1 Service companies in innovative environments: The case of Spanish science parks Jasmina Berbegal, Francesc Solé, Ferran Sabaté, Antonio Cañabate Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain)
3 Introduction Science parks (SP) as innovative environments SP promote the competitiveness and culture of innovation of their associated business and knowledge-based institutions. Science parks as seedbeds of innovation. SP as a tool for regional development policy. Services Innovation Kwoledge Intensive Services Business ( KIBS ) SP promote the competitiveness and culture of innovation of their associated business and knowledge-based institutions. Science parks as seedbeds of innovation. SP as a tool for regional development policy.
4 Science Parks A science parks is A place where newly created firms are concentrated in a limited space. Its aim is to improve the chance of growth and rate of survival of theses firms by providing them with common facilities (European Union, 1990). An organisation managed by specialised professionals, whose main aim is to increase the wealth of its community by promoting the culture of innovation and the competitiveness of its associated businesses and knowledge-based d institutions by stimulating the flow of knowledge and technology amongst universities, R&D institutions, companies and markets. It facilitates the creation and growth of innovation-based companies through incubation and spin-off processes and provides other value-added services (IASP, 2002). Dimensions of science parks (Hansson, 2007) Physical location in close proximity to a research institution Knowledge and innovation is the core business Specialized services in order to help the creation of new high-tech firms
5 Literature: About science parks Services (Dahab, Cabral, 1998; Qi, 2008; Hu, Chang, Lin & Chien, 2006) Regional development (Hansson, 2007) Academic entrepreneurship (Mitra, 2000) Literature on science parks University-industry links (Link & Scott, 2003; Vedovello, 1997; Westhead & Storey, 1995) Location of new technology based firms (Löfsten & Lindelöf, 2001, 2002) Technology transfer (Siegel, Westhead & Wright, 2003) Networks (Chan & Pretorius, 2007)
6 Science parks in Spain History and evolution Origins ( ) Technological changes at an international sphere / Political changes in Spain / Zamundio (Bilbao), first SP in Spain First stages ( ) Creation of 8 new SP / Universities and SMEs show poor interest in SP / Creation of industrial districts Development ( ) Creation of new SP / Economic difficulties / first universities involving Expansion ( ) Active role of universities, governments and private investments / Creation of the APTE (2000) Consolidation and internationalization ( ) International recognition, presence and prestige
7 Science parks in Spain APTE (Association of Scientific and Technological Parks) At the end of 2009, the APTE has 80 members (44 Full members and 36 Affiliated)
8 Science parks in Spain APTE Sectors of activity (by number of firms)
9 Science parks. Geographic distribution
10 Methodology. Service Sector definition. International system of classifications of economic activities International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC Rev, 4) United Nations Statistics Division 2008 Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the EC, Rev. 2 (NACE Rev. 2) EUROSTAT 2008 National Classification of Economic Atiiti Activities in Spain (CNAE 2009) National Statistical Institute 2009 Spanish version of NACE Rev. 2 NACE Rev.2 CNAE 2009 sections divisions grups classes CNAE 93 Rev.1 CNAE 2009 Agriculture Insdustry Construction ti Trade Rest of services
11 Methodology. Service Sector definition. Sections NACE Rev. 2 A Agriculture, forestry and fishing B Mining and quarrying C Manufacturing D Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply E Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities F Construction G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles H Transportation and storage I Accommodation and food service activities J Information and communication K Financial and insurance activities L Real estate activities M Professional, scientific and technical activities N Administrative and support service activities O Public administration and defense; compulsory social security P Education Q Human health and social work activities R Arts, entertainment and recreation S Other service activities T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and servicesproducing activities of households for own use U Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies
12 Methodology. APTE sectors classification APTE sectors Aeronautics and automotive Agro-food and biotechnology Business Centers Technologic centers and R&D Electronic Energy and environment Training and human resources Industrial Information, computing and telecommunications Engineering, consultancy and advising Medicine and health Other Difficulties whithin this classification The source data about companies in Science parks was not CNAE classified Not matching in any way the CNAE Have different orientations and purposes That not allow to distinguish between services and not services companies Need to find the CNAE code: 4,510 companies and organizations Sample for each sector
13 Methodology. Connecting classifications CNAE 2009 Each division level is APTE sectors assigned to an APTE sector Distribution of firms in Spain according APTE sectors Disaggregation of Services firms is kept Comparison of data Distribution of firms in Spain vs. firms and other organizations in Science parks Distribution of service firms in Spain vs. Science parks
14 Results. Sample classification (CNAE) Activities iti according to CNAE 2009 (NACE Rev.2) Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities Construction Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles Transportation and storage Accommodation and food serviactivities Information and communication Financial and insurance activities Real Professional estate activiti ies, scientific and technical activities Administrative and support servactivities Public administration and defence; compulsory social security Education Human healthh and social work activities Arts, entertainment and recreation Other service activi Activities of households as undifferentiated goods- an ties employers; d services- Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U Aeronautics and automotive Agro-food and biotechnology Business Centers Technologic centers and R&D Electronic Energy and environment Training and human resources Industrial Information, computing and telecommunications Engineering, consultancy and advising Medicine and health Other Total APTE sectorss
15 Results. Services % for each sector #Firms in rand dom sample #Firms in rand # in Spanish P Firms of s accordin sa of services dom sample PTE sectors #Firms Technologica al Parks services ratio g to random ample A Margi n of error Minimum est in Spanish Services firm ms timated Technologica al Parks Services fi in Spanish rms estimate ed Technologica al Parks Maximum est in Spanish Services firm timated h Technologic Parks* ms ca Aeronautics and automotive ti ,667 ± 0,15 50,149 64,699 79,249 Agro-food and biotechnology ,765 ± 0,15 90, , ,505 Business Centers ,640 ± 0,15 28,420 37,120 45,820 Technologic centers and R&D ,000 ± 0,15 228, , * Electronic ,606 ± 0,15 60,192 79,992 99,792 Energy and environment ,459 ± 0,15 71, , ,679 Training and human resources ,000 ± 0,15 102, , * Industrial ,486 ± 0,15 76, , ,008 Information, computing and telecommunications ,857 ± 0,15 807, , * Engineering, consultancy and advising ,950 ± 0,15 471, , * Medicine and health ,789 ± 0,15 182, , ,554 *Adjusted to real number of firms Other ,762 ± 0,15 741, , ,432 Total ,755 ± 0, , , ,550
16 Results. Aggregate level comparison In Science Parks In Spain #Firms #Services firms services firms ratio 79,530% 76,092% At the aggregated level: We can not appreciate differences in the percentage of service companies located in pp p g p Science Parks vs. the whole Spanish economy.
17 Results. Comparing sectors all firms services firms only In Science In Spain In Science In Spain #Firms Aeronautics and automotive Parks 2,151% 2,158% Parks 1,804% 2,708% Agro-food and biotechnology 3,259% 1,003% 3,135% 0,312% Business Centers 1,286% 0,000% 000% 1,035% 0,000% 000% Technologic centers and R&D 5,965% 0,550% 7,500% 0,722% Electronic 2,927% 0,187% 2,230% 0,000% Energy and environment 5,122% 0,597% 2,956% 0,000% 000% Training and human resources 2,661% 2,302% 3,346% 3,026% Industrial 5,055% 5,046% 3,089% 0,000% Information, computing and telecommunications 25,322% 0,874% 27,286% 1,148% Engineering, consultancy and advising 13,060% 13,446% 15,600% 17,670% Medicine and health 6,341% 3,796% 6,291% 4,973% Other 26,851% 70,041% 25,727% 69,440%
18 Results. Comparing NACE sections Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities Construction Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles Transportation and storage Accommodation and food servicee activities Information and communication Financial and insurance activities Real estate activities Professional, scientific and technical activities Administrative and support service activities Public administration and defence; compulsory social security Education Human health and social work activities Arts, entertainment and recreation Other service activities Activities of households as employers; undiffere ntiated goods- and services-producing activities of households Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U Parks 0,9% 0,2% 13,8% 1,4% 0,5% 7,5% 13,1% 2,3% 0,9% 9,8% 1,4% 1,2% 32,2% 3,7% 0,5% 4,9% 2,6% 0,2% 2,6% 0,0% 0,2% Spain 0,0% 0,1% 6,6% 0,4% 0,2% 16,6% 24,1% 7,0% 8,7% 1,5% 2,0% 3,6% 12,2% 4,1% 0,0% 2,2% 3,8% 2,2% 4,8% 0,0% 0,0%
19 Conclusions Analysis of the distribution of services firms in Science parks Despite some methodological limitations we have bee able to achieve some knowledge aboutthetypology of services located in Science parks The kind of services located in SP: Provide advanced services to other firms in the park (like engineering consultancy linked to some sectors) Are research centers mainly linked to the university Are developing and bringing to market new services (some of them are university spin-offs) Are explicitly itl transferring knowledge throughh educational activities iti Are giving support services to firms in the park (Business centers, administrative support, legal and accounting) This finding confirm the role of SP concentration stimulating the creation and development of Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) Some refinements to the methodology can be done to provide more fine information
20 Thank you for more information contact: Jasmina Berbegal, Francesc Solé, Ferran Sabaté, Antonio Cañabate Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain)
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