1 The TTIP Jean Monnet Chair, University of Miami Miami-Florida European Union Center Argentine Council of Foreign Relations (CARI) Cover.indd 1 Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) Contributors Olufemi Babarinde Javier Bonilla Saus Christopher Coffman Roberto Domínguez Carolyn M. Dudek Michelle Egan Kurt Hübner Pedro Isern Finn Laursen Antonio de Lecea María Lorca Carlos Malamud Joseph A. McKinney Tamas Novak Félix Peña Joaquín Roy Federico Steinberg Gustavo Vega Katja Weber George Zestos The TTIP The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is the agreement currently under consideration between the European Union and the United States. It has the objective of removing trade barriers, tariffs and other restrictions on economic exchange between the two formidable blocs. The plan is nothing new. In effect, it can be traced back to the beginning of the EU and its relations with the US. It has been the subject of discussions and research on both sides of the Atlantic. Today, the EU-US economic relationship accounts for more than 30 percent of global trade in goods and 40 percent of global trade in services. The two actors are each other s main trading partners for goods and services, and together they control the largest bilateral trade relationship in the world. The overall transatlantic workforce is estimated to be 15 million workers about half in the US and half in the EU who owe their jobs directly or indirectly to companies across the Atlantic. The two economies also provide each other with the most important source for foreign direct investment. In fact, the US invests three times more in Europe than in all of Asia combined. This volume studies the plan of the TTIP in depth and points out the impact on other regions of the world. It also discusses similar alliances made by the two partners. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the European Union and the United States Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) 3/19/14 11:19 AM
2 The TTIP Jean Monnet Chair, University of Miami Miami-Florida European Union Center Argentine Council of Foreign Relations (CARI) Cover.indd 1 Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) Contributors Olufemi Babarinde Javier Bonilla Saus Christopher Coffman Roberto Domínguez Carolyn M. Dudek Michelle Egan Kurt Hübner Pedro Isern Finn Laursen Antonio de Lecea María Lorca Carlos Malamud Joseph A. McKinney Tamas Novak Félix Peña Joaquín Roy Federico Steinberg Gustavo Vega Katja Weber George Zestos The TTIP The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is the agreement currently under consideration between the European Union and the United States. It has the objective of removing trade barriers, tariffs and other restrictions on economic exchange between the two formidable blocs. The plan is nothing new. In effect, it can be traced back to the beginning of the EU and its relations with the US. It has been the subject of discussions and research on both sides of the Atlantic. Today, the EU-US economic relationship accounts for more than 30 percent of global trade in goods and 40 percent of global trade in services. The two actors are each other s main trading partners for goods and services, and together they control the largest bilateral trade relationship in the world. The overall transatlantic workforce is estimated to be 15 million workers about half in the US and half in the EU who owe their jobs directly or indirectly to companies across the Atlantic. The two economies also provide each other with the most important source for foreign direct investment. In fact, the US invests three times more in Europe than in all of Asia combined. This volume studies the plan of the TTIP in depth and points out the impact on other regions of the world. It also discusses similar alliances made by the two partners. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the European Union and the United States Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) 3/19/14 11:19 AM
3 The TTIP: The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the European Union and the United States Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) Miami-Florida European Union Center/Jean Monnet Chair, 2014
5 The TTIP: The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the European Union and the United States Joaquín Roy and Roberto Domínguez (editors) Preface by Antonio de Lecea With the special editorial assistance of Dina Moulioukova Miami-Florida European Union Center Jean Monnet Chair, 2014 Co-edition by Argentine Council of Foreign Relations (CARI) Buenos Aires, Argentina Contributors Olufemi Babarinde Javier Bonilla Saus Christopher Coffman Roberto Domínguez Carolyn M. Dudek Michelle Egan Kurt Hübner Pedro Isern Finn Laursen Antonio de Lecea María Lorca Carlos Malamud Joseph A. McKinney Tamas Novak Félix Peña Joaquín Roy Federico Steinberg Gustavo Vega Katja Weber George Zestos
6 The Miami-Florida European Union Center of Excellence A Partnership of the University of Miami and Florida International University and The Jean Monnet Chair of the University of Miami The Miami-Florida European Union Center of Excellence (M-FEUCE) is one of the 10 Centers of Excellence supported by the European Commission at universities throughout the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote contacts across the Atlantic. Thus, these EU Centers promote the study of the EU, its institutions and policies and EU/US relations through teaching programs, scholarly research and outreach activities in their local and regional communities. The Jean Monnet Chair of European Integration, awarded by the European Commission s Jean Monnet Action of the General Directorate of Education and Culture in 2001 to the University of Miami, has been exclusively dedicated to strengthen the teaching and research of the EU, with a strong specialization on its relations with Latin America and the Caribbean and comparative regional integration. In 2011, chair was awarded ad personam Miami Florida European Union Center University of Miami 2300 Campo Sano Building, 220C Coral Gables, FL Phone: Fax: (305) Web: Jean Monnet Chair Staff Joaquín Roy (Director) María Lorca (Research Associate) Maxime Larivé (Research Associate) Dina Moulioukova (Assistant Editor) Florida International University Rebecca Friedman (Co-Director) International Jean Monnet Chair Editorial Advisors: Philippe de Lombaerde, UNU/CRIS, Brugge, Belgium Michelle Egan, American University, Kurt Hübner, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Finn Laursen, University of Southern Denmark John McCormick, Indiana University, Purdue Félix Peña, Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Argentina Manuel Porto, University of Coimbra, Portugal Lorena Ruano, CIDE, Mexico Eric Tremolada, Universidad del Externado de Colombia Roberto Domínguez, Suffolk University, Boston Francesc Granell, University of Barcelona Printed in the United States by Thomson-Shore, Inc. Copyright 2014.Jean Monnet Chair/University of Miami. All rights reserved. No portion of the contents may be reproduced in any form without written consent of the publisher.
7 Contents Preface EU-US Partnership: More Relevant than Ever? Antonio de Lecea Delegation of the European Union in the United States 1 Introduction The European Union and the United States: an Odd or a Happy Couple? Crises, Hope and the Impact of Regional Integration Joaquín Roy University of Miami. 7 I. Background and setting Is TTIP Really that Different? Michelle Egan American University.. 19 TTIP: Opportunities and Challenges for the EU Kurt Hübner University of British Columbia, Vancouver.. 35 Politics and Philosophy beyond Economics and Commerce Javier Bonilla Saus and Pedro Isern Universidad ORT, Montevideo, Uruguay Transatlantic Economic Integration George Zestos and Christopher Coffman Christopher Newport University, Virginia Challenges on the Way to a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Joseph A. McKinney Baylor University, Texas. 85
8 II. Special issues The Automotive Sector in light of the Free Trade Agreements between the EU and North America Roberto Domínguez Suffolk University, Boston Genetically Modified Foods and Trade Controversy Carolyn M. Dudek Hofstra University, New York City The Euro, the Dollar and the TTIP María Lorca University of Miami III. The Western Hemisphere The EU's Transatlantic Trade Policy: Why the move towards FTAs? The Track Record So Far Finn Laursen University of Southern Denmark, Odense The TTIP, NAFTA and Mexico Gustavo Vega El Colegio de México The TTIP and Mercosur Carlos Malamud Universidad Nacional a Distancia/Instituto Elcano The Negotiation of the TTIP: a Preliminary View from the Deep South Félix Peña Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Argentina 185 IV. The Wider World Underlying Geopolitical Motives of the TTIP: Leadership of the Transatlantic Axis Federico Steinberg Institute Elcano/Universidad Autónoma, Madrid
9 Implications of TTIP on Global Economic Integration of Central and Eastern Europe Tamas Novak Austrian Marshall Plan Foundation/ Center for Transatlantic Relations (SAIS). 209 Short- and Long Term Implications of TTIP for Southeast Asia Katja Weber Georgia Institute of Technology Implications of the TTIP for Africa: a Conjectural Analysis Olufemi Babarinde Thunderbird School of Global Management About the Authors.. 253
13 The EU-US trade and investment before and after TTIP: What can Latin America expect from it? Antonio de Lecea Delegation of the European Union The EU-US economic relations before TTIP The economic relationship between the EU and the US is the largest in the world. We are the world's largest importers, making up just under a third of the total. In 2010, bilateral trade in goods alone was worth $546 billion. Our two economies also provide each other with our most important sources of foreign direct investment. Close to a quarter of all EU-US trade consists of transactions within firms based on their investments on either side of the Atlantic. In fact, U.S. investment in Europe is more than three times more than in all of Asia combined. Trade and investment brings also jobs. The overall transatlantic workforce is estimated at 15 million workers about half in the US and half in the EU who owe their jobs directly or indirectly to companies from the other side of the Atlantic. This impressive degree of integration is the result of a high level of openness on both sides. But there are still some serious obstacles that hinder trade and investment between the two blocks. Some of these obstacles are classical market access issues. Average tariffs for EU-US trade are indeed low, on average a 4 per cent on imports, but in sectors like motor vehicles or processed foods they are 8 per cent or higher. Moreover, EU firms cannot bid for public contracts funded by a number of states in the US. And tariffs are not the only barriers to trade. Differences in technical regulations, standards and certifications are estimated to add between 10 and 20 per cent to the current cost to business and consumers. For example (i) The EU and the US have formally different safety requirements in relation to auto parts like lights, door-locks, brakes, steering, seats, seat-belts and electric windows. Yet both systems deliver similarly high levels of protection. (ii) Both sides have engaged in reforming financial markets regulations to improve financial stability in accordance with the G20 agreements. Yet some diverging implementing rules of these agreements distort financial flows or add unnecessary costs to them. (iii) Exports of energy and raw materials from the US to the EU are bound by restrictive rules.
14 2 de Lecea What do we expect after TTIP? First, TTIP is intended to cut industrial and agricultural tariffs, and to open services and public procurement markets. Second, we expect that regulators coordinate better when they design regulation for new products or update regulation of existing products. We aim at getting rid of double inspections at our pharmaceutical or medical devices plants. We aim at simplifying the procedures for approving food products and avoid duplication of inspections in areas where our product safety rules are equivalent. And we aim at making sure that we implement agreed international rules on finance in a compatible way. Third, TTIP provides a laboratory for future global disciplines. Last year's Bali agreement has brought new momentum back to the WTO. But even if we manage to meet all of Doha's goals, gaps in the multilateral rulebook will still remain. The role of TTIP is therefore to pioneer global rule-making solutions that can later be applied more widely especially as they will already be operating in 40% of the world economy. On these issues the truth is that the EU, the US and Latin America share much more than where we differ. TTIP strengthens the position of our shared values on the global stage. What can Latin America expect from it? TTIP will bring benefits beyond the EU and the US. A study commissioned by the European Commission estimates that the agreement could increase GDP in our trading partners by almost 100 billion euros. An overall increase in GDP and in income for households in the EU and the US will result in higher demand, not only for goods and services produced in the EU and the US but also for raw materials, components and other inputs from elsewhere in the world. Given that the EU and the US together make up 46% of the world economy and that our economies are some of the most open, this will have a noticeable impact on demand for exports from other countries around the world. More convergence between EU and US standards, regulations and conformity assessment systems should make life easier for exporters in the rest of the world. In some cases they may be able to cut down on the number of their production lines. In other they may incur lower administrative costs because the EU and US authorities agree to recognize the results of each other's inspection teams. We experienced that with the creation of the European Union s Single Market. A unified set of European rules benefitted not only EU firms but also American and Japanese exporters. The same can happen though likely to a lesser extent if EU and US rules are made more compatible.
15 What to expect? 3 How much each country will benefit depends on several factors, namely the complementarity of their exports pattern, the degree of economic integration and of regulatory convergence with the EU and the US. As regards integration, our relationship is already very close in many fields. Crucial ties exist both at the bi-regional level and between the EU and the individual LAC countries. The EU is the second trade partner for the region. EU- LA trade in goods more than doubled over the last decade, reaching 202 billion. The Union remains the leading foreign investor in LAC, accounting for 385 billion (43% of the region s total) of foreign direct investment stock in EU FDI in Latin America and the Caribbean is higher than that in Russia, China and India combined. And FDI has also started to flow from Latin America and the Caribbean towards Europe reinforcing the trend towards more symmetrical economic exchanges. The trade and investment agreements that we have concluded between the EU and the sub-regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are a big step towards reaping the still untapped potential. The dialogues and cooperation mechanisms of these agreements can help regulatory authorities to build up close relationships of trust with their counterparts in the United States and the European Union, and conclude regulatory cooperation arrangements that will magnify the benefits from TTIP. To sum up, Latin America and the Caribbean have much to gain from an ambitious and ground-breaking Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. How much will depend on how close these partner countries wish to integrate their economies with those of the EU and the US and work with them towards high global rules standards.
19 The European Union and the United States: an Odd or a Happy Couple? Joaquín Roy University of Miami A short speculative history Although most observers would agree that comments made in the news become irrelevant in the course of history, one made by Governor Romney during his candidacy for President is still relevant in this compilation. Romney accused his competitor, President Obama, of trying to convert the United States into a European state. This claim still serves to point out the need for a much deeper understanding of both entities; it also takes for granted the importance of a close alliance between the two in order for them to make considerable development in the future. However, this alleged link is riddled with confusion and stereotypes. This relationship is considered a normal fact forged by mutual historical legacies. Hence the frequent occurrence of awkward transactions and misunderstandings, dismissed with the expectation that any damage will be corrected by the terms of their special relationship. If conflicts are detected, both parties are said to be condemned to agree. If a lack of knowledge is perceived, it will be modified by accessible means. Mechanisms for an understanding and cooperation are within reach. Therefore, an effective relationship is not utopian. However, there are areas in which much work is needed to strengthen the alliance and correct its shortcomings. There is a need, not only for agreements in economic and political issues, but also for a deeper understanding of the essence of both entities. The Twentieth Century has been dominated by a series of events, competing ideologies and historical milestones in inter-state relations. Among the most important are two World Wars, the rise and fall of extreme ideologies that left a tragic mark, and a trans-continental relationship that intimately fused the war contestants. This ongoing relationship has been maintained in spite of some politically incongruent views between both continents. However, what seems to be normal presents profiles and angles with variable dimensions that require an adjustment in the analysis, even more in the current times, in the fading away of what was called the American century. Both parties in this apparent marriage of convenience propelled by their dependency for one another s partnership are different in their essential DNA. They contrast in their structure, but similar in fashion, not exempt from all sorts
20 8 Roy of difficulties. In spite of all this, the alleged solid relationship between Europe and the United States is considered exempted of serious discrepancies. Both partners seem to respond to similar values, interests and objectives. However, they have a different personality. There is a need to distinguish two expressions that are wrongly considered as synonymous. Europe responds to a geographical or cultural identification, while the European Union is, at the moment, a juridical entity, which enjoys full personality as international subject since the Treaty of Lisbon. Before that, according to the orthodoxy of international law, the EU did not exist. Only the European Community, more exactly the European Economic Community (EEC), was able to operate in the world scene through the Commission in the areas assigned to its structure. But the EU could not be a nation of cultural or ethnic fashion without the requirement of will to belong, according to the profiles of nationalism forged by lineage and blood of individuals ( nationals ). The EU (and its predecessors) is an entity composed of sovereign States that are bound together by will. They were not forced by conquest, war or political pressure. The EU would then be more similar to a civic or liberal nation. At the other side of the pond, an entity with an ambiguous name (the United States of America) has a defined profile and precise international personality, an active subject of international law. This explains why the American mind believes that the United States is actually an idea, based in a sentiment of exceptionality, the most successful civic nation in history. But the ambiguity of the label United States reveals ambivalence and confusion to speakers of other languages. For example, in Spanish it is a widespread custom to refer to los Estados Unidos, in plural, taking a verb in plural. However, in recent years, the style books of major newspapers have recommended the use of the singular Estados Unidos, an apparently plural grammatical subject used with verbs in singular ( Estados Unidos es un gran país ). The firm conviction of the solidity of this political entity is proven by the simple fact that in English, grammatically the country name that is plural), is accompanied systematically by verbs in singular, such as the United States is a rich country. This peculiarity, according to traditional sources, was not always this way. Before the Civil War, American English said the United States are very powerful. Nevertheless, spot-on comments and rigorous studies identify the United States as a defined territory, with a federal structure, composed of States (heirs of British colonies that won independence by will in 1776), people that acquire citizenship of the United States directly (not as in a confederation as in the EU), with common institutions, elections by universal suffrage, and the trappings of international recognition. In contrast, doubts arise on the personality of Europe. Its existence is questioned, its geographical limits are labelled as ambiguous (especially in the East), and its shared values and interests are scrutinized. While Americans apparently know who they are, Europeans seem content with knowing who they are not. Europe, at least, is not Africa or Asia, even though some citizens of these two continents may share sentiments for European values.
21 Odd or Happy? 9 From the preceding arguments one can conclude, in contrast with the belief that both entities (the United States and the European Union) respond to a different personality, they have similar goals to belong, a wish to join. One is an American (meaning an individual of the United States), juridically and sentimentally, by an individual decision. Even though recently arrived persons may not internally adopt all and each one of the ingredients of the U.S. faith, they cannot be denied the right to exercise it according to personal convenience, provided it is done within the law. The European Union, composed not by individuals but by States, has also similar foundations born out from a will to join. The citizens of these countries acquire also this condition voluntarily, although in an indirect fashion by the decision taken by their corresponding States of which they are citizens. They cannot, juridically, accede to have the European (more accurately, European Union) citizenship in the same fashion as U.S. citizens received theirs. Citizens of Europe do not need to go through a previous filter of meeting the citizenship requirements, as necessary for any given state. European (read EU ) citizenship is in reality a hybrid condition, best illustrated by the burgundy covers of EU member states issued passports. But in both cases, American and European, a wish to join makes possible the recommitment to a political entity to which one believes to belong. In Europe this quality is taken for granted by the unstoppable force of history. In the European setting one finds the significant case that in France, in the aftermath of the Revolution, it was the State that made the Nation. In the case of the EU, this entity was formed to give legal sense and political personality to Europe, a cultural entity, whose destiny and survival were put in question by the quasi suicidal of World War II. However, the EU plays some roles of a State (via its common policies). While Europe then can be considered as a cultural nation, that has a common sovereignty shared in diverse degrees, the EU would be the State, a structure formed by institutions and laws that provide economic consistency to the nation. In the future, these two lines ( Europe and the EU ) may merge, as in a standard Nation-State. In contrast, or as in a later stage, the United States enjoys both dimensions: nation and state, an example of classic nation-state. For Europe and the EU, the United States is a unitary actor, equipped with sovereign decisions at the federal level; for the United States, the EU is equalized with Europe. At the same time, Europe is for Washington a badly connected series of States with which one has to deal in crucial issues. It may even be convenient to carry out this task individually with some States, avoiding the complicated maze of the EU, or even questioning it in a rather problematic fashion. Let s remember that when Henry Kissinger allegedly asked for the telephone of Europe, he meant of the number to call the EU. Nonetheless, still today, after the establishment of the position of High Representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), when sensitive security topics are addressed, Washington prefers to set them in the context of NATO or in a bilateral deal with a given country. Regrettable, Europe and the EU hardly exist for
22 10 Roy that strategic and geopolitical mind of the United States. While this shortcoming in Trans-Atlantic relations is not solved, problems of understanding will remain. 1 What then should be the priority of any president of the United States? First, Washington should decide what kind of European Union is the best interest for the United States. A general gift list issued by numerous U.S. think-tanks and observers concur that what is urgently needed is an EU (and Europe) complete (an even closer union). It should be free of all the old evils that led to intolerance and racism. Finally, the EU/Europe should be not only in peace, domestically, but exerting its influence in its immediate vicinity and later in the rest of the world. For this second stage scenario Europe needs to play a model role along the United States. The U.S. leadership needs to be convinced that a policy of divide and conquer should be avoided at all cost. To believe that what is bad for Europe and the EU, in a zero sum game, is good for America is not practical, if not counter productive and suicidal. But Europe has to respond and decide to close the gap, beginning with rewiring the lines of the telephones, set the economic house in order, and project an effective face to the rest of the world. Issues, disagreements, recommendations As privileged partners, mutually respecting and trusting each other, Washington and the EU have had and still have disagreements and misgivings not only on economic and environmental details (agricultural subsidies, food processing, banana trade regimes), but also on sensitive fundamental issues. In this terrain, general and concrete dimensions are interlaced. National security and the defense of human rights in the world, arms embargo on China, subsidies for Boeing and Airbus, defense budgets, and procurement contracts for weapons systems, are some of the sources for conflicts. As a consequence of the so-called war on terror, some European countries became involved in the illegal transfer of detainees and the imprisonment of alleged authors or accomplices of crimes. This has created internal controversies in some affected countries, whose governments have been pressured by the internal opposition for caving in to the expectations and demands of Washington. The two terms of George W. Bush were plagued by such disagreements. In the case of principles that are considered indisputable in Europe, but that in the US are considered conditioned by state legislation and rules of the Supreme Court, there is a frontal clash on the death penalty. Among the collateral consequences, a major problem is posed by the prohibition of deportation of alleged criminals to the US, running the risk of application of the capital punishment. Another point of contention is the rejection of the United States to recognize the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. Washington is afraid that US soldiers could become targets of trials for political reasons. As a consequence of the restrictions to enter US territory after the 2001 attacks, the US has indicated at times its intention to demand visas for all (or se- 1 For an expanded bi-regional set of recommendations, see Hamilton 2010.
23 Odd or Happy? 11 lected) EU citizens. Although Brussels have indicated an intention for retaliation, the decision has never materialized. Despite the fact that the US and European countries share the common goal to reach an agreement on the Palestine territories, they believe in taking two different approaches. In practice, Europe is more complacent than Washington on the Palestinian actions, while the Americans justify the Israeli actions to the extreme of a systematic veto in the Security Council. While Washington justified the option of a preventive attack on Iran under the suspicion of use of nuclear weapons, the Europeans preferred diplomatic negotiation. The war in Iraq marked the height of disagreement between the European governments and Washington (with the exception of the British and assorted EU members). The latest source of confrontation was the discovery of spying systems performed by the United States, with no discrimination of allies and foes. The general theme of transatlantic relations, topic of an extensive literature for over half a century, is the frequent subject of recommendations offered by single authors and distinguished scholars, commissions, think tanks, ad-hoc meetings, and seminar and conference proceedings. Sometimes, groups are composed exclusively by academic figures, and others by government agents. Although results of a consensus are often inconclusive, the documents are most effective when drafted by a team composed of scholars, retired officials and different observers. 2 An example of this endeavor of searching for a transatlantic relations literature is still valid in the setting of this volume and it is the subject of reflection. A compilation by an impressive team of think tanks gathered by the Center of Transatlantic Relations of Johns Hopkins University (SAIS) still sheds considerable light to the debate. 3 European and American participants examined the danger that what already called the Transatlantic Partnership was vanishing. However, the legacy of that effort still survives in a world where the borders of the national and the international are blurred. The reality is that, when there is a disagreement, both actors cannot accomplish in isolation the goals that were set. There is no world-wide coalition that functions satisfactorily. Europe and the US cannot solve problems that go beyond their borders. But in association with other agents, success can be reached. Together, Americans and Europeans need to position their economies, keep a free and open Europe, face conflicts effectively, oppose the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and preserve the fragile planet environment. However, there is a lack of concurrence in the nature of the challenges, the capacity of the institutions, and the tools available. There is a need for a solid cooperation between the United States and Europe, in order to convert the simple relationship into a strategic link. 2 As examples published in recent years, see Wahlers, Serfaty, Anderson and Dorman. 3 See again Hamilton 2010.
Robert Schuman Miami-Florida European Union Center of Excellence Transatlantic Conflict and Cooperation Concerning Trade Issues Joseph McKinney Published with the support of the European Commission Vol.
Erich Reiter and Johann Frank The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective The following essay gives the Austrian view on the ESS from a security political perspective and analyses the needs and
Brussels, 5 May 2014 BACKGROUND 1 FOREIGN AFFAIRS COUNCIL - TRADE ISSUES Thursday 8 May in Brussels The Council will take note of progress on the remaining technical issues to be resolved on a comprehensive
Brussels, 24 March 2014 140324/01 F A C T S H E E T EU-US Summit (Brussels, 26 March 2014) and EU-US relations The Leaders of the European Union and the United States of America will meet on 26 March 2014
Brussels, 12 June 2014 Opinion.05 CEEP OPINION ON THE TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP) Executive Summary Focus 1: The respect of the EU Treaty Principle and EU political balance on
THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico Lopez Obrador believes in the principles of self-determination, cooperation and international peace for
Reform of the WTO: An Asian Perspective Masahiro Kawai Graduate School of Public Policy University of Tokyo The 26th GSDM Platform Seminar "Mega-FTAs and Global Trade Governance" Organized by the Global
Testimony of Peter Allgeier President Coalition of Services Industries (CSI) Hearing On International Data Flows: Promoting Digital Trade in the 21st Century House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee
European Commission Speech [Check against delivery] Trade Debates - Liberal Voices Needed 3 December 2015 Cecilia Malmström, Commissioner for Trade Berlin Event at Friedrich Naumann Stiftung Ladies and
CALL FOR PROPOSALS 10 th International Workshop for Young Scholars (WISH) 10 ème Rencontre Internationale des Jeunes Chercheurs (RIJC) New Directions in EU and Global Risk Regulation Regulatory Autonomy,
Chairman EU Military Committee General Patrick de Rousiers at the 29 th Asia Pacific Round Table in Kuala Lumpur 02 June 2015 "The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace
AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 Analyze the ways in which Western European nations have pursued European economic and political integration from 1945 to the present, referring to
FRAMEWORK FOR ADVANCING TRANSATLANTIC ECONOMIC INTEGRATION BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA We, leaders of the European Union and the United States of America: Believing that
German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) Executive Board DGB Position Suspend the negotiations for a free trade agreement with the USA no agreement at the expense of workers, consumers or the environment
Department Head: Professor John T. Rourke Department Office: Room 137, Monteith Building Undergraduate Catalog 1998-1999 POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLS) For major requirements, see the College of Liberal Arts
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) State of Play 27 April 2016 27 April 2016 Background / context for the negotiations The European Union and the United States have the most integrated
Attracting Foreign Direct Investment through an Ambitious Trade Agenda: New Opportunities for the U.S. Economy and Workforce Matthew J. Slaughter July 2013 This report was sponsored by the Organization
April 2013 Pablo Heidrich, Laura Macdonald and Catalina Prada Canada and the Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance is an economic union between Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Chile - all of which have coastlines
Assumed role of India in the international community in the short and medium Daniel Novotný Alice Rezková SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STRATEGIC APPROACH OF THE EU TOWARDS INDIA Assessment
[Provisional Translation] Basic Policy on Comprehensive Economic Partnerships November 9th, 2010 Cabinet Decision 1. Environment surrounding Japan and promotion of high level economic partnerships Today
ARF WORKSHOP 21-22 JUNE 2005 ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM'S SECURITY CONCEPTS AND PERCEPTIONS Overall, Brunei Darussalam security assessment remains peaceful and stable. However, the range of
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA MISSION TO THE UNITED NATIONS 350 EAST 35TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10016 Please Check Against Delivery Statement by H.E. Ambassador Li Baodong Head of the Chinese Delegation at
MC.DOC/2/05 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Ministerial Council Ljubljana 2005 Original: ENGLISH Second day of the Thirteenth Meeting MC(13) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 8 BORDER SECURITY
GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation
Cyber Diplomacy A New Component of Foreign Policy 6 Assistant Lecturer Dana DANCĂ, PhD. candidate Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Nowadays, the boundary between virtual
AN INTRODUCTION History The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) builds from the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (P4) between Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore which entered into
Published in S. Evenett and A. Jara (Eds.), Building on Bali: A Work Programme for the WTO. VoxEU/CEPR e-book (December 18) Multilateral Trade Cooperation post-bali: Three Suggestions Bernard Hoekman Robert
OPEN MARKETS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT Fast Facts In 2008, more than 38 million jobs in America more than one in five depended on international trade exports and imports. 1 In 1992, a year
The Engine of Growth - Alliance between SIAM and JAMA - Fumihiko Ike, Chairman Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association SIAM Annual Convention, New Delhi, September 12, 2014 Thank you very much for the
RUSSIA CHINA NEXUS IN CYBER SPACE E. Dilipraj Associate Fellow, CAPS On May 08, 2015 Russia and China inked an important agreement in the field of cyber security. This bilateral agreement is the latest
CHAPTER 13: International Law, Norms, and Human Rights MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Why did the former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, state that the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 was illegal?
Political Science Courses-1 American Politics POL 110/American Government Examines the strengths and weaknesses, problems and promise of representative democracy in the United States. Surveys the relationships
Understanding the significance of the Asian Century Andrea Haefner and Professor Andrew O Neill Griffith Asia Institute, Griffith University Griffith MBA Values If you undertake the Griffith MBA you will
CONCEPT NOTE FOR AFRICAN ECONOMIC CONFERENCE 2013 REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA October 28-30, 2013 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA African Development Bank Group United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
(U) Appendix E: Case for Developing an International Cybersecurity Policy Framework (U//FOUO) The United States lacks a comprehensive strategic international policy framework and coordinated engagement
Chapter 10 10 Multinational Market Regions and Market Groups McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Marketing, 13/e 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Global Perspective Might Free Trade
April 29, 2013 As President Obama Heads to Mexico, Americans Have Mixed Views of Neighbor across the Border President Obama will visit Mexico on May 2, where he is expected to discuss ways to deepen US-Mexico
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership The Regulatory Part September 2013 2 Presidents Barroso, Van Rompuy and Obama have made clear that reducing regulatory barriers to trade will be one of the
Final Report High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth February 11, 2013 INTRODUCTION As the United States-European Union High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth (HLWG) noted in its June 19, 2012
ENERGY PRIORITIES OF THE POLISH PRESIDENCY OF THE EU COUNCIL: THE CZECH PERSPECTIVE Petr Binhack Energy Security as a Part of the EU Agenda Energy is an important precondition for European economic development.
2015 Country RepTrak The World s Most Reputable Countries July 2015 The World s View on Countries: An Online Study of the Reputation of 55 Countries RepTrak is a registered trademark of Reputation Institute.
Chapter 1 MOST-FAVOURED-NATION TREATMENT PRINCIPLE OVERVIEW OF RULES Most-Favoured-Nation ( MFN ) treatment requires Members to accord the most favourable tariff and regulatory treatment given to the product
BOLIVIA TRADE AND BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS (BTBC) USAID Bolivia Contract No. PCE I 00 98 00015 00 Task Order No. 11 Intensive International Trade Negotiation Skills Course March 30 April 7, 2004 Cochabamba,
January 2015 Study by the Ifo Institute, Munich, and the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IAW), Tübingen commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): Towards better health outcomes for patients and economic growth 1 About EFPIA Þ EFPIA is the voice of the European innovative pharmaceutical industry,
November 2011 international trade law bulletin approaching the eleventh hour - Canada EU free trade negotiations Canada and the European Union entered into negotiations for a Comprehensive Economic and
No reform of the UN will be complete without the reform of the Security Council Former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan The United Nations Security Council: Reforms concerning its membership
REMARKS BY AMBASSADOR SCOTT DELISI Africa Center for Strategic Studies Sheraton Hotel Rwenzori Ballroom January 28, 2013, 11:30 a.m. [Protocol list of invitees] All protocols observed. Good morning. It
CEAS ANALYSIS of the Law on Amendments of the Law on the Security Intelligence Agency Belgrade, July 2014. CEAS is supported by the Rockefeller Brother s Fund The views and analysis in this report do not
Centre for the Analysis of Regional Integration at Sussex Qualitative analysis of a potential Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and India Executive Summary Centre for the Analysis of Regional
ANNUAL 2008 SESSION OF THE PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE ON THE WTO Geneva, 11-12 September 2008 Organized jointly by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the European Parliament Item 3(a) PC-WTO/2008/3(a)-R.2
Opening statement by Frans Timmermans, First Vice-President designate, in charge of Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations, the Rule of Law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights 7 October 2014
The U.S.-Brazil Defense Partnership Moving Toward Closer Cooperation Copyright 213 by the United States Chamber of Commerce. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted
1 Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime The Syrian dictatorship s use of chemical weapons against its own people was terrible. But we must not let it overshadow the larger
FORCED LABOUR WHY IT IS AN ISSUE FOR EMPLOYERS INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF EMPLOYERS SEPTEMBER 2010 INTRODUCTION Although forced labour is universally condemned and banned and many believe that it is
POLI 150. Introduction to Political Science This course is an introduction to major concepts in political science including political culture, socialization, ideologies, institutions, processes, public
ANNUAL REPORT ON DISCRIMINATION IN FOREIGN GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT April 30, 2001 I. Introduction A longstanding objective of U.S. trade policy has been to open opportunities for U.S. suppliers to compete
Promoting Cross Border Data Flows Priorities for the Business Community The movement of electronic information across borders is critical to businesses around the world, but the international rules governing
Remarks by Gordon Thiessen Governor of the Bank of Canada to the Chambre de commerce du Montréal métropolitain Montreal, Quebec 4 December 2000 Why a Floating Exchange Rate Regime Makes Sense for Canada
INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * In this exclusive interview with TPQ, the Honorable Secretary General provides an overview of the major developments of the past two years in Turkey s neighborhood,
The Double Democratic Deficit Parliamentary Accountability and the Use of Force under International Auspices Hans Born, Senior Fellow, DCAF Geneva Brussels, 29 April 2004 Presentation given at the Book
Roundtable discussion on Prospects for international criminal justice in Africa: lessons from eastern and southern Africa, and Sudan 8 Dec 2008, Pretoria Summary of key points & outcomes Aims of the roundtable
22 ND ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC PARLIAMENTARY FORUM RESOLUTION APPF22/RES 01 POLITICAL AND SECURITY MATTERS IN ASIA PACIFIC (Sponsored by Australia, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea and the Russian
EU initiative on the Access to the EU Public Procurement markets A Tool to Regain Leverage Anders C. Jessen Head of Unit, Public Procurement and Intellectual Property, DG Trade, European Commission Content
EDRi s Red lines on TTIP January 2015 European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70 ABOUT EDRI European Digital Rights is a network of 34 privacy and
Double Master s Degree Program in International Relations between The University of Haifa and The University of Warsaw Beginning in October 2015, students at the University of Haifa will have an opportunity
Presentation on behalf of Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Wits University (CALS) & Partners to the UN Working Group on Business and Human Rights Open Consultation on National Action Plans on Business
Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007 Portuguese Presidency of the European Union A stronger Europe for a better world A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency.
Dear Global Trade Matters Members, Global Trade Matters Egypt s leading private sector think thank for Economic and Political reform is proud to announce its 2015 Calendar of Events and Special Initiatives.
Further Developments of Hong Kong s Offshore RMB Market: Opportunities and Challenges Zhang Ying, Senior Economist In recent years, as the internationalization of the RMB has been steadily carrying out,
Conference of Community and European Affairs Committees of Parliaments of the European Union (COSAC) CONTRIBUTION OF THE XLI COSAC Prague, 10-12 May 2009 1. Current Economic and Financial Situation 1.1
ROADMAP Title of the initiative: Youth programme post 2013 Type of initiative (CWP/Catalogue/Comitology): CWP Lead DG: DG EAC/E-2, Youth in Action Unit Expected date of adoption of the initiative (month/year):
Training Professionals in Trade Policy Development Advocacy and Negotiation - The Training Challenge in Commercial Diplomacy Geza Feketekuty The expansion of trade brought about by the reduction of trade
U.S. Trading Companies, 2012 Natalie Soroka Trade and Economic Analysis Industry and Analysis Department of Commerce International Trade Administration November 2014 U.S. Trading Companies: 2012 Highlights
A Trade Agenda that Gets Results Annex to the Canadian Chamber of Commerce Election Platform June 2015 A Trade Agenda that Gets Results The Canadian Chamber of Commerce 1 Canada s next government should
Dr. Axel Berkofsky European Policy Centre (EPC), Brussels University of Milano, Italy The EU and China in the Global System-Partners or Competitors? Keynote Remarks A lot has been said and written on EU-China
The United States: An Aerospace Nation Remarks of Ambassador Duane E. Woerth AeroMontréal Innovation Forum As prepared for delivery December 2, 2013 After 40 years of piloting aircraft and working on aerospace
Understanding the Trans-Pacific Partnership Jeffrey J. Schott Barbara Kotschwar Julia Muir December 19, 2012 The TPP: A Big Deal in the Making? The GDP of TPP-11 countries is $21 trillion or 30 percent
The EU and the Global Convergence in Accounting Standards Since 2000, Europe has led a global movement towards the creation of a single set of accounting standards for companies whose shares are listed
Major Economies Business Forum: Perspectives on the Upcoming UN Framework Convention on Climate Change COP-17/CMP-7 Meetings in Durban, South Africa The Major Economies Business Forum on Energy Security
1 Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of the Barents Euro-Arctic Cooperation (Kirkenes, Norway, 3 4 June 2013) Prime Ministers and other high-level representatives of the members of the Barents Euro- Arctic
Unit 1 Chapter 5 5 The United States and the Global Economy Chapter Objectives Key Facts About U.S. International Trade Comparative Advantage, Specialization, and International Trade How Exchange Rates
EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION ASSOCIATION EUROPEENNE DE LIBRE-ECHANGE CSC 9/98 21 October 1998 Brussels An Opinion from the EFTA Consultative Committee The Impact of the Common Currency on European Economies,
Special Declaration 16: Of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States on the urgent need for a nuclear weapon free world The Heads of State and Government of the Latin America and the Caribbean