De Positieve Psychologie van Arbeid en Gezondheid

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1 De Positieve Psychologie van Arbeid en Gezondheid Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker Symposium Alles Goed? 3 februari 2011

2 PART 1 The Concept

3 Positive Organizational Behavior The study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today s workplace Luthans (2003)

4 Work Engagement A positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Schaufeli & Bakker (2003, 2004, 2010)

5 Utrecht Work Engagement Scale Vigor Schaufeli & Bakker (2003) At my work, I feel bursting with energy At my job, I feel strong and vigorous Dedication To me, my job is challenging I am enthusiastic about my job Absorption When I am working, I forget everything else around me I am completely immersed in my work

6 Irritated Angry Tense Hostile Agitated Unpleasant high activation HIGH ACTIVATION Excited ENGAGEMENT Enthusiastic Energised Happy Pleased UNPLEASANT PLEASANT Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Unpleasant low activation Sad Pleasant low activation Calm Tranquil Content Relaxed Russell & Carroll (1999) LOW ACTIVATION

7 Irritated Angry Tense Hostile Agitated Unpleasant high activation HIGH ACTIVATION Excited ENGAGEMENT Enthusiastic Energised Happy Pleased UNPLEASANT PLEASANT Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Unpleasant low activation Sad BURNOUT Pleasant low activation Calm Tranquil Content Relaxed Bakker & Oerlemans (2011) LOW ACTIVATION

8 Irritated Angry Tense Hostile Agitated Unpleasant high activation WORKAHOLISM HIGH ACTIVATION Excited ENGAGEMENT Enthusiastic Energised Happy Pleased UNPLEASANT PLEASANT Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Unpleasant low activation Sad BURNOUT SATISFACTION Pleasant low activation Calm Tranquil Content Relaxed Bakker & Oerlemans (2011) LOW ACTIVATION

9 Engaged Employees Take personal initiative Generate their own positive feedback Are also engaged outside their work Are tired in a different way Also want to do other things than working Schaufeli, Bakker et al. (2001)

10 Yue Minjun

11 PART 2 Predictors

12 Demand-Control model Arnold Bakker

13 Effort-Reward Imbalance Model Siegrist (1996) Arnold Bakker

14 QUESTION What are your most important Job Demands and Resources? Discuss with neighbour Arnold Bakker

15 Many Demands and Resources Etc. Physical Demands Emotional Demands Mental Demands Workload Etc. Feedback Coaching Social Support Autonomy

16 Work Engagement Model Job Demands Bakker & Demerouti (2008) Job Resources Personal Resources + Work + Engagement + + Performance

17 Technicians, N= month follow-up Time 1 Time 2 Xanthopoulou et al. ( JVB) CAUSAL EFFECTS Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement

18 Technicians, N= month follow-up Time 1 Time 2 Xanthopoulou et al. ( JVB) REVERSED CAUSAL EFFECTS Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement

19

20 Dutch Managers, N=201 T1 Burnout.74 T2 Burnout Δ Job Demands Δ Job Resources.45 T1 Engagement.68 T2 Engagement Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30,

21 Finnish Dentists, N=2555 Job Demands - Job Resources Burnout Work.08 Engagement.23 Depressive Symptoms - Organizational Commitment Hakanen, Schaufeli & Ahola (2008)

22 Health Care employees Job Demands.62 Exhaustion Need Satisfaction Job Resources.34 Vigor Van den Broeck et al. (2008)

23 Interactions in JD-R model JOB DEMANDS HIGH LOW BURNOUT APATHY WORK ENGAGEMENT BOREDOM LOW JOB RESOURCES HIGH

24

25 Resources work when needed Finnish Dentists, N= Work Engagement Low Skill Variety High Skill Variety 0 Low Qualitative Workload High Qualitative Workload Hakanen, J.J., Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). How dentists cope with their job demands and stay engaged: The moderating role of job resources. European Journal of Oral Sciences

26 Resources work when needed Finnish Teachers, N=805 6 Work Engagement Low Appreciation High Appreciation 0 Low Pupil Misbehavior High Pupil Misbehavior Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99,

27 Resources work when needed Dutch Employees, N=12,000 3,5 (Health Care N = 2,880) Task Enjoyment 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 Low Career Opp. High Career Opp. 0 Low Workload High Workload Bakker, A., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model: Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3-16.

28 Personal Resources aspects of the self that refer to individuals sense of their ability to control and impact upon their environment successfully (Hobfoll et al., 2003) Self-efficacy Resilience Optimism Self-esteem

29 Personal Resources Personal resources are important because they protect against negative stress, may promote health, and can be used to cope with stressful situations

30 Stress resilience as motivator Financial Firm, N=388 8 Work Engagement 7 6 Low Emotional Demands Low Resilience High Emotional Demands High Resilience

31 PART 3 Outcomes

32

33 Outcomes of Engagement Better daily performance Reduced Absence Reduced Personnel Turnover Higher productivity Client satisfaction Engaged Colleagues Demerouti & Cropanzano (2010)

34 Daily Engagement

35

36 Daily engagement flight attendants Trait Support Trait Self-efficacy Trait Work Engagement Self- Efficacy Performance Social Support Work Engagement Xanthopoulou et al. (2008, JOHP)

37

38 Greek fast-food restaurants Branch Trait Personal Resources Trait Work Engagement Personal Resources Financial Turnover Job Resources Work Engagement Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)

39 Greek fast-food restaurants Branch Trait Personal Resources Trait Work Engagement Autonomy Coaching Team Climate Self-efficacy Optimism Self-esteem Work Engagement Financial Turnover Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)

40 Engagement is contagious 6 5 Engagement Men Low Empathy High Empathy 0 Low Engagement High Engagement Women Bakker & Demerouti (2009, JMP)

41 Daily Crossover Study 124 participants; 62 dyads of colleagues 65% response 50% female; Mean age: 35 yrs Well-educated Range of occupations: Health care, Communication, Management, etc.

42 Results Trait Extraversion A + + Trait Extraversion B Frequency Daily Communic Daily Engagement A + Daily Engagement B + Daily Performance B Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

43 Interaction Work Engagement B 0,12 0,05-0,02-0,09-0,16-0,23 Communication + 1 SD Communication 1 SD -1,000 0,000 1,000 Work Engagement Person A Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

44 PART 4 Positive Interventions

45

46 Interventions Level Primary Secondary Person in Organisation Optimize individual JDs, JRs, and PRs Organisation Optimize JDs and JRs at department or team level

47 Organizational strategies Work environment Increase job resources Leadership Optimize social climate (crossover) Stimulate transformational leadership Training Increase personal resources Career development Challenging work Schaufeli & Salanova (2007)

48 Individual strategies Goal setting Use of implementation intentions Use strengths in a new way JD-R Monitor Engagement App Job Crafting Change job demands and resources

49 JD-R Monitor Participants: Go to secured website Fill in a personal code Read Introduction Fill in Questionnaire Receive individual feedback May print personalized report

50 2/4/2011 Free Template from 50

51 2/4/2011 Free Template from 51

52 2/4/2011 Free Template from 52

53 2/4/2011 Free Template from 53

54 Job Crafting Employees may actively change the design of their jobs by choosing tasks, negotiating different job content, and assigning meaning to their tasks or jobs Parker & Ohly (2008)

55 Job Crafting Job crafting is defined as the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in their task or relational boundaries Wrzesniewski & Dutton (2001)

56 Job Crafting Job crafting is defined as the changes individuals make in their job demands and job resources Tims & Bakker (2010, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology

57 Job Crafting Scale Increase Job Resources I ask my supervisor to coach me I ask others for feedback on my job performance Increase Job Demands When an interesting project comes along, I offer myself proactively as project co-worker

58 Job Crafting Decrease Job Demands I organise my work in such a way to make sure that I do not have to concentrate for too long a period at once

59 Job Crafting Increasing Structural JRs Decreasing JDs Increasing Social JRs Increasing JDs

60 Job Crafting Scale - Reliabilities N Increasing Structural Job Resources Increasing Social Job Resources Increasing Job Demands Decreasing Job Demands Tims, M., Bakker, A.B. & Derks, D. (2010). Measuring Job Crafting Behavior of Employees: The Development and Validity of the Job Crafting Scale.

61 Job Crafting Scale Validity Other Ratings Increasing Structural JRs Increasing Social JRs Increasing Job Demands Decreasing Job Demands Job Crafting Employability

62 Leaders and Followers, N=95 Bakker, Tims & Derks (2010) Increasing JR Increasing JR Increasing JD Proactive Personality.47 Job crafting.68 Work engagement χ 2 (31) = 36,39, TLI =.99, RMSEA =.04 In-role Performance

63 Daily Job Crafting (double mediation) Trait Job crafting Trait Work enjoyment Trait Performance Self-efficacy Job Crafting Work Enjoyment Performance Tims, Bakker & Derks (2010)

64 Increase Resources Demerouti (2010) Daily Job Crafting

65 Daily Job Crafting Decrease Demands Demerouti (2010)

66 PART 5 Conclusion

67 Work Engagement Model Job Demands Bakker & Demerouti (2008) Job Resources Personal Resources + Work + Engagement + Performance Job crafting +

68 Yue Minjun

69 More info:

70

71 Day to day recovery Activity Affects Work-related Well-being (-) Low-effort Well-being (+/0) Physical activities Well-being (+) Vigor (+) Depression (-) Social activities Well-being (+) Mood (+) Demerouti, Bakker, Geurts & Taris (2009)

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