Aspects of spatial proximity and sustainable travel behaviour in Flanders: A quantitative approach

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Aspects of spatial proximity and sustainable travel behaviour in Flanders: A quantitative approach"

Transcription

1

2

3 Aspects of spatial proximity and sustainable travel behaviour in Flanders: A quantitative approach 1

4 Cover: The picture on the cover ( Rocky Zutterman) is a remake of the painting Il ciclista attraversa la città, by the futurist Fortunato Depero (1945). The Futurism movement revered speed, technology and industry, and was thus not particularly advocating sustainable mobility, despite the iconic use of a bicycle in this work of art. Copyright Kobe Boussauw, Department of Geography, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). ISBN: Legal deposit: D/2011/12.134/6 NUR: 755/901/904/976 The research reported in this dissertation was conducted at the Social and Economic Geography research unit, Department of Geography, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, and funded by the Policy Research Centre on Regional Planning and Housing - Flanders (Steunpunt Ruimte en Wonen ). 2

5 Aspects of spatial proximity and sustainable travel behaviour in Flanders: A quantitative approach Aspecten van ruimtelijke nabijheid en duurzaam verplaatsingsgedrag in Vlaanderen: Een kwantitatieve benadering Proefschrift Proefschrift aangeboden tot het behalen van de graad van doctor in de wetenschappen: geografie vrijdag 4 maart 2011 door ir. Kobe Boussauw 3

6 Promotor: prof. dr. Frank Witlox, Universiteit Gent Samenstelling examencommissie: prof. dr. Georges Allaert, Universiteit Gent prof. dr. David Banister, University of Oxford prof. dr. Peter Cabus, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven prof. dr. Ben Derudder (voorzitter), Universiteit Gent prof. dr. Martin Dijst, Universiteit Utrecht prof. ir. Dirk Lauwers, Universiteit Gent prof. dr. ir. Jacques Teller, Université de Liège dr. Veronique Van Acker, Universiteit Gent 4

7 Contents Preface 9 Chapter 1: Introduction Summary Sustainable mobility, climate change and peak oil The time-distance-space relationship The rebirth of distance Flanders and Brussels: policy context Research questions, conceptual framework and implementation Overview of the research 51 References 55 Chapter 2: Introducing a commute-energy performance index 63 Abstract Introduction Energy use and urban spatial structure Limitations of studying the home-to-work commute Commute-energy performance (CEP) index Geographical setting and data analysis Results Relation to spatial-morphological characteristics Conclusions 84 References 85 Chapter 3: Minimum commuting distance as a spatial characteristic in a non-monocentric urban system 89 Abstract Introduction Spatial variations in excess travel Possible policy implications Methodology Case study area: Flanders and Brussels (Belgium) Application and results of the case study Possible biases Conclusions 113 References 115 5

8 Contents Chapter 4: Measuring spatial separation processes through the minimum commute 119 Abstract Introduction Defining spatial separation processes Measuring spatial separation by excess commuting characteristics Spatial development and commuting in Flanders and Brussels Data Method Results Conclusions 143 References 145 Chapter 5: Excess travel in non-professional trips: Why looking for it miles away? 149 Abstract Introduction Excess commuting and excess travel Methodology Determination of spatial classes Developing a proximity map Reported trip lengths Excess travel Possible biases in the results Conclusions 176 References 178 Data sources 181 Chapter 6: Relationship between spatial proximity and travel-to-work distance: The effect of the compact city 183 Abstract Introduction The relevant literature Methods Results Discussion Conclusions and pathways for further research 214 References 215 6

9 Contents Chapter 7: Linking expected mobility production to sustainable residential location planning 221 Abstract Introduction Study area Methodology and data Analysis Forecasting model for Flanders Discussion Conclusion and directions for further research 237 References 238 Chapter 8: Conclusions and policy recommendations General conclusions Options for spatial planning policy Some directions for further research 257 References 258 Addendum: The spatial component of air travel behaviour: An exploration 261 A.1 The aeroplane: the forgotten transport mode 261 A.2 Urban versus rural lifestyle 264 A.3 Rebound effect and policy implications 265 References 266 Samenvatting 269 S.1 Overzicht 269 S.2 Onderzoeksopzet 270 S.3 Bevindingen 272 S.4 Aanbevelingen voor het ruimtelijk beleid 277 S.5 Verder onderzoek 279 Referenties 279 Curriculum vitae 281 7

10 Contents 8

11 Preface (English version below) Na ruim drie jaar werken aan dit proefschrift is het tijd om er de laatste hand aan te leggen. Hoewel het niet de bedoeling lijkt dat een woord vooraf áchteraf geschreven wordt, is deze omgekeerde volgorde noodzakelijk om een terugblik te kunnen werpen. Want wat bracht mij er eigenlijk toe om me te verdiepen in mobiliteit en ruimtelijke ordening? Volgens de overlevering was mijn eerste woordje mama en mijn tweede lamborghini, verwijzend naar een paars matchbox-autootje dat deel uitmaakte van mijn eerste verjaardagsuitzet. Een volgende stap in deze evolutie was dat ik rond mijn dertiende op zaterdag op de fiets sprong om aan mijn nieuwe hobby te werken, die bestond uit het verzamelen van prospectussen voor auto s. Hoewel dat doorgaans vlot ging bij garages die gespecialiseerd waren in Renault of Volkswagen, werden er al eens wenkbrauwen gefronst toen ik op zekere dag de moed had om de toonzaal van Rolls-Royce te betreden. Deze vroege interesse voor auto s heeft echter weinig opgeleverd: tot op de dag van vandaag heb ik mij nooit een wagen aangeschaft. Met het ouder worden groeide mijn belangstelling voor het leefmilieu en begon mijn interesse zich te verschuiven naar fietstechniek. Handig, want die nieuwe sportfiets was niet alleen een perfect vervoermiddel voor de stad, maar ik kon er ook de weekends en de vakanties mee vullen. Tijdens mijn opleiding in architectuur en planning maakte ik een ontwerp voor een fietsvriendelijker heraanleg van het kruispunt De Sterre in Gent. Dat werd uiteraard nooit uitgevoerd, en ironisch genoeg is dit de plek waar ik de laatste drie jaar weer elke dag tweemaal op lichtjes suïcidale wijze langs fiets. Een volgende stap was mijn eerste job, als consultant verkeerskunde, waarbij ik ingeschakeld werd in de opmaak van mobiliteitsplannen, en waarin ik de aanleiding vond om mijn studie in de ruimtelijke planning aan te vullen met nog een opleiding verkeerskunde. Jaren later, in het UN-Habitat-team in Kosovo, zou deze achtergrond weer zeer goed van pas komen bij het ontwikkelen van ruimtelijke en mobiliteitsplannen in een heel andere context. En uiteindelijk bleken mobiliteit en planning ook een domein te vormen waarin nog heel wat theoretische onderzoeksmogelijkheden braak 9

12 Preface lagen. Mijn beslissing om daarin te stappen heb ik me niet beklaagd, getuige daarvan dit proefschrift. Dan rest mij nog de eer en het genoegen om een reeks mensen te bedanken, zonder wie dit werk er vandaag niet zou liggen. In de eerste plaats komt natuurlijk professor Frank Witlox, mijn promotor, die mij eind 2007 een goede reden gaf om Kosovo weer voor België in te ruilen. Hij zorgde voor het onderzoekskader en gaf mij de tijd en ruimte om cursussen te volgen en aan congressen deel te nemen. Van hem kreeg ik het vandaag in academische kringen zo gewaardeerde peer review- en publicatievirus te pakken. En met resultaat: de zes basishoofdstukken van het voorliggende proefschrift hebben een peer review -proces doorstaan en zijn (of worden) gepubliceerd in een reeks hoogstaande wetenschappelijke tijdschriften. Een snel optelsommetje leert dat er in de loop van het schrijven van deze verhandeling maar liefst achtentwintig internationale reviewers hebben bijgedragen tot de kwaliteit van dit werk. Hoewel deze experts doorgaans anoniem optraden, heb ik hun inspanning zeer gewaardeerd. Maar dichterbij huis, op de werkvloer van de sociaal-economische geografie (SEG), zijn er wel meer mensen die een plaats verdienen in een dankwoord. Ik denk vooral aan Tijs Neutens, Veronique Van Acker, Thomas Vanoutrive, Enid Zwerts en Nathalie Van Nuffel die op tijd en stond methodologische ondersteuning boden, in het bijzonder in het eerste jaar, toen de wondere wereld van statistiek, dataverwerking en GIS zich nog aan mij aan het openbaren was. Daarnaast heb ik ook de inbreng van andere SEG-onderzoekers van het eerste uur enorm gewaardeerd: David Bassens (die nog steeds op zoek is naar een manier om de kloof tussen het wereldstedenonderzoek en het mobiliteitsonderzoek te dichten), Heidi Hanssens (die altijd klaar stond om de sociale omkadering te verzorgen), Sven Vlassenroot (die de koffiepauzes steevast met nuttige weetjes over de academische wereld kwam opvrolijken), Lomme Devriendt (die de SEG vorm gaf) en professor Ben Derudder (die zijn nuttige tips van de zijlijn gaf). Daarmee wil ik de rest van de Vakgroep Geografie uiteraard niet vergeten; één speciale vermelding nog voor Helga Vermeulen, zonder wiens organisatorische en administratieve nauwgezetheid ik wellicht niet eens aan de universiteit was kunnen beginnen. Maar ook buiten de Vakgroep Geografie heb ik heel wat ondersteuning gekregen. De tientallen mensen (onderzoekers, promotoren en coördinatoren binnen de verschillende universiteiten, en begeleiders van de Afdeling Ruimtelijke Planning) achter het Steunpunt Ruimte en Wonen (dat mijn onderzoek 10

13 Preface financierde) verdienen hier dan ook een extra vermelding, net zoals Jos Zuallaert en Dirk Lauwers die mij de mogelijkheid boden om van tijd tot tijd nog wat in de planningspraktijk te gaan werken in Kosovo. Tot slot nog een bedankje voor zij die mijn activiteiten van buiten de werkvloer volgden, maar er niet voor terugschrokken om over mijn onderzoek in discussie te gaan: eerst en vooral mijn ouders, Johan en Kristien, maar ook mijn drie zussen (Anna, Marieke en Mathilde), oma Simonne, het wekelijkse badmintongezelschap (Filip, Wouter, Bram en Piet) waar de evolutie van de olieprijs een steeds weer opduikend thema was, Rocky (die de lichtjes controversiële kaft van dit boek leverde), Hermes (die bijna wekelijks naar de stand van zaken informeerde) en dan nog een hele reeks van vrienden, familie, reisgenoten, huisgenoten en facebook-friends die in de loop van de laatste jaren hun interesse lieten blijken. Merci, allemaal! After more than three years working on this thesis, the time has come to add the finishing touch. Although the word preface does not sound as if it is intended to be written afterwards, this reverse order is necessary to allow looking back. Because why did I bury myself in the study of mobility and spatial planning? According to tradition, my first word was mama and my second lamborghini, referring to a purple matchbox-car that was one of my first-birthday presents. As a next step in this evolution, when I was thirteen, on Saturdays I jumped on my bike to work on my new hobby, which consisted of collecting commercial prospectuses for cars. Although this went generally smoothly in garages that specialized in Renault or Volkswagen, some eyebrows raised when on a certain day I had the courage to enter the showroom of Rolls-Royce. However, this early interest in vehicles did not yield that much: up to now, I never bought a car. With age, my interest in the environment increased and I started concentrating on bicycle technology. That was quite convenient, because my new touring bike was not only a perfect transport means in the city, but I could also use it to fill my weekends and holidays. During my training in architecture and planning, I devised a bicyclefriendly redesign of the intersection De Sterre in Ghent. Of course, my design was never implemented, and ironically, during the last three years, 11

14 Preface this is the place where I cycled through every day twice in a slightly suicidal manner. A further step was my first job, as a traffic and mobility consultant, where I was called in to develop municipal mobility plans. In this job, I also found a good reason to supplement my studies in spatial planning with an advanced course on traffic and mobility. Some years later, in the UN-Habitat team in Kosovo, this background proved again very useful in developing urban plans and mobility plans in a quite different context. Ultimately, mobility and planning turned out to be a domain where many theoretical research opportunities were still present. And I can say that I have no regret on my decision to get into this, as is demonstrated today by this dissertation. Of course, I would like to use this opportunity to thank a number of people, without whom this work would not be accomplished today. In the first place there is of course Prof. Frank Witlox, my supervisor, who gave me at the end of 2007 a good reason to exchange Kosovo for Belgium again. Frank provided the research framework and gave me the time and space to follow courses and participate in conferences. He transferred the peer review and publication virus to me, which is highly valued in academic circles. This was not without success: all of the six basic chapters of the present dissertation have gone through a peer review process and are (or will be) published in a series of high ranking academic journals. A quick summation shows that twenty-eight international reviewers have contributed to the quality of this work. Although these experts usually performed anonymously, I greatly appreciate their efforts. Closer to home, at the Social and Economic Geography (SEG) research cluster, there are more people who deserve a place in this expression of gratitude. Tijs Neutens, Veronique Van Acker, Thomas Vanoutrive, Enid Zwerts and Nathalie Van Nuffel have all offered methodological support to me, especially in the first year, when the wonderful world of statistics, data processing and GIS was still in the process of revealing itself to me. In addition, I also have greatly appreciated the input from other SEG-researchers who were there in the very early stage of my study: David Bassens (still looking for a way to bridge the gap between world city research and mobility research), Heidi Hanssens (who was always ready to care about the social environment), Sven Vlassenroot (who was invariably cheering up coffee breaks with interesting academic rumours), Lomme Devriendt (who was responsible 12

15 Preface for the SEG house style) and Prof. Ben Derudder (who contributed with useful tips from the sideline). This is of course not to forget the rest of the Geography Department, while I would like to add a special note to Helga Vermeulen, without whose organizational and administrative accuracy I may not even have started working at Ghent University. But even outside the Geography Department, I got a lot of support. The dozens of people (researchers, supervisors and coordinators within the different universities, and the coaches of the Ministry s Spatial Planning Department) working for the Policy Research Centre on Regional Planning and Housing (which funded my research) deserve a special mention here too, just as Jos Zuallaert and Dirk Lauwers who offered me the possibility to do still some practical planning work in Kosovo. Finally, a word of thanks to all those who observed my professional activities from outside, but were not afraid of getting involved in some debate on my research topic. First and foremost I should mention my parents, Johan and Kristien, but also my three sisters (Anna, Marieke and Mathilde), my grandmother Simonne, the weekly badminton company (Filip, Wouter, Bram and Piet) (where the oil price trend was an ever resurfacing theme), Rocky (who made the slightly controversial cover of this book), Hermes (who informed almost weekly on the state of affairs), and of course the whole series of friends, family, travel companions, housemates and facebook-friends who demonstrated their interest during the last couple of years. Merci, everyone! 13

16 Preface 14

17 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Summary An often-heard statement says that the interaction between mobility policy and spatial planning practice needs more coordination. Any concerned politician or citizen feels that the perceived increase in car traffic, and the growth of problems that are associated with car use, have something to do with unorganized urban expansion, sprawling new housing and industrial allotments, and ribbon development. Nevertheless, it is less clear how this relationship exactly looks like, leaving alone the question how planning should be used as a tool to improve accessibility and steer mobility to a more sustainable course. This dissertation wants to gain insight in the reciprocal relationship between mobility and spatial development, taking into account the societal context of climate targets and imminent peak oil. This will be done through the development of a number of quantitative research methods, which are embedded in a literature review and will be applied to the case study of Flanders (Belgium). 1 This broadly defined research objective is narrowed to the mobility of people, and will focus on exploring the sustainability of spatial structure with respect to travel behaviour, with particular attention to the daily distances travelled. Sustainability is defined in terms of resilience, not only for growing mobility but also for a possible declining future mobility. A generally declining mobility is a scenario that may develop due to rising energy costs (e.g. peak oil scenario) or stringent climate policies, while a selective shrinkage of mobility (only affecting parts of the population) may occur through increased saturation of the traffic system. Moreover, spatial structure plays a role in the potential steering of travel behaviour in a more sustainable direction. 1 The reason for this research is found in the mission statement of the funding Policy Research Centre on Regional Planning and Housing - Flanders ( ), a policy-oriented research consortium that is administered by the Department of Planning, Housing and Heritage of the Flemish government. 15

18 Chapter 1 We refer to the research line on the connection between spatial structure and travel behaviour, which has developed mainly in the Englishspeaking, German, Dutch and Scandinavian world, and whose preliminary conclusions can be formulated as follows: A sustainable travel pattern can only be realized within an appropriate spatial framework, but other measures (financial and regulating) are needed to effectively change travel behaviour. In other words, planning is necessary but not sufficient (after Zhang, 2002, p. 3). The spatial quality that facilitates a travel pattern based on short distances is called spatial proximity, even though this concept has not been clearly defined in the exploratory phase of this research. This introductory chapter is structured as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of climate change and peak oil, two global phenomena that are directly related to the external effects of mobility. Section 3 deals with some captivating aspects of time and space perception and increased prosperity that underpin the growth of mobility. Section 4 gives an overview of the possible role of spatial structure in a future-oriented approach to mobility. Section 5 presents a snapshot of the spatial policy context in Flanders and Brussels. Section 6 focuses on the research questions, establishes a conceptual framework and states how the research will be conducted. Section 7 gives an outline of Chapters 2 to 7, each of which studies a separate aspect of the problem and can therefore be read as an individual article. 1.2 Sustainable mobility, climate change and peak oil The objective of coming to a less car-dependent and, by extension, a less oil-dependent transport system can be argued from different perspectives. Local environmental and safety problems caused by transport have already been in the spotlight for several decades. The principal issues in this debate are air pollution, noise, deterioration of the livability of residential areas, accidents and ecological and landscape fragmentation. This environmental approach is part of what is called sustainable mobility in the recent transport literature. Banister (2008) identifies four components that may contribute to the transition to a more sustainable transport system: (1) reducing the need to travel through substitution, (2) achieving a modal shift through transport policy measures, (3) 16

19 Introduction distance reduction through land-use policy measures, and (4) efficiency increase through technological innovation. Especially in the field of air pollution, accidents and livability, we can say that in the western world a lot of progress has been made by a combination of the mentioned policies and technological developments. We do not elaborate on this: for an overview we refer to Gilbert and Perl (2008, pp ). However, in terms of climate change (an environmental problem) and peak oil vulnerability (an economic problem), there seems to be much less progress. Below, we examine these two global phenomena, considering that these could constitute a major incentive to reduce the oil dependence of the transport system Climate change It seems that around 1995, in the scientific community, a consensus was reached on the acknowledgement of climate change as an important human-caused problem. With the Kyoto Protocol (1997), which was ratified by almost all concerned countries except the US, it became clear that these countries recognized anthropogenic climate change as a problem and, at least in a rhetorical sense, wanted to commit themselves to cut greenhouse gas emissions. In the Kyoto Protocol, Belgium, for instance, is committed to limit its emissions levels by 2012 to 92% of the 1990 level. Since 2001, we see that climate change both in the peerreviewed literature and outside it has become an established phenomenon (Weart, 2010). Climate change is caused by greenhouse gases, of which carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most important. In 2006, transport was worldwide responsible for 23% of the energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. One fifth of the projected increase in emissions comes on account of transport, mainly in the form of increasing ownership and use of passenger cars in non-oecd countries and a general increase in international air travel and overseas cargo shipping (IEA, 2008). In 2005, in the European Union (EU) 80% of all greenhouse emissions was energy-related, including 24% (equalling 19% of total emissions) that was transport related. The international bunkers (fuel used by international aviation and shipping, both intra-european and intercontinental) are not yet included in these figures. In the period greenhouse 17

20 Chapter 1 gas emissions in the EU decreased in all sectors, except in transport (+26%) and international bunkers (+64%) (EEA, 2008). In Flanders, greenhouse gas intensity in transport (this is the amount of emissions per person-kilometre, or per ton-kilometre for freight) decreased slightly in the period , but the absolute growth of traffic offset this efficiency gain well and ensured an absolute increase in emissions (by 1.50 megatons of CO 2 equivalent per year, an increase of 12% over the period ) that was the greatest in the transport sector (again, international bunkers are not yet included). This sector was therefore largely responsible for not achieving the intermediate emission reduction targets of the Flanders Region for 2005, even though in 2007 the Kyoto target was still met. This last evolution was due to the manufacturing industry which recorded over the last period a reduction of 5.33 megatons of CO 2 equivalent per year (VMM, 2008, pp ). Regarding the transport sector, the Flanders Climate Policy Plan (LNE, 2006) focuses on achieving a modal shift, increasing overall efficiency, and improving the economy of the fleet. However, no measures that would curb the autonomous growth of traffic are proposed and international aviation and shipping are even completely out of focus. Although in Flanders the growth rate of personal car travel has almost reached zero in recent years (SVR, 2010), the complete traffic volume seems to be mainly associated with economic dynamics, rather than with climate policy. Moreover, both freight (SVR, 2010) and international air traffic with origins and destinations in and around Flanders was growing steadily up to 2008 (Brussels Airport, 2009). Transport is clearly bottom of the class when it comes to greenhouse gas emissions. Although efficiency improvement in vehicles is indeed enforceable in terms of regulation, it seems that traffic growth itself is directly linked with increasing prosperity. When mobility growth stagnates, this is usually due to a (temporary) economic recession. Also reaching a high level of congestion can lead to stagnation within a particular segment of the transport sector, e.g. in road traffic. Structural congestion may suppress autonomous growth, but particularly increases the pressure to guide the growth in another direction, for example by building more road infrastructure, through measures that improve the spread of traffic across the day, by increasing the capacity and the attractiveness of public transport, or by shifting the growth from commuter traffic towards the segment of recreational and tourist travel (including airplane use). 18

21 Introduction Overall, proposed policy measures aimed to reduce greenhouse emissions from traffic can be divided into four packages: 1. Steering mobility to a less car-dependent course by encouraging a modal shift towards alternative transport modes (other than passenger car or truck), a more efficient utilization of vehicles, but also substitution of transport by telecommunication. Known examples in passenger transport are: car sharing, carpooling, the provision of public transport, encouraging cycling and walking, and teleworking and videoconferencing (Robèrt and Jonsson, 2006). 2. Increasing, and possibly varying, financial charges on those types of mobility which emit most greenhouse gases, while alternatives may be supported in parallel. Examples in passenger travel are raising fuel taxes, introducing registration charges corresponding to the emission level of the vehicle, but also road tolls, smart charging, free public transport and bicycle allowances (Chapman, 2007). 3. Increasing vehicle efficiency by accelerating fleet replacement by more fuel efficient vehicles or vehicles that run on alternative fuels (including switching to renewable organic fuels, known as biofuels) (Anable and Bristow, 2007). 4. Intervening in the spatial structure through land use planning with the aim of bringing potential destinations closer together and making long distance transport needless. With regard to person mobility it is generally assumed that increasing density and developing a high degree of land use mix leads to less use of private cars and shorter daily distances travelled (Newman and Kenworthy, 2006). The latter form of proposed policy is the background of the research which is reported in this dissertation. The objectives of these four packages are clear, and throughout the western world many examples can be found where this kind of measures are implemented and measurable successes were reported. However, the finding that overall traffic and transport emissions continue to grow (Cervero and Murakami, 2010), leaves room for some healthy scepticism. Below, we give a number of concerns, again grouped by package. 1. In terms of modal shift many local success stories are known. An example is the historical centre of Bruges (Belgium), where in the period car traffic in the city core declined under the influence of a rigorous mobility policy, while the number of cyclists and users of public transport increased considerably in the same period. The number of registered cars in the entire municipality (which con- 19

22 Chapter 1 tains six times more inhabitants than the old town), however, continued to increase. Thus, the success story remains very local, and led to a geographical shift in the growth of car traffic (City of Bruges, 2007). It is difficult, if not impossible, to find a clear example where a purposive mobility policy on a regional scale has led to a significant substitution of individual car use. Nevertheless, the finding that the modal split largely varies throughout the western world, depending on the city, the country and the general context, is promising for potential sustainability gains in mobility. 2. The main success story in terms of taxation is perhaps the London Congestion Charge, which has led two years after the introduction to a reduction in CO 2 emissions in the charged area by 19.5% (Beevers and Carslaw, 2005). Again, it may be assumed that a part of the suppressed traffic finds its way outside the demarcated charged area. Moreover, public support for additional charges on car use (also outside the city centres) is hardly present anywhere in the western world. 3. Anable and Bristow (2007) show that UK greenhouse gas emissions from cars remained almost constant in the period , while both the kilometrage and the average weight per vehicle increased significantly. So we are talking about a major rebound effect, where efficiency gains are associated with an increase in activity, and finally with a status quo of energy consumption. Indications exist that the rebound effect occurs at the macroeconomic level too, meaning that efficiency gains may lead to accelerated economic growth with an overall increase (instead of a decrease) in energy consumption (whether or not outside the transport sector) as a consequence (Saunders, 1992). Also, the effectiveness of the use of so-called biofuels has in recent years led to a major controversy (Righelato and Spracklen, 2007). 4. Although many studies have found that spatial structures with an urban character are associated with a lower per capita energy consumption for transport (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999), the correlation between density or spatial diversity and sustainability of travel patterns is in fact quite weak. One possible reason is a geographical form of the rebound effect. An increase in the choice range, manifested as a better internal accessibility which is typical of urban structures, will partly offset the relatively small mutual distances, making people less inclined to choose the nearest possible destination 20

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary Michiel Hekkenberg (ECN) Martijn Verdonk (PBL) (project coordinators) February 2015 ECN-E --15-005 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary 2 The

More information

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility 1 Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility 2 1 UrbanizationUrbanization Rapid pace, largely uncontrolled growth, taking place mainly in developing countries 3 Global Urbanization Trends World

More information

11. Monitoring. 11.1 Performance monitoring in LTP2

11. Monitoring. 11.1 Performance monitoring in LTP2 178 11. Monitoring 11.1 Performance monitoring in LTP2 Performance against the suite of indicators adopted for LTP2 is shown in the following table. This shows progress between 2005/06 and 2009/10 (the

More information

The reaction of politicians to the complex environmental problems of transport

The reaction of politicians to the complex environmental problems of transport ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN TRANSPORT POLICY - HOW IS THE SITUATION IN DENMARK, THE NETHERLANDS AND SWEDEN? Professor Emin Tengström, Aalborg University Introduction Environmental sustainability has

More information

Transport demands in suburbanized locations

Transport demands in suburbanized locations Agronomy Research 12(2), 351 358, 2014 Transport demands in suburbanized locations M. Lukeš *, M. Kotek and M. Růžička Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 21 Prague 6

More information

The information in this report is confidential. So keep this report in a safe place!

The information in this report is confidential. So keep this report in a safe place! Bram Voorbeeld About this Bridge 360 report 2 CONTENT About this Bridge 360 report... 2 Introduction to the Bridge 360... 3 About the Bridge 360 Profile...4 Bridge Behaviour Profile-Directing...6 Bridge

More information

Cycling more for safer cycling

Cycling more for safer cycling Cycling more for safer cycling Cycling presents a lot of benefits to the individual and to society. Health, environment, accessibility, local businesses, all gain when more people cycle. Yet many governments

More information

Communication «A sustainable future for transport Towards an integrated, technology-led and user friendly system» CEMR position paper COM (2009) 279/4

Communication «A sustainable future for transport Towards an integrated, technology-led and user friendly system» CEMR position paper COM (2009) 279/4 COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS CONSEIL DES COMMUNES ET REGIONS D EUROPE Registered in the Register of Interest Representatives of the European Commission. Registration number: 81142561702-61

More information

IP-NBM. Copyright Capgemini 2012. All Rights Reserved

IP-NBM. Copyright Capgemini 2012. All Rights Reserved IP-NBM 1 De bescheidenheid van een schaker 2 Maar wat betekent dat nu 3 De drie elementen richting onsterfelijkheid Genomics Artifical Intelligence (nano)robotics 4 De impact van automatisering en robotisering

More information

If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen

If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen If farming becomes surviving! Ton Duffhues Specialist Agriculture and society ZLTO Director Atelier Waarden van het Land 4 juni 2014, Wageningen About myself Study - Cultural and social Anthropology, specialised

More information

~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~

~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~ ~ We are all goddesses, the only problem is that we forget that when we grow up ~ This brochure is Deze brochure is in in English and Dutch het Engels en Nederlands Come and re-discover your divine self

More information

Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting

Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting Airports Commission Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting Response from Kent County Council and Medway Council Q1: To what extent do you consider that the DfT forecasts support or challenge

More information

Asking what. a person looks like some persons look like

Asking what. a person looks like some persons look like 1 Asking what people are wearing: What are you wearing? = Wat heb jij aan? I m / I am wearing jeans (or a dress or ) = Ik heb jeans aan. What is he / she wearing? = Wat heeft hij / zij aan? He / she s

More information

Relationele Databases 2002/2003

Relationele Databases 2002/2003 1 Relationele Databases 2002/2003 Hoorcollege 5 22 mei 2003 Jaap Kamps & Maarten de Rijke April Juli 2003 Plan voor Vandaag Praktische dingen 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 4.1, 4.4 en 4.5 SQL Aantekeningen 3 Meer Queries.

More information

Big Data for Transportation: Measuring and Monitoring Travel

Big Data for Transportation: Measuring and Monitoring Travel 1 Big Data for Transportation: Measuring and Monitoring Travel Frank Franczyk, MSc. P.Eng., Benoit Coupal, MSc. Persen Technologies Incorporated (PERSENTECH) Introduction Relevant and reliable transportation

More information

Submission to the Assembly Regional Development Committee Inquiry into Sustainable Transport. September 2009

Submission to the Assembly Regional Development Committee Inquiry into Sustainable Transport. September 2009 Submission to the Assembly Regional Development Committee Inquiry into Sustainable Transport September 2009 1. The Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) 1.1. The SDC is the Government s independent

More information

The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably

The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably The New Mobility: Using Big Data to Get Around Simply and Sustainably Without the movement of people and goods from point to point,

More information

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November 2007 1 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November

More information

usage of these types of fuels with production price far higher then diesel and petrol, is also a measure. We can say that in Bulgaria there are

usage of these types of fuels with production price far higher then diesel and petrol, is also a measure. We can say that in Bulgaria there are TRANSPORT The basic goals of the national transport policy are focused on sustainable development of the road and railway infrastructure of national and international importance, improvement of the transport

More information

HAS FINANCE BECOME TOO EXPENSIVE? AN ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT COST OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION IN EUROPE 1951-2007

HAS FINANCE BECOME TOO EXPENSIVE? AN ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT COST OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION IN EUROPE 1951-2007 HAS FINANCE BECOME TOO EXPENSIVE? AN ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT COST OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION IN EUROPE 1951-2007 IPP Policy Briefs n 10 June 2014 Guillaume Bazot www.ipp.eu Summary Finance played an increasing

More information

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove *

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * * European Cyclists Federation

More information

Why a Floating Exchange Rate Regime Makes Sense for Canada

Why a Floating Exchange Rate Regime Makes Sense for Canada Remarks by Gordon Thiessen Governor of the Bank of Canada to the Chambre de commerce du Montréal métropolitain Montreal, Quebec 4 December 2000 Why a Floating Exchange Rate Regime Makes Sense for Canada

More information

A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford An opportunity for Smart Growth. university of surrey November 2013

A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford An opportunity for Smart Growth. university of surrey November 2013 A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford An opportunity for Smart Growth university of surrey November 2013 A new Garden Neighbourhood for West Guildford Preface Since the County and Borough Councils

More information

Demand for Long Distance Travel

Demand for Long Distance Travel Demand for Long Distance Travel April 2011 Demand for long distance travel 1 Structure of this paper 1.1 This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 sets out past trends in the demand for long distance

More information

PoliticalMashup. Make implicit structure and information explicit. Content

PoliticalMashup. Make implicit structure and information explicit. Content 1 2 Content Connecting promises and actions of politicians and how the society reacts on them Maarten Marx Universiteit van Amsterdam Overview project Zooming in on one cultural heritage dataset A few

More information

Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire: Behavioral Reactions to Terrorist Attacks

Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire: Behavioral Reactions to Terrorist Attacks Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00753.x Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire: Behavioral Reactions to Terrorist Attacks Gerd Gigerenzer A low-probability, high-damage event

More information

TRAVEL BEHAVIOR ISSUES RELATED TO NEO-TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH

TRAVEL BEHAVIOR ISSUES RELATED TO NEO-TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH TRAVEL BEHAVIOR ISSUES RELATED TO NEO-TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH SUSAN HANDY University of Texas School of Architecture Goldsmith Hall Austin, TX 78712-1160 At first glance, it may

More information

Energy Projections 2006 2030 Price and Policy Considerations. Dr. Randy Hudson Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Energy Projections 2006 2030 Price and Policy Considerations. Dr. Randy Hudson Oak Ridge National Laboratory Energy Projections 2006 2030 Price and Policy Considerations Dr. Randy Hudson Oak Ridge National Laboratory There is perhaps no single current topic so potentially impacting to all life on this planet

More information

AUTONOMOUS CARS: 25 MEASURES FOR 2025

AUTONOMOUS CARS: 25 MEASURES FOR 2025 AUTONOMOUS CARS: 25 MEASURES FOR 2025 Report Workshop 25 great minds towards 25 11/03/ 15 in Ghent In January 2015 Taxistop and Autopia participated in a workshop in the German Wremen with as subject the

More information

101 Inspirerende Quotes - Eelco de boer - winst.nl/ebooks/ Inleiding

101 Inspirerende Quotes - Eelco de boer - winst.nl/ebooks/ Inleiding Inleiding Elke keer dat ik een uitspraak of een inspirerende quote hoor of zie dan noteer ik deze (iets wat ik iedereen aanraad om te doen). Ik ben hier even doorheen gegaan en het leek me een leuk idee

More information

Commuter Choice Certificate Program

Commuter Choice Certificate Program Commuter Choice Certificate Program Current course offerings (subject to change) Core 1 Commuter Choice Toolbox Required Courses Rideshare Options Audience: This 2 credit required course is targeted to

More information

Policy Document Road safety

Policy Document Road safety Policy Document Road safety Type hier de hoofdstuk as one titel Road safety: working together The number of road deaths in the Netherlands has been steadily decreasing since the 1970s. This number rose

More information

NCHRP 8-84/Report 735: Long-Distance and Rural Transferable Parameters for Statewide Travel Forecasting Models

NCHRP 8-84/Report 735: Long-Distance and Rural Transferable Parameters for Statewide Travel Forecasting Models NCHRP 8-84/Report 735: Long-Distance and Rural Transferable Parameters for Statewide Travel Forecasting Models presented to Atlanta Regional Commission Model Users Group Presented by Robert G. Schiffer,

More information

Setting the framework for parking policy I. Coordinated by FGM-AMOR Presentation by Martina Hertel (Difu) based upon training material by RHV

Setting the framework for parking policy I. Coordinated by FGM-AMOR Presentation by Martina Hertel (Difu) based upon training material by RHV Setting the framework for parking policy I Coordinated by FGM-AMOR Presentation by Martina Hertel (Difu) based upon training material by RHV Just a parking lot.? Source: City of Bocholt, Germany, Stadtbaurat

More information

Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report. Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011

Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report. Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011 Dutch Mortgage Market Pricing On the NMa report Marco Haan University of Groningen November 18, 2011 Introductory remarks My comments are complementary: I do not focus so much on this market as such, more

More information

1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions

1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions MOBILITY and TRANSPORTS CODATU and FRANCE NATURE ENVIRONNEMENT 1. Transport challenges in subnational entities and related GHG emissions Mobility for people as well as goods is at the heart of issues related

More information

One-way carsharing: which alternative to private cars?

One-way carsharing: which alternative to private cars? One-way carsharing: which alternative to private cars? Results of the first major survey about the impact of a one-way carsharing service (the case of Autolib in Paris) This study, conducted by 6t bureau

More information

NEW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNIT IN FINLAND ACCEPTED BY THE FINNISH PARLIAMENT

NEW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNIT IN FINLAND ACCEPTED BY THE FINNISH PARLIAMENT International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2002 Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, September 9-12, 2002 www.drustvo-js.si/gora2002 NEW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNIT IN FINLAND ACCEPTED BY THE FINNISH PARLIAMENT

More information

Promoting Sustainability through Mobility Management. Concepts, Belgian Experience. Bart Desmedt General manager Traject

Promoting Sustainability through Mobility Management. Concepts, Belgian Experience. Bart Desmedt General manager Traject Promoting Sustainability through Mobility Management Concepts, Belgian Experience Bart Desmedt General manager Traject Origin of mobility management The European version of Transportation Demand Management

More information

2 Integrated planning. Chapter 2. Integrated Planning. 2.4 State highway categorisation and integrated planning

2 Integrated planning. Chapter 2. Integrated Planning. 2.4 State highway categorisation and integrated planning 2 Integrated planning Chapter 2 Integrated Planning This chapter contains the following sections: Section No. Topic 2.1 Introduction to integrated planning 2.2 Transit s Integrated Planning Policy 2.3

More information

SU R F A C E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S I S A

SU R F A C E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S I S A TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND GREENHOUSE GA SES B Y M AT T H E W B A R T H A N D K A N O K B O R I B O O N S O M S I N SU R F A C E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S I S A LARGE source

More information

World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights. www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency

World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights. www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook 27: China and India Insights www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency Why Focus on China & India? Increase in World Primary Energy Demand, Imports & Energy-Related CO

More information

Carbon accounting for small businesses video script

Carbon accounting for small businesses video script Carbon accounting for small businesses video script David York A global survey of the views of smaller accountancy practices was published in March 2015. The survey concluded that the biggest challenge

More information

Chapter 9: Transportation

Chapter 9: Transportation Chapter 9: Transportation What is this chapter about? The goals and policies in this chapter convey the City s intent to: Create a coordinated, efficient, and more affordable multimodal transportation

More information

5 Performance Measures

5 Performance Measures 5 Performance Measures This page left blank intentionally. 5 2 Moving Forward Monterey Bay 2035 Introduction The investments identified in the 2035 MTP/SCS are expected to result in significant benefits

More information

Met wie moet je als erasmusstudent het eerst contact opnemen als je aankomt?

Met wie moet je als erasmusstudent het eerst contact opnemen als je aankomt? Erasmusbestemming: University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Academiejaar: 2011-2012 Één/twee semester(s) Universiteit Waar is de universiteit ergens gelegen (in het centrum/ ver uit het centrum)? For law

More information

CMMI version 1.3. How agile is CMMI?

CMMI version 1.3. How agile is CMMI? CMMI version 1.3 How agile is CMMI? A small poll Who uses CMMI without Agile? Who uses Agile without CMMI? Who combines both? Who is interested in SCAMPI? 2 Agenda Big Picture of CMMI changes Details for

More information

TITLE A CTS FOR THE NEW ROME EXHIBITION

TITLE A CTS FOR THE NEW ROME EXHIBITION CityMobil2 - Socio-economic impact study Reference Group Meeting Lausanne 23 June 2015 TITLE A CTS FOR THE NEW ROME EXHIBITION Carlo Sessa Gabriele Giustiniani, ISIS ITR 30/3/2015 1 Envisioning AUTOMATED

More information

HW 2 Macroeconomics 102 Due on 06/12

HW 2 Macroeconomics 102 Due on 06/12 HW 2 Macroeconomics 102 Due on 06/12 1.What are the three important macroeconomic goals about which most economists, and society at large, agree? a. economic growth, full employment, and low interest rates

More information

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: THE PORTLAND WAY

ELECTRIC VEHICLES: THE PORTLAND WAY ELECTRIC VEHICLES: THE PORTLAND WAY THE PORTLAND STRATEGY AT A GLANCE 1. Adopt and update policies to facilitate the transition to the use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Portland: a. Streamline electrical

More information

Policies and progress on transport access, including access for the rural population and low-income households

Policies and progress on transport access, including access for the rural population and low-income households Transport Policies and progress on transport access, including access for the rural population and low-income households The newest long-term strategy of the Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland,

More information

Monetary policy rules and their application in Russia. Economics Education and Research Consortium Working Paper Series ISSN 1561-2422.

Monetary policy rules and their application in Russia. Economics Education and Research Consortium Working Paper Series ISSN 1561-2422. Economics Education and Research Consortium Working Paper Series ISSN 1561-2422 No 04/09 Monetary policy rules and their application in Russia Anna Vdovichenko Victoria Voronina This project (02-230) was

More information

Ideal Public Transport Fares

Ideal Public Transport Fares Ideal Public Transport Fares Mike Smart 29 April 2014 Sapere Research Group Limited www.srgexpert.com Energy & natural resources Regulated industries Health policy & analysis Public administration & finance

More information

Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning. Sofie Loyens

Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning. Sofie Loyens Students Conceptions of Constructivist Learning Sofie Loyens ISBN 978-90-8559-275-4 Copyright 2007 S.M.M. Loyens All rights reserved. No part of this thesis may be reproduced or transmitted in any form,

More information

Mobility Management and the Urban Transport Problem

Mobility Management and the Urban Transport Problem Mobility Management and the Urban Transport Problem VIII Conference City and Transport Warsaw University of Technology 27 March 2014 Giuliano Mingardo Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam mingardo@ese.eur.nl

More information

Two miles per day may not seem like much, but do the math.

Two miles per day may not seem like much, but do the math. February 2008 Chicago sgreen Dividend Joe Cortright jcortright@impresaconsulting.com Senior Policy Advisor, CEOs for Cities Chicago has placed an increasing emphasis on pursuing green policies in recent

More information

campagnebeeld Ghent Climate Plan Fall in love with an energetic city Final approval from Comission: January 2015

campagnebeeld Ghent Climate Plan Fall in love with an energetic city Final approval from Comission: January 2015 campagnebeeld Ghent Climate Plan 2014 2019 Fall in love with an energetic city Final approval from Comission: January 2015 GENT 247.000 inhabitants- 113.000 families 15.643 ha 56 squares 74 parks 29.000

More information

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO₂ assessment CO₂ emissions from company car fleets across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2010 www.gecapital.eu/fleet Contents Introduction and key findings Reduction

More information

Globalisation and fast travel

Globalisation and fast travel Sustainable mobility as a cultural challenge John Urry Director, Centre for Mobilities Research, Lancaster University (This file should be fully cited as per ususal academic conventions if reference is

More information

Monetary policy in Russia: Recent challenges and changes

Monetary policy in Russia: Recent challenges and changes Monetary policy in Russia: Recent challenges and changes Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia) Abstract Increasing trade and financial flows between the world s countries has been a double-edged

More information

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk

Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla It s me Illustrations: Your Illustrator Cover design: Joke Herstel, Wenk blabla Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, op gezag van de Rector

More information

How Clean is Your Car Brand?

How Clean is Your Car Brand? How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to the EU to reduce CO 2 emissions: a brand-by-brand progress report October 2006 How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to

More information

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Contents Overview a. Drivers of electricity prices b. Jobs and growth c. Trade d. Energy dependence A. Impact assessment

More information

2013 Benefit-Cost Analyses Guidance for TIGER Grant Applicants

2013 Benefit-Cost Analyses Guidance for TIGER Grant Applicants 2013 Benefit-Cost Analyses Guidance for TIGER Grant Applicants Each applicant should provide evidence that the expected benefits of the project justify the costs (recognizing that some costs and benefits

More information

Higher Gasoline Prices: Temporary or Time to Buy a Hybrid? September 2012. Classroom Edition

Higher Gasoline Prices: Temporary or Time to Buy a Hybrid? September 2012. Classroom Edition PAGE ONE ECONOMICS NEWSLETTER the back story on front page economics Higher Gasoline Prices: Temporary or Time to Buy a Hybrid? September 2012 Classroom Edition An informative and accessible economic essay

More information

Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money)

Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money) Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money) Kathryn Phillips Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies March 25, 2004 I. INTRODUCTION California

More information

Why Talk About Transport in Africa? SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT IN AFRICA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. Urbanization and Motorization in Africa

Why Talk About Transport in Africa? SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT IN AFRICA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. Urbanization and Motorization in Africa SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORT IN AFRICA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Presented by Brian Williams UN-Habitat Why Talk About Transport in Africa? Families and individuals spend upwards of 30% of their incomes on

More information

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation.

Cover Page. The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/38352 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation. Author: Font Vivanco, David Title: The rebound effect through industrial ecology s eyes

More information

MINISTRY OF DEFENCE LANGUAGES EXAMINATIONS BOARD

MINISTRY OF DEFENCE LANGUAGES EXAMINATIONS BOARD Name: Candidate Registration Number: Date of Exam: MINISTRY OF DEFENCE LANGUAGES EXAMINATIONS BOARD SURVIVAL SLP1 DUTCH PAPER A Reading Task 1 Task 2 Time allowed Translation Comprehension 15 minutes Candidates

More information

Project LINK Meeting New York, 20-22 October 2010. Country Report: Australia

Project LINK Meeting New York, 20-22 October 2010. Country Report: Australia Project LINK Meeting New York, - October 1 Country Report: Australia Prepared by Peter Brain: National Institute of Economic and Industry Research, and Duncan Ironmonger: Department of Economics, University

More information

Forecasting Demand for Demand Forecasting. Abstract

Forecasting Demand for Demand Forecasting. Abstract MORISON,James Beattie Transportation Engineer City of Calgary Transportation Planning FUNG,Yu Han Transportation Planner City of Calgary Transportation Planning District 7 (CANADA) ITE conference, Victoria

More information

Assignment 2: Exploratory Data Analysis: Applying Visualization Tools

Assignment 2: Exploratory Data Analysis: Applying Visualization Tools : Exploratory Data Analysis: Applying Visualization Tools Introduction Economic boom, though inspiring, is always connected with unsustainable development. Because of this, people tend to view economic

More information

Defining Energy Efficiency

Defining Energy Efficiency Defining Energy Efficiency Wolfgang Irrek (Co-ordination) / Stefan Thomas with support from: Susanne Böhler, Meike Spitzner Introduction The term energy efficiency is interpreted differently in national

More information

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO2 Assessment CO2 emissions from company cars across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2012 GE imagination at work Contents Introduction and key findings 4 European overview

More information

EFFECT OF A MOTORWAY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENTS IN A BIG CITY

EFFECT OF A MOTORWAY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENTS IN A BIG CITY RECEIVED 20. 5. 2004 ACCEPTED 15.12. 2004 H. KNOFLACHER EFFECT OF A MOTORWAY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENTS IN A BIG CITY Univ.Prof. Dipl.Ing. Dr. Hermann Knoflacher Univ. Prof. Dipl. Ing. Dr. Hermann

More information

Response to the Energy White Paper Issues Paper PREPARED BY EMC ENGINEERING FOR THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY

Response to the Energy White Paper Issues Paper PREPARED BY EMC ENGINEERING FOR THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY Response to the Energy White Paper Issues Paper PREPARED BY EMC ENGINEERING FOR THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY i P a g e www.energym adeclean.com CONTENTS

More information

cgi.com Delivering Smarter Mobility

cgi.com Delivering Smarter Mobility cgi.com 1 Delivering Smarter Mobility cgi.com 2 cgi.com 3 A view of the future It has been widely documented that by 2030 two-thirds of the world s population will live in cities and by 2050 this will

More information

Journey to Work Patterns in the Auckland Region

Journey to Work Patterns in the Auckland Region Analysis of Census Data for 2001-2013 1 INTRODUCTION... 1 DEFINITIONS OF WORKERS, JOBS AND EMPLOYMENT... 1 2 SCOPE OF THE ANALYSIS... 2 2.1 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS... 2 2.2 DATA INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS...

More information

The UK and the EU: Jobs and trade 1

The UK and the EU: Jobs and trade 1 The UK and the EU: Jobs and trade 1 Michael Gasiorek, Maximiliano Mendez-Parra and Bridget Azubuike 2 The UK is going through a somewhat stormy period in its relationship with the EU. David Cameron has

More information

Ghent climate city is working overtime. 2014-2019 Ghent Climate Plan

Ghent climate city is working overtime. 2014-2019 Ghent Climate Plan Ghent climate city is working overtime 2014-2019 Ghent Climate Plan GENT 247.000 inhabitants- 113.000 families 56 squares and 74 parks 35 hotels and 450 restaurants 650 pubs 10 museums and 10 theaters

More information

sustainable gains in energy policy. While the report addresses energy policies comprehensively, the following sections highlight these three topics.

sustainable gains in energy policy. While the report addresses energy policies comprehensively, the following sections highlight these three topics. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 01 A small, somewhat isolated country, Finland takes a balanced view of its energy policy, taking advantage of its situation wherever possible. Where it can leverage its location and

More information

ELECTRICAL ENERGY REDUCTION IN REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Ken Landymore, Director of Operations, Smartcool Systems Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENERGY REDUCTION IN REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Ken Landymore, Director of Operations, Smartcool Systems Inc. ELECTRICAL ENERGY REDUCTION IN REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Ken Landymore, Director of Operations, Smartcool Systems Inc. 1. INTRODUCTION In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions

More information

BT s supply chain carbon emissions a report on the approach and methodology

BT s supply chain carbon emissions a report on the approach and methodology BT s supply chain carbon emissions a report on the approach and methodology April 2015 1 BT s supply chain emissions metrics approach and methodology 1 Are supply chain emissions really the essential,

More information

Academic Reading sample task Identifying information

Academic Reading sample task Identifying information A B C D E There are now over 700 million motor vehicles in the world - and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year. The average distance driven by car users is growing too - from 8km a day

More information

Big Data Collection and Utilization for Operational Support of Smarter Social Infrastructure

Big Data Collection and Utilization for Operational Support of Smarter Social Infrastructure Hitachi Review Vol. 63 (2014), No. 1 18 Big Data Collection and Utilization for Operational Support of Smarter Social Infrastructure Kazuaki Iwamura Hideki Tonooka Yoshihiro Mizuno Yuichi Mashita OVERVIEW:

More information

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research 7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research This research has devised an approach to analyzing system-level coordination from the point of view of product architecture. The analysis was conducted

More information

GMP-Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie

GMP-Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie -Z Annex 15: Kwalificatie en validatie item Gewijzigd richtsnoer -Z Toelichting Principle 1. This Annex describes the principles of qualification and validation which are applicable to the manufacture

More information

Tracking Well-being in Australia The Genuine Progress Indicator 2000

Tracking Well-being in Australia The Genuine Progress Indicator 2000 THE AUSTRALIA INSTITUTE Tracking Well-being in Australia The Genuine Progress Indicator 2000 Clive Hamilton Executive Director, The Australia Institute Richard Denniss Research Fellow, The Australia Institute

More information

DYNAMIC MODELING FOR INTERNET TELEPHONY MANAGEMENT

DYNAMIC MODELING FOR INTERNET TELEPHONY MANAGEMENT DYNAMIC MODELING FOR INTERNET TELEPHONY MANAGEMENT Habib Sedehi HELP Auditing Informatico Via Antonio D Achiardi, 3 0058 Rome (ITALY) E-mail Sedehi@help.it Nicolò Vaccaro Università degli Studi di Palermo

More information

Introduction. How company cars are taxed. Calculating the cash equivalent

Introduction. How company cars are taxed. Calculating the cash equivalent Introduction Company cars remain a popular employment-related benefit despite the generally high income tax charges on them. The tax charge on company cars cars provided to employees by their employers

More information

EU renewable energy and biofuel targets what will they mean?

EU renewable energy and biofuel targets what will they mean? EU renewable energy and biofuel targets what will they mean? Background The EU Commission has today tabled proposals for reductions in carbon dioxide emissions a 20% cut by 2020. Alongside this legally

More information

In 1992, the US Congress authorized the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher

In 1992, the US Congress authorized the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher A Driving Factor in Moving to Opportunity EVELYN BLUMENBERG AND GREGORY PIERCE In 1992, the US Congress authorized the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing voucher program to operate in five large metropolitan

More information

1 Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030. Browser SAEIMA OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA SAEIMA

1 Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030. Browser SAEIMA OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA SAEIMA 1 Sustainable Strategy of Latvia until 2030 Browser SAEIMA OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA SAEIMA A group of experts led by associate professor Roberts Ķīlis, in accordance with the task of the Ministry of Regional

More information

Upon closer analysis, however, there are circumstances when renting a car instead of driving your own may indeed be the economically wise choice.

Upon closer analysis, however, there are circumstances when renting a car instead of driving your own may indeed be the economically wise choice. Summary The decision to rent a vehicle vs. using the one in your garage for a weekend getaway is often shaped by such factors as the need for a different size or a more attractive appearance. But when

More information

Cooperation between city of Amsterdam and Cyclists Union. 24th June 2010 Ria Hilhorst and Govert de With

Cooperation between city of Amsterdam and Cyclists Union. 24th June 2010 Ria Hilhorst and Govert de With Cooperation between city of Amsterdam and Cyclists Union 24th June 2010 Ria Hilhorst and Govert de With Content Amsterdam and Cyclists Union introduction Cityplanning and traffic: historical review Development

More information

ICT SOLUTIONS FOR A SMART LOW-CARBON FUTURE Supporting a solution agenda in Cancun

ICT SOLUTIONS FOR A SMART LOW-CARBON FUTURE Supporting a solution agenda in Cancun ICT SOLUTIONS FOR A SMART LOW-CARBON FUTURE Supporting a solution agenda in Cancun This paper is a result of a public private dialogue in Guadalajara, Mexico, the 8-9th of November 2010, focusing on the

More information

Greenhouse gas emissions in Winchester District: Part IV Estimates and trends (2005-2012)

Greenhouse gas emissions in Winchester District: Part IV Estimates and trends (2005-2012) Greenhouse gas emissions in Winchester District: Part IV Estimates and trends (2005-2012) A summary Bob Whitmarsh Winchester Action on Climate Change (WinACC) (September 2014) Introduction This is the

More information

Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009

Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009 Daan & Rembrandt Research Wendelien Daan By Willemijn Jongbloed Group D October 2009 Doing Dutch Often, the work of many Dutch artist; photographers, designers, and painters is easy to recognize among

More information

44 ECB STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LIGHT OF THE CURRENT LOW-YIELD ENVIRONMENT

44 ECB STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LIGHT OF THE CURRENT LOW-YIELD ENVIRONMENT Box STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LIGHT OF THE CURRENT LOW-YIELD ENVIRONMENT Stock market developments are important for the formulation of monetary policy for several reasons. First, changes in stock

More information

Spread. B&R Beurs. March 2010

Spread. B&R Beurs. March 2010 B&R Beurs March 2010 Spread Find out about the latest investment proposals of B&R's investment groups. Check the agenda, and the upcoming activities we organized for you! B&R Beurs Website: www.bnrbeurs.nl

More information