1 ISWA Main Sponsors: David Newman President of ISWA Reflections on The Circular Economy
2 Energy, limited resources?
3 It s about costs and emissions, not supplies
4 Limited primary resources?
5 Pulp prices Unchanged, due to recycling?
6 Plastics Glass Organics
7 Where are the resource shortages here? Copper Phosphates Rare Earths Shortages or security?
8 And if there are not Are lack of shortages due to recycling? Is this why we recycle? Why are we recovering energy if there is no shortage? Because of the downsides of waste:
10 So let s understand the basics again Waste management is about : public health management air emissions management pollution control management worker s health management safe final sinks
11 Waste management is policy driven Not driven by science or by finance 11
12 Treatment systems Treatment systems are like public hospitals providing curative and preventative medicine Treatment is about destroying pathogens, not just creating new products
13 Recycling Recycling is a final sink too and provides «preventative medicine» Avoids disposal Reduces energy consumption (usually) Reduces trade in raw materials Improves resource efficiency and autonomy Requires quality to be effective
14 Some recycling results Global recycled paper in 2012 = 44 million tons Global produced paper in 2012 = 400 million tons Production v recycling = 11% globally Italy aluminium packaging sold 2012 = tons Italy aluminium packaging recycled 2012 = tons Sales v recycling = 60%
15 BUT.Recycling, disposal and energy recovery in the EU
16 This is the advanced EU About 40% of all waste still goes to disposal now despite: Our economic resources, ie taxes and incentives EU strategic policy planning and development since 1990 s EPR schemes feed-in tariffs for renewable energy and district heating landfill taxes and bans EU penalties on non compliant nations incentives for recycling (GPP for example) (ps with a stable, educated and urbanised population)
17 Though We think that by 2030 in the EU we will have eliminated landfills recovery of resources of 50% recovery of energy about 40-50% if we continue with current policies and enforce them
18 How much is recycling worth? Gruppo Hera in Italy, a medium sized company (Italy s largest) Hera Ambiente (rifiuti) turnover 382 million/year Handles 3.3 million inhabitants with certified 52% recycling level 4.5 mln/t of MSW & 2.9 mln/t of industrial waste treated in Waste sales value 21 million (5.5% of T/O)
19 Hera s sales of waste 2013 Of the 21 million of total recycled waste sales 4 million were on the open market (1%) 17 million (4.5%) were through the EPR National Packaging Consortium, ie collection is subsidised by environmental taxes.
20 Recycling costs : Press release of March 14, 2014 Bologna, 14 mar. Hera, la multiutility che si occupa dei rifiuti a Bologna, investirà nei prossimi 3 anni 10 milioni di euro per far crescere la raccolta differenziata. Il piano presentato dall amministratore delegato Maurizio Chiarini e dal sindaco Virginio Merola ha un obiettivo ambizioso: far lievitare da qui al 2016 la raccolta differenziata dall attuale 39 al 50%. Il tutto non avverrà a costo zero: Il costo di tutto quello che viene fatto va scaricato in tariffa ammette senza giri di parole Chiarini. La stima di Merola è di un aumento medio della bolletta di circa 40 centesimi al mese per famiglia. Poco più dell inflazione prevista dice il sindaco. 20
21 Total turnover of recycling of seven key recyclables in the EU 2004 and
22 How much in EU countries with similar targets? Serbia 30/person/annum 5% recycling rate, no energy recovery Hungary 60/person/annum 15% recycling rate + some energy recovery Portugal 100/family/annum 21% recycling rate + some energy recovery Belgium 185/person/annum 75% recycling rate + energy recovery Germany up to 350/family/annum + energy incentives 22
23 Boundaries for Strong and Stabile Improvments in Solid Waste Management 100,0 EU 27, 2007 Percentage (%) of waste deposited into land 90,0 80,0 70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 y = -0,0023x + 106,78 R² = 0,6628 0, GDP at market prices (Euro per capita) Thanks to Goran Vujic
24 Boundaries for Strong and Stabile Improvments in Solid Waste Management 1990 InternationalGeary-Khamis dollars Number of landfill sites/price per hh per year Germany Netherlands Serbia/Montenegro 250 landfill site Germany landfill site Nederland local waste taxes in euro/hh/year Nederland local waste taxes in euro/hh/year Novi Sad/Serbia year Thanks to Goran Vujic
25 Conclusions. Europe s waste industry is not economically driven by recycling, though it does a lot of it (mainly metals) Resource values are not the issue for main waste streams, except metals. Europe s waste industry is driven by : 1. public health protection 2. Taxes to pay for this 3. Energy from waste, often subsidised too Recycling and material recovery happens due to subsidies or taxes, largely - 150/200 per capita per annum
26 Waste management costs!! It s as simple as that And Europe s example is that these costs are not covered by recycling, nor are energy sales enough. Waste taxes are needed Everyone has to pay the cost of health protection, it is a PUBLIC service.
27 Waste management costs money IS THE MESSAGE CLEAR? 27
28 Last messages. Virtuosity costs! The Circular Economy is a luxury which the developing world cannot now afford. So we have to be content with simplified solutions in the medium term. Waste recycling is not going to drive waste systems without taxes and incentives like EPR.
29 Look at the «virtuous EU», it takes time to implement policies: years. Keep focussed on the long term, don t obssess on tomorrow- you will achieve nothing. Beware of experts with a know-all solution. 29
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