GENDER INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONGRESS OF FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

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1 FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES GENDER INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONGRESS OF FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES maltepe üniversitesi yayınları 2013 / 5

2 w w w. m a l t e p e. e d u. t r w w w. m a l t ep e. e d u. t r Burası Burası Gençlerimizin ve Ülkemizin Enlightens the Future of the Youth and Our Country Çizgi Film Animasyon Sahne Sanatları Gastronomi ve Mutfak Sanatları Bölümü Tasarım Bölümü Ayrıntıl ; pbx maltepe.edu.tr

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5 INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CONGRESS OF FACULTY OF ARTS and SCIENCES APRIL 25-26, 2013 istanbul MARMA CONVENTION CENTRE TURKEY

6 Congress logo, design by Gizem Kişina Faculty congress logo, design by Gizem Kişina Publications, design by Gizem Kişina Booklet cover, design by Gizem Kişina Edited by, Prof. Dr. Emine Onaran İncirlioğlu Faculty of Arts and Sciences Marmara Egitim Köyü Maltepe / İSTANBUL Tel : / Fax : ISBN: Printing: Ege Reklam Basım Sanatları Ltd. Şti. Adres: Esatpaşa Mh. Ziya Paşa Cd. Ege Plaza B. Ataşehir/İstanbul Tel Fax : / :

7 We would like to express our gratitude and special thanks to the high level executives of Maltepe University Hüseyin ŞİMŞEK, Founder, Chairman of the Board of Trustees Prof. Dr. Kemal KÖYMEN, Rector Prof. Dr. İhsan YILMAZ, Vice-Rector Prof. Dr. Müslim BOZYİĞİT, Vice-Rector H. Vedat ÇAKIRCA, Secretary General And special thanks to executives of Turkish Airlines, as the official carrier sponsoring our Congress Hamdi TOPÇU, Chairman of the Board Melda TEKİN, Sponsorship Coordinator Osman Nurettin ŞEN, Sponsorship Coordinator Zeki ÇUKUR, SVP, Corporate Communication Murat ÖZ Sponsorship Investments & Publications Manager

8 FOREWORD Öykü KAYAALP FAS 2013 Congress President It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the International Student Congress on GENDER (FAS 2013) on behalf of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Maltepe Universvity. We are proud to be meeting you here in İstanbul - the country s economic, cultural and historical heart - with its rich cultural heritage and vibrant environment. The Congress program contains a number of sessions dedicated to various topics. There has been a careful selection of high-quality presentations for the different sessions, which was carried out with the great support of the Scientific Committee and with the participation of additional reviewers. I gratefully acknowledge their contribution to the success of the Congress. I am also delighted that Professor Nermin Abadan-Unat, Turkish lawyer, sociologist and writer, has kindly accepted our invitation to deliver the Keynote Speech of the Congress. Fellow students from all over the world are meeting at the International Student Congress on Gender to debate the raising issues and contemporary questions in the area of gender studies. The particular feature of the Congress is that it is organized by the undergraduate students of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, with the support of the staff of the Maltepe University. It is really exciting to meet you face to face and to welcome you in İstanbul after a long and hard organization period. At first, it was only an idea, but now our dream has come true.

9 I have a series of acknowledgements: First of all, I would like to sincerely thank Mr. Hüseyin Şimsek, the founder of Maltepe University and the Chairman of its Board of Trustees, and our Rector Prof. Dr. Kemal Köymen, for making us available all the facilities of Maltepe University in the realization of such a great organization. I gratefully acknowledge Prof. Dr. Betül Çotuksöken, the General Congress Coordinator, and Prof. Dr. İhsan Yılmaz, the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences for their support, encouragement and guidance in this tough organization. My special appreciation is for Prof. Dr. Emine Onaran İncirlioğlu s support through the whole ordeal, from the identification of the congress subject, to the editing process of the Proceedings, and finally to the realization of this congress. The Public Relations Director of Maltepe University Özgü Kurt, and the Foreign Students Advisor Burçin O Sullivan generously donated their time and know-how, and served at the organization committee. I am thankful for them. Last but not the least my warmest thanks go to you, the participants of FAS 2013 for having chosen to attend this congress and to present your papers. Dear participants, I am certain that FAS 2013 will fulfill your expectations with the diversity of topics in both panel sessions and individual presentations. I sincerely hope that your experience at the FAS 2013 Congress will further inspire you in your future studies and professional activities. Enjoy İstanbul and FAS 2013!

10 Organization Committee and Distribution of Tasks President Öykü KAYAALP Vice-President Sultan YAŞ Meryem YILMAZ Secretary General Press Desk Congress Registration Desk Conference Room Staff Hotel Reception Desk Announcer Staff Chairperson Sinan EĞRİKAVUK Nil BİÇER Handan KONYALI Vildan Gökçe TANRIKULU Nurdan ÖZTÜRK Rahime AKMEŞE Elif Gökçenur Akkoyunlu Mürvet ARSLAN Neşegül AYHAN Pınar Perihan Ayhak Tutku BADUR Burcu BÜLBÜL Ezgi ERTÜRK Bilge GÜÇ Damla KILIÇ Hasret KOPUZ Zeynep TEMEL Tansu Didem YILMAZ Şeyma Ağalar Merve Turhan Sinem Sevinç Gülay Varlı Öykü KAYAALP Sultan YAŞ Asst. Prof. Erkan ÇAV Asst. Prof. Güncel ÖNKAL Lect. Dilek ARLI ÇİL Res. Asst. C. Müge DİKENCİK

11 Organization Committee and Distribution of Tasks Video Shooting Team Public Relations Photography Shooting Team Public Relations Airport Welcoming and Sending off Team Cultural Tour Organization Team İsmail ALBAHAN Oğuzhan KASAR Elif KÖKSAL Yunus SAVDİ Özgür Birkan TEKİN Organization Committee of FAS 2013 Congress Filming Team Entertainment Venue Research Team Media Research Team Burak Aktan Yağız Güres Public Relations Öykü KAYAALP Merve TURHAN

12 General Coordinator Prof. Dr. Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN, Maltepe University Faculty Coordinators Prof. Dr. Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN, Maltepe University Academic Support Prof. Dr. Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN Prof. Dr. Emine ONARAN İNCİRLİOĞLU Res. Assist. Müge Caroline DİKENCİK UZ Advisory Board Prof. Dr. Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN Prof. Dr. Emine ONARAN İNCİRLİOĞLU Asisst. Prof. Dr. Erkan ÇAV Assist. Prof. Dr. Şebnem GÜLFİDAN Assist. Prof. Dr. Güncel ÖNKAL Lect. Dilek ARLI ÇİL Lect. Fulya GİRAY SÖZEN Lect. Gülçin KARADENİZ Scientific Committee Prof. Dr. Belma AKŞİT, Maltepe University Prof. Dr. Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN, Maltepe University Prof. Dr. Zekiye KUTLUSOY, Maltepe University Prof. Dr. Nurgün OKTİK, Maltepe University Asisst. Prof. Dr. Narin BAĞDATLI VURAL,Maltepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Şebnem GÜLFİDAN, Maltepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Ülkü GÜNEY, Maltepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Figen KARADAYI, Maltepe University Asisst. Prof. Dr. Esra KÖTEN, Maltepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Güncel ÖNKAL,Maltepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahu TUNÇEL, Maltepe University

13 International Student Congress on Gender Prof. Nermin Abadan - Unat Keynote Speaker Our Keynote Speaker, Professor Nermin Abadan Unat is a lawyer, political scientist, sociologist, writer and former senator. In addition to specializing in many other areas, she is a doyen of women s studies and has been a dauntless fighter for women s rights in Turkey. Professor Abadan Unat studied at the Law School in Istanbul University and received her graduate degree from the University of Minnesota. She worked as a professor of Political Science in Ankara University, Boğaziçi University where she is still affiliated with, University of Munich, City University of New York, University of Denver, and the University of California Los Angeles. She also specializes in mass communication, electoral studies and international migration. Her involvement with women s studies is multifaceted. She is the author of two major publications about women: Women in Turkish Society, in 1981, and Women in the Developing World: Evidence from Turkey, in She is affiliated with the Women s Research and Education Centre at Boğaziçi University. She represented Turkey on the Committee of Equality of Women and Men in the Council of Europe, between 1978 and 1996.

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16 Istanbul University, Istanbul Abdal, Göksenin Towards a Gender Archaeology: Remaking Prehistoric Anatolian Society through Gender Identities and Relations Gender archaeology is a developing field of study, which analyzes ancient societies and communities through their perception of gender identities. Here, main focus is put upon the positions of men, women and children with regards to power and authority to be identified in the light of material culture remains that are recovered in the sites. This paper surveys the traces of femininity and masculinity in prehistoric Anatolian communities from its start to the end. This has been done by evaluating the situationality of men and women in material culture evidence related to the prehistoric times. Based on the assessment hereby, it is seen that frequency of femininity becomes less with the emergence of a maledominant society in the process of urbanization unlike the former communities where divinity of maternity is common. 1

17 International Student Congress on GENDER İstanbul, 2013 University of Tlemcen, Algeria Abdelhadi, Benamar Gender Response to Feminine Literature: The Case of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Words have been the cause of beginning endless and pitiless wars and battles. Words can also end wars and spread peace all over the world. They can turn a hero to a pathetic jackal. They can make you laugh as well as weep. They can make you stand on cliffs the way they can put you in your coffins for the rest of the eternity. They can afterwards make you attend the greatest of the plays and feel the nasty breath of the Elizabethan audience, finding yourself in the midst of women who are not, but dressed like, men seeming brave and having bright eyes, but they are not. Indeed, this is the power of literature that is well modeled and well manipulated, to make you see what you are reading; by great minds and foreseeing attitudes and aptitudes to convince you, involve you and make you fill the gaps. In this way, it is believed that literature involves its readership to a considerable extent, and this is according to the modern German critic Wolfgang Iser in his book The Implied Reader, Patterns of Communication in Prose-Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett (1974). Iser argues that there is a strong relationship between the author and the reader via the text. He adds that any reading process is dragged towards a specific interpretation of the text; mesmerized by the writer, in using a particular style, a peculiar mood or atmosphere or even conceptualizing the reader as a character among others. He also posits that the reading process is a phenomenon which can be understood as one of the components that make a reader an implied one and hence a fictitious reader. Thus, one may raise the extent of subjectivity when it comes to deal with a text not as a literary entity but as a human one. One such human aspect of readership deals with the gendered response to literature. The interpretations of the written words that are pregnant with relative meanings depend on the nature of the reader, including their gender. This paper is based on the responses of a group of literature students to Mary Shelley s novel Frankenstein. The students reveal quite interesting and different views and interpretations. Particularly, male and female students do not read and interpret the same way, nor depict the same elements. The difference observed within the readership is based on gender. 2

18 University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Afrin, Afifa To What Extent Can Reproductive Technologies Contribute to Employed Women s Empowerment? A Study in Bangladesh Use of reproductive technology is doubtlessly popular for employed women. Reproductive technologies bring a new dawn to women by giving them secure, planned and free life. Using reproductive technology, women can exercise their decision making power, can take control over their own bodies, above all they can develop their career. In Bangladesh, the number of employed women is increasing in both formal and informal sector. Employment of women is considered as an important component of women s empowerment. Unplanned and unexpected pregnancies sometimes hamper women s employment. So, contribution of reproductive technologies in employed women s life is ultimately connected with women s empowerment. The present study explores the contribution of reproductive technologies to employed women s empowerment. To conduct the research I have followed qualitative research method. Through five in depth and five semi-structured interviews of employed women I have learnt about their opinion. The analysis was done under Naila Kabeer s Empowerment theory and patriarchy theory. Findings of the study specify three important issues. One, in Bangladesh, under patriarchal social structure, women have almost no independent decision-making power concerning birth control. Women cannot even choose the birth control method they will use. Two, reproductive technologies sometimes become a threat to women s body, because most of the time they are used without knowledge about their side effects. And three, the presence of employed women in non-traditional, challenging sectors is increasing because of their use of reproductive technology. My conclusion is that, to attain true empowerment for women may be too far yet, but reproductive technologies have great impact on women s decision making power, control over their own bodies, and giving them free and secure way to their achievement. These may be the steps that lead to women s empowerment in the future. 3

19 International Student Congress on GENDER İstanbul, 2013 International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Akram, Munazza Gender, Social Justice, and Islamization of Law in Pakistan: Revisiting the Debate on Hudood Ordinance and Women s Protection Bill The constitution of Pakistan states that no law can be made against the clear injunctions of the Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet. Historically, a major drive of Islamization of the legal system in the country took place in the 1980s, during the regime of late General Muhammmad Zia-ul-Haq. In 1989 Hadood Ordinance was introduced, which sought to implement punishments of certain crimes (Hudūd) ordained in the Sharī ah, including the punishments for adultery (zinā) and false accusation of adultery (Qazf). Different human rights groups, however, criticized the ordinance, on the grounds that, practically, it had put female victims of sexual harassment in a disadvantaged position, as in the absence of four witnesses a female victim could be charged with Qazf upon reporting the incidence. Religious groups generally admitted that the ordinance needed some improvement. However, they were concerned that certain lobbies wanted to impede implementation of Sharī ah in the country under lame excuses. The debate continued until the ordinance was replaced with Women s Protection Bill in 2006, during the regime of General Pervez Musharraf. Interestingly, even the changed law did not fully satisfy the human rights activists, while religious groups and ulamā were more critical about the usefulness of the changed law. The whole development generated an interesting debate about human rights, gender equality, and issues related to the Islamization of laws in the country. The present paper takes stock of different views expressed on the aforementioned issues that the Hudood Ordinance and the Women Protection Bill generated. For analysis, the paper relies on selected legal documents, newspaper/magazine articles, and some other published materials that appeared as the result of this debate. Different opinions are given due consideration along with their arguments. The paper maintains that the debate about these apparently quite legal developments exposed the ideological fault-lines in the Pakistani society that exist at a much deeper level, owing mainly to parallel educational systems. 4

20 International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Amjad, Kholla Gender Discrimination in Pakistan: Exploitation of Women s Rights This work focuses on gender equality, which is dictated by Allah. In Pakistan, women s rights are exploited by cultural practice, and men who dominate keep women away from their basic rights, whereas in Holy Quran it is very clearly stated that exploitation of women s rights will not be forgiven. Unfortunately Pakistan, which is known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is facing such problems of exploitation of women s rights. Women of our land are facing violence, discrimination and inequality in almost every aspect of life. Some women are even burnt alive but the Government has taken no strict action in the favor of women. Those who kidnap girls and harass them should be strictly punished so that such crime may be eradicated from the society. Most women in Pakistan live under strict rules that are dictated by family, religious, and tribal customs. They are subjected to discrimination and violence on daily basis specifically in rural areas. Islam recognizes all the basic human, social, economic and political rights of women. In addition, they are supposed to have some additional rights in relation to their various roles, which they perform as mothers, sisters, daughters and wives in the society. A woman s reputation is more important than her life. Analyses reveal that diverse factors lead to wife battering, including age, religion, cast, educational background, rural or urban background, childbearing, sex, dowry, male child, economical status, dominance of in-laws, etc. Causes for the exploitation of women s rights are also diverse: Lack of proper laws, lack of strict action taken by the government against criminals, illiteracy (lack of education), and men s domination of the society. Media can play a vital role for raising awareness regarding the protection of women s rights. Different types of media programs may be arranged to bring positive social change. Seminars, conferences, workshops and training programs can be organized. Finally, the government should apply strict rules such as Islamic education development and a system of checks and balances, allowing no gender discrimination. The paper relies on selected documents, newspaper/magazine, articles, some other published materials and the Quran. 5

21 International Student Congress on GENDER İstanbul, 2013 Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem, Algeria Amouer, Hayat A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Gender Representations in School Textbooks In the area of language and gender studies, (feminist) critical discourse analysts are concerned with revealing the hidden connections as those between gender, language, ideology and power. Their focus is mainly on the discourses, which are ideologically motivated and act against the interests of women. Equipped with a strong critical theory, feminists working under the umbrella of critical discourse analysis believe in the freedom of individuals to make choices within discourse and they believe also in the possibility of changing and challenging the status quo. Challenging the status quo is challenging the stereotypes which involve ideologies that have become naturalized, common sense or acceptable despite the fact that they may be very bad and very harmful. People are typed, classified and represented according to the classificatory schemes in their cultures, in terms of their social positions, their group membership, personality traits, and so on. Power is clearly a key consideration here. Stereotypes tend to be directed at subordinate groups (e.g. ethnic minorities, women) and they play an important part in hegemonic struggle. As Fairclough (1995:24) argues, ways must be found to denaturalize them by increasing critical awareness. In the area of language and gender much of this awareness should revolve around the belief that gender remains highly salient, not only in terms of the public identities, women and men construct for themselves, but also in terms of how they are perceived and judged by others and represented in texts. Discourse is, indeed the locus of much of people s assumptions about gender. In discourse, gender ideologies are (re)produced, negotiated, sustained and resisted. Within the framework of Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis, this study is devoted to the analysis of male and female representations in some school textbooks to which children from 6 to10 years old are exposed to at primary schools in Algeria. The methodology adopted is to connect the linguistic features in the texts (the micro) to the social factors (the macro). The Analysis reveals that despite the measures taken by the Algerian government, in general, and by the Ministry of education, in particular, to provide high-quality education and promote gender equality, male and female representations are still problematic. In general, gender is still represented in a way that supports the status quo. The school textbooks in Algeria contribute to the socialization of children in a very traditional and stereotypical way and the process of legitimizing the illegitimate still continues. 6

22 Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan Anuarbek, Akbota The Role of Women in the Families in Kazakhstan Traditionally, women were perceived as homemakers, who do all the housework and take care of children, in Kazakh societies. Nevertheless, the role of Kazakh women in the family has undergone significant changes over the last hundred years. Thereby, today some women work and take part in decision-making concerning important family issues equally with men, not even talking about women that are primary or sole breadwinners in their families. However, despite recent changes in women s role in families in Kazakhstan, equality between the roles of men and women in families is not reached. A lot of women still continue to be primarily responsible for doing housework and taking care of their children in expense of their career and education. Furthermore, men in most Kazakh families still retain their traditional role as the sole or primary decision maker. This paper aims to analyze the role of women in modern Kazakh families, and to evaluate possible reasons and consequences of the existing situation. For the research 40 randomly selected women at the age of in Astana, Kazakhstan were interviewed. The results of the research suggest that generally the role of women in Kazakh families has changed. Today a lot of women in Kazakhstan are responsible for financially supporting their families along with their husbands. Furthermore, most of the employed women hire babysitters and housemaids for taking care of their children and doing housework. Nonetheless, according to the results of the research, women are still involved in taking care of their children and doing housework to some extent, regardless of whether they are employed or not. More importantly, some of the employed respondents work out of necessity, and not because they prefer their career to their children. Finally, considering childcare and housekeeping as their primary responsibility, most of the respondents, if needed, will readily leave their jobs. 7

23 International Student Congress on GENDER İstanbul, 2013 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Arapoglou, Paraskevi Mary Magdalene: A Case of Shifting Gender Identity in the work of N. Kazantzakis and J. Saramago Let me first state forthright that contrary to what we ve often read in books and heard from preachers, when you are a woman, you don t feel like the Devil (Orhan Pamuk, My Name is Red). According to the Gospels, Mary Magdalene was a prominent figure among Jesus disciples. However, there is no actual historical evidence regarding her lineage or her social status, which led to a misunderstanding as to who she was or what role she played within the context of the biblical narrative. She is honored as a unique female witness of Jesus Resurrection although her name denotes no connection, or any kind of formal relationship, with a male figure. She is an unambiguous example of how at certain periods of history women may have been excluded from mainstream historiography, leading to their contemporary shrouding in mystery. In the proposed paper, we will deal with Mary Magdalene s figure and her reception in two modern works of literature. We will try to present the way Nikos Kazantzakis in The Last Temptation and Jose Saramago in The Gospel According to Jesus Christ perceived and presented her image. We will analyze the gender role shift outlined in both works and how this complies with gender expectations of early Christian times, the purpose it served, as well as its accordance with the mid- 20th century gender stereotypes in the broader area of the Mediterranean Sea. An attempt will be made to clarify how gender has evolved into an extremely ambiguous signifier, and how this trait, accented in multiple ways, is received in the works of both writers. Social and cultural construction of gender will be taken into consideration, by trying to understand how it intersects with religious discourses in antiquity and the way it evolved over the centuries, affecting the norms of describing particular women, in our case Mary Magdalene. At the same time we shall try to establish our point regarding the formation of Mary Magdalene s multiple gender identities. Their implications, both performative (Mary toggles between the statuses of object/subject elevating at the same time from contempt to veneration) and normative (she finally -even unselfconsciously- conforms to the prevailing norms of her era) will be highlighted. Mary Magdalene represents the female vanishing point of the text, which according to our point of view, is brought back into life through the reception of her identity in the works of the abovementioned contemporary writers. This paper could probably be considered under the general title Gender and Religion. 8

24 Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan Asgharzadeh, Atieh Women s Suffrage from Claim to Achievement: Continuity, Change or Rupture? My paper examines the history of women s suffrage in Iran (1963), taking into account women as social agents, through an analysis of the Iranian press Two women s magazines: Zan-e ruz and Ettelâât Bânvân, and a daily newspaper: Ettelâât. Women s demands for the right to vote goes back to the final years of the 19th century, especially since the Constitutional Revolution ( ). The study, which focuses mainly on the history and allocation of voting rights to women, draws on studies of power relations between the sexes and those on State feminism. The new role granted to women by the Pahlavi regime, however through the symbolical voting right, is discussed by examining a brief history of women s suffrage in Iran, the White Revolution (1963), women s active role in a permanent negotiation with the Government and finally the importance of this right in the integration and inclusion of women in the political sphere. This paper sheds light first on the affirmation, then the generalization of a more egalitarian discourse in Iranian society, which the press produces, disseminates, and amplifies, not without certain ambiguities. Depending on both State policies as well as the desires of women, the phenomenon is analyzed as the product of an ever-precarious relationship of power, a process of continuous negotiation between the State, women and religious power. The political and social transformations of the 1960s-1980s, which allowed and encouraged women to speak out, destabilize the social and political balance between the sexes and raise serious concerns within society. The crucial issue of the involvement of women in society emerges as the social control of women s bodies. 9

25 International Student Congress on GENDER İstanbul, 2013 International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Azam, Zaneera Paradox between the Claims of Reverence for Women and the Degrading Reality in Fouzia Saeed s Working with Sharks The research paper explores The paradox between the claims of reverence for women and the degrading reality. Women are not treated with respect in the male chauvinist society the respect they deserve by being mothers, daughters, wives and especially workingwomen. Rather, they are maltreated and harassed by men. The main focus of this paper would be to analyze Fouzia Saeed s Working with Sharks, in this context. Dr. Saeed says that working women face challenges like equal wages, the glass ceiling effect, and other work related concerns that need to be addressed. By applying Feminist Theory, the paper will scrutinize, on one hand, the hardships of the working women, which they experience on the account of their gender, traditions, taboos, mindset and their social class, and on the other hand, women s struggle to find an identity in the patriarchal society and a search for a dignified working environment, free from intimidation and most importantly sexual harassment which has become a global phenomenon. In this context, Dr. Saeed observes, I saw daily in the market place, even for a women covered from head to toe (26). Saeed claims, This book is not just the story of these characters, but the story of many women in many organizations around the world who have not yet spoken out! (11). The protagonist and her colleagues, after filing complaint, suffer more as everyone s attitude at the work place change towards them. But in the end they succeed as there is a change in the law of the organization after their case and this case also leads to the legislation for categorizing sexual harassment as a crime by the Pakistani Parliament in Fouzia Saeed says, We were tired of the treatment we received daily in the markets, in the streets, in public gatherings, at bus stops and at work There is not a single woman in our country that has not experienced it (20). The paper is a modest attempt to view exploitation and sexual harassment against women in the Pakistani context. The framework may help men, women, public health professionals, and policy and decision makers to understand the dynamics of violence against women, thus moving them to action to bring forth improvements in women s lives. Besides, the paper will highlight the hidden lust lurking in the hearts of the Sharks (men), who treat women as if they are meat in their hands. 10

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