrel and Layer The output of the SAHARA integrated data and simulation are : 1. Drilling Plans 2. Workover Plans 3. Conversion to injector Plans 4. Production and Injection forecast 5. Several Scenarios All the SAHARA output is loaded into the P&CG system (Planeamiento & Control de Gestión system) where the analyst can manage the budget and CAPEX Expenditures to prepar the Long Term Plan.
5 SPE Which tools are currently under development : Facilities visualization WETS module evaluation Which are the challenges to addres in the future: Export data to BDRC (Certified Reserves Data Base) Software utilities integration as: o Well type design Figure 13. Sumergency Map Drilling & WO surveillance programm Cañadón Grande II West LOCPCG-64 PCG-61 PCG-882 PCG-884 PCG-65 PCG-871 PCG-872 PCG-878 Drilling Productor: 4/4 Adecuación Productor: 26/43 Drilling Inyector: 7/8 Adecuación Inyector: 9/9 Conversión Inyector: 4/4 PCG-205 PCG-121 PCG-45 PCG-213 PCG-183 PCG-25 PCG-40 PCG-20PCG-188 PCG-41 PCG-112 PCG-187 LOCPCG-208 PCG-279 PCG-137 PCG-212 PCG-136 PCG-704 PCG-209 PCG-811 o Dynamic Pressure Calculation in pipes o Gas material balance Other systems and software developments support our daily work SITU surveillance system Well following up PCG-876 PCG-11 PCG-38 PCG-889 PCG-12 PCG-142 PCG-14 PCG-17 PCG-36 PCG-21 PCG-922 PCG-19 PCG-60 PCG-156 PCG-891 PCG-71 PCG-875 PCG-261 PCG-892 PCG-890 PCG-810 PCG-709 PCG-220 PCG-144 ICG-1 PCG-145 PCG PCG-267 PCG-10 PCG-801 PCG-70 PCG-895 PCG-1 PCG-63 PCG-2 PCG-54 PCG-888 PCG-934 I-3 PCG-37 PCG-23 PCG-39 PCG PCG-48 PCG-147 PCG-146 PCG-69 T-106 PCG-222 PCG-949 PCG-826 PCG-236 PCG productor PCG-264 PCG-221 PCG-224 PCG-919 PCG-921 PCG-874 PCG-128 I-1 PCG-920 PCG-87 I-2 PCG-280 PCG-935 PCG PCG-46 PCG-4 PCG-710 PCG-16 PCG-5 PCG-809 PCG-828 PCG-3 PCG-219 PCG-6 PCG-47 PCG-835 LOCPCG-68 PCG-841 PCG-816 PCG-707 Locación P1 PCG-855 PCG-277 PCG-845 PCG-138 PCG-708 PCG-79 PCG-51 Locación P2 PCG-815 Locación P3 T-116 PCG-9 PCG-18 PCG-858 PCG-15 PCG-8 PCG-840 PCG-7 LOCPCG-94 LOCPCG-52 Drilling Productor PCG-275 PCG-936 PCG-812 PCG-276 PCG-802 PCG-281 PCG-93 PCG-924 Drilling Inyector PCG-91 PCG-49 Conversión Inyector PCG-22 PCG-162 PCG-81 PCG-78 PCG-866 Adecuación PCG-159 PCG-938 PCG-865 PCG-844 PCG-838 PCG-161 PCG-154 PCG-852 PCG-42 PCG-948 OIL LOCPCG-102 PCG-937 PCG-229 PCG-853 PCG-868 GAS PCG-702 WATER PCG-59 PCG-850 PCG-854 PCG-939 PCG-856 INJECTOR PCG-243 DRY PCG-864 LOCATION PCG-125 OLD LOCATION PCG-107 LOCPCG-104 ABANDONED-OIL PCG-927 SHUT-IN-GAS SHUT-IN-OIL PCG-703 SHUT-IN-WATER PCG-266 DRILLING-OR-TESTING 0 SHUT-IN-INJECTOR Figure 14. Quickly visualization of Drilling and WO Programs Sahara surveillance Underdeveloped status Figure 16. Pump off and beam pumping data visualization SITU surveillance system Facilities following up Figure 16. Underdeveloped status screen Bubble map Figure 15. Underdeveloped status screen Figure 17. Facilities Control Panel
6 6 SPE Dynapack surveillance Well analysis Subsurface injection installation Injection histories analisys Tension Packer Injection mandrel with flow regulator valve Flooded sand Tension Packer Flooded sand Figure 18. Beam pumping data visualization Anchor Packer THE PRODUCTION CYCLE AND INJECTION COMPLEXITY IN TWO FIGURES Flooded sand Production Cycle Figure 20. Subsurface injection installation 405 water injection wells 19 injection plants FLUID OIL+WATER+ GAS FIELD GAS SYSTEM OIL 2 MAIN TREATING PLANTS TO CALETA CORDOVA TERMINAL (SALES) AND ADITIONAL WATER SEPARATION PLANTS WATER 18 water treatment plants INJECTION PLANTS SATELLITE STATIONS PROD. WELLS WATERFLOOD PROJECTS INJECTION WELLS WATER DISPOSALS Conclusions Integrated data management is one of the keys of the Cerro Dragon rebirth. A flexible and friendly simulator with connection to our data bases gives us a power tool to make good decisions. Figure 19. Cerro Dragon production cycle 1,850 Beam pumped wells 30 PCP pumped wells Databases according the field complexity and needs is the best way The virtuous circle is the best tool of our teams to complete the targets. 450 ESP pumped wells 2 Gas production wells 70 Oil and gas Stations 2 Oil treatment Plants 1 Gas Treatment Plant
7 SPE Acknowledgements Thanks are due to: PAE Cerro Dragon Development Reserves Teams because this paper reflect their hard daily work. The PAE facilities and automation team for improving the data loading and databases operation. The PAE IT Team for high quality systems and communications. INTERFACES Management and design Team because they ve working along many years to improve and integrate into customized software for their and our ideas and needs. References 1. Ezequiel Massaglia, Dario Baldassa, Carlos Ponce, Bernabé Zalazar. Injector-Well Completion Designs for Selectively Waterflooding up to 18 Zones in a Multilayered Reservoir: Experience in the Cerro Dragón Field. SPE paper presented at the 2006 SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., April J.P. Martins, SPE, J.M. MacDonald, C.G. Stewart, SPE, and C.J. Phillips, SPE, BPExploration (Alaska) Inc. The Management and Optimization of a Major Wellwork Program at Prudhoe Bay. SPE paper 30649, 1995.
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