# Risk Factors for Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions at Intersections *

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

3 bicycle paths, and roadways without special bicycle facilities. All but two intersections were signalized; these two had stop signs on the minor street. Nearly 3000 cyclists were observed during a one-day count of 8 hours at each intersection. For each cyclist entering any leg of the intersection, observers trained by the Transportation Division collected data on approximate age (estimated as either 17 years of age and under or 18 and older), sex (male or female), direction of travel (with or against the direction of traffic on the roadway), and position (either in the roadway, including bicycle lanes, or on the sidewalk, including bicycle paths and crosswalks). Data Analysis Data analysis is based on figures for the May 1987 bicyclist counts and for July 1985 June 1989 police-reported accidents, extending approximately two years before and two years after the exposure counts. To eliminate as many extraneous influences as possible, the accidents analyzed were restricted to those that took place at intersections along the three arterial streets where the counts were made. Of 92 such accidents, information for all four variables was available for 89; only these 89 accidents are analyzed here. The results identify risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections. We quantify the risk of a bicycle-motor vehicle collision in two ways. First, we define the risk for any group of bicyclists as (a/a)/(b/b), where a is the number of accidents that occur to the group, A is the total number of accidents, b is the number of bicyclists in the group, and B is the total number of bicyclists. In this study A = 89 and B = Risk is proportional to the accident rate per bicyclist: the lower the risk, the lower the likelihood of an accident. By definition, the average risk of all bicyclists in the study is exactly 1, in arbitrary units. We also make a number of binary comparisons between groups, by calculating the ratio of their risks. We test this ratio for statistical significance by calculating the expected number of accidents for each of the two groups, based on the assumption that accidents should be distributed in the same proportion as exposures. We then compare the number of accidents expected to the number observed, using a χ 2 test with Yates s correction for continuity and one degree of freedom. This test determines the probability p that any discrepancy (equivalent to a risk ratio different from 1) is due to chance rather than to a real difference in risk. We report the result as an upper bound, and only when p<0.05. If p<0.01 the upper bound is given only as the next higher power of ten. The analysis sums accident and exposure data from Middlefield, Embarcadero, and El Camino Real. Because the risk of a bicycle - motor vehicle collision should be proportional to the number of motor vehicles as well as to the number of bicyclists, these three streets, which have different traffic volumes, might be expected to have different accident rates per bicyclist, and it might therefore be misleading to combine data from them. Analysis of the three corridors separately, however, shows that the overall risk (as defined above) along Middlefield is 1.08, along Embarcadero 0.97, and along El Camino 0.96 for all practical purposes identical. For the four major binary comparisons listed in the next section, Results, we have also analyzed the data for each corridor independently; we find that, although the risks and risk ratios naturally vary somewhat from corridor to corridor, the same patterns emerge. We therefore feel confident that no errors are introduced by combining the three corridors in order to increase the statistical significance of the comparisons. Unless specified, the results presented here are based on this combined data. 3

4 Table and Older Compared to 17 and Younger 18 and Older 17 and Younger Risk Ratio Category Bicyclists Risk Bicyclists Risk 18 to p 17 All bicyclists Female Male With traffic Against traffic Roadway Sidewalk Results Age Table 2 compares the accident risk for bicyclists 18 and older with the risk for those 17 and younger. The important columns are Risk, Risk Ratio, and p ; the other columns show the data from which these numbers are derived. The table shows that older bicyclists incur a risk of colliding with a motor vehicle 1.8 times as great as younger ones, and the difference is statistically significant (p<0.01). The older bicyclists have a higher risk in all six major subgroups; in four the difference is significant. This finding was unexpected: we had anticipated that older, more experienced bicyclists would have fewer accidents. The 1992 FARS, for instance, reports that the fatality rate per million population for bicyclists between the ages of 5 and 15 was more than two and a half times greater than the rate for older bicyclists. 5 U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission statistics show 61 percent of bicycle injuries occurring between the ages of 5 and We suggest these explanations for our result: It might conceivably be a statistical anomaly, although the highly significant result for bicyclists riding with traffic (p<10-3 ) makes this unlikely. The accident rate for older bicyclists was greater in each of the three study corridors; in the Embarcadero corridor the risk ratio was 3.3, and this was statistically significant at p<0.03. Few previous studies have allowed for the numbers of bicyclists exposed to accidents in each age group. (A new Consumer Product Safety Commission Study attempts to classify accident characteristics and estimate rider exposure based on telephone surveys. 6 ) The FARS per capita rate is based on population figures, but the fraction of the population that cycles is far greater for children than for adults. Where there are a large number of younger bicyclists on the road, they may dominate accident statistics even if their accident rate is less than that of older bicyclists. 4

5 Table 3. Male Compared to Female Male Female Risk Ratio, Category Bicyclists Risk Bicyclists Risk Male to Female All bicyclists With traffic Against traffic Roadway Sidewalk p Table 4. Against Traffic Compared to With Traffic Category Bicyclists Against Traffic With Traffic Risk Ratio, Risk Younger bicyclists may ride more slowly or cautiously, or in larger groups that are more easily seen by motorists. Analysis of individual accidents shows that older cyclists are more likely to be the victims of motorist errors in particular, failure to yield during a left turn or at a traffic control device. The Effective Cycling program then being offered in the Palo Alto middle schools, and other safety measures, may have had a positive influence on the behavior of younger bicyclists. If so, it might be beneficial to extend similar educational measures to adult bicyclists. Sex Although Table 3 shows a slightly greater overall risk to male bicyclists than to females, this difference is not consistent across subgroups and is not statistically significant. The value of this ratio in the three corridors separately ranged from 0.7 to 2.6, none statistically significant. We conclude that accident risk does not depend on the bicyclist s sex. Bicyclists Risk Against to All bicyclists << Roadway Sidewalk < << Female Male < With FARS, in contrast, reports that the fatality rate for males in 1992 was seven times as high as for females. 5 Again, this rate is based on population figures, rather than on the number of male and female cyclists actually on the road. Direction of Travel Table 4 shows that all categories of bicyclists traveling against the direction of traffic flow are at greatly increased risk for accidents on average 3.6 times the risk of those traveling with traffic, and as high as 6.6 times for those 17 and under. This result is readily explained: because motorists normally scan for traffic traveling in the lawful direction, wrong-way traffic is easily overlooked. To give only a single example, a motorist turning right at an intersection scans to the left for approaching traffic on the new road, and cannot see or anticipate a fastmoving wrong-way bicyclist approaching from the right. (This is the one of the most common types of bicycle-motor vehicle collisions in Palo Alto.) p 5

6 This finding provides compelling justification for current traffic law, which requires bicyclists on the roadway everywhere in the United States to travel in the same direction as other traffic. It also implies that vigorous enforcement of this law, for both adults and children, can substantially reduce the number of bicyclemotor vehicle collisions, and should receive high priority in any bicycle program. Two points about Table 4 deserve comment. First, the conclusion is extremely robust: wrongway bicycling is risky at an overwhelmingly high level of significance p<<10-5 for the category as a whole, p<10-5 in four out of seven subgroups, and p<10-4 and 10-3 for two others. In the remaining subgroup, on the roadway, only 5 percent of bicyclists (108 of 2005) traveled against traffic, and only 5 accidents occurred there (compared to 2.5 expected); these small numbers limit any statistical significance. Second, wrong-way bicycling is dangerous for all subgroups of bicyclists including those traveling on the sidewalk, who may at first seem to be protected against collisions with motor vehicles. In fact, sidewalk bicyclists enter into conflict with motorists at every intersection (including driveways), and these are exactly the points where most bicycle-motor vehicle collisions occur. Wrong-way sidewalk bicyclists are at particular risk because they enter the point of conflict from an unexpected direction, just as they would on the roadway. Nonetheless, unlike the roadway, the direction of sidewalk bicycling is usually unregulated or ineffectively regulated. Off-road bicycle paths are normally intended for two-way travel, and whether intended for it or not are almost invariably used that way. 6

7 Table 5. Sidewalk Compared to Roadway Sidewalk Roadway Risk Ratio, Category Bicyclists Risk Bicyclists Risk Sidewalk p to Roadway All bicyclists Female Male With traffic Against traffic , female , male , female , male , with traffic , with traffic , against traffic , against traffic Female, with traffic Female, against traffic Male, with traffic Male, against traffic , female, with , female, against , female, with , female, against , male, with , male, against , male, with , male, against Sidewalks and paths can present risks even for bicyclists traveling in the direction of traffic. These risks are discussed in the next section. Position on the Road Table 5 compares the risks of bicycling on the sidewalk (including bicycle paths and crosswalks) and on the roadway (including bicycle lanes). Because the idea that sidewalk bicycling can be dangerous may be unfamiliar or counterintuitive, Table 5 analyzes the risks for every possible combination of observed bicyclist characteristics (age, sex, and direction of travel). The average cyclist in this study incurs a risk on the sidewalk 1.8 times as great as on the roadway, and the result is statistically significant (p<0.01). The risk on the sidewalk is higher than on the roadway for both age groups, for both sexes, and for wrong-way travel; the risk for right-way travel on the sidewalk appears to be less than that on the roadway, but this result is misleading, as explained in the Appendix. Altogether the sidewalk risk is higher for 24 of the 27 categories, and for six of these the difference is statistically significant; for many groups the number of accidents expected is too small to attain significance. The greatest risk found in this study is for bicyclists over 18 traveling against traffic on the 7

### SAN DIEGO - A BICYCLE FRIENDLY CITY

SAN DIEGO - A BICYCLE FRIENDLY CITY MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT SUMMARY The designated bicycle paths and lanes in the City of San Diego (City) are often substandard because of their location and

### Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines

Introduction Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines People ride bicycles for many different reasons: fitness, recreation, or for transportation. Regardless of the reason for riding, bicyclists young

### THE SAFETY OF URBAN CYCLE TRACKS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

THE SAFETY OF URBAN CYCLE TRACKS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Beth Thomas Pedestrian & Bicycle Coordinator California Department of Transportation, District 4 Note: This presentation is for academic informational

### TEST ON Driving Safely Among Bicyclists and Pedestrians

TEST ON Driving Safely Among Bicyclists and Pedestrians Next you will take a 16 question test about driving safely among bicyclists and pedestrians. Please take out a sheet of paper to mark down and score

### Is Encouraging More Bike Ridership On El Camino Real A Good Idea?

Is Encouraging More Bike Ridership On El Camino Real A Good Idea? In the above illustration there is a shared right turn lane on southbound El Camino Real at the intersection with Santa Cruz Avenue. Turning

### a U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Computer Accident Typing for Bicyclist Accidents Coder's Handbook

a U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Computer Accident Typing for Bicyclist Accidents Coder's Handbook INTRODUCTION This Coder's Handbook is part of a package

### BICYCLE CRASH DATA ANALYSIS FOR HILLBOROUGH COUNTY

BICYCLE CRASH DATA ANALYSIS FOR HILLBOROUGH COUNTY SEPTEMBER, 2000 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization 601 E. Kennedy Blvd., 18th Floor P.O. Box 1110 Tampa, Florida 33601-1110 (813)

### Bicycle Facility Design

Bicycle Facility Design by Richard C. Moeur, P.E., L.C.I. April 2004 edition What is a "Bicycle Facility"? Bicycle Facility: Improvements and provisions to accommodate or encourage bicycling Any roadway

### SIDEWALK BICYCLING SAFETY ISSUES

SIDEWALK BICYCLING SAFETY ISSUES Lisa Aultman-Hall and Michael F. Adams Jr. Department of Civil Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0281 Email: aultman@engr.uky.edu Transportation Research

### Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010

MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 FINAL REPORT Prepared by: T.Y. Lin International and Western Michigan University 4/3/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS List

### A Bicycle Accident Study Using GIS Mapping and Analysis

A Bicycle Accident Study Using GIS Mapping and Analysis Petra Staats, Graduate Assistant, Transportation Policy Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA pstaats@eden.rutgers.edu Summary Surveys

### Associati. The Annex Residents Association. The Annex Residents Association Cycling Policy Adopted by the Board, January 13, 2011.

Associati The Annex Residents Association The Annex Residents Association Cycling Policy Adopted by the Board, January 13, 2011 The objective of these recommendations is to establish a set of guiding principles

### A Guide to Safe Bicycling in Hawai i

A Guide to Safe Bicycling in Hawai i Sharing the Road: A Guide to Safe Bicycling in Hawai i What Motorists & Bicyclists Should Know Everyone has the right to be safe on Hawai i s roads. Law of the Splintered

### Accident Analysis of Sheridan Road between Isabella Street and South Boulevard

Accident Analysis of Sheridan Road between Isabella Street and South Boulevard Prepared for TranSystems Corporation for the City of Evanston Submitted by Regina Webster & Associates, Inc. Date: 08/15/2008

### Safety Evidence for Bicycling

Photo: Boegh (Flickr) Cycling in Cities Research Program School of Population & Public Health The University of British Columbia Faculty of Health Sciences Simon Fraser University Driving near bicyclists

### Pedestrian & Bicycle Plan

RAMSEY COMMUNITIES COUNTYWIDE Pedestrian & Bicycle Plan PRIMER: LEGAL FRAMEWORK PRIMER: LEGAL FRAMEWORK Walking and Biking for All e 2 CHAPTER 2: Walking and Biking for All This page intentionally left

### BICYCLE TRENDS IN CAMBRIDGE

BICYCLE TRENDS IN CAMBRIDGE Cambridge promotes bicycling as a healthy, environmentally friendly way of getting around as an important part of the City's efforts to improve mobility and protect our environment.

### Stone Way N Rechannelization: Before and After Study. N 34th Street to N 50th Street

City of Seattle Department of Transportation Stone Way N Rechannelization: Before and After Study N 34th Street to N 50th Street May, 2010 INTRODUCTION Population density in Seattle is increasing within

### FATALITIES AND INJURIES IN MOTOR VEHICLE BACKING CRASHES

DOT HS 811 144 November 2008 FATALITIES AND INJURIES IN MOTOR VEHICLE BACKING CRASHES Required Under The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)

### Needs Analysis. Long Beach Bicycle Master Plan. Bicycle Commuter Needs. LONG BEACH BICYCLE MASTER PLAN Needs Analysis

Long Beach Bicycle Master Plan Needs Analysis The purpose of reviewing the needs of commuter and recreational bicyclists is twofold: (1) it is instrumental when planning a system which must serve both

### ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR DESIGNING YOUR SAFE ROUTES

How to Get Started ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR DESIGNING YOUR SAFE ROUTES Design Elements Selecting appropriate design treatments for school neighborhoods creates environments that address the needs of all

### Smart Cycling IN SANTA MONICA SANTA MONICA POLICE DEPARTMENT BE SMART. BE VISIBLE. BE ATTENTIVE. HAVE FUN!

Smart Cycling IN SANTA MONICA BE SMART. BE VISIBLE. BE ATTENTIVE. HAVE FUN! Safety Tips and Rules of the Road for Cyclists SANTA MONICA POLICE DEPARTMENT Rules of the Road Drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians

### North Carolina. Bicycle Crash Facts 2008-2012. Prepared for

North Carolina Bicycle Crash Facts 2008-2012 Prepared for The North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Prepared by The University of North Carolina

### SAFE Streets for CHICAGO

Overview Each day, hundreds of thousands of Chicagoans walk or drive in the city. Ensuring their safety is the City s top priority. Over the past several years, Chicago has developed many successful strategies

### Cycle safety. Monograph 17. Cycle safety: a national perspective. Cycle helmets

Monograph 17 Cycle safety ISSN: 1444-3503 ISBN: 1 877071 85 4 Cycle safety: a national perspective Cycling is an important form of transport and recreation for many Australians. It is accessible to a wide

### RULES OF THE ROAD BY LWTL Staff Writer

RULES OF THE ROAD BY LWTL Staff Writer Publisher s Note This is the First of a Three Part Series on Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety. This First Part is made available to all readers. The final two parts

### Memo: Background Research, Bike Law/Safety Enforcement Video

Memo: Background Research, Bike Law/Safety Enforcement Video Values, roles, and challenges of training law enforcers in bicycle safety What the value behind training law enforcers? Increasing knowledge

### Bike Accident Summary. Table 1 shows the number of bicycle accidents in Fort Collins from January 1, 2000 -June 30, 2009.

Bike Accident Summary Table shows the number of bicycle accidents in Fort Collins from January, -June, 9. TABLE BICYCLE ACCIDENTS BY YEAR 9 ½ year % vs. prev. yr. avg. Non-Injury Accidents 9 +.% Injury

### Bike Laws: Massachusetts

Bike Laws: Massachusetts Do you know your rights of the road? Do you know what your responsibilities are when biking in Massachusetts? Here is a summary of Massachusetts bike law that covers equipment,

### REGIONAL NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION NETWORK

Chapter 10 Bicycle and Pedestrian SAFETEA-LU legislation requires that non-motorized users be considered in the LRTP. The legislation allows for bicycle and pedestrian safety to be incorporated into the

### BEST PRACTICES. Smart Transportation is a key concept for the Paoli Roadway Improvement Project.

Smart Transportation Smart Transportation is a key concept for the Paoli Roadway Improvement Project. PennDOT s Smart Transportation Guidebook (2008) outlines a comprehensive approach to transportation

### Bicycle Collisions in Washington State: A Six-Year Perspective, 1988 1993

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD 1538 81 Bicycle Collisions in Washington State: A Six-Year Perspective, 1988 1993 RALPH L. WESSELS A categorical data analysis of collisions between bicycles and motor vehicles

### Bicycle Facility Design Guidelines

Bicycle Facility Design Guidelines, New Hampshire Prepared for: Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee Prepared By: ORW Landscape Architects and Planners Introduction September, 2008 These guidelines

### AAA S GUIDE TO A SAFE

Credit: ThinkStock SAME ROADS SAME RULES SAME RIGHTS AAA S GUIDE TO A SAFE BIKE RIDE DRIVING A BICYCLE Yes, bicyclists MUST drive their bicycles in the same manner that motorists drive their cars. Most

### LANE SHARING: A GLOBAL SOLUTION FOR MOTORCYCLE SAFETY

LANE SHARING: A GLOBAL SOLUTION FOR MOTORCYCLE SAFETY By Steve Guderian INTRODUCTION Motorcycle safety has proven to be a difficult traffic safety issue to address. Figure 1 1 provides an insight into

### Back to School Car Safety. Direct Buy Warranty Staff September 19, 2014

Back to School Car Safety Direct Buy Warranty Staff September 19, 2014 It s back to school season, and that means kids are picking out new clothes, putting on their backpacks, and hitting the road to get

### A Law Officer s Guide to Bicycle Safety - Reference Guide

A Law Officer s Guide to Bicycle Safety - Reference Guide How the traffic laws apply to bicyclists, why enforcing these rules is important, and how to do it. SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION WHY BICYCLE ENFORCEMENT?...

### BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

### Statewide Survey on Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities

Statewide Survey on Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities Prepared for: Florida Department of Transportation Safety Office Project Number: PS-05-08-07 Project Manager: Pat Pieratte Prepared by: Center for

Walkable Communities Florida Department of Transportation State Safety Office Pedestrian and Bicycle Program April 1995 www.dot.state.fl.us/safety Twelve Steps for an Effective Program Page 1 Twelve Steps

### Contra Costa Community College District Business Procedure 20.01 PARKING AND TRAFFIC REGULATIONS

Contra Costa Community College District Business Procedure 20.01 PARKING AND TRAFFIC REGULATIONS The District provides facilities for vehicles for the sole purpose of conducting college business. The District

### A Bicyclist s Guide to Traffic Law in Tucson and Pima County. Traffic Laws, Fines and Phone Numbers

A Bicyclist s Guide to Traffic Law in Tucson and Pima County Traffic Laws, Fines and Phone Numbers This booklet contains a listing of relevant Arizona State, Pima County and City of Tucson laws as of January,

### Bicycle Railing Heights (Everything you wanted to know about design guidelines but were afraid to ask)

Bicycle Railing Heights (Everything you wanted to know about design guidelines but were afraid to ask) Scott Lewendon Rob Leslie Clough Harbour & Associates Problem Statement Recommended railing height

### FMCSA Webinar Nov.18th to Examine Large Truck Crash Fatalities Involving Pedestrians & Bicyclists. New Technology for Better Fleet Management

In This Issue: FMCSA Webinar Nov.18th to Examine Large Truck Crash Fatalities Involving Pedestrians & Bicyclists Help Prevent Roadway Accidents involving Pedestrians How to Steer Clear of Accidents with

### Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape

Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape and have fun. To remain safe on Illinois roads, it is important to follow the same traffic safety laws that govern vehicle drivers. No amount of bicycle

### Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

### SAFE CYCLING GUIDE. 6th Edition

SAFE CYCLING GUIDE 6th Edition BEFORE SETTING OUT A WELL-MAINTAINED BICYCLE is key A Check tire pressure B Check that the chain does not slip C Check the brakes D Check lights and reflectors: 3 4 1 5 2

### Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study

Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study Gregory B. Rodgers, Ph.D. Bicycle Project Manager, Directorate for Economic Analysis Background Bicycle riding is one of the most popular recreational activities

### Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data

Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data Bicyclists and Other Cyclists DOT HS 811 156 Bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles, and unicycles powered solely by pedals.

### Word Count: Body Text = 5,500 + 2,000 (4 Figures, 4 Tables) = 7,500 words

PRIORITIZING ACCESS MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION By: Grant G. Schultz, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE Assistant Professor Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Brigham Young University 368 Clyde Building Provo,

### HIGHWAY DESIGN REPORT. Appendix 4. Proposed Design Principles for City Passings

HIGHWAY DESIGN REPORT Appendix 4 Proposed Design Principles for City Passings June 2000 Contents Page 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Purpose 2 1.2 Definition of city passing 2 1.3 Safety Problems 2 1.4 Planning

### Access Spacing and Accidents

Access Spacing and Accidents A Conceptual Analysis HERBERT S. LEVINSON Transportation Consultant 40 Hemlock Road New Haven, CT 06515 ABSTRACT This paper develops a method for predicting the safety of arterial

### DOT HS 812 018 April 2014

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2012, 726 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 49,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist

### Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

### Cycling Facility Selection Decision Support Tool & User Guide

Cycling Facility Selection Decision Support Tool & User Guide Issue 1.0 Prepared for: A report outlining the technical foundation of, and a multi-step approach for selecting cycling facility types in the

### MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM

2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1

### STREETS -- BICYCLES -- PATHS

STREETS -- BICYCLES -- PATHS RCW 35.75.050 Bicycle road fund -- Sources -- Use. The city or town council shall by ordinance provide that the whole amount or any amount not less than seventy-five percent

### Bicycle Safety Quiz Answers Parental Responsibilities

Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape and enjoy the outdoors. To remain safe on Illinois roads, it is important to follow the same traffic safety laws that govern vehicle drivers. No amount of

### Pedestrian Crash Facts

North Carolina Pedestrian Crash Facts 2008-2012 Prepared for The North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Prepared by The University of North Carolina

### These "rules of the road" are based on Texas Transportation Code statutes. Find the complete bicycle code at the bottom of the page

Texas Bicycle Laws These "rules of the road" are based on Texas Transportation Code statutes. Find the complete bicycle code at the bottom of the page Bicyclists have the rights and duties of other vehicle

### A statistical comparison between severe accidents and PDO accidents in Riyadh A.S. Al-Ghamdi College of Engineering, King Sand University,

A statistical comparison between severe accidents and PDO accidents in Riyadh A.S. Al-Ghamdi College of Engineering, King Sand University, Email: asghamdi@ksu.edu. sa Abstract Riyadh, capital of the Kingdom

### HISTORY OF FATAL ACCIDENTS ON ROADWAYS IN THE CITY OF BERKELEY

Bike Fixed Parked Truck/ 10/23/10 21:26 10-64700 San Pablo/Gilman 1 v. - died, Driver violated CVC 21950(a), 20001 (failing to yield to pedestrian in a crosswalk and hit and run). 03/10/10 21:04 10-15293

### - FREE! - The Official San Francisco BIKE GUIDE. 1st Edition

- FREE! - The Official San Francisco BIKE GUIDE 1st Edition SF BIKE LAWS SAN FRANCISCO BICYCLISTS MUST: Yield to People Walking Whether they re in a crosswalk or not, ALWAYS yield to people walking. Stop

### Transportation Research Board 77 th Annual Meeting January 11-15, 1998 Washington, D.C.

TORONTO BICYCLE COMMUTER SAFETY RATES Lisa Aultman-Hall Department of Civil Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0281 Email: aultman@engr.uky.edu M. Georgina Kaltenecker Department of

### Chapter 1: Background

Chapter 1: Background 1.1 Trends in Bicycle Ridership and Collisions in Toronto Toronto has relatively high levels of bicycle traffic on its downtown streets. On a typical weekday, bicycles make up roughly

### World Bank Bike Commuter Safety Survey. Anne Gaëlle Selod, MD Health Services Department, The World Bank Group

World Bank Bike Commuter Safety Survey Anne Gaëlle Selod, MD Health Services Department, The World Bank Group Survey team Eric Swanson, PhD, Development Economics Vice Presidency, World Bank Staff Bike

### Toronto Public Health. Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety in Toronto. June 2015.

Attachment 1 1 Reference: Toronto Public Health. Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety in Toronto. June 2015. Authors: Kate Bassil, Heather Rilkoff, Marco Belmont, Anna Banaszewska, Monica Campbell Acknowledgements:

### PEDESTRIAN LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA

PEDESTRIAN LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA Under North Carolina law, pedestrians have the right of way at all intersections and driveways. However, pedestrians must act responsibly, using pedestrian signals where

### What roundabout design provides the highest possible safety?

What roundabout design provides the highest possible safety? In Sweden, as in several other countries, the number of roundabouts is on the increase. According to a study recently carried out by the VTI,

### Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types

COURSE ON BICYCLE L E S S O N 4 Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types 4.1 Purpose Many professionals involved in pedestrian and bicycle programs have never received training that focuses on crash causation.

### 0.0 Curb Radii Guidelines Version 1.0.2

Background In early 2014, Transportation Services initiated a review of the Division's design guidelines and standards to move our organization in a direction consistent with the transportation departments

### Pedestrian & Bicycle Roadway Design Safe, Smart and Defendable

Pedestrian & Bicycle Roadway Design Safe, Smart and Defendable Josh DeBruyn Bicycle and Pedestrian Coord. Michigan Dept. of Transportation Ronald W. Emery Transportation Division Dept. of Attorney General

### NASHVILLE BICYCLE LAW 3/18/09

NASHVILLE BICYCLE LAW 3/18/09 12.60.010 Compliance with Title 12 provisions. It is unlawful for any person to do any act prohibited or fail to perform any act required by Title 12 of this code. (Prior

### Evaluation of the Shared-Use Arrow

Evaluation of the Shared-Use Arrow Table of Contents Page Evaluation of the Shared-Use ARROW Background... 1 ARROW Design... 1 ARROW Placement... 2 Wayne E. Pein William W. Hunter J. Richard Stewart Report

### What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury National Statistics Soon after a blacksmith by the name of Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the bicycle, it became apparent that a bicyclist needed something to

### TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS. Bicyclists and Other Cyclists. 2009 Data

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2009 Data Bicyclists and Other Cyclists For the purpose of this Traffic Safety Fact Sheet, bicyclists and other cyclists include riders of two-wheel nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles,

### DOT HS 811 743 April 2013

TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2011 Data DOT HS 811 743 April 2013 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2011, 677 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist

The Rules Of The Road For Colorado Cyclists Your Rights and Responsibilities as a Colorado Cyclist Crawford Weiss, LLC Phone (303) 741-0249 www.denversaccidentlawyer.com 2015 The Rules Of The Road For

### DOT HS 809 360 October 2001

U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration DOT HS 809 360 October 2001 Technical Report This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information

### Keiichi OGAWA a. Keywords: Bicycle, Cycling Space, Traffic Accident, Intersection 1. INTRODUCTION

Comparative Analysis of Traffic Accident Probability Based on Location and Bicycle Travel Direction Considering Number of Intersections between Origin and Destination for Bicycle Users Keiichi OGAWA a

### Bicycle Safety Program Plan

prepared for Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization prepared by with Sprinkle Consultants, Inc. March 2006 www.camsys.com Executive Summary The Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)

### FLORIDA BICYCLE LAW ENFORCEMENT GUIDE

FLORIDA BICYCLE LAW ENFORCEMENT GUIDE A review of Florida s bicycle traffic laws to help with warnings, citations and crash reports July 2007 All citations are to the 2007 Florida Statutes Bicycles are

### Experimental Research on Bicycle Safety Measures at Signalized Intersections

Experimental Research on Bicycle Safety Measures at Signalized Intersections Abdul Rahman ABDUL RAHIMI a, Aya KOJIMA b, Hisashi KUBOTA c a, b, c Graduate School Science & Technology, Saitama University,

### MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN

MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN An Overall Analysis SERGEANT STEVEN J. SPINK MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE POLICE TRAFFIC SERVICES SECTION FIELD SUPPORT UNIT APRIL 2006 2 CONTENTS Page Introduction...9 A

### the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

### Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen

Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen By Søren Underlien Jensen, Trafitec, suj@trafitec.dk Claus Rosenkilde, Road & Park, City of Copenhagen, claros@tmf.kk.dk Niels Jensen, Road

### Bob Wachtel BOB: Jim Nugent [JNugent@ci.missoula.mt.us] Monday, November 28, 2011 2:49 PM 'Bob Wachtel' From: Sent: To: Cc:

Page 1 of 5 Bob Wachtel From: Sent: To: Cc: Subject: Jim Nugent [JNugent@ci.missoula.mt.us] Monday, November 28, 2011 2:49 PM 'Bob Wachtel' Follow Up Flag: Follow up Flag Status: Red BOB: Phil Smith; Steve

A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

### EPA Technical Assistance for Sustainable Communities Building Blocks

EPA Technical Assistance for Sustainable Communities Technical Assistance Tool: Complete Streets Deerfield Beach, Florida February 16, 2012 To: CC: Amanda Martinez, City of Deerfield Beach Roger Millar,

### Bicycle Paths and Lanes

Bicycle Paths and Lanes The use of bicycles for recreation, exercise, and general transportation has continued to increase both on and off public roadways. In Iowa, except where specifically prohibited,

### CHAPTER 1000 BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION DESIGN

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL 1000-1 CHAPTER 1000 BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION DESIGN Topic 1001 - Introduction Index 1001.1 Bicycle Transportation The needs of nonmotorized transportation are an essential part of all

### Revised January 2015. Bicycle Policy & Design Guidelines Maryland State Highway Administration

Revised January 2015 Bicycle Policy & Design Guidelines Maryland State Highway Administration RECORD OF CHANGES TO THE MAY 2013 BICYCLE POLICY & DESIGN GUIDELINES Introduction The 2013 Bicycle Policy &

### Brisbane s yellow BICYCLE symbols

Brisbane s yellow BICYCLE symbols a new way to show how to Share the Road Prepared by Michael Yeates, Convenor, Bicycle User Research Group 7 Marston Avenue, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, Queensland, AUSTRALIA

### Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns

Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns August 2006 Report Summary 06/05 Introduction This document is a summary of a larger research report prepared by the Monash University Accident Research

### TO THOSE WHO USE a bicycle for transportation,

MAKING OMMUNITIE AFE FOR BIYLE BY GIAN-LAUDIA IARA TO THOE WHO UE a bicycle for transportation, it s a simple but important machine cheap, flexible, reliable, and environmentally friendly. Moreover, bicycles

### Cycling more for safer cycling

Cycling more for safer cycling Cycling presents a lot of benefits to the individual and to society. Health, environment, accessibility, local businesses, all gain when more people cycle. Yet many governments

### Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections

Estimating the Risk of Collisions between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles at Signalized Intersections Yinhai Wang (corresponding author) Department of Civil Engineering University of Washington Box 352700,