The bicycle. economy in France. Cycling: an economic driving force ALTERMODAL. Transport & Mobility Department. The bicycle economy in France

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1 The bicycle ALTERMODAL Transport & Mobility Department economy in France Cycling: an economic driving force 1

2 INDDIGO Business : Consulting and project engineering Sector : Sustainable development Fields of expertise: ALTERMODAL -Transport and Mobility Territorial strategies TRIVALOR - Waste management and industrial ecology Energies and climate Sustainable buildings Companies and strategies Finance and management of local public services 180 staff in 8 offices throughout France 2009 turnover: approx. 12 million Services to public authorities and private companies Emmanuel ROCHE Project manager specialising in cycling issues 10 years experience fond of cycling 2

3 Outline of the presentation Study objectives Public sector expenditure Household expenditure VAT and externalities Summary and projections for

4 Bicycle use in France: in the gruppetto for Europe Modal split of cycling 2007 Key But these figures are beginning to change 4

5 Study objectives 5

6 Study objectives This study was launched by the french Ministry of Sustainable Development. The main objectives are : to measure the economic power of the bicycle under different uses, in terms of the financial turnover as well as the number of people employed, to evaluate the positive effects of the bicycle in terms of public health, pollution, security Determine the actions needed to triple bicycle use and evaluate the resulting economic impact 6

7 The main financial flows Public sector Local authorities State Public bodies Subsidiaries Corporation tax Contracts Feds Clubs Assocs Companies Noncommercial VAT Externalities Purchases Subscriptions Households 7

8 Public sector expenditure 8

9 Cycle routes and greenways 8,000 km built over the last 10 years. A true national network is being created. A major effort by local authorities 5,000 km in the study or planning stage 10,000 km included in départemental or regional plans Initial user number and economic impact data are very encouraging Peaks of 8,000 cyclists/day in Annecy 9,000 on the Ile de Ré 6,000 in Chambéry 228 million/yr from local authorities 9

10 Cycling infrastructure in urban areas 7% 5% Cycle lanes 2% Two-lane cycle path 14,000 km of existing cycling infrastructures in urban areas Mean investment of 1.80/yr/inhab up to 15 in some urban areas 11% 25% 50% Single-lane cycle path side lanes bus lanes contra-flow cycle lane Total investments / year by local authorities : 110 million for infrastructure 10 million for operating costs 3 million for promotion 10

11 Services The bicycle rental market in France in ,000 bikes for self-service bike-sharing (19 cities) 13,000 bikes for short and long term rental (21 cities) A 150 million market 1,200 jobs A cost per journey of 0.5 to 5 /self-service bike journey, < 0.1 for long-term rental Need to create secure parking facilities to develop bicycle/train intermodalities Type of rental Self service bike-sharing Short or long-term classical rental 11

12 The return of the bicycle to cities Acceleration in the growth of bicycle use in the centres of major cities: 8% of journeys in Bordeaux, Toulouse, Montpellier +22% in Toulouse between 1990 and % in Rennes between 2000 and % in Lille between 1998 and % in Paris from 1991 to % in Lyon from 1995 to 2006 A complete change in cycling s image 238 million/yr on development in urban areas (infrastructure, services, operating costs) 12

13 A complete sociological change in cycling over the last 15 years 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% var 02/84 0% -20% managerial inter. Prof. office staff manual workers others unemployed overall -40% -60% Grenoble household survey

14 A direct link between cycling infrastructure and bicycle use 7% 6% Part modale tous modes du vélo Modal share of cycling 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% Ml d'aménagement cyclable par habitant Meters of cycling infrastructure per inhabitant France : 0.3 m /inhab 14

15 Summary for the public sector Public sector Local authorities State Public bodies Subsidiaries 77 million 1,530 jobs 144 million Corporation tax Contracts Companies Summary for public contracts: 450 million 3,700 jobs Feds Clubs Assocs Noncommercial 228 million by départemental and regional councils 238 million by cities and inter-municipal councils 13 million by the state 469 million 328 million on public works 141 million on services 15

16 Household expenditure 16

17 Equipment and associated services: 1,420 million/yr 3.5 million bicycles in 2008 and million/yr purchases 554 million/yr servicing and parts 10,400 jobs The bicycle industry: 344 million 3,100 jobs 270 million in tax revenues Consumption Consommation in en thousands milliers

18 India Indonesia Vietnam South Korea China Poland Russia Brazil Very high per capita consumption: 5.7 bicycles/100 inhab Mexico Italy Taiw an Canada EU-27 Great Britain Germany France United States Netherlands Japan Vélos vendus en 2007 /100 hab Bicycles sold in 2007 per 100 inhab. 18

19 Denmark Netherlands Germany Switzerland Great Britain Average France city road hybrid adult MTB BMX and bicross 20" et 24" MTB children's bike not MTB toy bikes But at a low selling price: Average sale price inc. Tax in 19

20 Market share of food and sport hypermarkets: A French exception that drags the market down Netherlands 20% 74% 6% Sw itzerland 32% 68% sport hypermarket Austria 59% 13% 28% food hypermarket independent Germany 34% 1% 59% 5% Internet and mail order France 50% 26% 24% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % value 38% 10% 28% 24% % volume 50% 26% 12% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Sport hypermarket Food hypermarket specialist franchise Independant specialist 20

21 Tourism: 1.9 billion/yr Percentage of holidays linked to cycling in France 7.2 million holidays linked to cycling: 5.5 million French people, 1.7 million foreigners Increased average expenditure with +20% Total 5.6 billion expenditure 1.9 billion direct impact 16,500 jobs 3.5% of holidays linked to cycling 2nd sports activity after walking but utilitarian use not taken into account 57% of cycling holidays on the coast 21

22 Cycling is an important factor in the choice of holiday For people who cycled during their holiday, how important was cycling in the choice of the destination: Sport Leisure Touring 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very important: I came here to go cycling Quite Important: the cycle routes were a real plus in choosing this destination Unimportant: it is a positive factor, but not very important No response 22

23 Summary of household expenditure Companies Feds Clubs Noncommercial Asso. Equipment 1,420 million 10,400 jobs Tourism 1,900 million 16,500 jobs Services Subscriptions 49 million 19 million Households 23

24 VAT and Externalities 24

25 Health effects of 30 min cycling/day The WHO s Transport Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP, ) Austria, Great Britain, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden 4,267 studies reviewed Monitoring of morbidity and mortality of 30,000 people, aged 20 to 93 years, over 14 years Sample of 7,000 people 3 hrs of utilitarian cycling per week Risk ratio of 0.72, 0.66 for women aged years DK 2003 Norway 2001 WHO 2003 Switzerl and 2001 Hypertension Cardiovascular pathologies Type II diabetes -> Osteoporosis Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Depression -68 Back problems -26 Annual health savings of 1000 ( 564 to 1200 depending on European country) 0.8 to 1.2/km for 30 min cycling/day (2/3 of direct health costs, 1/3 indirect costs: absenteeism, productivity) 25

26 Safety impact A risk that must be put into perspective Serious risk highly concentrated in rural areas, mostly for older people (over 45s and especially over 55s), low amongst year olds In cities, risks concentrated around intersections A risk/km that decreases as amount of cycling increases: amount x 2 = accidents x 1.2 = risk x 0.6 (-40%) Accidents between bicycles and HGV/buses are rare but concentrated around righthand turns N of serious Nb accidents accidents/million grave /M km km Lien entre pratique et risque d'accidents graves Link between amount of cycling and serious accidents Nice Toulon Lille Montpellier Grenoble Bordeaux Rennes Toulouse N km/yr/inhab Nb /an /hab Tram Bus HGV LV Motorbike Scooter Bicycle Pedestrian Risque implication Risque d'être victime Exposure to risk in the Grenoble metropolitan area , compared with car = 1 26

27 Overall : 4.8 billion/yr in positive externalities LOCAL AUTHORITIES Positives Health: 5,600 million parking: 42 million Congestion: 24 million Noise: 2 million Climate change: 42 million Pollution: 50 million Negatives : Road safety: million 27

28 Public sector VAT Externalities 564 million 4,835 million Households 28

29 Summary and projections for

30 in % modal share, 80 km/yr, 4.2 billion, 35,000 jobs, 5.6 billion health impact A major economic impact on public health Tourism Public works Households health 344 Bicycle industry Bicycle sales and repairs Local authorities destination origine externalities -952 safety 30

31 High employment intensity Non commercial Events Services Tourism Public works Bicycle industry Bicycle sales Car Sales Equipment / repairs Car Industry Employees per million turnover 31

32 Seven observations 1. Urban cycling is experiencing a renewal but cycling in peri-urban and rural areas is continuing to fall > stabilisation of cycling 1994 > 80km/yr/inhab 2. Health impact: between 0.8 and 1.2per km = 5.6 billion, maximum for older people and women 3. A high return on investment for the State and local authorities: 500 million for local authorities > 4.2 billion economic activity, 700 million in tax receipts, 35,000 jobs 4. High employment intensity: Bicycle economy = 10 jobs/million compared with 2.5 in the automobile industry 5. Cycling infrastructures promote cycling: 1 meter of cycleway = 10% modal share 6. The more a person cycles the more the risk decreases: cycling x2 = accidents x 1.2 = risk 0.6. Serious risks concentrated in rural areas 7. The large weight of bicycle tourism: 1.9 billion, 16,500 jobs 32

33 Five objectives for a real national cycling policy Objective n 1: Catch up with Europe s peloton in 10 years > 10% modal share, 350 km/yr/inhab Objective n 2: Bring together all parts of the health sector to support the goal of 2 x 4 km/day = 30 min. In particular, target women and older people. 350 km/yr/inhab = 0 social security deficit Objective n 3: 1 m of cycle infrastructure per French person in cities (currently 0.3) = 10/yr/inhab x 10 years Objective n 4: 95% of French people less than 5 km from a greenway = 60,000 km (currently 8,000 km) > 10/year/inhab x 10 years Objective n 5: France n 1 for bicycle tourism > 10% cycling during a holiday 33

34 Nine practical steps 1. Build up a real pressure group around the Ministry of Health, INPES, CNAM, doctors and the Ministry of Education, based on research by the WHO 2. Target specific groups: women, older people, children 3. Support the efforts of local authorities to provide cycling infrastructures: 35% State co-finance in the economic recovery plan, very good return on investment, high employment intensity 4. Help people take up cycling by supporting training. 5. Massively expand greenways in peri-urban areas: develop cycling and improve safety 6. Accelerate the provision of secure bicycle parking in collective housing and near stations 7. Provide tax incentives for companies voluntarily promoting mobility plans 8. Introduce a true France by bicycle tourism development policy 9. Support industry and retailers with the development of products 34

35 in % modal share, 320 km/yr, 8.3 billion, 60,000 jobs, 15.4 billion health Tourism Public works Bicycle industry Bicycle sales and repairs Households Local authorities health safety destination origine externalities An external cost/benefit factor greater than 1/15 35

36 Thank you for listening Emmanuel ROCHE Nicolas MERCAT INDDIGO / Altermodal 364 avenue du Grand Ariétaz CHAMBERY (France) tel : +33 (0) and 36

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