MRN 6 GSM part 1. Politecnico di Milano Facoltà di Ingegneria dell Informazione. Mobile Radio Networks Prof. Antonio Capone

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1 Politecnico di Milano Facoltà di Ingegneria dell Informazione MRN 6 GSM part 1 Mobile Radio Networks Prof. Antonio Capone A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 1

2 General characteristics of the system A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 2

3 History (1) o 1982: the CEPT (Conférence Européenne des Administrations des Postes et des Télécommunications) creates special interest group for the definition of a pan-european cellular system: the Groupe Spécial Mobile, GSM o 1985: Definition of the list of recommendations (standard specifications) that the GSM will work on (they ended up to be about 130: 1500 pages in 12 volumes!... plus all those of the evolution, phases 2+ and 3 of GSM) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 3

4 History (2) o 1988: the ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute) is created by the CEPT and the European Commission, and the GSM standardization activity is moved in the new organization o 1990: GSM specifications are extended to DCS1800 (Digital Cellular System on 1800 MHz), o 1992: The final version of the standard is released, with the new meaning of the acronym Global System for Mobile Communications o 1992: Commercial launch of GSM (initially planned for 1991 and then delayed because of the lack of mobile terminals) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 4

5 History (3) o : Introduction of the SMS o : Commercial introduction of DCS1800 (operating at 1800 MHz) o 1996: Standardization of enhanced voice codecs o 1997: Dual-band terminals o 1999: Standardization of GPRS o 2000/01: Commercial introduction of GPRS A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 5

6 General characteristics o Second Generation Digital System (2G) o Multiple access scheme based on multicarrier TDMA o Fixed frequency reuse o Services n Telephony with supplementary services n Circuit data services (single channel and multiple channles) n Packet data (GPRS General Packet Radio Service) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 6

7 Frequencies GSM /900 DCS/1800 uplink downlink uplink downlink esteso uplink esteso downlink carriers carriers 374 carriers 374 carroers F[ MHz ] o In UK and USA different frequencies around 1900 MHz are used for DCS ( uplink, downlink). A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 7

8 Radio carriers o Radio carriers are spaced of 200 khz 200 khz o On each carrier the transmission rate is Kb/s o Carriers are identified by a ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number) o Modulation GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) o Each pair of frequencies for uplink and downlink are spaced of 45 MHz in GSM 900 and 95 MHz in DCS 1800 A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 8 f

9 TDMA Frame o On each carrier the TDMA scheme allows to create up to 8 channels for the transmission of coded voice at 13 Kb/s TDM Frame ms BTS Transmits f down MS Transmits f up Time slot = 577 µs A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 9

10 Other characteristics o Power Control n Power emitted by base station and mobile terminals is regulated with a closed loop control o Discontinuous Transmission n During voice breaks, coding is paused for reducing interference and energy consumption A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 10

11 System Architecture A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 11

12 Network architecture Um BSC NSS Network Switching Subsystem Um Um Um BTS Abis Abis BTS Abis BTS BSC BSC Abis A A A VLR GMSC E MSC A HLR OMC VLR EIR AuC OMSS Fixed Telephone Network ISDN/PSTN Operation and Maintenence Subsystem RS Radio BTS BSS Base Station Subsystem BSC A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 12

13 Mobile Station (MS) o Three categories with different nominal power: n vehicular: up to 20 W n portable: up to 8 W n personal (hand-terminal): up to 2 W (the only category currently used) Classe Potenza massima nominale [W] Potenza media nominale [mw] GSM 900 MHz DCS 1800 MHz GSM 900 MHz DCS 1800 MHz , , A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 13

14 Mobile Station (MS) o Characteristics n MS multi-band: can operate in different bands (900, 1800, 1900, ) n MS multi-slot: can operate activating multiple slots simultaneously (GPRS only) o MS includes ME (Mobile Equipment) and SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) n ME is the main part of the mobile terminal which includes all hw and sw modules. Identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identifier) n SIM include the functions for identifying the user and executing security procedures A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 14

15 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) o It s a smart card (with micro processor and memory) which is essential to activate any ME o Multi be inserted in the reader slot of the ME o Serial number n Identify the SIM card o International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) n Identify the user in the network o Security authentication and cyphering information n A3 and A8 algorithm (used for authentication and cyphering) n K i, K c (authentication and cyphering keys) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 15

16 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) o Temporary Network information n LAI (Location Area Identifier), last visited location area n TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity), temporary identifier used on behalf of the IMSI o Subscribed services o Personal Identity Number (PIN) o Personal Unblocking Number (PUK) o Access rights o Prohibited networks o Call messages o Phone numbers A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 16

17 Base Station System (BSS) o The BSS includes the functional units that deal with the radio access n Radio coverage and communication with the MSs through the radio interface n Radio resource management o The BSS includes: n Base Transceiver Station (BTS) o Implements the low level protocols of the radio interfaces. It executes control commands sent by the BSC n Base Station Controller (BSC) o Implements high level protocols controlling a group of BTSs. Receive information on radio interfance status from BTS and issues configuration and management commands A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 17

18 Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) o The NSS is the circuit switching network of the mobile system o It is used for circuit based services only (voice) o It is basically a telephone network with additional functionalities, nodes and databases for managing mobile users A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 18

19 Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) o the NSS includes: n Mobile Switching Center (MSC): o Telephone switching station for mobile systems n Visitor Location Register (VLR): o It s a database (usually integrated into the MSC) including temporary information on users visiting the MSC area n Home Location Register (HLR): o It s the main database of the network that includes all information on mobile users. Includes also the information on the currently visited VLR n Authentication Center (AuC): o Usually associated with the HLR. It is in charge of authentication functions n Equipment Identity Register (EIR): o Include the IMEI of authorized devices A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 19

20 Operation and Maintenence Subsystem (OMSS) o The OMSS includes the units in charge of controlling and monitoring network elements by remote o The OMSS can n configure the functionalities of all network devices n Visualize alarms on failures and anomalous behavior n Visualize traffic statistical data n etc. A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 20

21 Areas defined in GSM o PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) Area: n Service area of an operator o MSC/VLR Area: n Area managed by a MSC. Data of users in this area are stored in the VLR associated with the MSC o Location Area: n A MSC/VLR area includes one or more Location Areas (LA). LA is identified by a LAI (Location Area Identifier), transmitted by all BTSs in the area on the broadcast channel o Cell: n area covered by a BTS. Identified by a BSIC (Base Station Identity Code), transmitted on the broadcast channel A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 21

22 Base Transceiver Station (BTS) o The BTS is in charge of implementing the low level protocols of the radio interface o It transmits and receives signals from the MSs implementing modulation, coding and multiplexing functions on physical channels o It has the task of performing quality measurements on physical channels and to collect those performed by MSs (all measurements are reported to the BSC) o It interfaces with the BSC with PCM channels at 64 kbit/s o Connects PCM channels with those of the radio interface (traffic and signaling) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 22

23 Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) o GSM voice coding is at 13 Kbit/s while PCM is at 64 Kbit/s o The transcoding is performed by the TRAU o The TRAU can be in the BTS, or (more often) in the BSC o In this last case 13 Kbit/s flows must be transmitted over 64 Kbit/s channels o On each 64 Kbit/s 4 flows at 13 Kbit/s are multiplexed (they are first transformed into 16 Kbit/s flows with some padding) o For each GSM carrier (8 channels at 13 Kbit/s) 3 PCM channels at 64 Kbit/s are necessary n One for the signaling transported with the link protocol LAPD n 2 for the 8 traffic channels A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 23

24 Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) Frame delimiter signaling channel PCM channels (64 Kbit/s) 125 µs PCM channels (64 kbit/s) GSM channels (13 kbit/s) TRAU MSC BSC BTS 1 PCM channel per voice circuit 1 PCM channel for 4 voice circuits A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 24

25 BTS structure o BTS is usually divided into n TRX (Transceiver) o Radio elements for transmission and reception on a single radio carrier n BCF (Base Common Function) o Control element of a set of TRX that also control connection interface with the BSC A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 25

26 BTS structure one TX antenna Combiner. two RX antennas Splitter. TX RX TX RX Signal Processing TRX Controller TRX... Signal Processing TRX Controller TRX A-bis Interface PCM line or Radio system 2 Mb/s A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 26 BSC

27 Base Station Controller (BSC) o A BSC controls a large number of BTSs: from a few tens to hundreds o Main BSC tasks include: n Cell configuration with assignment of traffic and control channels n Setup and release of channels at A and Abis interfaces n Handover management n Paging management n Analysis of measurements received by BTSs and MSs for the handover activation A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 27

28 Base Station Controller (BSC) o BSC is in charge of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) o It is also a switching node n Even if it does not implement routing (this is done by the MSC) n It connects BTS circuits with MSC circuits performing (often) the trans-coding (TRAU) n It switches circuits during handover (intra- BSC) o The BSCs can be co-located with the MSC, or located in different sites A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 28

29 Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) o The MSC is the telephone switching station of the mobile radio network and it has additional functionalities for mobility management o It is associated with a VLR for storing information on visiting users o The MSC is connected to its BSCs and other MSC in the network n PCM channels (multiplexed with PDH or SDH) are used for the connection n Some of the resources are used for the signaling network SS7 o One or more MSC (called Gateway MSC) per PLMN are connected to the external telephone networks A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 29

30 Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) o A MS can be reached by fixed telephone lines through the number MSISDN o The call is routed to the GMSC which identifies the HLR, retrieves from it user information through the MSISDN o The HLR provides the MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) n MSRN is a temporary telephone number (same structure of the MSISDN) assigned by the visited VLR n MSRN allows the GMSC to route call to the MSC currently visited by the user A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 30

31 Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) o The MSC is the main element of the signaling network (we ll see signaling later on) o The MSC implements the functions n CM (Connection Management) o originating call, terminating call, gateway n MM (Mobility Management) o location updating, periodic registration, authentication, o Signaling protocol for communication with other network elements: n n n DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part) for direct communication with MS BSSMAP (BSS Management Application Part) for communication with BSC MAP (Mobile Application Part) for communication with other MSC, VLR, HLR, EIR, AuC A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 31

32 Home Location Register (HLR) HLR o It is a database permanently associated with a GMSC o It stores data on all MSs associated with GMSC (through the MSISDN) o The HLR stores permanent information like IMSI MSISDN, registered services, etc. o The HLR also stores temporary information like the currently visited VLR address, authentication and encryption temporary keys, etc. A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 32

33 Visitor Location Register (VLR) VLR o It s a database for storing temporary information on users in the area of a MSC o In the VLR all relevant data of visiting users are duplicated from the HLR o The IMSI is mapped into a TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) for avoiding transmitting it in clear text over the air interface A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 33

34 Security procedures o Authentication: n It is in charge of verifying user identity and protect the system from non authorized access o Encryption: n It is in charge of coding the flow of data so that it cannot decoded by others o In GSM authentication and encryption are strongly related for the key management A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 34

35 Security procedures o Ingredients: n K i o Authentication key of 128 bits stored in the AuC and in the SIM n RAND o Random number of 128 bist generated by the AuC and then sent to the MSC n A3 o Algorithm for the authentication stored in the AuC and the SIM n A8 o Algorithm for generating the encryption key K c, stored in the AuC and the SIM Procedure results: K c encryption key SRES result of the authentication algorithm Multiple Triples (RAND, SRES, K c ) Are generated for each IMSI and stored in the HLR A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 35

36 Security procedures o Authentication: MS Network K i RAND K i RAND Random number generator A3 A3 SRES(ms) SRES(network) Yes Access granted equal? No Access denied A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 36

37 Security procedures o Encryption: MS Network K i RAND K i RAND Random number generator A8 K c A8 K c A5 informazioni cifrate A5 A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 37

38 Security procedures: Roles of network elements o Authentication Centre (AuC) AuC n It stores secret keys K i of all users n Generated random numbers and calculates SRES and encryption keys K c n Provides triples to the other network elements richiesta (TMSI) MSC/VLR IMSI IMSI MS RAND SRES VLR triplette HLR triplette RAND, SRES, K i AuC A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 38

39 Security procedures: Roles of network elements o Role of the BSS in the encryption: MS request MSC/VLR K i RAND K c A8 SRES BSS K c VLR A5 Encrypted text A5 Clear text A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 39

40 Security procedures: TMSI allocation o All communications are initiate by the MS that transmits its ID (IMSI) for activating the authentication procedure o For avoiding transmitting the IMSI in clear over the air interface the VLR allocates to each MS a TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) o The IMSI is used only when a TMSI is not available o At each location update the VLR can allocate a new TMSI to MS A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 40

41 IMSI o It s the internal user identification number o It is composed of three fields: n MCC: Mobile Country Code (3 digits) n MNC: Mobile Network Code (2 digits) n MSIC: Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (up to 10 digits) o For example , identifies an Italian SIM (222) of the TIM mobile operator (01) o The telephone number (MSISDN) is completely independent from the IMSI A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 41

42 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) EIR o It is an optional network database o It includes the ID (IMEI) and the characteristics of all mobile equipments (manufacturer, country, etc.) o It can be used for preventing the use of stolen devises MS Conn. request IMEI request MSC/VLR IMEI reply IMEI check reply EIR A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 42

43 Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMSS) o It is the system in charge of all management and monitoring functions (both technical and administrative) of the network o It performs billing, traffic control, alarm messages management, BTS and BSC monitoring, configuration, etc. o It allows to configure by remote all network elements and to check their correct operation A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 43

44 Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMSS) o It is based on a hierarchical architecture n OMC (Operation & Maintenance Centre) regional n NMC (Network Management Centre) NMC OMC OMC HLR HLR EIR MSC MSC EIR BSC BSC BSC BSC A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 44

45 Radio Interface A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 45

46 Radio interface FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) 45 MHz di separazione uplink/downlink uplink downlink 200 khz TDM Frame ms f slot offset uplink/downlink BTS Transmits f down MS Transmits f up Time slot = 577 µs A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 46

47 Radio interface o Modulation: n MGSK (Minimum Gaussian Shift Keying) o Phase continuous modulation with Gaussian pulse (intersymbol interference) o Channel coding: n Convolutional o With several different rates o Equalization: n Known bit sequences transmitted in each physical burst n Equalization filter synthetized at the receiver o Voice coding: n 13 Kbit/s (RPE codec - full rate) n 12.2 Kbit/s (CELP codec - enhanced full rate) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 47

48 Transmission and reception Voice Source coding 13 Kb/s 22.8 Kb/s Channel coding Timing 22.8 kb/s Modulation GMSK 32 kb/s Control Voice Decoder Channel Decoder Equalizator A/D Converter Demodulator o From 13 Kbit/s of the codec we get to 32 Kbit/s on the radio channel A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 48

49 Frequency Hopping o The impact of multipath fading depends on the signal frequency o There may be carriers with low attenuation and carriers with high attenuation f o Since transmission are protected by FEC coding, it is more convenient to spread errors o GSM uses a frequency hopping mechanism that changes frequency slot by slot A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 49

50 Power Control o MS power is controlled by the BTS, and BTS power (traffic carriers only) is controlled by the MS o The power control mechanism is based on a closed loop scheme with up/down commands send in both directions o The power control step is 2 db o The objective is keeping received power constant o The power control reduces interference and energy consumed by MSs A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 50

51 Synchronization o Carrier synchronization n Frequency synchronization o Slot synchronization n Time slot synchronization o Frame synchronization n Frame number o Base station synchronization (optional) n Slots and frame A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 51

52 Carrier synchronization o The carrier frequency synchronization is achieved by the MS listening on the broadcast channel transmitted by the BTS o On this channel, at periodic intervals, the BTS transmit a special slot in which a known sequence is transmitted o This is used by the MS to adjust the local frequency A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 52

53 Slot and Frame synchronization o GSM channels are based on a multi-frame scheme (for instance, the broadcast channel is transmitted only in some frames of the multiframe) o Also the Frequency Hopping sequence depends on the multi-frame o All MSs must know the frame number in the multi-frame to decode the TDMA channels correctly o The BTS transmits on the broadcast channel some information that allows MSs to obtain the slot synchronization and the Frame Number A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 53

54 Timing advance o The TDMA transmissions require guard times due to propagation delays Time Reference 2τ Tg Propagation delay τ = d v d - distance v light speed = max(2 i τ i ) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 54

55 Timing advance o GSM is designed for cells with a radius of up to R max =37.8 Km o The guard time should then be 2τ = 2 x 35 / 3 x 10 8 = 233 µs o Which is equivalent to 68,25 bits at carrier rate of Kb/s A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 55

56 Timing advance o For reducing the guard time the BTS estimates the delay and send it to the MS on a control channel. o The MS can then compensate the delay and reduce guard time o Guard time of normal slots in GSM is 8.25 bits (30.46 µsec) 2) Delay estimation 4) Other Transmissions 3) Timing Advance command 1) First Transmission A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 56

57 Physical block (Burst) o The burst is the physical layer PDU transmitted in a time slot o Due to TDMA scheme each burst is an autonomous transmission with its own power profile db µs A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 57

58 Bursts o o Normal Burst n Used for data transmission in traffic channels Access Burst n Used for the first access on the Random Access Channel (RACH) n It has a long guard time since the timing advance mechanism is still not active A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 58

59 Bursts o o o Frequency Correction Burst n Used for frequency synchronization on the Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) bits all set to 1 Synchronization Burst n Used for transmitting the slot and frame synchronization information Dummy Burst n Padding burst n Used in downlink only for ensuring a constant power profile to broadcast carrier A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 59

60 Normal Burst 148 bit = µs T 3 Coded bits 57 S 1 Training Sequence 26 S 1 Coded bits 57 T 3 Guard Period µs T-bits: set to 0, used as frame delimiters S-bits: (stealing bits) indicate is the burst has user data or signaling Coded Data: user data (voice, data, etc.), 114 bits Training Sequence: control bits for the channel equalization GP: Guard time A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 60

61 Access Burst T 8 Synchronisation 41 Coded bits 36 T 3 Guard Period µs o First transmission in uplink o It has bits n 8 tailing bits n 41 synchronization sequence n 36 coded bits n 3 tailing bits n bits of guard time A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 61

62 Frequency Correction Burst T 3 Fixed bit sequences 142 T 3 Guard Period µs o It includes bits n 2 x 3 tail control bits n 142 fixed bit sequences o All set to 0 o They allows frequency synchronization n 8,25 bits of guard period A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 62

63 Synchronization Burst T 3 Coded bits 39 Training sequence 64 Coded bits 39 T 3 Guard Period µs o It includes bits n 2 x 3 tail control bits n 2 x 39 coded bits o 25 bits of information o that become are 78 coded bits o Divided into to fields of 39 bits each n 64 bits of training sequence n 8.25 bits of guard period A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 63

64 Dummy Burst T 3 Pseudo-random sequence 142 T 3 Guard Period µs o Used in downlink on the carrier where the control channels are allocated o It ensures that power profile is constant o Power control is not used on this carrier o It includes bits n 2 x 3 tail control bits n 142 pseudo-random sequence n 8.25 bits of guard period A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 64

65 Logical channels o Logical channels in GSM identify different types of information transmitted over the air interface: n Signaling n Traffic data o They are divided into: n Traffic channels and control channels n Common channels and dedicated channels A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 65

66 Logical channels LOGICAL CHANNELS COMMON CHANNELS DEDICATED CHANNELS Broadcast CONTROL CHANNELS Common CONTROL CHANNELS Dedicated CONTROL CHANNELS TRAFFIC CHANNELS FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H TCH/E FCCH=Frequency Correction CHannel SCH=Synchronisation Channel BCCH=Broadcast Control CHannel PCH=Paging CHannel RACH=Random Access CHannel AGCH=Access Grant CHannel SDCCH=Stand-alone Dedicated Control CHannel SACCH=Slow Associated Control CHannel FACCH=Fast Associated Control CHannel TCH/F=Traffic CHannel Full rate TCH/H=Traffic CHannel Half rate TCH/ E=Traffic CHannel Enhanced Full rate A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 66

67 Traffic Channels (TCH) o Channels transporting user data (voice or data) o They can be: n Full Rate channels: 22,8 Kb/s n Half Rate channels: 11,4 Kb/s trama 1 trama 2 Full Rate Tf Tf Tf Half Rate Th Th slot Th Th t t A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 67

68 Control Channels (CCH) o Used for transporting signaling of different types (14 types of control channels) o Three categories of CCHs n Broadcast Channels (BCH): system information transmitted in the downlink n Common Control Channels (CCCH): shared channels for connection initialization n Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH): signaling channels dedicated to specific traffic connections Broadcast CONTROL CHANNELS Common CONTROL CHANNELS Dedicated CONTROL CHANNELS FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 68

69 Broadcast Channels (BCH) Broadcast CONTROL CHANNELS o FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): Channel for frequency synchronization (frequency correction bursts only) o SCH (Synchronization Channel): it includes BTS id (BSIC) frame number (FN) o BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): General system information A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 69

70 BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) Broadcast CONTROL CHANNELS o Number of common control channels (2 bits) o 1 bit for the common control TDMA scheme type o Number of block reserved to AGCH (3 bits) o Periodicity of paging di messages (3 bits) o Frequency Hopping parameters A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 70

71 Common Control Channels (CCCH) Common CONTROL CHANNELS o PCH (Paging Channel): downlink used by the BTS per informing MSs of incoming calls, broadcasted over the LA o RACH (Random Access Channel): uplink used by MSs for accessing the network (new calls, location update, etc.). It s contention based. o AGCH (Access Grant Channel): downlink, used for replies to RACH requests A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 71

72 Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH) Dedicated CONTROL CHANNELS o SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): exchange of measurements during connection between MS and BTS (signal strengths, quality,.). Multiplexed with the traffic channel (184 bits every 20 ms of measurements) o FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): used for signaling during handover. It partially replaces traffic channel in the TDMA structure. o SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Channel): Signaling channel assigned in the first phase of call setup after the RACH/AGCH message exchange (identification, authentication, call set-up, ) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 72

73 Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) Dedicated CONTROL CHANNELS o In downlink: n Power control commands n The same BCCH info (they cannot be decoded by the MS because it is listening on the traffic channel) n BCCH-FREQ-NCELL N (# carriers of BCCH of neighboring cells) n BSIC-NCELL N (BSIC of neighboring cells) o In uplink: measurements from the MS: n RXLEV-SERVING-CELL (signal strength from the serving BTS) n RXQUAL-SERVING-CELL (BER measured on the downlink) n RXLEV-NCELL N (signal strength from neighboring cells) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 73

74 Connection setup MS BS BCCH Broadcast info RACH AGCH SDCCH TCH + SACCH Access request SDCCH assignment Signaling traffic + TCH assignment traffic + signaling A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 74

75 Random Access (RACH) o On the RACH a random access scheme is used o Collisions can occur o The correct reception of the access request is acknowledged with a reply message on the AGCH o In the RACH a temporary random identifier is included which is also reported in the AGCH reply o The RACH access protocol is a simple Slotted- ALOHA A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 75

76 Mapping of logical channel into physical channels o For using different rates for different logical channels the mapping into physical channels (TDMA structure) is based on a multi-frame Frame 1 Frame Multi-Frame A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 76

77 Example: SACCH o A normal burst has 114 bits of data 148 bit = µs T 3 Coded bits 57 S 1 Training Sequence 26 S 1 Coded bits 57 T 3 Guard Period µs o Using one slot per frame we have 114 [bits]/ 4.6 [ms]=24.7 Kb/s o The rate of coded voice is however 22,8 Kb/s o We have additional 1,9 Kb/s equivalent to 1 SLOT every 13 frames o SACCH: 1 SLOT every 26 frames for a speed of 950 bits/sec. A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 77

78 TCH+SACCH T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T - o Traffic CHannels (T) and Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) (A) are multiplexed together o In a multi-frame of 26 frames (120 ms) A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 78

79 TCH+SACCH Downlink, Uplink T C H / F R S A C C H 577 µs 4,615 ms Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst Normal burst T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R T C H / F R I D L E A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 79

80 Common control channels o One slot (slot 0) an a carrier (carrier 0) is assigned to common control channels with a multi-frame of 51 frames ( ms) trama 0 trama 2 trama supertrama A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 80

81 Common control channels o In the downlink FCH SCH BCCH CCH 0 50 frame. F S B C F S B C F S B C - o In the uplink Random Access Channel (RACH) R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R A. Capone: Mobile Radio Networks 81

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