Teaching. Earth Sciences. Volume 18, Number 2, 1993 Journal of the Earth Science Teachers' Association ISSN ~

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1 Teaching ISSN Earth Sciences --~ Volume 18, Number 2, 1993 Journal of the Earth Science Teachers' Association


3 T eachjng&mh by the Earth SCience The EarthS, ier1ce T eachers'a$$~k~ti6n aim$.xo. ~co1jrageand.s.upp8rt dw.x~achim. of Earth.Sciences,.. whether.as a single subjeq,. or.. as.part. of $Ci~c~ Or.$eography cou rses,fuh member$hipj$;jm)o,~l)dent and retiredmempershipp.so, RegisteretlCharity No.lQOSpj Volume 18 No. 2 (1993) Teaching Earth Sciences Editorial 46 I ~-----~ ~ ~--~-~- Earth Sciences - a Perspective Our new Chairman Designate Porosity and Permeability Experiments John Jennings Mike Tuke Advi~9#.Pan~l; Andy. Dicl<fn~()K(Aa'~~I~Wngl 4a WAaae.'t\t~I:OSI a, John FishehXRMiews) Duncan Ha'oVleY(Fleklwor~ Sue Pryor(PrimarySthoo{s) G. N. Middh~i:6n Ko. Moseley G.Nkhotson COtl~if Officers: President Dr. John.Jennfngs, Managing Qire<:tor, Shentr~nsp.ort and Trading,Sb~U Centre, London El 7NA. Chairman; PeterKennett,J4igh StorrsSchool, Sheffield S H Secretary;... GeraintOwen. Dept.otGeQgraphy; University CoI lege of Swansea,. Singleton Park,Swansea, WestGlarnprganSA28PP. Memb.ership.. Secretary: $heil;t. R.<lg~r!i, 4 MFddled)'~~.lanEl, Cottidgham, N. HumberskleHUl64NH. Treasurer: J. R.Reynolds, 18Gal'tlft\~rDriVe. LongtlJr\,.Stok.e-ofl-Trent ST3<2RQ. Why learn geology in secondary school education (*) Fighting for Earth Science in the National Science Curriculum: A Diary of ESTA's Most Recent Battle Field 'Sketches' - Purpose, principles and practice Infiltration Rate Undergraduate studies in Geology at the University of Portsmouth - past, present and future Duncan Hawley Paul Perkins Bnan Da/ey RIGS gather strength in England Carol Grahanl, RSNC The Wildlife Trusts Partnership The Harry Lister Collection Keith's Column 'Science of the Earth' Your free guide - and what you have to pay for it Leeds Conference 17th - 19th September 1993 The Lay of the Trilobite - Punch, January 1885 News The lighter side... Reviews John Ubsdell ditot: {~amea9dtessfor(zp-edit9r).... Dr. D~ojsB~tes,lnstiWt~ofEarth$w~j7S' qr\iv~tsitt.df.w~je$. Abery$twyth,.Dyf~d SY2J3DS... T el; ,e.. Ca~trib~tion~ td future issu~s Qr. T~(I~fflll8'.~~H~~f~IlC~$:.Vtill g~.""w~()m~.. and. should.be.addressed ta the editol\ ',- :,":,'::::-. ',' ':<':':::<>:::-:,;:>:::::-:::: '; "." -:: <,:,':::-:-:::::':-: >:< :>''::-::. ':::'.:.::::::::::<:>;:;:> Treasury Notes/New Members 83 Cover picture: A 'field sketch' from The Silurian System of 1839 (see Duncan Hawley's article). Illustrated by Murchison as a remarkable example of folding. in Silurian rocks near Builth Wells. It is not clear whether Murchison himself made the drawing Oplnioil$ and cotnments in this fs$~.e are.tb~r~rs()nat VjI:lVlS;.W. t~.~~~tilprs, a,,*d do.mn ri!cessclrlt~ t'\!p~~ljt~n~ 1 vtewsof th~.o.ss()c;ja,ti9l'l.> I DMlgn~d and fa$er\vritte.n by 9~, suppn~l..td g~ap~ltc)\ m~~~\!ld... r~. i$_d;;..... ""ijr"'-m~o"-'n"")""'...;-"'-"""--= L...-(C...;.;h Teaching Earth Sciences: vot. 18, pt. 2 (1993).. "' '-'--' L... ~ I

4 EDITORIAL This issue contains Chris King's account of the work that a number of EST A council members put in to try to ensure that the Earth Sciences are properly considered in the National Curriculum, It seems that there is to be no rest for the wicked as further government educational 'reforms' are promoted. For many ESTA members the Flowers committee, which has been looking at the structure of the academic year in Universities, may seem to be irrelevant. Given the current teaching year in most (though not all) British Universities, it is obvious to financial planners (though not, perhaps, to the staff who are using the laboratories for research) that the buildings are empty of students for almost five months of the year. At a time when the government has been trying to expand tertiary participation rates without spending too much extra money this is obviously a target. ~ NRA WITHOUT THIS A TIRACTION YOU MIGHT NOT SEE THE OTHERS THE THAMES BARRIER THE LARGEST MOVABLE FLOOD BARRIER IN THE WORLD The Flowers committee has recently published an interim document in which it sets out a number of possible changes to University terms. Though no final decision has yet been taken there are suggestions that the committee favour a system of three 15 week semesters per year. There could therefore only be a couple of weeks between semesters. The suggestion is that semester I would start early in September to allow it to finish before Christmas, with all the problems that might give for student admissions unless A level results could be announced earlier. Any individual student would normally attend for two semesters a year, There would therefore be three student groups A.B and C. Semester I would have group A and C, semester 2 would have groups A and B and semester 3 would have groups Band C. How this will affect student perceptions of their year group, clubs and societies is unclear. Whatever else the 'reform' may achieve it would certainly change the University experience. What are the possible repercussions! For the Universities themselves we are told that staff would only be expected to teach for two semesters, with the other semester for research. But as every course will need to be taught twice a year there will obviously be a need for additional staff (and where do they get office and research space!) There are, however, obvious problems for teaching the Earth Sciences. Most Earth Science degrees require considerable fieldwork, most of which takes place at present during University vacations. As there is such a short break between the proposed semesters, the vacation fieldwork will have to be done during the third semester (which also means that each course will need to be run three times a year if each group of students is to be given a similar experience). This should cause no problems for one group per year (group A in the above example) which would use the May to August break, but what kind of fieldwork experience will groups Band C have! Visitors Centre with Exhibition Spectacular Audio-Visual Show Well stocked book and souvenir shop Riverside Walkways and Picnic Area Schools Centre with Wet-Weather Picnic Rooms Regular boats from Westminster and Greenwich Piers, Train to Charlton Admission Charges: Teachers 1.50 (2 free with any group of more than 20), Children 90P Most school groups come on weekdays Why not beat the crush and come on a Saturday? Ample Car Parking, FREE COACH PARK THAMES BARRIER VISITORS CENTRE OPEN 7 DA YS A WEEK 'D" Unity Way, Woolwich, London SE18 5NJ What are the implications for secondary education! It is obvious that the change in admissions policy and entry dates will need to be considered by anyone advising prospective undergraduates. Taking time off between secondary and tertiary education will become common; probably a good thing for many people. But what about those who have traditionally run fieldtrips using University accommodation and laboratory facilities! They may no longer be available. Finding alternatives for a small group may be possible, but there may be problems, for example, for the Open University summer schools. Not all Universities may follow the three semester pattern, at least in the first few years. But if the new system produces more graduates for little extra cost, the costs per student arguments favoured by Whitehall may force all Universities to change. Do we really believe that the quality of educational experience of students taking these cheaply produced degrees will be the same as presently offered (let alone that offered when there was sufficient money to properly fund students)! Teaching Earth Sciences. vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 40

5 Earth Sciences - a Perspective John Jennings In this article our outgoing President bids farewell to the presidential seat, and pens some thoughts on geology past, and earth sciences present. We thank him for his guidance and efforts on behalf of the Association over the past few years, and wish him well in the future. Many of us currently employed in earth science related activities initially became interested in the field when the subject range was essentially divided between geologists and geographers. I'm sure that most of us will have welcomed the widening of the academic spectrum. Geophysics, Oceanography and Meteorology have established themselves as major disciplines in their own right in our own lifetimes. In addition I have little doubt that most of us have come to appreciate how essential it is to integrate all the relevant components - sub-sciences I might dare to call them in this context - into a single whole if we are to understand the complex workings of our planet. In this respect the emergence of the concept of Earth Science is both natural and welcome. I believe the notion of Earth Science is conceptually sound in megascience terms - to coin an uncomfortable phrase - and is also particularly useful in two areas: firstly to help non-specialists to put the many Earth Science issues we currently face in their correct context, and secondly in the classroom, where premature specialisation may discourage a lot of budding Earth Scientists as well as failing to provide young people with an essential overview. In these days of acute environmental concern and highly politicised debate on such matters it seems to me that Earth Science has a fundamentally important and useful role in helping everyone understand what we do know in scientific terms - as well as what we don't. Only that way can we hope to ensure that the debate is properly informed and the policies, programmes and regulations that emerge from it well founded. Equally, Earth Science teachers - although they may well find themselves having to cobble together integrated Earth Science courses with little direct personal knowledge outside their own discipline and little help from outside - are uniquely placed to help young people understand both the current state of knowledge and to help them identify and formulate the key issues, based as far as possible on sound science and an appreciation of the social and economic consequences of man's various policy options in this complex but vitally important area. It is not surprising that the emergence of the concept of Earth Science is seen to be a threat by those whom I will call traditionalists. To an extent they may have a point and the defence of one's territory is, after all, perhaps Man's most natural behaviour. However I believe their concern is largely misplaced. In my view the issue is not whether one established (earth) science "wins" and occupies another's territory but rather the recognition that there is another, much larger, territory which they all share. Inevitably, and arguably desirably, there will always be boundary disputes between the component sciences, but surely there can be no argument about the concept, or for that matter of its central importance in both education and international affairs today. John Jennings joined the Royal Dutchl"Shell" Group in I 96 I and has been a managing director of the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company, p.i.e.. and a Group managing director of the Royal Dutch /Shell Group of Companies since I st July He succeeds Sir Peter Holmes as Chairman of the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company. pie. in July Dr Jennings was born in 1937 and gained a BSc (Hons. Geology) at Birmingham University in 1958 and obtained his PhD in Geology at Edinburgh University in I 96 I. He became a Sloan Fellow of the London Business School in I 970. FollOWing seven years overseas service with the Group, he became Chief Geologist for Shell u.k. Exploration and Production Limited in London in In 1985 he became the Group's Exploration and Production Coordinator, a position which he held until February Dr Jennings was made Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1985, and is a Fellow of the Geological SOciety of London and a Fellow of the Geological SOciety of Edinburgh. He is a governor of the London Business School. In 199 I he received an Honorary Doctorate of Science from Edinburgh University. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in I can only hope that forward thinkers will prevail and believe that in this respect EST A provides a much needed and very useful forum for the promulgation of such ideas. I have enjoyed my brief association with it and wish it every success. Or J. S. Jennings CBE Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (/993) 47

6 Our new Chairman Designate At the Annual Course and Conference in Leeds this year. our present President. John Jennings. will complete his two year term of office. We have been very grateful for the key role played by John in our National Curriculum negotiations during these past two years. but we will be saying more of this in Leeds. Richard Hardman. of Amerada Hess. has kindly agreed to become our President from September 1993 until September We have asked Richard to provide us with a resume of his career and a photograph. and these are reproduced below. Richard is planning to attend the Conference in Leeds and we look forward to seeing him there and welcoming him into his new role. Peter Kennett, Chris King. Richard Hardman attended Arnold School Blackpool. and after two years National Service in the Navy went on to Corpus Christi College Oxford to read Geology in On graduating he joined British Petroleum in September 1959, and during the next ten years worked in England, Scotland. Libya. Kuwait and Colombia covering all aspects of geological evaluation of sedimentary basins. Attracted by the then newly developing British exploration he joined Amoco in October 1969 and for the next eleven years worked on the North Sea. He took part in the first oil boom based in London and then from 1975 to 1982 he was resident in Norway where his interest in the Chalk as a reservoir developed as a result of the work carried out on the discovery of one the North Sea's largest. and most unusual Chalk oil fields. Valhall. In 1983 he joined Amerada Hess Limited based in London. and was made a director in He is now responsible for the North Sea as well as for international exploration for Amerada Hess. He has been active professionally - Chairman of the Petroleum Exploration SOCIety of Great Britain in 1985; Vice President of the Geological Society ; and Chairman of the Geological Society Sponsorship Committee from He is currently a member of the advisory board of the British Geological Survey and a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Petroleum Science and Tech nology Institute. Teaching Earth Sciences: va!. 18. pt. 2 (1993) 45

7 Porosity and Permeability Experiments Mike Tuke This is the third and last of the articles describing the porosity and permeability experiments shown at the EST A Conference at Liverpool and Cardiff. In the first article (TES 1711, 1993) I described the ways of measuring the porosity of sediments and sedimentary rocks, and in the second one (TES 17/3, 1992) I described a number of permeability activities. This article describes the experiments not described in my earlier articles or in my book. At the end of this article is a complete list of all the activities shown at the two conferences and where detailed instructions and photocopiable worksheets of them can be found. Other porosity and permeability experiments can be found in David Thompson's article in Geology Teaching 411, p.26 and in Useful Materials from the Earth by M. Atherton and R. Robinson (Hodder & Stoughton). Plastic Cylinder Grave' inside tube From Top I. The Rise and Fall of the Water Table (Worksheet) This activity is designed to show the relationship between rainfall, water tabel level and the porosity of the soil. Requirements 2 two litre measuring cylinders, 8mm tank connector. I m of 20mm I.D. plastic tubing. ISmm gate valve, 2 7cm lengths of ISmm copper pipe, I 7cm length of 8mm copper pipe, 30cm length of 8mm plastic pipe, ISmm to 8mm copper adaptor. 2 ISmm pipe clips. Stand for measuring cylinder. Enough well sorted gravel (8-16mm) to fill one of the measuring cylinders. Water coloured with blue food dye. Method Assemble parts as in the diagram (Figure I). Place the other measuring cylinder on the floor with 800ml of dyed water in it. Put the loose end of the thick plastic pipe into the top. Teacher's Notes The water table always rises by more than the rainfall. Clear Plastic pipe Figure I Gravel Clear Plastic pipe r- 2. Measuring the Porosity of rock cubes (Worksheet) Purpose: to determine the porosity of rocks Requirements Gate Valve Rise of water table = rainfall/porosity as a fraction Rectangular pieces of porous rock about Scm x 7cm x 3cm. The rock should be porous but not crumbly - oolitic limestone is the best. If your do not have a rock saw these are best obtained from a local stone mason or from a University Geology department. Top pan balance, ruler, container of water, tissue paper. Teacher's Notes There are three methods of determining the porosity of rocks and this is the easiest for pupils to understand. Unfortunately it requires sawn pieces of rock whereas with the other methods irregularly shaped pieces of rock are suitable. 3. Shrinking Clay - cracking houses This model shows how a house built partly on a hard rock and partly on clay will crack as the clay dries out (no worksheet). Clay has a high porosity but a low permeability. As water slowly fills the pores dry clay expands, but it will shrink again if it is allowed to dry out. Normally the clay underground is damp but during drought it may lose its water and shrink causing buildings to crack. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (/993) 49

8 Requirements A piece of wood about 25cm x 15cm x 2.5cm cut to the shape shown (Figure 2). The crack should be cut with a fret saw so both sides fit tightly together. A block of wood 20cm x I Ocm x 5cm. Plywood 20cm x 10cm. A block of wet clay I Ocm x 5cm x 5cm. Place them together as shown in the diagram (Figure 2) with the crack tightly shut and allow the clay to dry out. They are best placed on a window sill so that the light shines through the crack as it opens. s. Permeability of rock (No Worksheet) This is a simple demonstration to show that some rocks are permeable. Requirements Glass or stiff plastic tube with an internal diameter of about 25mm: a test tube with the end cut off is ideal. Flat piece of porous rock. Sealant ("Fernos" leak sealant is suitable). Small cap to fit over tube to stop evaporation. Water Crack Clay Plywood Figure 2 House shape Wooden block Instructions Use the sealant to fix the tube to the rock. Fill the tube nearly to the top and mark the top of the water. Put the cap on the top of the tube. The water will slowly sink into the rock and the level will go down. 6. The Porosity of pumice (Worksheet) Purpose: to determine the degree to which volcanic glass has been expanded by the exsolution of volcanic gas to form pumice and thus to determine the porosity of pumice. Pumice is often very porous but not permeable. It is therefore necessary to use indirect methods to determine its porosity. Requirements 4. Landslides and Permeability (Worksheet) Purpose: to show how the permeability of rocks affects the likelihood of landslides occurring. Requirements (Figure 3) 4mm thick glass 50cm x 30cm. Wood 30cm x 5xm x 7cm. Plastic tray at least 30cm x I Ocm x 2cm. Drill a hole I cm in diameter in the bottom at one end. 2 large tin cans about I Ocm in diameter and 18cm high (large dog food cans are suitable). Make about mm holes in the bottom of one tin with a small nail. Both tins should be half filled with well sorted sand I mm-2mm in diameter. No sand should go through the holes. Mark the tins to indicate which has holes in the bottom. Litre jug. Sink and water supply. Teacher's notes Students should wet the glass surface to eliminate the lubrication effects of the water. Balance, displacement can, block of wood, small measuring cylinder. Thin piece of stiff wire 10cm long. A piece of pumice and a piece of obsidian, each with a nylon thread glued to them. The displacement can is placed on the block of wood so that it overflows into the measuring cylinder. Teacher's notes This activity is only suitable for A-level and above. The activity sheet takes the students through the method of calculating the expansion and porosity but many of them will have difficulty understanding it. I have found that they can understand it better if I have first discussed with them how to calculate the expansion of an empty balloon to an inflated one, and how to then calculate the porosity of the inflated balloon. References TES- Teaching Earth Science 17/1, 17/3, 18/2. ESAD- Mike Tuke: Earth Science Activities and demonstrations. John Murray, Contains detailed instructions and photocopy-free worksheets for 75 earth science activities. The number refers to the activity number in the book. Yes/no- indicates if a worksheet is provided. Activity Porosity of Sediments Hole in Tray / Sink Figure 3 Glass " Bench Top /' Tray / I Where has all the water gone? TES 171 I, as demonstration (N). ESAD 55 as pupil activity (Y). 2 Measuring porosity. TES I 71 I (Y). 3 Determining the effect of size. TES 17/1 (Y). 4 Determining the effect of roundness. TES 1711 (Y). 5 Determining the effect of sphericity. TES I 71 I (Y). 6 Determining the effect of sorting. TES 171 I (Y). 7 Packing. TES 1711 (N). 8 Calculating the maximum possible porosity. TES 171 I (Y). Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (7993) 50

9 Porosity of rocks 9 Comparison of granite and sandstone. ESAD 8 (Y). 10 by weighing (some rocks are full of holes). ESAD 56 (Y). II by measuring and weighing cubes of rock. TES 18/2 (Y). 12 the change of porosity during metamorphism of sandstone (squeezing sand grains). ESAD 30 (Y). 13 the change of porosity during metamorphism of clay (making slate). ESAD 31 (Y). Permeability of sediments 14 Variation of yield with cross-sectional area. TES 17/3 (Y). 15 Variation of yield with grain size. TES 1713 (Y). 16 Variation of yield with thickness of sediment. TES 17/3 (Y). 17 Variation of yield with hydrostatic pressure. TES 17/3 (Y). 18 Variation of yield with sorting. TES 1713 (Y). Capillary movement 21 In a pile of sand (rising damp). ESAD 61 (Y). 22 In building stone. ESAD 66 (Y). Other activities 23 The rise and fall of the water table. TES 18/2 (Y) 24 Spreading pollution underground. ESAD 60 (Y). 25 Purifying water. ESAD 62 (Y). 26 The movement of oil, water and gas (where to drill for oil). ESAD 57 (Y). 27 Problems with underground tanks. TES 18/2 (Y). 28 Quicksand, fluidisation and subsidence. ESAD 47 (Y). 29 The porosity of pumice. TES I 8/2 (Y). 30 Landslides and rock permeability. TES 18/2 (Y). 3 I Shrinking clay - cracking houses. TES 18/2 (N). Permeability of rock 19 Using a drop on the surface of a rock (does the drop disappear?). ESAD 59 (Y). 20 Using a tube on the surface of a rock. TES 18/2 (N). Worksheet - Rise and Fall of the Water Table This activity demonstrates how the level of the water table changes with rainfall. Activity Follow the instructions carefully, otherwise you may flood the floor. Check that the end of the plastic pipe is in the measuring cylinder on the floor. Open the tap to drain out any water in the gravel. The water table is now at the base of the gravel. 2 Close the tap. 3 Use the ruler to measure the height of the water in the measuring cylinder. 4 Pour the water into the gravel and shake it gently to release the bubbles. Note the new level of the water table. 5 Place the end of the plastic hose in the measuring cylinder. 6 Turn on the tap and let sufficient water drain out to lower the water table by 15cm. 7 Measure the height of the water in the measuring cylinder. Questions The diameter of the two cylinders is the same. Explain why the change in level is much greater in the gravel than in the measuring cylinder. 2 If the sediment was well sorted sand instead of gravel would the amount of rise or fall of the water table be different? If the porosity of the sediment was only 15% would you expect the rise of the water table to be larger or smaller or the same? 4 What is the mathematical relationship between the rainfall, rise in water table and the porosity of the sediment? 5 In May 1992 Anglia Water reported that the water table in parts of Cambridgeshire was 26ft (7m) below its normal level for that time of year. If the soil porosity is 10% how many centimetres of rain is needed to restore the water table to its normal level? Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 78, pt. 2 (7993) 51

10 Worksheet - measuring the porosity of rock cubes In this activity you will determine the porosity of rectangular pieces of rock. Activity Measure the length, width and thickness of the rock. Calculate the volume of the rock. 2 Weigh the rock (W I). 3 Soak the rock in water for at least IS minutes. 4 Remove the rock from the water. Shake the water off the surface of the rock and dab it dry with tissue paper. 5 Weigh the rock again (W2). 6 The extra weight (W2-W I) will be due to the water in the pore spaces. Since I g of water has a volume of I cc the extra weight in grammes equals the volume of water in the pores in cc. 7 The porosity is the volume of pore spacesx I 00 volume of the rock Calculate the porosity. Worksheet - landslides and permeability This activity show how landslides are affected by the permeability of the rock. The water in the overlying layer exests a pressure on the underlying layer and this reduces the friction between them. The water will also act as a lubricant : how can this effect be eliminated from the experiment! Activity Place the tins at the top of the glass. 2 Fill both the tins with water until the water is Scm from the top. 3 Raise the end of the glass sheet slowly until each tin slides. Note which tin slides first. Worksheet - the porosity of pumice Volcanic glass is denser than water if it is solid. However, pumice will sometimes float for weeks or months. This is because it is porous but impermeable. This means it is not possible to measure its porosity by comparing its weight dry and after soaking. It is, however, possible to measure its density by comparing it to obsidian. Activity Measure the density of obsidian. a) Weigh the sample. b) Fill the displacement can until it overflows. Once the spout has finished dripping place the empty measuring cylinder underneath it. c) Find the volume by lowering the sample slowly into the displacement can. When the spout has finished dripping read the volume of water in the measuring cylinder. d) Work out the density (weight divided by volume). 2 Follow the same procedure to measure the density of the pumice. If it floats use the wire to push it under the surface. 3 Obsidian and pumice are both made from volcanic glass. It is possible to calculate the amount of expansion the exsolution of the gases has caused in the pumice. Expansion = volume of I g of pumice volume of I g of obsidian 4 The porosity of the pumice can now be calculated. Consider the volume occupied by one gramme of pumice. This consists of volcanic glass and gas-filled pore spaces. The volume occupied by the volcanic glass will be the same as the volume occupied by I g of obsidian. Therefore the pore spaces will occupy the rest so the pore space in I g is: volume of I g of pumice - volume of I g of obsidian. Now we can calculate the porosity: = vol. of I g of pumice - vol. I g of obsidian volume of Ig of pumice Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 52

11 Why learn geology in secondary school education (*) A report by the "Terra" Group, Cordoba, Spain: R. A. Suarez, P. B. Ruiz, E. Garcia de la Torre, E. P. Rodriguez & L. S. Sanroman. (*)This paper was presented at the VII Symposium on the Teaching of Geology held in Santiago de Composte/a (Spain) from 14th to 19 th September The battle which has taken place in Britiain over the place of Geology (see page 56) in the Science Curriculum is not unique. Similar problems have occurred in Spain, where also Geology has suffered relative to the other Sciences. Summary The new curricula designs for Secondary Education of some Autonomous Communities in Spain and particularly those worked out by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, whose education authority also applies in Spain to some Autonomous Communities, discriminate against Geology, in favour of other scientific disciplines. This is due to the reduced scope given in the new curricula designs for this subject within the area of Natural Sciences in future Spanish Compulsary Secondary Education (ages 12-16). This paper presents a detailed series of arguments for Spanish citizens and citizens of other countries to know the basics of Geology. Introduction New curricula designs have been recently drawn up for the Natural Sciences Area for future compulsory Secondary Education (ages 12-16) in Spain. Education authorities of some autonomous communities and, in particular, the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science have designed thematic syllabuses in such a way that Geology has been clearly discriminated against in favour to the other disciplines of the syllabus. The curriculum, and therefore its contents, are based on the above mentioned Ministry's Base Curricula Design, taking into account different perspectives: sociologic~1 (benefits for socie~ of what is intended to be taught), psychological (as an attempt to find out how students learn), epistemologic (analysing how scientific knowledge and its methodology are developed) and pedagogic point of view (understood as teaching practice in school). This paper shows that from the same points of view there exist many reasons for Geology to be learnt by students at this level. As will be seen, the different arguments presented in this paper are also classified into three groups according to the fundamentals of the curriculum (sociological, epistemologic and psychopedagogic), that to some extent may be considered the basic essentials of teaching methodology. Within each group there are two kinds of arguments. Firstly, those stating that Geology, like any other scientific discipline, helps students to acquire different abilities regarded as necessary for them at that age. Secondly, the argument that Geology contributes greatly to the scientific field, enriching it considerably. Both emphasize the absolute need for Geology to be of equal importance to the other Natural Sciences in Spain. Sociological Arguments I. There exists an enormous diversity and amount of natural resources that have a geological origin, which have contributed to creating greater comfort and improving the standard of living. These include ore mining, energy resources (geothermal, coal, oil and radioactivity) industrial and building resources. Both prospecting for and exploiting all these resources require a sound geological knowledge. At the same time, these resources are of paramount importance in that they influence the development of world politics and economy. Also, since these are non-recoverable resources due to the long periods of time that they take to form, it is necessary to calculate their volume (an operation which requires exact geological knowledge) in order to determine whether they will last and thus be a useful resource. 2. Geological materials and structures are the basic pillars of our environment and their nature determines landscape, vegetation, agriculture and distribution of the population on the land. 3. This leads us to consider the relationship between man and his natural environment. Environmental damage caused by man's actions is now a matter of great concern to society, and there are numerous and frequently overlooked environmental components which are related to geodynamics. 4. The advantages of applying geological understanding to the construction industry are evident. Geological and geotechnical knowledge are indispensable for siting a dam, building a road, laying the foundations for civil buildings, for example. 5. Many natural catastrophes have geological origins, either directly, as in earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides, or indirectly, such as in floods. Due to these geological origins, such catastrophes can only be prevented or minimised by detailed knowledge of Geology and Geotechnics. 6. We can locate through geological studies the original quarries from which the rocks and materials of historical buildings were taken. Thus, we can provide some knowledge about the commercial relationships history of previous generations. Moreover, most of the processes which damage our oldest historical buildings are physical and chemical processes of weathering. To solve these weathering problems we need detailed petrographic knowledge about rocks and the above mentioned processes. 7. Geology and Geophysics, together with the other Earth sciences have contributed to a complete picture of the Earth as well as to the Solar System and thus the structure and evolution of the Universe. 8. Geology has furthered the cultural enrichment of society, bringing forth valuable evidence about life's origin as well as about the evolution of man and organisms. 9. Learning Geology undoubtedly provides direct contact with Nature, in different ways, including nature walks, excursions and experiments in the school surroundings. These encourage students to develop attitudes and values of different kinds, such as being willing to be in touch with nature, to enjoy the landscape, to communicate with their classmates, etc... helping in this way to complete their education. Epistemologic Arguments 10. Geology is a science which presents distinctive epistemologic elements. It shows a strong empirical component especially with refence to timeless geological processes. Thus, for instance, the weathering of limestone by solution, which is a chemical process, and plastic deformation, which is a physical process, are typical of classical empirical sciences. On the other hand, Geology is not entirely an experimental science, given that the magnitude of most geological processes make it impossible to experiment with them. The elevation of a mountain range or the retrogressive erosion of a river cannot be simulated by man, unless we resort to analogy with a scale model and non-authentic materials. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 78, pt. 2 (7993) 53

12 I I. Geology is the only science with a great historical component. It studies the past events which are unique. and as it has been said before. cannot be simulated. For this purpose. Geology makes use of a research methodology which is characteristic of History. The geologist studies "files" (rocks). an lyses "data" (colour. texture. composition). he "transcribes their language" (actuahsm) and deduces facts (the climate. the existence of rivers. the upwelling of areas of the Earth's crust) which happened at a given moment in history. It is certainly not the only science studying the Earth. Neither is it the only natural science. but it is the only one which tells us the history of Earth and Nature. For instance. Climatology Informs us about the atmosphere's dynamics and composition. but we need to study the Lithosphere in order to know the composition of the atmosphere in the past and how it evolved through time. Similarly. Biology shows us living organisms as they are now. but we have to resort to fossils in order to see their evolution. We sincerely believe that to teach Natural Sciences we cannot disregard the historical component. and that this would happen if Geology is not given space in the Natural Science Curriculum. 12. It is the historical dimension of Geology which leads us to an essential concept of epistemology: the notion of geological time. Since Hutton. man has experienced a certain feeling of giddiness. when he has realized the immense period of time elapsed since our planet was formed. only comparable to the giddiness he feels when faced with the idea of the immensity of the cosmos. 13. It is for that reason that Geology has an important educational value for students given the great amount of time and space that many of the geological processes take and also because it deals differently with them in comparison with other sciences. 14. Geology is a young science. A great number of concepts and principles of Geology have been created during this century. Also ItS own historical development as a science shows that it is not a dogmatic one. For that reason. Geology. more than any other science. gives its students a critical and historical attitude about scientific issues. 15. Scientific knowledge is also a social construction. where at times authentic scientific revolutions take place. changing the way we view a certain science. Thus. Geology has contributed a revolutionary theory in the twentieth century: Plate Tectonics. This branch of Geology has allowed it to reach the status of a formal science. The fact that it produced this scientific revolution scarcely thirty years ago lends Geology a greater credibility than the other sciences. 16. Geology is not a highly formal discipline. when compared to other sciences. This may be possibly due to Geology having developed as a science later than the Rationalism and Mechanistic movements of the eighteenth century. That is why Geology has a greater ability to reorganize itself as well as a more manageable conceptual framework for students. 17. Contrary to what is usually thought. Geology is a science which enables students to easily acquire the necessary skills to solve problems. This aim. which has been explicitly stated as one of the General Aims to be achieved in the Natural Sciences Curriculum. can be consistently included in the learning process of Geology. It should be clear that we are not referring to the kind of problems posed in Physics and Chemestry to be solved with paper and pencil. For us a "problem" implies the posing of a question to be solved by the student which has no set answer. For instance. in the case of a calcareous ammonite we could ask among other things how it was fossilized. Immediately afterwards. there come the hypotheses (substituting the hvlng part of the organisms by stone. and the shell by the mineral. etc... ). An activity which simulates the process by means of plaster and plasticine moulds. convinces students that the ammonite itself is an inner mould of the shell (later dissolved). All of this means a considerable advantage in the reconstruction of the fossilization process. A recent experiment proved that in considering an ammonite students came up with sixteen problems to be solved!. 18. Geology draws together other sciences. As we have seen before. it brings together Physics and Chemistry to study certain processes such as weathering and structural geology. We could also give similar examples in which it connects Biology. Climatology. Oceanography. Astronomy. etc... together. Psycho-pedagogic Arguments 19. Geology is part of the immediate reality which surrounds the student. and thus is immediately accessible to him. This gives it a great value as a didactic resource. In our opinion. it is between the ages of when we should start teaching Geology within our own area. beginning with the school surroundings. A road cutting or a nearby quarry. which students pass by daily. may and should be the best places to introduce students to Geology. Throughout this stage (12-16) and later on (16-18) the area studied should be increased to include the whole region. 20. It is clear that students are motivated by catastrophes of geological origin (earthquakes. volcanoes. floods. and landslides): good examples are the catastrophes of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia or the landslides which occurred in Granada (Spain) a few years ago. 21. The current importance of such news about these catastrophes (we hear of them almost every week through mass media) favours their use as didactic resources. especially newspaper cuttlngs. which are easy to use in teaching-learning activities. 22. Geology poses numerous tasks which favour interactive and group work. such as field work. working with samples (mineral. rock and fossil) or the posing of problems similar to that suggested above. 23. Geology in.itself is a useful instrument for developing certain cognitive skills. such as a sense of distance. the interpretation of maps. a sense of orientation. etc... contributing to the development of attitudes and values mentioned above. as well as to the full development of the student. 24. Students have a number of set concepts many of which they have acquired outside school. Therefore students usually have their "own theory" about the origin of mountains. or of the rocks found in the area or in the nearest mountain range. which facilitates the task of developing knowledge. 25. Geology has both logical (such as in the formal sciences) and psychological relevance. because of the aforementioned concepts which the students already have. This helps students view all they have learnt as a whole. 26. Due to their character. geological concepts can be hierarchically organized. Since the psychological theory of Ausubel. one of the most popular in the field of teaching Sciences. it is essential to distinguish between general or inclusive concepts (e.g. the concept of " rock") and more particular or specific ones ~e.g. oolitic limestone). This fact allows contents to be organ Ized by means of conceptual maps properly defined. thus making the learning task easier. provided that the teacher shows the different stages to be followed. 27. The contents of Geology can be easily adapted to the different stages of the student's psychological evolution. since it is possible to o.rganize them according to the increasing degree of complexity which these contents present. This allows a gradual organization of contents in the student's mind. Thus: we. have examples of the concrete (for example the Identlficatl.on of minerals or rocks. establishing the cause-effect relationship In folds. faults and discordances). There are examples?f a higher degree of complexity. such as studying the Earth s core. rock dynamics or atmospheric elements. At the highest level of complexity we have global theories such as the Rock Cycle or Plate Tectonics. 28. Geology is a science which makes it possible to carry out guided tasks.very efficiently. For Vygotsky (1973). development follows learning when the latter occurs through the appropiate means Teaching Ear1h Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 54

13 (instrumental mediation) and social interaction with "experts". either teachers or more informed classmates (social mediation). in the context of an area of development close to the individual. In Geology we can set tasks (exercises or puzzles as Garret points out). at a level that does not seem too easy for the learner to solve (optimal disadjustment) but at the same time does not produce a feeling of disenchantment and frustration because students lack the basic knowledge for that type of task. The solving of problems set for students in the different contexts of learning Geology in groups (in the countryside. classroom and laboratory) with the aid and under the supervision of their teacher allows a type of learning which favours intellectual development. and therefore it produces a gradual advance towards the next area of development. The progress in the learning-development processes will at the same time bring the type of science learned by the student at school nearer to an authentic formal science learning. Conclusions In the light of the aforementioned arguments. we may state that there exists a wide range of reasons why Geology should be taught in Secondary Education. An analysis from the methodological point of view shows us that Geology is as equally qualified as the other sciences to aid students of Sciences to develop the different abilities they need to achieve at these ages. Furthermore. because of its characteristics. Geology has allowed mankind to obtain a different vision of the world and of science. For these reasons. it will be a great mistake to deprive the citizens of the year 2000 of the knowledge that only Geology may bring. No doubt. this will happen if the space yielded to Geology in the new Natural Science Curriculum for Secondary Education is not increased. The ideas gathered in this paper should be taken into account by the people responsible for drawing up curricula as well as by education authorities of different countries and of course by science teachers who do not believe it is necessary to teach Geology. To put students of these ages in contact with a different type of Geology is highly motivating. It is so for many teachers. when they realize that Geology is not only the descriptive. memory-based and abstract subject matter they find in textbooks. On the contrary. it is a science which uncovers a fascinating journey through time underneath the route we tread daily. That aside. our students agree with us in our final argument in favour of teaching Geology --it is so interesting! References and Bibliography Brooks. M Why should Geology be taught in our schools! Teaching Earth Sciences Deseno Curricular Base. Area de Ciencias da Naturaleza. E.S.O. Gabinete de Estudio para la Reforma Educativa. Xunta de Golicia. Conselleria de Educaci6n e Ordenaci6n Universitaria Diseno Curricular Base. E.S.O. Area de Ciencias de la Naturaleza. M.E.C Diseno Curricular. E.S.O. Ciencias de la Naturaleza. Gobierno de Canarias Consejeria de Educaci6n. Cultura y Deportes Diseno Curricular. E.S.O. Area de Ciencias: Biologia y Geologia. Generalitat Va/enciana. Conselleria de Cultura. Educati6 i Ciencia Diseno Curricular Base. E.S.O. Ciencias de la Naturaleza. Gobierno Vasco. Dpto. de Educacion. Universidades e Investigaci6n Doval. M Las Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente para el futuro. El Gee/ogo Ellemberger. F Historia de la Geologia. Vo/./. De la Antiguedad al s.xvii. Labor-MEC (Histoire de la Geologie. (1988) ed. Technique et Documentacion Lavoisier). Hallam. A. (1983) Grandes controversias geo/egicas. Labor. Barcelona. (Great Geological Controversies (1983). Oxford University Press). Kuhn. T.S La estructura de las revoluciones cientificas. Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica. Mejico.(The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (1962) University of Chicago Press). Mirete. S Que pasa con la Geologial El Gee/ogo Novak. J. & Gowing. B Aprendiendo a aprender.. Ed. Martinez Roca. (Learning How to Learn. (1984) Cambridge University Press). Pedraza. J El problema de la Geologia en el Bachillerato: cuando men os un agravio comparativo. El Gee/ogo Proyecto Curricular. E.S.O. Area de Ciencias de la Naturaleza. Consejeria de Educaci6n. Junta de Andalucia Real Decreto de 14 Junio. (B.O.E. n 152). por el que se establecen las ensenanzas minimas correspondientes a la Educaci6n Secundaria Obligatoria. Sequeiros. L. 198 I. El metodo do los paradigmas do Kuhn interpelaa las Ceincias Geol6gicas: notas para una geologia sin dogmas. I Simposium de Ensenanza de la Geologia. UMC Vigotsky. L.S. (1973). Aprendizaje y desarrollo inte/ectual en la edad escolar.. Akal. Madrid. Translation into English: M Luisa Pascual. Rafael Alvarez Suarez. LB. Averroes. Cordoba. Pedro Berjillos Ruiz. LB. Seneca. I.CE. University of Cordoba. Enrique Garcia de la T orre. I.CE. University of Cordoba. Emilio Pedrinaci Rodriguez. Instituto Andaluz de Formacion de Profesorado (Andalusian Teacher Training Institute. Seville. Leandro Sequeiros Sanroman. LCE. University of Cordoba. I.B.: School of Secondary Education (ages 12-16). I.CE.: Spanish Science and Education Institute. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 55

14 Fighting for Earth Science in the National Science Curriculum: A Diary of ESTA's Most Recent Battle The Build Up, March 1989 to August 1991 March 1989 'Science in the National Curriculum' was published containing 17 Attainment Targets (ATs) including: AT5: Human influences on the Earth; AT9: Earth and atmosphere; AT 16: The Earth in space; together with material on fossils and energy supplies in other ATs. This was taught from September EST A was generally well pleased by this document. June 1989 'Science Non-Statutary Guidance' was published. This contained an Earth science section, but despite EST A involvement in the writing of this, we were very disappointed by the final document. May 1991 'Science for ages 5 to 16 (1991)" the proposals ofthe Secretaries of State for 'simplifying' the National Science Curriculum, were published for consultation. This document contained five Attainment Targets (called New Attainment Targets or NATs) and NAT3 was 'Earth and environment'. NAT3 was composed of four strands: i) the Earth, its weather and atmosphere ii) the structure and resources of the Earth iii) the range of energy resources and the principles of thermal efficiency iv) the Earth's place in the universe EST A's response to the consultation indicated that we were well pleased by this document because Earth science was seen as separate from, but integral to, the science curriculum. Problems included the facts that; a) much of the environmental science was not included in the Earth and environment AT; b) the Earth and environment AT included work on energy that was more closely related to physics than to Earth science; c) many of the Statements of Attainment relating to Earth science had been amalgamated or cut (in a similar way to those in all the other Attainment Targets); d) some of the new wording was not very accurate. The Battle, September 1991 to December 1991 Early September 1991 First rumours were received by EST A that the National Curriculum Council's response to the consultation on the May document would be to recommend only four Attainment Targets, with the Earth science being divided between three ATs; the three ATs being seen as largely biology, chemistry and physics. 11th September 1991 EST A's Chairman was invited in confidence to comment on examples that were being written to improve understanding of the Statements of Attainment. Some of the examples were very poor and were improved. No indication of whether these would fit the four or five Attainment Target approach were given. Late September 1991 The 'National Curriculum Council Consultation Report (Science)' was published containing only four ATs, as above. Most ofthe Earth science formed the first strand of AT3: Materials and their properties, which was otherwise, largely chemistry. Some key Statements of Attainment and phrases in the Programmes of Study relating to Earth science had been removed because of a perceived unhelpful overlap with the National Curriculum for Geography. We, in ESTA. were very unhappy about this. 9th October 1991 Letters were sent to the following people defending the five Attainment Target approach and arguing strongly for the Earth science that had been removed to be reinstated: The Secretary of State The Secretary of State for Education - sent by our President, John Jennings. The National Curriculum Council (NCC) Chairman of the NCC - sent by John Jennings. The Secondary Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC) Chairman of the SEAC: Acting Chief Executive, SEAC. 12th October 199 I At the EST A Council meeting, held in Oxford, the Consultation Report was discussed in detail and the decision was made to prepare a statement summarising ESTA's views and to circulate this to people who might be able to influence the outcome. The statement was kindly prepared on behalf of Council by Mike Brooks and is shown in Figure I. 18th October 199 I The statement prepared by Mike Brooks on behalf of Council was circulated to all those people listed above, together with the following additional people: The National Curriculum Council (NCC) The Principal Professional Officer for Science The Secondary Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC) The Chairman of the SEAC Science Committee - sent by Peter Hendry: The Professional Officer for Science - sent by Peter Hendry: The Professional Officer for Geography. Her Majesty's Inspectorate The Senior Inspector for Science - sent by Peter Hendry: The HMls with oversight of Earth science and astronomical science: The Department of Education and Science The 'official channel' through which responses to the consultation should be sent. Influential Organisations The General Secretary of the Royal SOciety - sent by Chris Wilson; The General Secretary of the Association for Science Education (ASE); The Secretary of the Association for Astronomy Education (ME). Teaching Earth Sciences; vol. 78, pt. 2 (7993) 56

15 EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE IN THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM The NCC Consultation Report on Science (September 1991) proposes that the content of earth and environmental science in the National Curriculum should be reduced. to deal with the perceived overlap with geography. and that what remains should be redistributed in other attainment targets. Whilst the programmes of study for Double Science (replacing Model A of the May document) have undergone only minor revision. the contribution of earth science has been downgraded in the statements of attainment by the linking of meteorology and geology strands and by the removal of a good deal of the investigative science from them. Single science programmes of study (replacing Model B of the May document) are proposed to have no earth science. Detailed objections to the NCC proposals have already been presented in several recent letters to the Department of Education and Science. We offer here a means of resolving the difficulties perceived by the NCC with the May proposals of the Secretaries of State. whilst retaining the major benefits of an Earth and Environmental attainment target in the revised Science Orders. The retention of NAT3: Earth and Environment has the following advantages: I. It enhances the perception of breadth and balance of the science curriculum. 2. It gives coherence to science teaching in major areas of relevant and applicable science. bringing together many biological. physical and chemical strands. 3. It provides a stimulus for science teachers to develop schemes of work that integrate not only the different areas of science but also many other parts of the school curriculum. 4. It makes manifest. in science at school level. current national concerns for environmental issues as expressed in the recent White Paper: This Common Inheritance. The NCC proposals have the following disadvantages: I. The delivery of science content through three attainment targets "broadly equivalent to the three separate science subjects" gives undue credence to the traditional school science areas of physics. chemistry and biology and is antipathetic to the broadening and integration of school science. 2. Essential components of a broad and balanced science curriculum. namely. studies of Earth surface processes. are removed on the false argument of overlap with geography. However. science is concerned with the investigation of the causal mechanisms of surface processes whereas geography is concerned with the effects of these processes and how they relate to landscape. 3. Major opportunities for broadly integrated and cross-curricular teaching initiatives are lost. 4. The composite meteorological/geological strand in the proposed new AT3. the structure and resources of the Earth. contains disparate scientific elements and is educationally unsound. 5. Progression and continuity in the structure and resources strand are lacking. 6. An increased number of multi-faceted statements of attainment will make assessment less manageable. 7. The degree of imbalance in the Single Science proposal. containing no earth science. is markedly increased as compared with Model B of the May proposals. 8. The implementation of still further major changes in the content and organisation of the science curriculum. as proposed in the NCC document. will be de-motivating for teachers and put further at risk the successful delivery of National Curriculum Science. In the light of the above. we urge you in the strongest possible terms that NAT3 of the May document be retained. However. to deal with issues raised by the NCC Report. we recommend the following amendments to the May document: I. In the area of perceived overlap with geography. rewrite the earth science statements of attainment to emphasise their scientific nature and. where relevant. their content of investigative science. By this means. the essential complementarity of the science and geography curricula can be clarified. 2. Move into NAT5 that part of the energy content of NAT3 that may properly be considered as physical science. 3. Give further consideration to the weightings of the four subject-based attainment targets and. if necessary. give the Earth and Atmosphere attainment target a somewhat lower weighting than the other three. Footnote on Consultation (Appendix A of the NCC Report) We draw attention to the following responses to the consultation exercise which. in our view. give strong support to the above recommendations: I. A clear majority of the respondents approved of the five attainment targets proposed in the May document (Appendix A. Para A.B). 2. An even greater majority thought that the proposed attainment targets represented distinct areas of science (A.9). 3. Two-thirds of respondents thought that statements of attainment were insufficiently clear to provide a basis for assessment (A.I 4). The greater number of multi-faceted statements of attainment in the NCC report would clearly magnify this problem. 4. Model B was strongly criticised. half of the respondents considering it to be unbalanced and inadequate (A.21). The NCC proposals would markedly exacerbate the problem of imbalance. 5. Some respondents drew attention to difficulties if elements of a programme of study do not appear to match any statement of attainment (A.34). This is a particular problem with the NCC proposals for earth science. We shall be pleased to supply detailed information in support of any of the above arguments and/or proposals. and would welcome the opportunity for further consultation in the period during which the Orders are being modified for final presentation to Parliament. This document has the support of the following national scientific and educational groups: Earth Science Teachers' Association Geological Society of London Earth Science Education Forum Committee of Heads of University Geoscience Departments. 15th October 199 I Figure I. The Statement of E.STA's views on the 'National Curriculum Council Consuhation Report (Science)'. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 57

16 4th November 1991 The draft Order was received for consultation. Responses to the consultation had to be submitted by 30th November, although we knew that the wording of the final document was being worked upon by the DES even as the documents were being distributed. ESTA was disappointed, but not very surprised that, despite all our efforts, the draft Order contained only four ATs, as in the NCC Consultation Report (ie. one AT on 'Scientific Investigation', the others corresponding largely to biology, chemistry and physics, with the 'Earth and atmosphere' strand as the first in the 'chemistry' AT3: Materials and their properties). However, all our efforts had not been in vain since the covering letter to the draft Order by the Secretary of State stated; "The Secretary of State has restored certain material relating to Earth science where he considered the Council, in its proper concern to avoid unnecessary overlap with the geography Order, had not taken sufficient account of the distinctively different scientific and geographical approaches to common subject matter". In the draft Order, all the material relating to geology and most of the material relating to meteorology which had been removed by the NCC had been reinstated. Thus, almost as much Earth science was now included as had been in the Secretary of State's proposals published in May, with which we had been so pleased. The decision about the inclusion of non-statutary examples was still under discussion (ie. examples to give more clarity to the phrases used in the statements of attainment). We were made aware that examples were likely to be included, and that the DES would welcome help with improving the Earth science examples. 7th November 1 99 I The first of our previously planned 'example-writ Ing' sessions took place. Under the Chairmanship of Alan Rhodes, a contingency of Council members from the south met for an evening to prepare suitable Earth science non-statutary examples. 8th November 1991 A prel,mlflary re~pons~ to the draft OrdEI was ~ublllltt!od 10 the D[ S Includlflg broad (OmmEnts and a rangt of posslbll [arth St lenct examples, 1 his did 1101 I11cludl the examr;les flom 'lilt south' 16th Novfm/"u 19 <; i 1 i,l secone of CUI examplt-wiiiii'1 SUSlOI\; too~ pla((: O'lU 2 Salul day with Coullcli members flom 'till li()nl1', I U 1'1 her examples wel-( Written, 18th Novembel 1991 A second preliminary response was submitted to the DES including some of the work done on examples, 24th November 1991 ~ ill f,na i [51 A lespor,s( ll tllc (OmultallOIl or till,jii,ft 01'(1(:1 ",as subrnlttlg II1<iUd'1l1 llll folio'" 111,[ sections Section I. lhe five Attainment larget Model Followlflg further strong arguments for reinstating the five AT National Science Curriculum, three different models for the 'Earth and atmosphere' AT were proposed, Section 2. The Earth and atmosphere material Arguments for separating the 'Earth' and the 'Atmosphere' material into two distinct strands were made, Section 3. The 'Earth' strand A restructured 'Earth' strand was proposed, proyldll'g bellel contlfluity and coverage, Section 4. The 'Atmosphere' strand A restructured 'Atmosphere' strand was proposed,,,',eluding much improved coverage of the hydrosphere, Section 5. Our proposed examples for the Earth Science material. A wide range of different examples were given based on the work carried out during our 'example-writing' sessions. Mid-December 1991 The Shadow Education Secretary was informed of our views and all our activities in support of Earth science, Late-December 1991 The Order was laid before Parliament and 'made' to come into force in August The resulting document 'Science in the National Curriculum (1991), was published at the end of 1991 and EST A received a copy early in January 1992, As we had anticipated, the four AT model was retained with the 'Earth and atmosphere' strand remaining unchanged from the draft Order (apart from the fact that it had now become Strand iv) of AT3, instead of Strand i) as previously). However, we were well pleased that many of the examples we had proposed were included, thus ensuring that a proper understanding of the Earth science material was given, as far as this was possible within the limitations of brief examples. We were disappointed that our arguments for an 'Earth and atmosphere' AT and for separate 'Earth' and 'Atmosphere' strands had not prevailed, but not greatly surprised. We were well pleased by the inclusion of important parts of our work on the examples. During the period of 'The Battle' more than one hundred letters were sent to influential people and to Council members at various times, many fax messages were also sent and innumerable telephone conversations took place. We really felt that we were 'in a fight'. We also felt that we had come out of the battle 'bloody but unbowed' with a fair measure of success, The Aftermat h, January 1992 to July 1992 La rly-jantwr) 1992 At lh~ As.50clatlon foi Se ICI1Ct [ducal Ion Confcl'ence, In COIiVl'l ~ii lion with the NCe PIOfcs510nal Oftl{(cl foi ~c,ence, we well 101,: that OUI arguments had been (onsldcl (.c;! 111 de'lal' anc that th, DI S and NCC had been 5urprised by the ~1I'engtl! 01 alli iobbylllt, hii'll) a! a result of this. W( would be invited te a mlclln~ wltb the AS~I~lal:\ CllIef [xecutlve of tl,( NCC to dls(u~~ isiu('~ (OmEI11CO WIt! 1;,,11, I( lell( ( Ifl thc new 5C lem( Ordel 13th January 1992 A meeting with the Assistant Chief Executive and his officers was arranged for 7th February. We were asked to provide an outline agenda for the meeting. 29th January 1992 I CIiOV'llllE dlscuisioi I:(:tween [Sl 1>', 1t:I', <:,( "lall,u 1<:' 1I"H N(c IllH;lI!1~' an outlin( :'/ (;nd2 wa~ SUbnll11t re 711, J ctl/uar} I ss;~ The first 'official' meeting between [Sl A and NCC took place. The meeting was chaired (for part of the time) by the NCC ASSIStant Chief Executive, NCC were also represented by their two Profes Sional Officers for SCience and their ProfeSSional Officer for Geogra phy. EST A was represented by Mike Brooks, Peter Hendry, Chm King and Chris Wilson, In the wide ranging discussions that took place, an explanation wa, given for the four AT Science curriculum model eventually beln~ chosen. We were told that the choice was based more on the be51 positioning for the material on 'energy' than on the earth SCienCE Issue. For our part, we emphasised the problem5 facing many scient( teachers with delivenng the 'new' Earth science material effe(tivei, with Inadequate background and support, Teaching Earth Sciences vot. 18.pt 2(1993)

17 Overall, we were most encouraged by the meeting and the positive ways in which Earth science issues were being discussed. We were particularly encouraged that NCC were hoping to make Earth science a priority issue for INSET in the 1992/3 academic year and were also encouraging the inclusion of 'good' Earth science material in science textbooks of the future. The problem of the lack of Earth science in the Single Science Curriculum was also discussed and we understood that Earth science was likely to be included in any future modifications to this curriculum. 11th March 1992 The minutes of the NCC meeting were received from the NCC and these were disconcertingly brief and lacked the positive flavour of our meeting. March -June 1992 Several communications were made to the NCC regarding the plans for Earth science INSET. We were told that no decisions could be taken because the budget had not been ratified. EST A contributions to an NCC publication on the teaching of AT I: Scientific Investigations were made. Late-June 1992 We were informed that the budget had now been passed and that Earth science I NSET would be an NCC priority for It would take the form of joint NCC/ESTA workshops to be held at the ASE Conference in Loughborough in January A publication would be prepared from these workshops that would be trialled at the 'Education Show' in Birmingham in March and would then be available to all schools in England (and, we hope, Wales). I 5th July 1992 The first meeting between NCC and EST A regarding the workshops was held and was successful. Plans are now going ahead for the workshops and the publication. We hope that this important result of our lobbying during 'The Battle' of late 1991 will raise the profile of Earth science and that through this, ESTA can make an important contribution to improving the teaching of Earth science in all schools. Acknowledgements and Thanks Having read this diary you will have seen some of the efforts made on behalf of Earth science by many EST A members during this latest battle. Some of their names have been included above but many others have contributed during Council discussions, 'example-writing' sessions and many telephone conversations and other communications. On behalf of ESTA we would like to thank you all. During 'The Battle', we discovered and used a number of 'friends in high places' who also made important contributions on our behalf. We would like to thank them too for their efforts and continued support. Earth science education and, we feel, the whole curriculum, has been improved through our hard work. As a result, all children in maintained schools should receive better Earth science teaching in the future. Chris King. October Adom Sedgwick on the pronounciotion of Welsh - 23rd July 1846 The miserable damp weather made me rheumatic and low-spirited, so I nursed all day at Carnarvon, then drove to Pwllheli. What a charming name! In order to pronounce the first part (Pwll), you must blowout your cheeks just as you do when you are puffing at a very obstinate candle; then you must rapidly and cunningly put your tongue to the roof of your mouth behind the fore teeth, and blow hard between your cheeks and your tongue, holding your tongue quite steady all the while as a man does a spade just before he is going to give a thrust with his right foot. With such beautiful direction you cannot fail to pronounce Pwll quite like a genuine Celt. Should the word be Bwlch, take care to observe the previous directions, only in addition, while the wind is whistling between your rigid tongue (sticking forwards spade-fashion), and your distended cheeks, contrive by way of finale to give a noise in your throat such as you would make when an intrusive fishbone is sticking in it. So much for my first Welsh lesson. Take care, dear Fan, that it be not thrown away. I remained two days at Pwllheli. Yesterday I packed my baggage and drove to this place. I have now been eleven days in Wales and have not seen the tops of the mountains; they are covered by trailing clouds. If you write by return of post you may address me at Dolgelly, North Wales. (N.B. this word is by no menas to be sounded like our maid Doll's jelly-bag. The 11 must always be blown, in the way I told you, between the tongue and the cheeks.) If you put off writing for a day or two, why then address me at the Post Office, Machynlleth, North Wales. What a charming word again! Mach has the bone-in-thethroat sound; yn is sounded as the grunt given by a broken-winded pavier when using his rammer; lieth you already know how to sound, if you have cared for my lessons. Adarn Sedgwick to Miss Fanny Hicks. Lift! and Letters of Rvd. Adarn Sedgwick, eds. J. W. C1ark and T. Mc. K. Hughes 2: 105 (1890). Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18, pt. 2 (1993) 59

18 Field 'Sketches' - Purpose, principles and practice Duncan Hawley Throughout this article the terms 'sketch' and 'sketching' appear in inverted commas, the reason for this will be made apparent in the Postscript. Introduction When I set about looking for advice on how to go about geological Field 'sketching', I was disappointed to find that such advice is rather thin on the ground. Typically, field 'sketching' is given only a cursory mention, for example in Himus & Sweeting's classic, but now much out of date, 'The Elements of Field Geology'(University Tutorial Press), advice is reduced to a few sentences and then only to emphasise that it is an important method of recording in the field. Likewise, this sort of passing mention is repeated in more recent manuals, e.g. 'Basic Geological Mapping' by John Barnes (Open University Press). Where more detailed advice can be found, such as in Frank Moseley's recent article on Field Sketches (Teaching Earth Sciences, Vol. 17/2), it is pitched at a level which assumes that the pupil or student is already familiar and practised in the skill. For example, Frank Moseley's article gives some excellent hints on how to improve the representative quality of a field "sketch", but there is an unwritten assumption that the necessary geological psychomotor conditions for the student to begin field 'sketching' are already in place (the article was essentially for university students). My teaching experience has led me to believe that there are some fundamental aspects of field 'sketching' that need to be explored if pupils, students and teachers (whatever their level of experience in fieldwork) are to understand why they are field 'sketching' and what a field 'sketch' will achieve (in geological terms), which will give some hints as to how best to go about producing a worthwhile field 'sketch'. In other words, understanding the PURPOSE leads to outlining the PRINCIPLES which in turn leads to better PRACTICE. Field 'Sketching' and Photography 'Sketching' is accepted as an important (essential?) part of field geology (and also geography for that matter). This, in many ways, is an historical legacy. When field geology was first developing in the early 19th Century, the only way to record the view of a rock exposure or landscape vista was by means of sketching'. The skill was considered essential, not least because many of the early prominent and leading field geologists of the day (eg. Murchison, de la Beche) had a schooling at a Military College where 'perspective landscape drawing' was a key part of the curriculum (essential for military purposes to record the 'lie of the land' for use in drawing up battle plans). The advent of photographs did not demean the value of field 'sketching' because in the early days of photography equipment was large and cumbersome, whereas the pencil and notebook required for 'sketching' could be easily fitted into a pocket. Even with the arrival of smaller cameras (eg. the Kodak 'Brownie') the quality of the resultant photographs was subject to so much variability that they were not considered a first rate reliable record of things seen; in addition, the photographs were costly to produce. In consequence the field "sketch" reigned supreme. However, in relatively recent times, with the introduction of modern-day pocket-sized automatic cameras together with good quality film and photographic processing services which are affordable to all (even the youngest Primary children often possess a camera capable of taking reasonable photographs!), photography has gained ground over 'sketching' for the illustration and recording of geology. Modern-day geological books are full of photographs but contain few, if any, field sketches'. This is not surprising because the photograph has much to commend it, viz. : Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 78, pt. 2 (7993) (i) a photograph is accurate (though only from the viewpoint from which it is taken) and records all that there is - the pitfalls of inaccuracy through poor drawing skills or artistic licence are avoided, (ii) a photograph can be in colour, (iii) it can be taken in an instant, (iv) it doesn't end up a soggy mess when it is raining! Do these advantages thus herald the extinction ofthe field 'sketch' I Is field 'sketching' really a redundant skill of the pastl I believe, as I suspect do many others, that the answer to these question is a resounding NO - but the distinct advantages of using photography in field geology does mean that the role of 'sketching' needs to be reassessed and its purpose, principles and practice be more clearly understood by both teachers and students/pupils alike if the value and continuing importance of 'sketching' to field geology is to be appreciated. The Purpose of Field 'Sketching' Why does the field geologist 'sketch' I If you ask this question to students/pupils many of them will reply along the lines of "because it is there!" (or "because we've been told to!"), in a fashion after mountaineers giving their practical but enigmatic answer having been asked why they climb. But geology is a science and therefore geological field 'sketching' is essentially a rational, not an aesthetic pursuit (as in mountaineering). It stands to reason, then, that geological field 'sketching' is done for a purpose; it is done as a means to an end. To do justice to our students/ pupils in asking them to field 'sketch', they should be left in no doubt what geological purposes are served by the task that may have just made them cold, wet and miserable! The expert field geologist will want to draw a field 'sketch' (in addition to taking any photographs) because: I. 'eyeballing' the area will help the geologist gain an overview of the main geological features, 2. drawing will help the geologist to make more detailed systematic observations, 3. labelling a 'sketch' will make the geologist think about how to interpret the geology of the area, 4. the information and understanding gained by field 'sketching' can be used to help make geological decisions about which parts of the area being studied are going to be important to visit and study in closer detail, and perhaps to decide priorities for study.this is a particularly important point if time in the field is limited and/or the area being studied is large. In short, field 'sketching' is an analytical activity and an excellent means by which geologists can focus on, familiarise themselves with and make initial decisions about a field area. The Principles of Field 'Sketching' Even if students/pupils understand why they are field 'sketching', they may find the actual task rather difficult and daunting unless there is some sort of methodology upon which they can structure their observations. The main problem confronting a student or pupil when looking at an exposure or landscape is that there is a vast amount of information 'locked up' in the view in front of them. The student will need to 60

19 know firstly how to sort out what information will be useful, and secondly how to record that information. In order to help students/ pupils overcome such difficulties, I have developed a series of simple principles which gives the student a structured approach to his observation and analysis, and which has the added bonus of resulting in a 'sketch'. (I should add that the application ofthese principles has been tried and tested with many students and pupils - some as young as seven years old, and has always resulted in increased confidence in drawing the field 'sketch' in addition to achieving the objectives outlined above in the Purposes.) The students/pupils are taught to break the field view down into three elements: I. Lines 2. Colours 3. Shapes I. Lines help the student/pupil construct a framework for analysing the geological view. Lines are the key element in picking out the structural and stratigraphical aspects of an exposure or landscape. They are important in giving perspective and orientation to any view under study. A simple and obvious line, such as the skyline or outline of the exposed area in a quarry, may be used as a starting point and other lines picked out and added as observed. 2. Colours are picked out in order to attempt to identify significant changes in the study area. Differences in colour may be due to different rock types or vegetation changes, which might be geologically Significant. Noting areas that have distinctive colours can also provide good reference points on 'sketches'. 3. Shapes of rocky outcrops and the lay of the land are also noted, as they provide a way of distinguishing and describing different areas of the view. Perhaps more importantly, the shapes observed in exposures or landscapes are commonly the result of geological properties and processes. In particular, students/pupils are asked to look for changes in slope angle and to distinguish between blocky/smooth/rounded/broken/irregular -shaped exposures of rock. Of course a good geological field 'sketch' is not considered very useful without adequate labels. Initial labelling of a 'sketch' need not necessarily contain geological details (many of which, such as rock types, will not be apparent from the distance of the 'sketching' position), but should identify the distinct parts of the 'sketch' by clear descriptive labels (eg. blocky dark brown rock). This serves to encourage the beginner to pick out the different geological features/ rock types of a location without the fear of getting it 'wrong', for the want of a name. As students/pupils become more geologically experienced and/or competent they can be expected to label features with more technically precise vocabulary. Labels of rock types can be added or changed to the 'sketch' when they have been determined by examination at close quarters/hand specimen. For example, blocky dark brown rock might be re-labelled dolerite. Even the most inexpert (inept I) students/pupils feel they can see and pick out something of which they are supposed to be looking at when following these simple guidelines. The Practice of Field 'Sketching' "Practice makes perfect" Time is always of the essence in the field (there is invariably more to see and do), so it makes sense to teach and prepare students/pupils to become proficient field observers in the warmth of the classroom, where they will be much more motivated to dedicate themselves to learning the necessary skills! There are several simple techniques which can be employed to do this. I. To introduce the principles, the teacher projects a transparency slide of a favourite rock outcrop of 'character' on to a whiteboard. Students/pupils can then be invited to pick out the distinctive lines, colours and shapes. As they do so, the teacher outlines them on the board. When observation is complete, the projector is turned off, the house lights come on, and the 'field 'sketch" is magically revealed on the board! 2. To progress from this, students/pupils are given a photograph of a rock exposure or geological landscape (preferably colour) together with a piece of tracing paper to lay over it. They then trace out the lines, colours and shapes. With younger pupils a useful tip is to use small pieces of blue-tack to fasten the photo. to the table and to keep the tracing paper in position over the photo., and if you only fasten one side ofthe paper, pupils can lift up the tracing paper to get a clearer view of the photo. When confidence and competence are achieved in this technique the next stage is for the students/pupils to try drawing a 'sketch' of a photo. freehand (without the aid of tracing paper). When 'sketching' freehand, either from a photo. or in the field, get the students/pupils to concentrate on looking at the view rather than the page in the note-book. I have found this invariably does away with the self-consciousness of unconfident individuals and the tendency for flamboyance in the more artistically gifted, resulting in 'sketches' that more accurately highlight the geological features! One of the most common problems students/pupils encounter when first drawing freehand is 'running out of space' on the drawing paper. One technique which helps alleviate this problem is to get students/ pupils to draw a faint mid-line down the page and to use this as a 'marker' for the mid point of the view. I have encouraged students/pupils to develop and improve their skills by an activity called 'Quick on the Draw', in which they are given a set time limit (usually 5 or 10 minutes) to draw a labelled 'sketch' from a photograph. It is an activity that can easily be fitted into the end of a lesson. One ready source of such photos. can be found in the book 'The Outcrop Quiz' by John Wright (Alien & Unwin), which has complementary sets of questions to get the students interpreting the geology in the photos. Another reinforcing approach is to simulate an outcrop in the classroom using a slide projector (see Science of the Earth 11-14, Steps towards the Rock face' Unit 2 - Rocks from the Big Screen, ESTA.). The Means to the End With these techniques it is possible to get students/pupils of all ages and abilities to achieve reasonable field 'sketches'. But it is important to remember the purpose behind all this practice. The field geologist draws a field 'sketch' in order to systematically analyse the view, which will enable the formulation of an initial geological interpretation, and the ability to make decisions and prioritise about what and where further detailed studies should take place. So any 'sketching' exercise (field or photo.) should be accompanied by a series of questions (appropriately phrased according to age and experience), such as : I. Can you pick out any distinct (geological) areas or features? 2. What structures are present 1 3. Which are the oldest / youngest rocks? 4. What rock types do you suggest are present? 5. Which areas or features are worth studying in more detail? 6. Can you make an initial assessment of what geological events have taken place and the sequence of those events? A purposeful and principled approach to field 'sketching' thus gives the student/pupil an understanding of : (i) (ii) (iii) how to develop the skill of geological observation, how the skill can help them to construct some order out of chaos, how it can help them ask geological questions and make valid independent decisions. In other words, through such an approach field 'sketching' becomes a very accessible, useable and useful means of achieving a meaningful end. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol. 18. pt. 2 (1993) 61

20 Postscript In this article I have used the term 'sketch' because I believe it is the term that is most familiar to and used by a large number of teachers, and is thus the term with which they will most readily identify. However, I do not use the term 'sketch' in my own teaching because I believe it to be an inadequate and erroneous description of what is required. 'Sketching' in most students'/pupils' minds sets up ideas about having to be 'artistic' or to produce a 'rough drawing' - and both of these misconceptions are unhelpful at best and are major barriers to performance at worst. I use the term 'Field View Analysis", by which the students/pupils learn that it is the analysis that is most important and that the resultant drawing is an added bonus. I know of other teachers who are equally unhappy with the term 'sketch' and replace it with such terms as 'Field Diagram' (see also 'Rocks from the Big Screen" op.cit.). I also hold the view that the renaming of the activity has implications for when such drawings are used in assessment of fieldwork competence, in that it will help teachers and assessors to be less inclined to be swayed by the artistic merits of a field diagram, and to focus with more precision on the geological skills and criteria. In conclusion, I therefore propose that the term field 'sketch' should become redundant and that teachers at all levels of education (Primary, Secondary and Higher) and those responsible for writing and publishing examination syllabuses, should use, in its place, the term FIELD DIAGRAM. Acknowledgements My thanks to several cohorts of pupils and students from Cotteswold School, Cheltenham Bourneside School, Stroud High School and Sir Thomas Rich's School, who helped me into developing this approach and who helped me refine it. My thanks also to Chris King who read and commented on the article. Duncan Hawley Advisory Teacher for Geography and Earth Sciences Fernlea Llanfilo BRECON Powys LDl ORE q LJ,{ et Q lj cvry View /~ NctIJ.. Figure I. Field Diagram of The Gullet Quarry, Malvern Hills, drawn by 6th Form student Matthew Wilton of Sir Thomas Rich's School, Gloucester, as a result of a field view analysis approach encouraging students to look for lines, shapes and colours. On arrival at the quarry the students were reminded that the purpose of the fieldwork was to establish the geological history of the quarry. They were then set about the task of completing a field view analysis during which they were asked to consider how many different rock types seemed to be present in the quarry and suggest what these might be. Hypotheses varied from student to student, but included "intrusive rocks", "granite", "sedimentary beds". There was an intense exchange of ideas about the grey-green rocks, which resulted in a very tentative conclusion of them being "sedimentary" because the "seem to dip", although there was some uncertainty on account of the "other set of lines" giving the rock a "jagged appearance". (The rock is, in fact, a well foliated metasedimentary schist). The students chose two areas which they thought important fol' more detailed study -(i) the ramp area, (ii) the area of light coloured beds (ringed by the student). Thus the field 'sketch' prompted the students into gaining an overview of the geology from which they went on to work out a geological history of the quarry by their own independent efforts. Teaching Earth Sciences: vol, 18. pt, 2 (1993) 62

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