2 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Supporting The Sourcing Governance Foundation Qualifi cation
4 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Supporting The Sourcing Governance Foundation Qualifi cation Jork Lousberg Marco van der Haar Menzo Meijer
5 Colophon Title: The Demand Supply Governance Framework Supporting The Sourcing Governance Foundation Qualification Authors: Jork Lousberg, Marco van der Haar, Menzo Meijer Editor: Jane Wilkinson Publisher: Van Haren Publishing, Zaltbommel, ISBN Hard copy: ISBN ebook: Print: First edition, first impression, April 2012 Design and Layout: CO2 Premedia bv, Amersfoort - NL Copyright: Van Haren Publishing 2012 For any further enquiries about Van Haren Publishing, please send an to: Although this publication has been composed with most care, neither Author nor Editor nor Publisher can accept any liability for damage caused by possible errors and/or incompleteness in this publication. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form by print, photo print, microfilm or any other means without written permission by the Publisher.
6 Preface The most important contribution that IT can deliver to the business is to add maximum value in relation to the extent of investment in IT. The added value is optimal when the delivery of IT services matches perfectly with business demand. Over the years the delivery of IT has become more critical to the business. Based on a well evolved sourcing strategy, the delivery of IT is either done by the internal IT department or is outsourced to third parties. Where managing supply is professionalized through sourcing governance and the market acceptance of sourcing models, the bundling of demand, and the adequate balancing of demand and supply, has all too often been neglected. This is true for both IT and the business side of organizations. IT has a tendency to focus overly on the delivery itself, although this may be professionalized through service levels. Also, business and information management too often focus on the technical issues and the delivery of IT on time and on budget. The Demand Supply Governance Framework (DSGF) delivers the best of two worlds. On the one hand of the world of IT capabilities and on the other hand of the world of business wishes: the bundling of business demand, whilst balancing it against the possibilities and cost of the adequate delivery of IT services.
8 Table of Contents Preface V 1 Introduction 3 2 Introducing Demand Supply Governance The Need for Demand Supply Governance The What and How of DSG Successfully Managing DSG 7 3 Focus on Results: Three Delivery Flows Standard Services Changes Projects 16 4 Making Demand and Supply meet: Governance Hotspots Governance hotspot GH-D: Demand Management Governance hotspot GH-S: Supply Management Governance hotspot GH-DS: Matching Demand and Supply 22 5 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Explained The origin of the DSGF Focus areas 28 6 Designing the DSG Function Roles and Competencies Roles Organization Structure Structured Exchange of Information Implementation: Critical Success Factors 40
9 VIII 7 Conclusion: Multi Dimensional Balancing 43 Supporting Material for Sourcing Governance Foundation Certification Case Study 1: Government-Sector Case Study Outline 47 Case Study 2: Company I Outsourcing in a highly fragmented and non-standardized IT-environment 53 Case Study 3: Public Sector 61 The Sourcing Governance Sample Foundation Examination 69
10 The Demand Supply Governance Framework
12 1: Introduction Four general observations support the development of Demand Supply Governance (DSG) approaches in the marketplace. Firstly: many outsourcing initiatives involve IT infrastructure management and focus is biased towards Supplier Management. As a result, Demand Management - balancing future requirements of the various business units and overall corporate interests - is under-estimated. Secondly: integration between the application and the infrastructure domain becomes increasingly problematic, especially in a multi-vendor out sourcing situation. Thirdly: an increasing number of organizations require a governance model to control innovative application development in connection with subsequent exploitation. Finally: alignment and governance are a means to an end. They can only be successful with the customer perspective in mind. Existing frameworks are often translated from only few specific focus areas into process models, thus creating numerous workflows that makes Demand Supply Governance (DSG) too complex and too time consuming. As a result, business delivery tends to be too late and too costly. A focus on the delivery of the right results, delivered on time and for a reasonable price, is required to demonstrate clearly the added value of Demand Supply Governance. Attempting to find the right balance between Demand and Supply in the overall management of the IT value chain has resulted in the development of the Demand Supply Governance Framework (DSGF) which is described in this book.
13 4 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Before we continue, we will need to establish a practical definition of Demand Supply Governance. Our starting point will be Peter Weill s (2004) definition of IT Governance, which, in turn, is based on financial and corporate governance principles: IT governance is about specifying the decision rights and accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the use of IT. Similarly, we define Demand Supply Governance as follows: Demand Supply Governance is about specifying the decision rights and accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior and focus in the interaction between Demand for and Supply of ICT services. This definition of DSG highlights two sides of governance: The behavioral side of DSG that encompasses the relationships and ensuing patterns of behavior between the different actors involved in the field of demand and supply of ICT (information and communications technology) services (eg business managers, key users, IT managers, IT staff and vendor staff). The hard measurable targets of DSG that refers to the set of rules (company and/or external) that frame the relationship and private behaviors (eg corporate governance code, accounting rules and regulations, and IT architecture). The concept of Demand Supply Governance is applicable to all organizations, both profit and not-for-profit. Even though we will frequently refer to business and business unit it is possible to substitute these terms by not-for-profit organization and organizational unit (eg a Directorate in a governmental Department). In the next section we will present a closer examination of some of the dynamics between demand and supply, present a first indication of how desirable behavior is defined, and provide a top level overview of the roles involved.
14 2: Introducing Demand Supply Governance 2.1 The Need for Demand Supply Governance What are the ultimate objectives we are trying to achieve with Demand Supply Governance? Consider the four major aspects below: The traditional IT organization (an internal department) is increasingly under pressure, due to disappointing results. Complaints are usually that costs are too high or delivery is poor. Regardless of whether this is objectively true, or just a matter of opinion, this is what the business side of the organization often perceives. This perception poses a real threat to the internal IT department. Acceptance of outsourcing adds to this pressure, since outsourcing to an external supplier provides the business with an alternative to the internal IT department. Acceptance may vary with the IT responsibilities outsourced. The externally-placed IT infrastructure (eg data center services) may be considered a commodity. At the other end of the spectrum is offshoring, the development of new, key business applications. The predominant outsourcing model today is the multi-vendor approach, where the organization outsources services to a number of external suppliers. Characteristics of suppliers and demanders have changed; both have matured. Suppliers have set up huge back offices, especially in countries where the costs of labor are relatively low. Distance (physically as well as culturally) between the customer and the provider, is growing. Finally, and most importantly, the added value of IT is still under discussion. Furthermore, if IT does add value, exactly what value does it add? Quantifying the added value is a requirement, even though such quantification is often difficult to achieve.
15 6 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Therefore, the mission of DSG is twofold: First, that services, as required by and agreed upon with the business, are actually delivered to the business: The proper services must be delivered on time and in accordance with the agreed upon quality specifications, and at an acceptable level of costs. Any DSO (Demand Supply Organization) failing to manage these aspects will fail. It is comparable to, in marketing terminology, a dissatisfier. For the customer, it is essential that this objective is met. Failure to meet this objective will lead to severe dissatisfaction, whilst success in meeting this objective will not improve satisfaction. Second, to increase the added value of IT and make it manifest: This implies focusing on those services and projects that lead to a sustainable competitive advantage for the business and not spending any undue resources on IT commodities. 1 When attuning demand and supply to best meet the organization s overall objectives, regardless of whether it concerns a business or a not-for-profit organization, there are always certain preconditions and constraints that must be considered. Some of these preconditions and constraints are organizationspecific (the DSG mission must always be in line with, if not derived from, the overall mission of the organization and the derived business planning and operating model), but some may be industry- or country-specific (eg ensuring compliance to rules and regulations). 2.2 The What and How of DSG Typical business models include autonomous Strategic Business Units (SBUs). Each SBU has its own specific information systems requirements. Although the various needs of the business units are not necessarily in contradiction with each other, they are probably different. On the supply side, 1 This topic - does IT add value? If so, when and how? - is part of an ongoing, extensive debate by IT practitioners, business and academics. A widely known and controversial contribution to this debate was Nicholas Carr s article IT doesn t matter (2003).
16 2: Introducing Demand Supply Governance 7 many organizations pursue a multi-vendor strategy, using a range of internal and external suppliers. Each supplier has their own strengths and weaknesses. Exploiting these supplier strengths is one of the key drivers behind the multivendor strategy. With demand and supply diversifying, making demand and supply of ICT services meet in both an effective and efficient manner has become an increasingly complex task. There are two core issues: Bundling demand: Articulating and bundling business demand in such a way that both the SBU objectives and the overall organization objectives are met with solutions that are both fit for purpose and cost-effective. DSG can make this happen by standardizing IT solutions when possible and facilitating economies of scale opportunities, by monitoring legitimate allocation of resources and by translating business requirements into IT products and services. The ultimate goal of bundling demand is not to create a single, unified demand, which is a compromise that suits none of the parties. Rather, the goal is to make decisions and set priorities. If the interests of the business are better met by four different (or differing) services, rather than by a single solution chosen solely for reasons of economies of scale, then that is a valid option. Managing supply: Ensuring that the chosen supplier delivers the solutions as contracted (ie on time, on budget and at the agreed upon level of quality). Since the customer and the supplier - especially if the supplier is an external, commercial party - may have conflicting interests, it is important to make sure that the expected benefits are actually secured. 2.3 Successfully Managing DSG Once it is understood that DSG is required, it will raise a number of questions, such as: When is DSG successful? What makes DSG successful? How should we organize DSG? For answers, we will examine four topics: strategy, delivery flows and results, governance hotspots and the Demand Supply Governance Framework.
17 8 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Strategy In order to be successful, we first need to set the objectives: When can DSG be considered successful? It must contribute to the overall objectives of the organization. A strategy is required; otherwise everyone involved in DSG will soon be overwhelmed by day-to-day operations and ad hoc decision-making. It will then be very easy to lose track of the overall picture. Obviously, the strategy must be aligned with the corporate objectives, the IT strategy and the sourcing strategy. Is IT considered a commodity and of little use to achieve sustainable competitive advantage? If so, then a low cost, operational excellence strategy is the obvious choice. For organizations operating in complex and dynamic markets, innovation, a short time-to-market and focus on customer intimacy will be more appropriate. Capturing the essence of the strategy in a mission statement will not only help to communicate the strategy to all organization members and stakeholders, but will also help answer the question, When is Demand Supply Governance truly successful? Delivery flows and results Control deserves special attention and invites the question, What does the governance organization stand for? The answer will depend, in part, upon the type of organization. For example, it may be a body Control 3 delivery flows focused exclusively on monitoring (eg as an extension of the Board of Directors), or it can be an organization that also channels special orders and supports projects. The latter involves more staff and will be closer to the IT organization and the shop floor. When supplying IT services to the customer, there are three flows to control: The correct delivery of standard day-to-day services and standard requests to the customers. These services or products are ordered and delivered on the basis of a catalog and/or SLA (service level agreement).
18 2: Introducing Demand Supply Governance 9 The on-time and correct delivery of changes (special orders). With regard to these changes, one may think of products that can become the standard (after all, the very first color printer was special), or of application changes. The on-time and correct delivery of project results and the control of the project portfolio. We will present all flows in more detail in section 4. Parties and alignment: governance hotspots The flows each involve three parties: the customer, the supplier (which includes the in-house back office) and a Demand Supply Organization (the place where the alignment of demand and supply between the Focus on interfaces other parties takes place). One of the pitfalls is that in detailed process and procedure descriptions, workflows are led past specialized employees. This results in a large numbers of interfaces, each with its own risk of mistakes and delays. In terms of control, it is best to focus on the interface between customer and the DSO, between the DSO and supplier, and on the interface of the demand and supply alignment within the DSO. In a properly functioning DSO, there will be minimal attention to the internal alignment, so that the focus can be on the customer and the performance as delivered by the supplier for the benefit of that customer. Alignment between parties and within the DSO takes place within so-called governance hotspots. These governance hotspots will be explained in section 5, as part of the answer to How to govern between Demand and Supply. The Demand Supply Governance Framework The second part of the answer to the How to govern between Demand and Supply question can be found in section 6, where we will explain the Demand Supply Governance Framework (DSGF). Quint has Specification within the developed a framework containing 29 focus areas, DSGF: focus areas each of which specify a certain aspect of DSG. To further answer the how to govern question, each
19 10 The Demand Supply Governance Framework focus area can be broken down into a number of aspects (such as processes, roles, KPIs, etc.). Business Domain Alignment Domain IT Domain Strategy & Control Business Planning IT Planning Architecture Sourcing Finance Security Compliance IT Delivery Planning Business Innovation Process Requirement Projects Acceptance Design Demand Supply Build Information Project Portfolio Procurement Test GH-D Changes GH-DS GH-S Business Case Contract IT Functionality Service Portfolio Cost Service Request Performance Standard Services Run Support Operation Service Delivery Diagram 1: Delivery fl ows, governance hotspots and the DSGF Diagram 1 combines the delivery flows, the governance hotspots and the Demand Supply Governance Framework, and illustrates the complexity of DSG. However, the three components (delivery flows, governance hotspots and DSGF) will help focus on the most important aspects of DSG and ensure the adequate delivery of ICT services that are aligned between the business needs and the suppliers potential. The delivery flows will be the focus of the next section.
20 3: Focus on Results: Three Delivery Flows Having introduced the context of Demand and Supply and established the need for Demand Supply Governance, we must now specify the ICT services. Not all ICT services are alike, and bundling demand and managing supply of these different services may require a different approach, or at least a different emphasis on certain aspects of governance. In our practice we have identified three types of services, or as we refer to them, delivery flows: Standard Services Changes Projects Business Domain Alignment Domain IT Domain Strategy & Control Business Planning IT Planning Architecture Sourcing Finance Security Compliance Projects Innovation IT Delivery Planning Business Process Information Requirement Project Acceptance Demand Supply Project Portfolio Changes Procurement Business Case Contract Design Build Test IT Functionality Service Portfolio Cost Service Request Standard Services Performance Service Delivery Run Support Operation Diagram 2: Delivery fl ows (projects, changes, standard services)
21 12 The Demand Supply Governance Framework The last two flows deal with change (ie introducing new IT products, services or IS (information system) functionality into the business environment). These are typically discretionary events, as opposed to the first flow, which focuses on services of a perpetual nature. Standard services provide a mix between continuous services, such as providing application access to authorized users, and discretionary events, such as the installation of a desktop for a new employee, typically triggered by a standard request. It is important to stress that, when setting out to control these flows, in the end it always comes down to results-driven control to the output of the flows. A welldesigned and well-managed process still cannot transform lousy input into high quality output: garbage in, garbage out. Therefore, processes, throughput and output must always be considered in the light of the desired results. Balancing between core and detail: Why three delivery flows? Why not more? We introduced three delivery fl ows that focus on the results of demand supply governance: the timely delivery of the right services at a reasonable price. In addition to the projects, changes and standard SLA-based service fl ows, one might also come to believe that there is the need for more detailed fl ows. Consider the standard SLA-based services. These services are based on catalog items or Service Level Agreements, and in many of our governance assignments we use both a delivery fl ow for SLA-based services (such as a network) and one for catalog-based services (such as a PC), since the delivery of a PC is different from the availability of a network. For the design of a Demand Supply Organization this is often a necessary design activity. However, for our clients we focus on the delivery of agreed upon services, at an agreed upon price, and, therefore, on a single fl ow. Introducing four or five flows will only distract us from the core issues: how to deal with the delivery of projects, changes and standard services. In the following subsections are brief descriptions of each of these flows.
22 3: Focus on Results: Three Delivery Flows Standard Services The standard services have been defined in the Service Catalog and agreed upon in the Service Level Agreement (SLA). The service and service levels have been defined and will not change during the time that the SLA is valid. Any changes to service, service levels or other terms and conditions - such as price - must be captured in a revised SLA (and possibly in a revised contract). An example is availability of services. In the SLA, the agreement states that the corporate services will be available 365 days a year, seven days a week, and 24 hours a day. Granting a new user access to the services can also be an SLA-based service. However, this is a service request, since it requires a specific trigger. The service requests are clearly and unambiguously defined in the Service Catalog. For each request, the customer and the supplier know the costs, time of delivery, terms and conditions and every other service level involved. For example, for a new laptop, the time of delivery is five working days, and the user ID will be available within two working days. A request to move one desktop is standard, but a request to move ten desktops at once will be considered a special request. The supplier knows the risks associated with the provision of a service request well in advance. There should be no surprises either for the requestor or for the deliverer. The key responsibility of DSG is to ensure that both the suppliers and the requestors are adhering to the services and service levels agreed upon. Costs of the continuous services can be budgeted with a rather high level of certainty, since the SLA is based on agreed upon capacity forecasts, deviations from the forecast (within an agreed upon bandwidth), and agreed upon rates and prices. However, it is difficult to set certain financial targets and make DSG staff accountable for service requests. Even though the costs of an individual request ( P, the price in the Service Catalog) may be well known in advance, the business domain is responsible for the number of requests ( Q ). Overall costs, P times Q, may be rather unpredictable and difficult to control by DSG.
23 14 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Key tasks and activities The starting point is the contracted services: Contracted services include a service description, service levels, forecasted volumes and the pricing model (including unit prices and/or volume bandwidths), and are recorded in a Service Level Agreement (SLA). Contracting the Service Catalog (the Service Catalog targeted at the customer/user, not the vendor Product and Services Catalog): The Service Catalog includes the definition of the products and services, the related service request service levels and the unit prices for service requests. Properly managing the SLA requires Capacity Management (and determining the associated costs, and thus the business case): The volume forecast must be updated regularly (eg a rolling quarterly forecast and an annual forecast with a 12-month planning horizon). In addition to forecasting, the actual demand volumes must be monitored constantly. Significant deviations from the forecast must be examined and explained. Managing the actual delivery of contracted services: This requires service monitoring, incident resolution in case of any failures, and immediately reporting of high impact incidents to the business. Processing service requests: Delivery of service requests, monitoring that the supplier meets the service levels and assisting the business domain in aligning service requests with the service portfolio. Reporting service performance: This includes drafting and sending reports (based on supplier reports), as well discussing the subsequent reports with the customers. Managing the service portfolio: Monitoring deviations of service requests to the service portfolio (a request filed as service request that should be filed as a special/request for Change or RFC), proposing updates to the service portfolio (adding new products and/or services, removing obsolete ones, in alignment with business requirements), and negotiating the unit prices, volumes and service levels of new service requests. Identifying and implementing process improvements throughout the ICT value chain: To improve service performance and the service delivery and support processes.
24 3: Focus on Results: Three Delivery Flows 15 Invoicing the customers: From drafting and checking the invoice, to discussing invoice disputes and allocating the costs to the business units. 3.2 Changes A request for a product or service that cannot be obtained through a service request can be considered a special or a change. If the need for the new product or service is permanent, it is likely that the product or service will be included in the next Service Catalog or Service Level Agreement, thus standardizing what was once special. While standard services are budgeted up front, the business may pay for specials from any budget they choose (project or non-project, IT or other), in accordance with internal accounting standards. The requirements for the special requests must be defined in close co-operation with Demand and Supply, to ensure that the business gets what it wants and that Supply is able to deliver. It is difficult to forecast the price of a special request and the number of requests. Therefore, setting target budgets for changes may be tricky. Key tasks and activities Ensure that there is a process for specials (non-standard changes), from raising the request to defining the formal interfaces and procedures, and to further processing the request all the way to the implementation and evaluation. This includes defining the service levels concerning requests. It is important to agree with the business on requirements and ensure that changes are delivered to meet the requirements. Capacity Management is important. However, forecasting does not focus on the expected number of changes, but rather on the total financial impact or required FTE (full-time equivalent) volume. Processing change requests: This includes delivery of non-standard changes (typically managed like a small project), monitoring the progress of changes and assisting the business domain defining their requirements, providing technical direction, and setting up business cases.
25 16 The Demand Supply Governance Framework Reporting service performance: This includes drafting and sending reports (based on supplier reports), as well as discussing the reports with the customers. Identifying and implementing process improvements throughout the ICT value chain; to improve service performance, and the service delivery and support processes. Managing the service portfolio: Identifying potential new, standard services and requests, proposing updates to the service portfolio (also removing obsolete products and services), and negotiating prices and tariffs. Invoicing the customers: From drafting and checking the invoice, to discussing invoice disputes and allocating the costs to the business units. 3.3 Projects The objective of both changes and projects is to introduce new, or modify existing, services or products. The demarcation line between a project and a change is often the amount of money (based on the number of hours work) and the time it takes to complete the work. However, another dimension, such as complexity (either technological at the product or service level, or managerial, as it relates to the organization and stakeholder), may also be a reason to treat a change initiative as either a change or a project. The level of managerial complexity is our major consideration for distinguishing changes from projects. Even more so than with changes, the project requirements must be defined with close co-operation between Demand, Supply and the DSO (the Demand Supply Organization). Even though certain project procedures can and must be contracted, situational factors will dictate the execution of each individual project. As a result, each project will be unique. As previously stated, the amount of capital and labor resources committed to a project, and the duration of this commitment, are considerable. To allocate scarce resources effectively and in alignment with business priorities, the DSO will have to actively manage the portfolio of all current and intended projects.
26 3: Focus on Results: Three Delivery Flows 17 Key tasks and activities Ensure that there is a (contracted) process of projects (defined as large and complex changes) throughout the entire value chain, from the business domain to the IT domain, defining projects, project governance (ie clear rules on the contents of a Business Case, allocation of roles such as Business Executive, approval of Project Brief, role of Project Board and Business Project Board 2 ) and project service levels. Again, Capacity Management is essential. However, just as with specials (change requests), forecasting does not focus on the expected number of changes, but on the total financial or required FTE volume. Processing change requests: This encompasses the delivery of large, nonstandard changes (projects), monitoring the progress of projects and assisting the business domain defining their requirements, providing technical direction, setting up business cases and transition schedules, and controlling that the projects and project portfolio are aligned with long-term business and corporate plans. Active Project Portfolio Management: In addition to approving requests (ie adding projects to the project portfolio), such management also entails monitoring project progress, and updating the project s business cases, to ensure that the overall direction and resource allocation are in line with the strategic objectives. Reporting service performance: This includes drafting and sending reports (based on supplier reports), as well as discussing the reports with the customers. Identify and implement process improvements throughout the ICT value chain: To improve service performance, and the service delivery and support processes. Invoicing the customers: From drafting and checking the invoice, to discussing invoice disputes and allocating the costs to the business units. 2 Project Board and Business Project Board will be covered in section 6.3 Structured Exchange of Information.
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