Future Trends in Mobile Communications Resource and Security Management

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1 Future Trends in Mobile Communications Resource and Security Management The Sendai International Workshop on Network Security and Wireless Communications Sendai, Japan, 27 January Abbas Jamalipour The University of Sydney Australia

2 University s profile Australia s s first university established in 1850 Australia s s widest range of courses Australia s s largest numbers of research students Largest library system in the southern hemisphere Key statistics in 2004 Students 47,296 Doctorates 2,716 Masters 725/7,211 (Research/Coursework) Postgraduate Diploma/Certificate 4,815 Bachelor 30,143 International students 8,985 Academics 2,451 (FTE) (Total staff 6340) Items in library 5.1 million 2

3 Colleges and Faculties College of Health Sciences Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Health Sciences Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Pharmacy College of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty of Arts Faculty of Economics and Business Faculty of Education and Social Work Graduate School of Government Faculty of Law Sydney College of the Arts Sydney Conservatorium of Music 3

4 Colleges and Faculties College of Sciences and Technology Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Rural Management Faculty of Science Faculty of Veterinary Science 4

5 Faculty of Engineering Founded in 1882 as part of the Faculty of Science First Engineering classes 1883 Many distinguished alumni, including Bradfield; the chief engineer on the Harbour Bridge. 5

6 Faculty statistics Undergraduate students 2,618 Postgraduate students 487 International students 600 Academic staff 67 Undergraduate Enrolments by Department Chemical 190 AMME 650 Civil 450 Electrical & Information 878 6

7 Electrical & Information Engineering 7

8 My current research topics and team 8 Next Generation Transparent Network Architecture for High-Speed Communications Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Vinod Mirchandani,, M. Rubaiyat Kibria Sponsored by Australian Government s International Science Linkages Programme,, APA, NIP (in collaboration with EU 6th Framework) Advanced Network Selection Algorithms and Architecture Design in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Qingyang Song Sponsored by UPA, NIP Integration of Wireless LAN and GPRS/UMTS Cellular Systems Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour Sponsored by Australian Research Council (Linkage Project), Optus s Network QoS-Driven Rate Control Strategies for Wideband CDMA Systems Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Tracy Tung Sponsored by Australian Research Council (SPIRT Project), Univ. of Sydney R&D Grant Scheme (in collaboration with University of Technology Sydney)

9 My current research topics 9 On-Board Broadband Wireless Internet Systems Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Ehssan Sakhaee Sponsored by Australian Research Council (Discovery Project), NIP P (in collaboration with the University of New South Wales) Performance Study and Improvement of TCP in Wireless Communication Networks Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Fei Xin Sponsored by APA, NIP Wireless LAN Security Techniques Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Mohammad Azim Sponsored by University of Sydney R&D Grant Scheme, NIP Security-Oriented Quality-of of-service Provisioning for Mobile Internet Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Hai Feng Chen, Tracy Tung Sponsored by NIP Multi-hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MH-MANET) MANET) Researchers: Abbas Jamalipour, Tadahiro Wada Sponsored by Telecommunications Advancement Foundation of Japan (in collaboration with Shizuoka University and Nagoya University) Total Research Funds: A$1.2m

10 Future Trends in Mobile Communications Resource and Security Management Abbas Jamalipour January

11 Broadband Internet access Broadband Internet access anywhere, anytime is the ultimate challenge for the telecommunications industry Wireless technology for sure will have a significant contribution in realization of broadband access How to approach it? done ongoing started long way to go! 1. Extension of wired network with wireless LAN 2. Integration of W-LAN W with wireless cellular systems 3. Development of wireless MAN to complement W-LANW 4. Eventual incorporation of all advanced wired and wireless technologies through a common core network with interoperability functions for seamless connectivity (4G/NG) 11

12 Always best connected LAN, WLAN 1 Mbps (ADSL) GSM 53 Kbps Bluetooth 500 Kbps UMTS, GPRS 115 Kbps LAN 100 Mbps, WLAN 54 Mbps UMTS, DECT 2 Mbps GSM/EDGE 384 kbit/s, WLAN 1 Mbps (ADSL) GSM/GPRS 115 Kbps, WLAN 11 Mbps UMTS, GPRS 384 Kbps 12

13 Broadband wireless standards IEEE IEEE IEEE Wireless MAN IEEE Wireless LAN IEEE Bluetooth WAN IEEE e MAN LAN PAN GSM, GPRS, UMTS cdmaone, cdma2000 satellite ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS ETSI HiperLAN ETSI HiperPAN 13 Interesting point: There is a unique sweet spot for each standard, though there are some overlap at the edges

14 Optimized technology: usage and platform Higher speed processor optimized for data processing Larger, high resolution display Processor optimized for low power consumption and small form factor Smaller, lower resolution display Optimized for mobile voice Primary Capability Data Voice and G (and proposed ) 14 Transportable Portable Tablet Handheld Smart Phone Cell Phone Platform The idea of having a single network/device for all communications needs ubiquitously became obsolete and is no more valid. Source: Intel Corp. 2004

15 Next generation wireless systems They are expected to support high data rates Providing services comparable to wireline networks for a variety of applications such as interactive multimedia, VoIP,, network games, videoconferencing, etc. Providing multi-service ubiquitously in different environments of indoor, outdoor (low and high velocity), and up to global broadband access (satellite) Deployment over a heterogeneous environment of various physical access networks The current trend is that they will be based on IP technology Thus becoming an integral part of Internet infrastructure 15

16 An IP-based 4G/NG network SS7 signalling server farm, gateways, proxies broadcast PSTN, CS core gateways MSC GSM BSC SGSN IP-based core router firewall, GGSN, gateway Internet RNC private WPAN access points private WLAN UMTS public WLAN 16

17 Network heterogeneity Heterogeneous environment means Different data rates at the physical layer Different physical layer characteristics (BER, congestion, ) Different mobility management due to different size of cells (less handoff versus higher data rate) Therefore, the next generation wireless systems are expected to face two main constraints: Heterogeneity in physical access network Change of applications from commonly low data rates into more bandwidth demanding real-time and multimedia ones Then How to achieve a guaranteed QoS? How to effectively satisfy resource and security management? 17

18 Past trends in broadband mobile data Inclusion of mobility features in basically non-mobile IP by introduction of Mobile IP and IPv6 protocols Use of Wireless LAN in Extension of wired networks mobility and scalability Economically and technically feasible for limited scale Development of better security and traffic control techniques (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol TKIP; Wi-Fi Protected Access WPA; and eventually IEEE i) Extension of cellular networks bandwidth in hotspot areas Supplement low date-rate of cellular networks significantly where they are most needed Boost the affordability, usefulness, competency of 3G cellular Take advantage of IP-oriented W-LAN W and its security improvements to close the gap between cellular and IP networks (that is, CS and PS) 18

19 More recent trends 19 Introduction of a new bunch of IEEE standards after the popular W-LANW IEEE The wireless local area networks family W-LAN at 1 or 2 Mbps in 2.4-GHz band, FHSS/DSSS a W-LAN extension to 54 Mbps in 5-GHz 5 band, OFDM b same as with CCK rather than PSK modulation for support of 11 Mbps in the 2.4-GHz band (AKA Wi-Fi Fi) g W-LAN for 20+ Mbps in the 2.4-GHz band, shorter range but compatible with the b e adding QoS features and multimedia support, critical to wireless home networks for video on demand, audio on demand, voice over IP and high-speed Internet access i adding Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) security protocol to , stronger level of security than the current Wi-Fi Protected Access security standard see:

20 Other IEEE 802.xx standards 20 IEEE The wireless personal area networks : was adapted from the Bluetooth specification and is fully compatible with the Bluetooth 1.1 TG4 (low rate): provides data speeds of 20 Kbps or 250 Kbps TG3 (high rate): supports data speeds of 11 Mbps to 55 Mbps Features: : Use of up to 254 network devices, dynamic device addressing, support for devices in which latency is critical, full handshaking, security provisions, and power management There will be 16 channels in the 2.4-GHz band, 10 channels in the 915-MHz band, and one channel in the 868-MHz band. Plans to refine the specification to work with the Specification and Description Language (SDL), particularly SDL-88, SDL-92, and SDL-2000 updates of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation Z.100 see:

21 Other IEEE 802.xx standards IEEE The wireless metropolitan area networks Originally published in December 2001, specified fixed point- to-multipoint broadband wireless systems operating in the GHz licensed spectrum An amendment, a, approved in Jan. 2003, specified non-line line-of-sight extensions in the GHz spectrum, delivering up to 70 Mbps at distances up to 31 miles Further amendment, e, is expected to enable connections for mobile devices Commercialization through WiMax Forum 21 see:

22 Other IEEE 802.xx standards IEEE Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Developing a packet based air interface standard that is optimized for the transport of IP based services for mobile BWA systems operating in licensed bands below 3.5 GHz Targeting peak data rates of over 1 Mbps per user at vehicular speeds to 250 km/hour see: IEEE Handover and interoperability issues Developing standards to enable handover and interoperability between heterogeneous network types including both 802 and non 802 networks see: 22

23 The last mile communication link Purpose: Bridging the critical connection linking homes and businesses with their Internet service providers A chain is only as strong as its weakest link Data slowdown in the last mile of networking can impact the entire web browsing experience and limit the performance of promising services such as video on demand and multimedia-filled web connections WiMax vision: To blanket sections of cities and rural areas that are not wired for broadband, or to provide an alternative to wired connections in places that are connected. WiMax competes directly with local phone and cable companies wired offerings, such as DSL, cable modems and leased lines 23

24 WiMax simplified A service provider sets an a WiMax transceiver atop an antenna tower. Height gives the line-of-sight service better range and coverage. The signals reach the client s transceiver either directly or, in some cases, by bouncing off smooth surfaces. However, bounced signals are more error prone, and thereby have a much-reduced effective throughput. The received WiMax signal is decoded and unencrypted, and the payload extracted. Ethernet traffic is bridged to a standard local area network, such as a wired Ethernet router for an enterprise network, or to a Wi-Fi access point to support nearby mobile users. Within a few years, expect to see WiMax transceivers built directly into Wi-Fi access points, to allow them to serve as turnkey Wi-Fi hotspots. They may even be built into portable computers to let them tap directly into the WiMax network. 24

25 Slow growth of broadband US: 21% of homes and 51% of business had broadband access in 2003 In most of Europe broadband penetration sits between 10 and 20 percent In South Korea, in 2002, 43% household had broadband access as a result of the government promoted competition between different broadband technologies In Hong Kong broadband penetration reached 36% One reason is that homes and businesses generally need to be less than three miles from the local telephone exchange for a reliable (DSL) connection 25

26 Problems with DSL In US, the tough market competing with Cable TV DSL s limited range: no more than 5000 meters for business customers and as low as 3600 meters to homes For sparsely populated areas it is economically unfeasible So in US Verizon and some other large telephone companies have been testing wireless last mile A 200-square square-km service area costs a DSL provider over $11 million to serve, compared to wireless at $45,000 In countries such as United Kingdom, because of old telephone infrastructure rolling out DSL is difficult 26

27 BWA examples Test-bed examples of BWA where DSL was not possible, either economically or technically October 2002, Owensboro, Kentucky: Local electricity and water provider, Owensboro Municipal rolled out a high-speed broadband service to the city s 58,000 residents at US $25 a month, $2 more than the local low-speed dial-up August 2002, Klamath Falls, Oregon: A small start-up company, Always On Network, Inc. began serving up broadband to 30 test customers A test bed by British Telecom in Campsie,, a tiny village in Northern Ireland BT uses unlicensed spectrum to transmit broadband Internet access signal from radio towers to small antennas on customers homes (an earlier version of WiMax) 27

28 Case studies by industry Towerstream,, Boston Over 12 cells servicing greater Boston with 90% coverage Over 500 business at 5.8 GHz, 1 to 8 Mbps SLA Broadcast Communications Ltd, New Zealand Nationwide 74 base stations 30,000 to 100,000 connections High speed links at up to 50 km distance Each CPE to deliver 2 Mbps ADSL wirelessly and up to four 64 Kbps TDM voice lines Unwired, Sydney Covering most parts of Sydney metropolitan area at competitive price with wired DSL 28

29 WiMax The IEEE Standard WiMax: : Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access The latest, and most-hyped, generation of fixed wireless technology Differentiates from earlier broadband wireless access (BWA) iterations by standardization. Currently BWA chipsets are custom-built for each BWA vendor Similar to Wi-Fi Alliance, WiMax Forum would bring interoperability and thus plug-and and-play products WiMax would succeed in every geographic market, but for different reasons, in either way, it will become an inexpensive means of delivering high-speed data In emerging markets for low cost voice transport and delivery In developed markets for broadband Internet access 29

30 WiMax (cont.) IEEE wireless MAN is expected to provide broadband wireless Internet access for neighbors, villages, and cities similar to what was done by IEEE wireless LAN standard for homes, coffee shops, airports and offices The first IEEE standard published in April To define the wireless MAN air interface as an alternative to traditional wired connections for homes, small business and commercial buildings A non-profit consortium of companies known as WiMax Forum, San Jose, CA, was created to spur commercial development pf products by ensuring their interoperability 30

31 WiMax Forum A non-profit organization comprised of broadband wireless access system manufacturers, component (silicon, RF, antenna) suppliers, software developers and carriers Promote WiMax brand identity and WiMax-Certified equipment to drive interoperability Based upon IEEE and ETSI HiperMAN standards Founded in April 01 Founded in conjunction with the original IEEE standard for GHz applications In Jan 03, the Forum started efforts to cover the IEEE a standard for < 11 GHz As the x standard evolves, the WiMax Forum will evolve with it Over 90 members and growing rapidly (representing over 90% of sub-11 GHz BWA equipment sales) 31

32 WiMax (cont.) Wireless base station equipment targeted at under US $20,000 to economically serve up to 60 customers with high-speed connections of at least 1 Mbps Also can connect hotspots to the wired Internet backbone Supporting point-to to-multipoint data connections in the GHz range, transmits at data rates of up to 120 Mbps This range requires line of sight, so base stations would be on roof of buildings Connected to a wired backbone and then transmits wirelessly over up to 50 km to large number of stationary stations 32

33 WiMax (cont.) To accommodate non-line line-of-sight, IEEE published a in Jan 2003 It operates in licensed and unlicensed (either 2.4 or 5 GHz) frequencies between 2 GHz and 11 GHz using OFDM similar to a and g b is still under development by IEEE and should use the licensed GHz band MAC supports different physical layer specifications Every base station dynamically distributes uplink and downlink bandwidth to subscriber stations using TDMA, completely different from MAC which uses carrier- sensing mechanisms that don t provide effective bandwidth control over the radio link 33

34 IEEE Standards Line of sight a/REVd Non line of sight e Non line of sight Status of Standard Dec a: Jan REVd: Q3 04 Spectrum GHz < 11 GHz: 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed Aggregate Bit Rate Mb/s in 28 MHz of spectrum 5.8 GHz license-exempt Up to 75 Mbps in 20 MHz of spectrum Mobility Fixed Fixed outdoor & indoor Estimate Q1 05 < 6 GHz Up to 15 Mbps in 5 MHz of spectrum Portable/Mobile Channel Bandwidth 20, 25 and 28 MHz Flexible channel bandwidths between 1.25 and 20 MHz Same as a with more sub-channels for low power Typical Cell Radius 1-3 miles; up to 5 miles. 3 to 5 miles; Max range 30 miles based on tower height and topography 1-3 miles 34

35 Wi-Fi and WiMax Wi-Fi is a great technology for wireless networking, but Still tightly tethered to a wired infrastructure conventional DSL, cable-modem, leased line, or dial-up links to an Internet service provider WiMax is coming to add the short wireless connectivity and to revolutionize the last-mile service delivery for broadband homes and businesses WiMax will compete against DSL, cable, and dial-up for homes and businesses WiMax protocols make efficient use of bandwidth and also allow it to carry many different types of traffics not just TCP/IP but also ATM and voice traffic; also allows for strong encryption for user s data privacy 35

36 Wi-Fi WiMax: : Clear differences WiMax is not an extension of Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a LAN standard under IEEE standard for indoor use, to distribute Internet access to a bunch of home and office computers WiMax is a wireless replacement for a wired broadband connection; i.e. a new way of getting Internet access into home or office, more cheaply and easily than usual wires of telephone The two standards use different chip sets and different schemes for QoS and security They may or may not operate in the same regions of the radio spectrum They operate with different assumptions about radio environments where they work WiMax is ideal for a fixed point-to to-multipoint network, but inappropriate for a LAN 36

37 Wi-Fi WiMax: : Competition? One reason of misunderstanding is the new activities in the Wi-Fi standard; the new standard IEEE n created in Sept to increase Wi-Fi data rate to over 100 Mbps (not very permissible to see it before mid-) For there is always a trade off between date rates and distance: Longer distance Lower data rates Competition between Wi-Fi and WiMax would be minimal Wi-Fi devices are omnidirectional,, finding access points wherever they are WiMax devices typically face an access point, a base station Wi-Fi users are expected to hear each other and defer transmission if the network is busy WiMax users transmit only when instructed by the base station 37

38 and Standards Technical Range Optimized for 100 meters Add access points or high gain antenna for greater coverage Optimized for typical cell size of 7-10 km Up to 50 km range PHY tolerates the greater multi-path delay spreads caused by distance Coverage Optimized for indoor environments and users within 100m of each other Optimized for outdoor environments (trees, buildings, users spread out over distance) Standard support for advanced antenna techniques & mesh : 256 OFDM (vs. 64 OFDM) Mesh option part of spec Scalability Channel bandwidth is wide (20 MHz) and fixed OK for small cell sizes Channel b/w is flexible from 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz for Metropolitan Area cell planning Accommodates both licensed and license exempt bands Macro cell planning (MAN) has different requirements than micro-cell (LAN) planning Bit rate 2.7 bps/hz peak data rate; Up to 54 Mbps in 20 MHz channel 3.8 bps/hz peak data rate; Up to 75 Mbps in a 20 MHz 5 bps/hz bit rate; 100 Mbps in 20 MHz channel Slightly higher modulation scheme yields slightly higher data throughput QoS No QoS support today e working to standardize QoS designed in for voice/ video, differentiated services : contentionbased MAC (CSMA) : grant request MAC 38

39 2006 vision of WiMax Line of Sight BACKHAUL PCI Laptop Connected Through SEEKS BEST CONNECTION Telco Core Network or Private (Fiber) Network INTERNET BACKBONE Source: Intel Corp

40 WiMax development WiMax will evolve in two stages 1. Starting last year with products that cost and function like current BWA equipment. No increase in total fixed market, but a gradual migration from proprietary equipment to WiMax equipment (mainly a: fixed) 2. Once e (portable MAN) is approved: embedding WiMax in laptops and other mobile devices; a potential competitor to 3G, so that WiMax and Wi-Fi complement one another Future laptops and PDAs would be built with chip sets for both standards and

41 Other innovative technologies 41 ZigBee: : The technology that coordinates communication among thousands of tiny sensors, through its radio standard Sensors can be scattered throughout offices, farms, or factories, picking up bits of information about temperature, chemicals, water, or even motion (smart dust) Designed to use little energy so they can be left is place for 5 to 10 years Communicate very efficiently, passing data over radio waves from one to the other like a bucket brigade At the end of line, the data can be dropped into a computer for analysis or picked up by another wireless technology like WiMax Philips and Motorola are going to make ZigBee-based products

42 Other innovative technologies The current version of WiMax can t be used while in moving; future versions of WiMax will support mobile networks too Mobile-Fi will be available in two or three years and it provides broadband access to fast moving users sit in a train or in a car UWB, IEEE on the other hand is for short distance broadband data transfer. For example while Mobile-Fi receives high-speed data to a laptop in the trunk, UWB pull that information up to a handheld computer in the front seat These technologies attracted over $4.5 billion in venture investments over the past five years! 42

43 Conclusions The development trend of future mobile networks has been separated into two distinct ways: Cellular based moving from CS to PS and all IP-based IP-oriented standards oriented around IEEE 802.1x and 802.2x No matter how these rather exclusive directions develop, the future of mobile data will hang around a heterogeneous solution that will include both approaches From security point of view, new security techniques should aim at higher layers of the network in order to be aligned with the heterogeneous nature of the future networks Bandwidth and resource management of large number of network users will eventually push W-LAN W and W-MAN W standards into licensed spectrum 43

44 Key features of future mobile networks Improved radio technology and antennas smart antennas, beam forming, multiple-input input multiple-output (MIMO) space division multiplex to increase capacity, benefit from multipath software defined radios (SDR) use of different air interfaces, download new modulation/coding/... requires a lot of processing power (UMTS RF GIPS) dynamic spectrum allocation spectrum on demand results in higher overall capacity Core network convergence IP-based, quality of service, mobile IP Ad-hoc technologies spontaneous communication, power saving, redundancy Simple and open service platform intelligence at the edge, not in the network (as with IN) more service providers, not network operators only 44

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