CMU200: 2 2,5 Generation of Mobile Communication Systems GSM / GPRS / EGPRS. 2 MAR Re 1 1 CMU 200 GSM / GPRS / EGPRS

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1 CMU200: 2 2,5 Generation of Mobile Communication Systems GSM / GPRS / EGPRS 2 MAR Re /00

2 of GSM, GPRS and EGPRS Basic Information about: u Physical Resource u GMSK and 8PSK u Mapping u Coding Schemes u Incremental Redundancy 2

3 : Physical Resource GSM Downlink Uplink Physical resource = 1 Timeslot on 1 Frequency Channel Symmetric data transfer (E)GPRS using Temporary Block Flow to identify radio resource Physical resource = N Radio Blocks (=4 Normal Bursts) on 1 or more Timeslots. Temporary Block Flow, TBF identifies allocated physical resource DownlinkUplink Downlink Uplink or downlink uplink Symmetric data transfer Asymmetric data transfer 3

4 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Q Quadratur component Q(t) ϕ(t) I(t) I Inphase component ϕ cosϕ sinϕ cos 2 ϕ + sin 2 ϕ=1 Logical 0 = ϕ( bit n+1 ) - ϕ( bit n ) = + Logical 1 = ϕ( bit n+1 ) - ϕ( bit n ) = 2 π 2 π 4

5 GMSK Principle RF input 0 90 I mod Q mod Σ RF output IQ Modulator Principle f(t) -sin(2pft) Calculation of phaseϕ ϕ(t) calculation of sin ϕ and cos ϕ D A D A cos(2pft) cos(2pft + j(t)) 5

6 8 Phase Shift Keying 8PSK (0,0,0) Q Quadratur Component (0,1,0) (0,1,1) (0,0,1) (1,1,1) Inphase Component I (1,0,1) (1,1,0) (1,0,0) 6

7 8 Phase Shift Keying 8PSK Q 3π 8 ϕ(t) 011 I

8 3 steps for the 8PSK modulation EDGE Bits 1.) Phase Shift Keying Mapping: 3 Bits 1 Symbol 8PSK- Symbols 2.) Reduce Crest-Factor 3π/8 Rotation 3.) Adapt to GMSK Linearized Gaussian filter On Air Signal (d 3i, d 3i+1, d 3i+2 )= (0,0,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,1) Q (0,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) (1,1,0) (1,0,0) I

9 EGPRS 8PSK Constellation diagram without rotation 9

10 EGPRS 8PSK Constellation diagram with rotation 10

11 Ratios dbm Training Sequence Payload Payload µsec Peak-to-Average Ratio Peak-To-Minimum Ratio Rotation Training Sequence Payload Training Sequence Payload db 3.3 db db db 3p/8 1.5 db 3.2 db 4.3 db 16.6 db 11

12 GPRS / EGPRS Channel Coding GPRS: Coding Schemes CS-1 - CS-4 Scheme Code rate RLC blocks per Radio Block (20ms) Scheme Code rate RLC blocks per Radio Block (20ms) Raw Data within one Radio Block Family BCS Punctured bits Data rate kb/s MCS x592 A 2x MCS x544 A MCS PSK 2 2x448 B MCS MCS A B MCS C MCS GMSK A MCS B MCS Raw Data within one Radio Block C Family BCS Punctured 12 bits Data rate kb/s CS CS-2» 2/ CS-3» 3/4 GMSK CS EGPRS: and Coding Schemes, MCS-1 - MCS

13 GPRS / EGPRS Channel Coding MAC- Header USF USF RLC Header Radio Block netto RLC Data Convolutional Coding Puncturing BCS 456 Bit Radio Block = 4 Bursts 57 Bit 57 Bit 57 Bit 57 Bit Burst Forming 57 Bit 57 Bit 57 Bit 57 Bit 13

14 GPRS / EGPRS Channel Coding GPRS: Coding Schemes CS-1 - CS-4 Scheme Code rate RLC blocks per Radio Block (20ms) Scheme Code rate RLC blocks MCS-9 is used for the following explanation to incremental redundancy per Radio Block (20ms) Raw Data within one Radio Block Family BCS Punctured bits Data rate kb/s MCS x592 A 2x MCS x544 A MCS PSK 2 2x448 B MCS MCS A B MCS C MCS GMSK A MCS B MCS Raw Data within one Radio Block C Family BCS Punctured 12 bits Data rate kb/s CS CS-2 2/ GMSK CS-3 3/ CS EGPRS: and Coding Schemes, MCS-1 - MCS

15 IR- example shown with MCS-9 CMU data part 612 x 2 MCS-9 convolutional coding rate 1/3 =data size increases 3 times data part 612 x data part 612 x data part 612 x 2 puncturing scheme P1 X X X X X X... data part 612 x 2 puncturing scheme P2 X X X X X X... data part 612 x 2 puncturing scheme P3 X X X X X X... data part 612 x 2 IR memory - storage for transmitted blocks first radio block -P1 radio block retransmission-p2 X X1 X X3 X X... data part 612 x 2 corrupted bit no. 2 and 4 X X X X X X 5... data part 612 x 2 corrupted bit no. 6 Retransmission request P1 not acknowledged X 1 X 3 X X... data part 612 x 2 X X X X X 5... data part 612 x 2 IR memory - storage for received blocks data part 612 x 2 GSM - DUT data part 612 x 2 MCS-9 15

16 Incremental Redundancy Data to be encoded Convolutional coded symbols FEC Puncturing Puncturing scheme 1 Puncturing scheme 2 _ _ Puncturing scheme 3 16

17 s Various measurement possibilities of RF output power of the MS transmitter: u Normal Burst in a single timeslot or in up to 4 consecutive timeslots u Access Burst u Average and its evolution over several slots or frames u Average as Function of the Control Level (PCL) 17

18 versus Time Points of consideration in Tx measurements Does the burst Burst in Timeslot n correspond to the structure? P Burst Ramping F T 26 Bits F T 57 Information bits 57 Information bits G 1 3 Training Sequence 1 3 8,25 T=Tail bit F=Flag bit G=Guard Periode Time Length Time Start Time 18

19 versus Time 19

20 versus Time TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 u Real time positioning of each template section independently (x-axes ref. to mid amble / y-axes ref. to average burst power) u Auto detection of GMSK or 8PSK modulation and access burst or normal burst -> template must be chosen accordingly 20

21 MultiSlot : GMSK/8PSK 21

22 versus Time 22

23 vs. Time: Normal/Access B. 23

24 Fastest for 8PSK u High crest factor causes measurement uncertainty on average burst power (in practice about ±0.5 db) u Average of 30 to 50 measurements required for stability (recommendation defines 200 measurements) u CMU Data Compensated Mode allows stable measurement with just one measured burst u Significant speed advantage, no averaging required Current: measurement uncertainty about ±0.5 db Average: stabile result after 30 to 50 measurements Data Compens.: stabile result after 1 measurement 24

25 per Slot 25

26 Tables 26

27 Control Level 27

28 : Key Features u versus Time Multislot with up to 4 UL u Realtime Template Positioning u Data Compensated Mode u Autodetection: GMSK / 8PSK Normal / Access Burst 28

29 s of the GMSK and 8PSK modulation parameters of the RF signal transmitted by the mobile phone: u Phase Error u Frequency Error u Origin Offset u I/Q Imbalance u Error Vector Magnitude u Magnitude Error 29

30 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Q Quadratur component Q(t) ϕ(t) I(t) I Inphase component ϕ cosϕ sinϕ cos 2 ϕ + sin 2 ϕ=1 Logical 0 = ϕ( bit n+1 ) - ϕ( bit n ) = + Logical 1 = ϕ( bit n+1 ) - ϕ( bit n ) = 2 π 2 π 30

31 Phase and Frequency Error Real Phase Data Ideal Phase Phase + Frequency Error 31

32 Phase and Frequency Error Phase + Frequency Error 32

33 I/Q Imbalance and Origin Offset Pattern 0 Pattern 1 f C-n f C f C+n f C-n f C f C+n Suppression: p(f C ) p(f C+n ) Suppression: p(f C-n ) p(f C+n ) Q origin offset I/Q imbalance I 33

34 GMSK Parameter 34

35 EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) Q Ideal symbol point measured symbol point I error vector magnitude magnitude error phase error 35

36 8PSK Parameter 36

37 8PSK EVM - 95th percentile Histogram of all EVM measurements history of all EVM measurements similar to a statistical evaluation 95th percentile means only 5% of all EVM measurement results (yellow bars in the diagram) could be above the indicated value 37

38 : Key Features u EVM measurement u 95th percentile u 8PSK measurement: long time experience 38

39 of the off-carrier power, which is due to the modulation and the bursty nature of the RF signal due to u u Switching in Frequency and/or Time Domain 39

40 due to Switching window single size slot e.g. 4 slots main slot TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 u s add up all spectral contributions u MRT must detect used modulation scheme (GMSK/8PSK) and set limit lines accordingly 40

41 due to Switching Limit line auto detection GMSK or 8PSK 41

42 due to Switching 3 Views Frequency domain Time domain Frequency & time domain 42

43 due to window for spectrum due to modulation TS0 TS1 TS2 main slot TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Window size for spectrum due to modulation covers the second half out of the useful part of the burst. This ensures in line with 3GPP standard that only real PRBS and no set pattern like the midamble will be used as modulation content for the spectrum measurement 43

44 due to window for spectrum window for spectrum window for spectrum window for spectrum due to modulation due to modulation due to modulation due to modulation TS0 TS1 TS2 main slot TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 The window given by the modulation single slot measurement will me moved burst by burst over the corresponding slots. This measurement must be performed on any active UL slot 44

45 due to 3 Views Frequency domain Time domain Frequency & time domain 45

46 due to Selectable sample area First date field A Second date field B (default setting in line with 3 GPP specification) First and second date field A&B (could be used to cut down measurement time) 46

47 Simultaneous & Switching in parallel 47

48 : Key Features u Frequency & Time Domain u Switching & parallel u Selectable Sample Area u High Speed with CMU-U65 v.04 and Software Release V3.50 u Wider frequency range ±1.8MHz ±2.5 MHz 48

49 Tx/Rx Test Modes u Test of transmission performance on the complete signal path from the CMU to the device under test and back. u To this end the mobile is set to test loop operation where it returns the receiver data back to the tester. u This measurement is based on the comparison the output signal by the CMU with the signal received by the device under test. u In most cases a test SIM card is required for receiver quality measurement. 49

50 Circuit Switched: Receiver Quality 50

51 Packet Data: Test Modes u Test Mode A u Test Mode B u EGPRS Loopb sym u EGPRS Loopb asym u Red. Sig. Test Mode A u Red. Sig. Test Mode B u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb sym u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb asym u Donwlink only u BLER BLER test modes 3GPP Signalling test modes for GMSK / 8PSK defined under 3GPP fast production test mode reduced signalling APP IP SNDCPGMM/SN LLC RLC GSM-L3 MAC GSM-L2 GSM-RF -physical layer 51

52 Packet Data: Test Modes 52

53 Packet Data: Test Modes u Test Mode A u Test Mode B u EGPRS Loopb sym u EGPRS Loopb asym u Red. Sig. Test Mode A u Red. Sig. Test Mode B u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb sym u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb asym u Donwlink only u BLER BLER test modes 3GPP Signalling test modes for GMSK / 8PSK defined under 3GPP fast production test mode reduced signalling APP IP SNDCPGMM/SN LLC RLC GSM-L3 MAC GSM-L2 GSM-RF -physical layer 53

54 Test Mode A Transmitter Test 3GPP test mode commands the mobile into a transmission mode of a PRBS (Pseudo Random Bit Sequence) Ł Multislot Tx measurements power versus time phase and frequency spectrum (modulation/ switching) 3GPP test modes A APP IP SNDCP GMM/SN LLC RLC GSM-L3 MAC GSM-L2 GSM-RF -physical layer 54

55 Packet Data: Test Modes u Test Mode A u Test Mode B u EGPRS Loopb sym u EGPRS Loopb asym u Red. Sig. Test Mode A u Red. Sig. Test Mode B u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb sym u Red. Sig. EGPRS Loopb asym u Donwlink only u BLER BLER test modes 3GPP Signalling test modes for GMSK / 8PSK defined under 3GPP fast production test mode reduced signalling APP IP SNDCPGMM/SN LLC RLC GSM-L3 MAC GSM-L2 GSM-RF -physical layer 55

56 BLER Mode The CMU uses the radio block reception acknowledgement / not acknowledgement from the mobile in order to determine the Block Error Rate measurements Ł Rx measurements only: BLER over all DL slots BLER on any timeslot data throughput (incremental redundancy performance test) channel quality report Retransmission based on Incremental redundancy (EGPRS only) BLER test mode 3GPP APP IP SNDCP GMM/SN LLC RLC GSM-L3 MAC GSM-L2 GSM-RF -physical layer 56

57 BLER Mode Mobile Radio Tester / BTS BIT Analysis BIT Generation GPRS channel decoder GPRS channel coder De modulator TBF for BER Loop b-mode how BLER act GPRS/EGPRS - DUT Decoder Modulator Coder Modulator Demodulator RLC/MAC Layer... Application Layer Ack/ Nack 57

58 BLER example with TBF on 3DL Pay load TBF establishment via BLER mode Block Block Block TBF DL Block 14 7 Block 25 8 Block 36 9 Block 14 Block 25 Block 36 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Mobile UL ACK / NACK 58

59 BLER example with TBF on 3DL TBF establishment via BLER mode TBF DL Block10 Block 5 Dummy Mobile repeat block 5 and 10 UL ACK / NACK 59

60 BLER example with TBF on 3DL New pay load TBF establishment via BLER mode Block13 Block16 Block19 Block22 Block14 Block17 Block20 Block23 Block15 Block18 Block21 Block24 TBF DL Block13 Block16 Block19 Block14 Block17 Block20 Block15 Block18 Block21 Block13 Block16 Block14 Block17 Block15 Block18 Block13 Block14 Block15 Mobile UL ACK / NACK 60

61 Packet Data: Receiver Quality 61

62 Packet Data: Receiver Quality 62

63 Tx/Rx Tests: Key Features u Individual Downlink Levels Up to 8 time slots with individual power level Without loss of accuracy u BLER: Continuous measurement at each time slot u Statistical BER u Data throughput measurement acc. 3GPP Specification Incremental Redundancy Performance Test u USF BLER / False USF simultaneous detection acc. to 3GPP Specification 63

64 CMU200 makes it possible to configure in several tabs: u Inputs and outputs of the CMU u Respective signals and the trigger settings u Parameters controlling the measurements u Error and tolerance limits u procedures 64

65 DL/UL Slot Configuration DL GSM GPRS EGPRS UL

66 Automatic Slot Configuration DL UL DL UL example Test Mode A class 12 DUT, max performance 4UL restrict DL slot number to 1 example BLER mode class 12 DUT, max performance 4DL restrict UL slot number to 1 DL UL example Test Mode B class 12 DUT, max performance 2DL/3UL used DL slot used UL slot required guard slot 66

67 multislot class Automatic Slot Configuration test mode A reduced signalling A 0 BLER mode & DL only mode test mode B reduced signalling B Downlink slot Uplink slot 67

68 Flexibility on Slot Positions u Mobile multislot restrictions on DL for receiver measurements u Example for positioning of a MC8..12 device DL=i-2,i-1,i,i+1 and UL=i, i=2,..,6 RxRxRxRx - Tx - - T tb T ra receiver test BLER max performance 4DL used DL slot used UL slot required guard slot(s) T tb relates to the time needed for the MS to get ready to transmit T ra relates to the time needed for the MS to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to receive 68

69 Flexibility on Slot Positions u Example for a MC10 device DL=i-2,i-1,i,i+1 and UL=i, i=2,..,6 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 i=6 DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL

70 Additional RF Generator The CMU without additional RF Generator shares one synthesiser supporting the BCCH on TS0 on a dedicated physical channel and all further DL timeslots are supposed to be used for traffic (TS2 to 6) supported on a second (different) physical channel. TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 -- BCCH -- TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH -- CMU RF port BCCH TCH CH32 no DL power present - DL power measurement causes call drop DL channel 32 supporting broadcast (BCCH) hop hop CH64 DL channel 64 supporting traffic(tch) hop hop There are a view chip set designs on the market, performing a so-called down link power measurement on the BCCH. The timing of this periodical mobile routine is non foreseeable and could happen at any TS (time slot) during the frame. 70

71 Additional RF Generator The current workaround is that BCCH and the traffic channel TCH must be matched on the same physical channel number, e.g. set BCCH and TCH configuration to an equal channel number. (e.g.32) TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TCH -- BCCH TCH -- TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH -- CMU RF port BCCH TCH CH32 DL power measurement possible as long as BCCH and TCH are on the same channel DL channel 32 supporting broadcast (BCCH) and traffic (TCH) CH64 DL channel 64 Changing the physical channel during the call (intra band handover) is possible, BUT after performing this, the BCCH is again different from TCH. With the next downlink power measurement cycle, the call drop again 71

72 Additional RF Generator CMU-B95 The smart solution will be provided by an independent second synthesiser CMU-B95. TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TCH -- BCCH TCH -- TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH -- CMU RF port BCCH TCH CH32 DL power present at any time due to CW signal B95 channel 32 supporting broadcast (BCCH) CH64 DL channel 64 supporting traffic(tch) While CMU-B95 supports a continuous signal for generating the BCCH like a real base station, GPRS and EGPRS devices performing the downlink power measurement will have no problem. 72

73 73 Additional RF Generator CMU-B95 Comments u Additional time slots 0,1 and 7 available for testing (R&D) u Required for the future planned PBCCH support PBCCH is a dedicated broadcast channel for the packed data system, there are no add-ons for RF measurements, it only proves that the mobile handles signalling via PBCCH correctly mainly required by Network operators u Limitations: 2W RF1 RF3 OUT is not available as long as B95 is in use for BCCH Only 2 for BCCH possible workaround via external amplifier if UL and DL signal could be handled separately u How to fit Modification only by qualified service possible, takes about 2h No calibration required

74 : Key Features u Manifold configuration opportunities u Automatic Slot Configuration Flexible MultiSlot Assignment Worst case decision due to selected test mode u Versatile access to IQ signales Suitable among other things for Chip set development Baseband fading simulation 74

75 CMU G: Top Features u EGPRS Upgrade by software based on GSM/GPRS Hardware Platform u AMR u Multislot: Individual slot measurement No Class restriction u Slot Configuration Flexible Automatic: Dependent on Test Mode and Class u Time Domain of any Frequency Offset High Speed u USF BLER / USF False Detection 75

76 76

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