THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SAFETY AND INCREASED CYCLING. Markus Pöllänen Tampere University of Technology, Finland

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1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SAFETY AND INCREASED CYCLING Markus Pöllänen Tampere University of Technology, Finland

2 More than 80% of cyclists said they were worried about cycling in London, while more than 20% said they were making fewer journeys because of safety concerns. Thirty-three junctions where more than 250 cyclists and pedestrians have been seriously injured or killed in the last three years are to have 300m spent on them.

3 Promoting cycling?

4 Cycling is not the safest mode Peltola & Aittoniemi 2008 But can it be promoted in a way that increases the volume and safety simultaneously? train aeroplane bus ferry car bicycle pedestrian motorcycle/moped 0,04 0,08 0,08 0,33 0,8 6,3 7, Fatalities per 100 million personkilometers ETSC 2001

5 Safety in numbers = the hypothesis that, by being part of a large physical group or mass, an individual is less likely to be the victim of an accident, attack, or other bad event.

6 Safety in numbers Cycling in the Netherlands. Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat 2009.

7 Previous research results Jakobsen (2003): If cycling doubles number of accidents increases by 40 % Robinson (2005): If cycling doubles risk of accidents increases 34 % Stipdonk & Reurings (2010): If cycling substitutes short car trips number of cyclists accidents increases

8 Results are conflicting City of Odense: Volume of cycling rose 20 % in number of accidents fell 20 % City of Freiburg: Volume of cycling rose 20 % in 2000 s number of accidents rose 20 % Vaismaa 2014

9 Typical approaches in studies Focus is in a short part of cycle way or in one intersection Research is based only on statistics The quality of cycling circumstances is not taken into account

10 Two points of view Safety in numbers Factors that influence the safety of cycling Connection Factors that influence the volume of cycling

11 WHICH FACTORS INFLUENCE THE SAFETY OF CYCLING?

12 Safety in Numbers Urban structure and land use Traffic network Safety of cycling Quality of bicycle infrastructure Legislation and education Growth of bicycle volume Car traffic volume Moderate Moderate Awareness of cyclists Moderate

13 Urban structure and land use Litman & Fitzroy 2012; Garrick & Marshall 2008 Dense city Short trips Less car traffic Better safety

14 Quality of cycling infrastructure THIS OR THIS?

15 WHICH FACTORS INFLUENCE THE VOLUME OF CYCLING?

16 Safety in Numbers Urban structure and land use Traffic network Quality of bicycle infrastructure Improvement of bicycle safety Legislation and education Pricing of other traffic modes Moderate Volume of cycling Car traffic volume Moderate Marketing and facilities Moderate Awareness of cyclists Moderate

17 Traffic network 6,0 km 11,0 km Groningen, the Netherlands

18 Quality of cycling infrastructure Speed Usability Smooth flow of cycling Route signage Speed compared to car Evenness Parking Convenience Average speed Number of stops Number and quality of signposts Short cuts Benefits of a cyclist Surface Topography Quantity and quality Interchange Social safety Aesthetics Safety Continuity of cycling network The feeling of safety on the route Visual guidance Cross-section Width of the route Curves, turns Noise, emissions Intersections Safety Directionality Visibility

19 WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN CYCLING SAFETY AND VOLUME?

20 Safety in Numbers Urban structure and land use Traffic network Quality of bicycle infrastructure Safety of cycling Legislation and education Pricing of other traffic modes Moderate Volume of cycling Car traffic volume Moderate Marketing and facilities Moderate Awareness of cyclists Moderate

21 Conclusion The factors that influence on cycling volume and safety are largely the same If the factors are fulfilled with good quality, the growth of cycling volume supports the safety of cycling The safety of cycling is mostly based on the quality of infrastructure Increasing cycling needs safe cycle routes safety of cycling improves as well

22 References ETSC A strategy for EU transport safety research. European Transport Safety Council. Garrick, N. W & Marshall, W Network, Placemaking and Sustainability, Center for Transportation and Urban Planning, University of Connecticut. Litman, T. & Fitzroy, S Safe Travels. Evaluating Mobility Traffic safety Impacts. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Jakobsen, P Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention 9, pp Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat Cycling in the Netherlands. Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat. Haag. The Netherlands. 77p. Peltola, H. & Aittoniemi, E Liikenteen ja muiden toimintojen turvallisuuden vertailu (Traffic safety compared to the safety of other human activities ). Ministry of Transport and Communications pdf&title=LVM_38/2008 Robinson, D. L Safety in numbers in Australia: More walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and cycling. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 2005:16, pp Stipdonk, H. & Reurings, M The safety effect of exchanging car mobility for bicycle mobility. SWOW Institute for Road Safety Research. Netherlands Vaismaa, K Aloittelijasta mestariksi. Pyöräilyn kasvuun vaikuttavat toimenpiteet eurooppalaisissa kaupungeissa. (From beginner to master - measures influencing on the build-up of cycling in European cities). Doctoral dissertation. Tampere University of Technology.

23 THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION! Markus Pöllänen Tampere University of Technology Transport Research Centre Verne

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