Mobile Communications II Chapter 2: GSM

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1 Mobile Communications II Chapter 2: GSM Global System for Mobile Communications Architectures and Overview Data services in GSM

2 GSM: Overview GSM formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) now: Global System for Mobile Communication Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute) In the context of UMTS 3GPP took over the completion of GSM and UMTS simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2 and E) seamless roaming within Europe possible today many providers all over the world use GSM more than 5 billion (cellular) subscribers (of 2010) more than 80% of all digital mobile phones use GSM over 10 billion SMS per month in Germany, > 360 billion/year worldwide Chapter 2 Page 61

3 Frequencies used GSM 900: MHz; MHz GSM 1800: MHz; MHz GSM 1900 (PCS-1900): MHz; MHz (for US) GSM400: (for rural applications) 450,4-457,6 MHz; 460,4-467,7 MHz or 478,8-486 MHz. 488,8-496 MHz GSM-Rail Separate frequencies Additional services for rail application, monitoring control Advanced Speech Call Items (ASCI) Call Priorities Control of Trains, Signals for Trains up to 160Km/h Chapter 2 Page 62

4 Communication Performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys.) mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services Total mobility international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers Worldwide connectivity one number, the network handles localization High capacity better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell High transmission quality high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) Security functions access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN Chapter 2 Page 63

5 Disadvantages of GSM Perfomance: no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user, no transparent D-channel Security/Privacy: no end-to-end encryption of user data abuse of private data possible roaming profiles accessible Complexity/Cost high complexity of the system several incompatibilities within the GSM standards Chapter 2 Page 64

6 GSM: Mobile Services GSM offers several types of connections voice connections, data connections, short message service multi-service options (combination of basic services) Three service domains Bearer Services (only up to network layer) Telematic Services (end to end definition of services) MS TE Supplementary Services bearer services MT GSM-PLMN transit network source/ destination R, S (PSTN, ISDN) network (U, S, R) U m TE Transparent data access tele services Chapter 2 Page 65 PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network

7 R-Schnittstelle Vom CCITT definierte Referenz-Schnittsteile für den Anschluss von nicht ISDNkompatiblen Endgeräte an das ISDN-Netz. Die R-Schnittstelle befindet sich beim Teilnehmer. Physikalisch gesehen ist sie am Terminaladapter angebracht. U-Schnittstelle Beim ISDN-Basisanschluss wird der übertragungstechnische Abschluss der Netzseite als U-Schnittstelle bezeichnet. Die zweidrahtige Schnittstelle verfügt über 2 B-Kanäle mit jeweils 64 kbit/s und 1 D-Kanal mit 16 kbit/s. Die Entfernungsüberbrückung beträgt ca. 8 km. S-Schnittstelle, S-Bus 4-drahtige Schnittstelle am Basisanschluss, die als Anwenderschnittstelle dem Benutzer zur Verfügung gestellt wird. An der S-Schnittstelle, die vom ITU-T (CCITT) definiert worden ist, werden 2 B-Kanäle mit jeweils 64 kbit/s und 1 D- Kanal mit 16 kbit/s angeboten. An dieser Schnittstelle ist der Anschluss von 8 Endgeräten möglich, wobei 2 gleichzeitig betrieben werden können. Physikalisch wird eine Busleitung verlegt (S-Bus). Chapter 2 Page 66

8 Bearer Services Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points (R/S- Interface) Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) Main differentiation between Transparent data service (only layer 1; no recovery, constant delay, BER~ 10-4 ) Non transparent data service (layer 1-3; FEC and ARQ implicit, undefined delay jitter, BER~10-7 ) Different data rates for voice and data in full duplex (original standard) data service (circuit switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s asynchronous: bit/s data service (packet switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s asynchronous: bit/s Today: data rates of approx. 50 kbit/s possible will be covered later! Chapter 2 Page 67

9 Tele Services I Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measurements etc. Offered services mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 khz Codecs are use to transmit voice/data with good quality (today this is considered as not sufficient quality) Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible) Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible Chapter 2 Page 68

10 Tele Services II Additional services Non-Voice-Teleservices group 3 fax voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) electronic mail (MHS (Message Handling System), implemented in the fixed network)... Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the signaling channel (max. length 160 B), thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS Currently more than 30 billion SMS mails are send/month SMS is used (normally as EMS or MMS) for several new messaging applications SMS is the only push service supported Chapter 2 Page 69

11 Supplementary services Services in addition to the basic services, cannot be offered stand-alone Similar to ISDN services besides lower rate due to the radio link May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol versions Important services identification: forwarding of caller number suppression of number forwarding automatic call-back conferencing with up to 7 participants locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls) Closed group numbering. Chapter 2 Page 70

12 Architecture of the GSM system GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) several providers (worldwide) setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country components MS (mobile station) BS (base station) MSC (mobile switching center) LRs (location registers) subsystems RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network Chapter 2 Page 71

13 GSM: overview NSS with OSS OMC, EIR, AUC HLR GMSC fixed network VLR MSC VLR MSC BSC BSC RSS Chapter 2 Page 72

14 GSM: elements and interfaces PCM-30 RSS NSS Several Sectors per BSS can be supported A bis A BSC VLR U m MS MSC radio cell HLR BTS O MS 100m-35km BSC VLR BTS MSC GMSC BSS radio cell MS IWF signaling ISDN, PSTN PDN RSS: Radio Subsystem NSS: Network & Switching Subsystem OSS: Operation Subsystem MS: Mobile Station BSS: Base-station Subsystem BSC: Base-station Control Centre BTS: Base-Transceiver Station MSC: Mobile Switching Centre VLR: Visitor Location Register HLR: Home Location Register GMSC: Gateway MSC IWF: Inter-working Function OMC: Operation Maintenance Centre EIR: Equipment Identity Register AUC: Authentication Centre OSS EIR AUC OMC X25-based SS7 Chapter 2 Page 73

15 SS7 GSM: system architecture radio subsystem network and switching subsystem fixed partner networks MS MS U m MSC ISDN PSTN BTS BTS A bis BSC EIR HLR BTS BTS BS S BSC A MSC IWF VLR ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN Chapter 2 Page 74

16 System architecture: radio subsystem radio subsystem MS BTS BTS MS U m A bis BSC network and switching subsystem MSC Components MS (Mobile Station) BSS (Base Station Subsystem): consisting of BTS (Base Transceiver Station): sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller): controlling several transceivers BTS BTS BSC A MSC Interfaces U m : radio interface A bis : standardized, open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels A: standardized, open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels BSS Chapter 2 Page 75

17 SS7 System architecture: network and switching subsystem MSC network subsystem EIR fixed partner networks ISDN PST N Components MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): IWF (Interworking Functions) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) MSC IWF HLR VLR ISDN PSTN PSPDN CSPDN Databases Chapter 2 Page 76 HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

18 Radio subsystem The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers Components Base Station Subsystem (BSS): Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver, antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cell-areas Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs, managing of network resources, mapping of radio channels (U m ) onto terrestrial channels (A interface) BSS = BSC + sum(bts) + interconnection Mobile Stations (MS) Chapter 2 Page 77

19 GSM: cellular network possible radio coverage of the cell cell idealized shape of the cell use of several carrier frequencies not the same frequency in adjoining cells cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to max 35 km (due to time advance restriction of 6 bit) depending on user density, geography, transceiver power etc. hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on geography) if a mobile user changes cells handover of the connection to the neighbor cell Chapter 2 Page 78

20 Example coverage of GSM networks (www.gsmworld.com) T-Mobile (GSM-900/1800) Berlin Vodafone (GSM-900/1800) e-plus (GSM-1800) O 2 (GSM-1800) Chapter 2 Page 79

21 Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS BTS comprises radio specific functions BSC is the switching center for radio channels Functions BTS BSC Management of radio channels X Frequency hopping (FH) X X Management of terrestrial channels X Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels X Channel coding and decoding X Rate adaptation X Encryption and decryption X X Paging X X Uplink signal measurements X Traffic measurement X Authentication X Location registry, location update X Handover management X Chapter 2 Page 80

22 Mobile station 1 Terminal for the use of GSM services A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups MT (Mobile Termination): offers common functions used by all services the MS offers corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access end-point of the radio interface (U m ) TA (Terminal Adapter): terminal adaptation, hides radio specific characteristics TE (Terminal Equipment): peripheral device of the MS, offers services to a user does not contain GSM specific functions SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters TE TA MT R S U m Chapter 2 Page 81

23 Mobile station 2 Each MS contains an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) The SIM personalizes a MS Contains Information for: authentication Key Accounting data Personal numbers Contract and service details PIN PUK International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) after being connected: Key for data encryption Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (LMSI) Location Area Identity (LAI) Transmit power for GSM 900 2W for GSM1800 1W 5W is permitted for GSM if no head contact is guaaranteed Chapter 2 Page 82

24 Network and switching subsystem NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM main services are: switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control; inter BSS Handover; inter MSC Handover, international location of terminals; roaming between network-operators Components Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC Has mainly same task as ISDN switch Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low latency) Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing all user data, permanent and semipermanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several physical HLRs, but consider virtually as a distributed system) Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR Chapter 2 Page 83

25 Mobile Services Switching Center The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM switching functions additional functions for mobility support management of network resources interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC) access to several databases Functions of a MSC specific functions for paging and call forwarding termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7) mobility specific signaling location registration and forwarding of location information provision of (new) services (fax, data calls) support of short message service (SMS) generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information Chapter 2 Page 84

26 Operation subsystem The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems Components Authentication Center (AUC) generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system Equipment Identity Register (EIR) registers GSM mobile stations and user rights stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem using TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) Chapter 2 Page 85

27 Air Interface Facts and Figures: Uses many of the introduced Multiplexing technologies SDMA for Cell structure and multi-segment BTS FDMA for user channels FDD for separation between up and down channel TDMA for more users per radio channel GSM carrier frequencies for up and 124 frequencies for down channel, 200 khz/channel; channel 1 and 124 not used; 32 channels used for OAM purposes GSM1800 2*374 carrier frequencies for up/down with 200kHz each Frame structure duration 4,615 ms 8 time slots of 577ms each TDMA shift each logical channel will be shifted be 3 time-slots in up and down direction Data Burst 546 ms+ 30,5 ms guard time for different path delays; theoretical throughput 33,8 kb/s Chapter 2 Page 86

28 GSM - TDMA/FDMA MHz 124 channels (200 khz) downlink GSM TDMA frame MHz 124 channels (200 khz) uplink higher GSM frame structures time ms guard space GSM time-slot (normal burst) tail user data S Training S user data tail 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 Chapter 2 Page 87 guard space µs 577 µs

29 Burst Structure Each data-burst contains: Training sequence of 26 bit 2 data fields of 57 bits + 1control bit each 2 tail sequences of 3 bit each set to 0 for modulation control Other bust types: Access Burst: for connection establishment Synchronization Burst Frequency Correction Burst Dummy Burst Chapter 2 Page 88

30 Logical Channels 1 Two different logical channel types: Traffic channel (TCH) Control channel (CCH) Traffic Channel Types: Full-Rate (TCH/F) 22,8 kb/s 13kb/s for speech coding (TCH/FS) Rest for FEC Half-Rate 11,4 kb/s 5,6 kb/s for speech coding (TCH/HS) Rest for FEC For data transmission TCH/4.8; TCH/9.6; TCH/14.4 Using different coder and FEC mechanisms Chapter 2 Page 89

31 Logical Channels 2 Control Channel Types Used for Media Access und User Mobility 3 types of control channel (with several sub-types): Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Data to all MS in a cell Contains Cell-ID; Frequency Hopping type; available frequencies in this cell, adjacent cell frequencies Subtypes: Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH); Synchronization Channel (SCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) BTS/MS connection establishment data Paging channel (PCH) for BTS to MS call Random Access Channel (RACH) for MS connection request Access Grant Channel (AGCH) for BTS to MS channel association Chapter 2 Page 90

32 Logical Channels 3 Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Bidirectional Channels Stand Alone DCH (SDCCH) for signalling between MS and BTS Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) [for each TCH and SDCCH] Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) [uses time slots of regular TCHs] Chapter 2 Page 91

33 Frame Structure Not all combinations of frames are permitted: Each TCH/F is associated with a SACCH TTTTTTTTTTTTSTTTTTTTTTTTTXTTTTTTTTTTTTS 12* TCH 12* TCH 12* TCH 26 Slots Data Rate of TCH/F = 24/26*24,7kb/s= 22,8 kb/s Data Rata of SACCH= 1/26*24,7kb/s= 950b/s Chapter 2 Page 92

34 GSM hierarchy of frames hyperframe h 28 min s superframe s multiframe frame slot burst 120 ms Traffic multiframe ms Control multiframe ms 577 µs Chapter 2 Page 93

35 GSM protocol layers for signaling U m A bis A MS BTS BSC MSC CM CM MM MM RR LAPD m RR LAPD m BTSM LAPD RR BTSM LAPD BSSAP SS7 BSSAP SS7 radio radio PCM PCM PCM PCM 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / Mbit/s CM: Call Management; MM: Mobility Management; RR: Radio Resource LAPD: Line Access Protocol; PCM: Pulse Code Modulation; BSSAP BSS Application Part; BTSM: BTS Management; SS7 Signaling System 7 Chapter 2 Page 94

36 Tasks of the different protocol layers 1 Physical Layer: All radio specific functions Generation of Burst-typs; Generation of TDMA-frame; Synchronisation with BTS, Free channel detection; Measurement of channel quality GMSK is used as modulation (Gausscian Minimal Shift Keying) Coding and FEC Voice Activity detection /Comfort Noise generation Interleaving for minimizing burst error influence (scrambling) Coding and Interleaving causes an additional delay of ms. For Internet services that might have bad impact on TCP performance Encryption function for transmission to BTS (no protection between users but only transport protection for all data transmission together) Synchronization: Contains the correction of individual path delays Time advance determines the number of 3,69 ms slots the MS has to send the signal earlier; the time advance value can go up to 63 (Cell-Size max =63*3,69ms*3*10 5 km/s/2=35 km) Allows to reduce Guard Time to 5% of bust-time and increases throughput Chapter 2 Page 95

37 Tasks of the different protocol layers 2 LAPD m for signalling on layer 2: Derivate of Link Access Procedure for D-channel of ISDN Reduced LAPD protocol No synchronization and no CRC (already on layer 1 in GSM) Offers reliable data-transport, is connection oriented, preserves the order, conducts flow-control Offers segmentation and reassembly of data-packets as well as confirmed and unconfirmed messaging Network-Layer (switching layer) Contains several sub-layer Radio Resource Management (RR) Controls the use of the radio frequencies; uses the BTSM to access radio quality parameters directly; offers a reliable data transmission service to next higher layer Mobility Management (MM) Contains functions for registration; authentication; device-identification; location-update; TMSI management; offers a reliable transmission service to next higher sub-layer Chapter 2 Page 96

38 Tasks of the different protocol layers 3 Call Management (CM) Contains functions for Call Control (CC), Short Message Service (SMS) and supplementary services (SS) CC offers point to point service between to terminals; in band signalling using DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequencies). (DTMF cannot be transmitted via ordinary TCH cannels because the speech coding would influence the signalling tones) SMS uses control channels SDCCH and SACCH if no other signalling data has to be transmitted Additional Signalling Protocols Between BTS and BCS A bis Between BCS und MSC A Both protocols use PCM modulation with 64 transparent channels 4*16kb/s channels are co-located in a single PCM channel via A bis From BCS to MSC Primary multiplex channel of 2Mb/s are often available. Often dedicated microwave links are used LAPD is used on layer 2 for signalling Chapter 2 Page 97

39 Mobile Terminated Call 1: calling a GSM subscriber 2: forwarding call to GMSC 3: signal call setup to HLR 4, 5: request MSRN (Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number) from VLR 6: reply to responsible GMSC 7: forward call to current MSC 8, 9: get current status of MS 10, 11: paging of MS 12, 13: MS answers 14, 15: security checks 16, 17: set up connection 18, 19, 20: set-up confirmation calling station HLR PSTN GMSC VLR MSC BSS BSS BSS MS Chapter 2 Page 98

40 Mobile Originated Call VLR 1, 2: connection request 3, 4: security check 5-8: check resources (free circuit) 9-10: set up call PSTN 6 5 GMSC MSC 2 9 MS 1 10 BSS Chapter 2 Page 99

41 Information necessary for localization Mobile Subscriber International ISDN Number (MSISDN) Consists of country code (CC); National Destination Code (NDC); Subscriber Number (SN) Is the only number of use for the subscriber International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) GSM internal unique identification number; consists of Mobile Country Code (MCC); Mobile Network Code (MNC); Mobile Subscriber Identity (MSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) To hide user identity; TMSI given by VLR; valid only in Local Area (LA); TMSI and LAI can identify a user uniquely Can be changed on demand of either BCS or MS Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) Hide user identity and location; VLR generates MSRN on demand of MSC; is stored as part of the HLR of each active user; MSRN contains Visitor Country Code (VCC); Visitor National Destination Number (VNDC); actual MSC ID and subscriber number Chapter 2 Page 100

42 MTC/MOC MS MTC BTS paging request channel request immediate assignment paging response authentication request authentication response ciphering command ciphering complete setup call confirmed assignment command assignment complete alerting connect connect acknowledge data/speech exchange MS MOC BTS channel request immediate assignment service request authentication request authentication response ciphering command ciphering complete setup call confirmed assignment command assignment complete alerting connect connect acknowledge data/speech exchange Chapter 2 Page 101

43 4 types of handover MS MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC Chapter 2 Page 102

44 Handover decision receive level BTS old receive level BTS old HO_MARGIN MS MS BTS old BTS new Trade-off for HO_Margin If HO_Margin to high the connection can be lost If HO_Margin to low the handover overhead increases dramatically Solution: relative low HO_Margin and defined Hysteresis Value Chapter 2 Page 103

45 Handover procedure (Make before Brake) MS measurement report BTS old measurement result BSC old MSC BSC new BTS new HO decision HO required HO request HO command HO command HO command HO access Link establishment clear command clear command clear complete clear complete resource allocation ch. activation HO request ack ch. activation ack HO complete HO complete After the link is established the MS has no further influence on the old resources Chapter 2 Page 104

46 Security in GSM Security services access control/authentication user SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal identification number) SIM network: challenge response method confidentiality voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication) anonymity temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) newly assigned at each new location update (LUP) encrypted transmission 3 algorithms specified in GSM A3 for authentication ( secret, open interface) A5 for encryption (standardized) A8 for key generation ( secret, open interface) secret : A3 and A8 available via the Internet network providers can use stronger mechanisms Chapter 2 Page 105

47 GSM authentication Challenge Response Method mobile network SIM K i RAND RAND RAND K i AC 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit A3 SRES* 32 bit SRES A3 32 bit SIM MSC SRES* =? SRES SRES 32 bit SRES K i : individual subscriber authentication key SRES: signed response Chapter 2 Page 106

48 GSM - key generation and encryption mobile network (BTS) K i RAND RAND MS with SIM RAND K i AC 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit SIM A8 A8 cipher key BSS K c A5 64 bit (several operators use only 54 bits) even less secure communication data encrypted data K c 64 bit SRES data A5 MS Chapter 2 Page 107

49 A GSM transmission is organized as sequences of bursts. In a typical channel and in one direction, one burst is sent every milliseconds and contains 114 bits available for information. A5/1 is used to produce for each burst a 114 bit sequence of keystream which is XORed with the 114 bits prior to modulation. A5/1 is initialized using a 64-bit key together with a publicly-known 22-bit frame number. Older fielded GSM implementations using Comp128v1 for key generation, had 10 of the key bits fixed at zero, resulting in an effective key length of 54 bits. This weakness was rectified with the introduction of Comp128v2 which yields proper 64 bits keys. A5/1 is based around a combination of three linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) with irregular clocking. The three shift registers are specified as follows: Chapter 2 Page 108

50 LFSR implementation of A5/1 Chapter 2 Page 109

51 Data services in GSM I Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s advanced coding allows 14,4 kbit/s not enough for (todays) Internet and multimedia applications HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data) mainly software update necessary for MS and MSC bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate) (e.g., 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots, 14.4 each) traffic rates can be asymmetrical advantage: ready to use, constant quality, simple disadvantage: channels blocked for voice transmission expensive since time based Handover difficult since channel bundling not transparent for BSS (all channels have to be handed over simultaneously) Chapter 2 Page 110

52 ETSI defined reservation mechanisms AIUR [kbit/s] TCH/F4.8 TCH/F9.6 TCH/F Chapter 2 Page 111

53 Data services in GSM II (GPRS) GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Aims at better performance for data services and internet access Supports point to point and multicast communication Supports QoS parameters (never really implemented) Accounting can be traffic based standardization 1998, introduction 2001 advantage: one step towards UMTS, more flexible Step towards All-IP network structure (but IP termination not in MS) disadvantage: more investment needed (new hardware in infrastructure) Mechanism packet switching using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.g., 115 kbit/s using 8 slots temporarily) All slots will be distributed among all users Up- and down direction completely independent Number of slots used defined by preferences of network operator GPRS can be used in parallel to normal telephony services Chapter 2 Page 112

54 Data services in GSM III (GPRS) Phase 1 of GPRS introduction: PTP service only Connectionless and Connection-oriented (PTP-CONS, PTP-CLNS) A PTP-CONS will be established for signaling purposes as virtual connection (will also be handed over to new cell) PTP-CLNS for IP-Data traffic Phase 2 of GPRS Aditionally PTM and QoS parameters supported GPRS network elements GSN (GPRS Support Nodes): GGSN and SGSN GGSN (Gateway GSN) interworking unit between GPRS and PDN (Packet Data Network) Similar to router in IP-networks SGSN (Serving GSN) supports the MS (location, billing, security) On same level as MSC GR (GPRS Register) user addresses Chapter 2 Page 113

55 GPRS data-rates in kb/s Coding Scheme Slot 1 kb/s Slot 2 kb/s Slot 3 kb/s Slot 4 kb/s Slot 5 kb/s Slot 6 kb/s Slot 7 kb/s Slot 8 kb/s CS-1 9,05 18,2 27,15 36,2 45,25 54,3 63,35 72,4 CS-2 13,4 26,8 40,2 53, ,4 93,8 107,2 CS-3 15,6 31,2 46,8 62, ,6 109,2 124,8 CS-4 21,4 42,8 64,2 85, ,4 149,8 171,2 User data rates are dependent on available free time slots and actual load of cell Depending on class of MS not all slots can be used (because of restrictions of receiving and sending concurrently) Most of today's devices are of class 8 (53,6 kb/s receiver/13,4kb/s sender CS-2 coding) Chapter 2 Page 114

56 GPRS device classes Class Receive slots Sending slots Max. slots Chapter 2 Page 115

57 GPRS Qos Parameters Users can determine quality of service profiles: Service precedence: high; normal; low Reliability class Delay class User data rate GPRS optimises all service profiles to realize fit with user request GPRS will not take into account additional delays caused by other external networks GPRS delay and delay jitter are by orders of magnitude higher than in ordinary fixed-networks. This has to be taken into account in TCP/IP based applications Chapter 2 Page 116

58 GPRS quality of service Reliability class Lost SDU probability Duplicate SDU probability Out of sequence SDU probability Corrupt SDU probability Delay SDU size 128 byte SDU size 1024 byte class mean 95 percentile mean 95 percentile 1 < 0.5 s < 1.5 s < 2 s < 7 s 2 < 5 s < 25 s < 15 s < 75 s 3 < 50 s < 250 s < 75 s < 375 s 4 unspecified Chapter 2 Page 117

59 GPRS architecture and interfaces SGSN G n IP-based communication MS BSS SGSN GGSN PDN U m G b G n G i MSC HLR/ GR VLR EIR GGSN and SGSN can be compared to home and foreign agent of mobile IP systems (See later chapter on mobile IP) Chapter 2 Page 118

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