Existing Trends and Techniques of flooding attacks in WiMax Network

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1 Existing Trends and Techniques of flooding attacks in WiMax Network Pratibha Jadon Department of Computer Science & Engineering Sagar Institute of Research & Technology Bhopal, India Rajesh Shukla Department of Computer Science & Engineering Sagar Institute of Research & Technology Bhopal, India Abstract Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a new communication technology that conduit the fissure between fixed and mobile access and offer the same to both types of user. In today s scenario such mobile broadband services and applications are highly necessitate as its offers freedom to the subscribers to be connected wherever they are at a viable cost with significant amenities like increasing bandwidth while accessing variety of mobile and roaming devices. The primitive edition of WiMAX is based on IEEE and is specially designed for fixed and roaming access, which is advances to support portability and mobility based on IEEE e, also known as Mobile WiMAX. Wireless (especially MANET) is more vulnerable to the inside and outside attack due to absence of any clear line of defense [24]. Along with many attacks, such networks are particularly more vulnerable to denial of service (DoS) attacks also known as flooding. Route request flooding attack is one of them DDoS attack. Same will be possible on WiMax network during selection of SS to transfer the packet to the BS. Recent research has discovered that DoS attacks can easily be launchedviainjecting malevolent management frames into the WiMax based on the PKM-RSP and ARQ-Reset message are used to launched DoS attacks. There is urgent requirement to evaluate the DDoS attack and develop an efficient prevention mechanism for the WiMAx network. In this article we have surveyed the WiMax network and its future perspective and also proposed a novel approach to defend against the blow of flooding attack in WiMax network Keywords- BS, DoS, DDoS, IEEE802.16, flooding, PMP, RREQ, Wi-Fi, WiMax. I. INTRODUCTION Wimax is an acronym meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wimax). Wimax is based on Wireless Metropolitan Area Networking (WMAN) standards developed by the IEEE group. Wimax facilitate the broadband services anytime in wireless environment, wherever required. Originally the WiMax (IEEE ) standard was designed to transport Non-Line- Of-Sight (NLOS) connectivity to the subscriber to Access Point (base station) up to the cell radius of 3-10 km. Wimax network systems can deliver up to 40 Mbps per channel capacity. This is adequate bandwidth to support hundreds of businesses network having T-1 Channel speed as well as provides connectivity to the thousands of home users (residences) via DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) Connection simultaneously. A broad industry association the Wimax Forum has started certifying to the broadband wireless products for interoperability and compliance with a standard. Wimax technology already has been incorporated in notebook computers and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) to deliver high speed mobile Internet services on-demand in any place. Wimax is the next generation of wireless technology deliberated to facilitate high speed mobile Internet access to the large array of devices including notebook PCs, smartphones etc. It makes possible the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). IEEE is a standard for wireless broadband access network. IEEE (WiMax) are covered longer distance (transmission range) than other wireless network like Wi-Fi or WLAN (IEEE802.11) with serving more stylish and enhanced Quality of-service (QoS) support through MAC level. Various application and service types can be used in networks and the MAC layer is designed to support this convergence. As always, security is an essential prerequisite for the success of every communication technology [12]. Wireless communications are by nature more vulnerable to a number of different attacks such as man-in-the-middle, DoS and replay. In the case of WiMAX -which was initially constructed with respect to a protocol for wired environments-, the security provision is rather inefficient as wireless and wired realms enjoy very different threat models. Moreover, with each version of the standard new improvements were added but at the same time new threats emerged. For instance, lower frequencies (and as a result NLOS communication) introduced in IEEE reduce the hardware implementation complexity and the physical placement constraints for an attacker. Similarly, mesh mode is by definition insecure as it assumes the trustworthiness of all nodes of the network. Moreover, the support for mobility facilitates aggressors to launch attacks 66

2 from virtually anywhere within the network. The relay station feature, introduced in the j-2009, announces a new element on the network, but with it, another target of possible attacks is added. The latest version of this standard added enhancement in the security mechanisms that include encrypted control messages and a new version of the Privacy and Key Management protocol (PKMv3). However, since this version is very recent and there are no published works to report on the robustness of its security features so far, it will be excluded from this survey. For the same reason attacks against the j amendment are left out. Nevertheless, it is true that the rest of the amendments of the standard, despite the constant security improvements, maintain a considerable number of security inefficiencies, exposing the user and the network to a significant number of threats. Rest of the paper organized as follow, section 2 describes related terminology and background work, and section 3 focuses on related work in WiMAX security aspect. Section 4 discusses the proposed solution; finally section 5 gives the conclusion of this paper. II. TERMINOLOGY AND BACKGROUND Quickly and easy installation of mesh networks have added wide esteem in recent years [1]. Widely used in various application areas like public communication networks aided with security and in momentary extensions of operator networks. According to the author of [2] Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are anticipated as a best elucidation for accessing networks of extensive coverage in the next few years. According to the author [2] survey that two network technology that will be summon for WMN development are WiFi for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and WiMAX for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN). WiFi core concept is based on IEEE standard while WiMAX is build on IEEE standard. Though increasing demands of large coverage and necessity of high bandwidth in addition with built-in QoS support, WiMAX will be the most promising large scale broadband access in future network and communication market. WiMAX is a standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) by IEEE [3]. Two well known standards of WiMAX are currently popular for deployment in industry fixed and mobile WiMAX. Fixed WiMAX is also known as IEEE d-2004 [4] is intended to provide data rates of Mbps while mobile WiMAX or e-2005 [5] is estimated to deliver up to 15 Mbps at vehicle speed of 120 Km/h. The basic requirements for wireless network are presented in [6]. According to author [7] discusses the benefit of WiMax, IEEE standardized and add in 802 family gives its name IEEE or WiMAX which offer fast network service access having wireless broadband capabilities. Wimax provides high speed data rate in spacious wireless range conjunction with security and user mobility. IEEE m (IEEE Workgroup, 2011) has been recently launched by IEEE as a fourth generation (4G) communication systems or simply 4G to fulfill the current user needs integrated with advance air interface. Additionally the current release of WiMax (IEEE m) was also put up with to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and accredited as the successor technology of the next generation International Mobile Tele-communications (IMT) in October Author of [8] focused on the pros and cons of WiMax and its necessity in current communication medium which provides higher bandwidth. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technologies have extensively become known as a promising elucidation for the new generation multimedia applications to facilitate network QoS with surety like bandwidth, jitter, delay, etc. All such communication technologies has been standardized by the IEEE standard and its amendment [9] [10] [11]. It comprises of Subscriber Stations (SS) or Mobile Stations (MS), or Base Stations (BS). The BS work as a access for all the SS s. The main function of BS is to provide connectivity, its management and control of SSs located at varying remoteness whereas an SS has user device edifice prepared with conservative wireless or wired LAN features for communicating with others (SS and BS both). The mobile station (MS) is an SS deliberate to be used when user or device in roaming (mobility) or for the duration of cut short at indeterminate points. The end users uses (or demand) diverse service or application resulting this the requirement of their bandwidth and latency is varying that s means the MAC layer must have elasticity while serving and proficient to bear diverse nature of services, applications and traffic models with a choice of from high data rate to low data rate. Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer is the core layer to communicate among same LAN (WLAN) devices it ensures the reliable transmission of the information, it transmitted the packets (data) in connection oriented approach. The core function of the MAC is to decide when to send. In IEEE it constitutes the common interface that interprets data linking (forwarding) between higher layer and data link layer to the physical layer and vice versa. MAC ensures QoS in IEEE by applying three concepts (technique), first one is to admission controller then the scheduler and finally the buffer manager. Admission controlling verifies the permission of a new request for a making connection should be granted or not, this will achieve using free band-width remains. While Scheduling decide the QoS of the packet before transmission (which packets should be processed first) and Buffer management is responsible to manage the buffer size. If buffer is overloaded 67

3 (overflow) then it starts dropping of the packets. Although numerous method are used for requesting/allocating bandwidth to fulfill the QoS necessities of various applications, the IEEE standard does not mention how to use the QoS parameters to achieve maximum QoS. The standard states that the service should be policed, at the BS and SS, to conform to the maximum sustained traffic rate (MSTR) which defines the peak information rate of the service, on the average, over time. Service Data Units(SDUs) deemed to exceed the MSTR may be delayed or dropped. The standard does not define or recommend any algorithm for measuring whether a flow exceeds its MSTR. Not to mention that services can ask for resources while not significantly using those resources. These type of activities may also be regarded as attacks. Author of [8], has proposed a novel approach using the concept of Policy to ensure trust value. This mechanism concerning the Trust with continuous Monitoring Scheme (TAAMS) integrated with the WiMax fundamental architecture to improve the quality of service in the network. The proposed scheme of author [8] characterize two policies for monitoring if a service flow exceeds its maximum sustained traffic rate and whether it does use its allocated resources to detect and react to malicious behaviors. In this context, we use the trust concepts to establish a trust relationship between the network entities that allows us to detect and prevent malicious behavior of certain users. Author of [12] has surveyed on all the details of WiMAX considering their security issues on them, the IEEE standard was developed to satisfy the growing demand for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) 1. Commonly known as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), this technology may still fall short in terms of adoption rate when compared to other popular technologies such as IEEE [13]. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the more widespread wireless technologies (such as the aforementioned ) are not appropriate for outdoor BWA applications. Thus, WiMAX is expected to be a dominant technology for the Metropolitan Area Networks (MANets) in the near future. Indeed, WiMAX attempts to overcome the last mile bottleneck issue of contemporary telecommunication networks. Among its other assets the support for all-ip core network infrastructure, low latency, advanced Quality of Service (QoS) and sophisticated security prevail. WiMAX was partially based on the Data Over Cable Service Interface, Baseline Plus Interface (DOCSIS BPI+) protocol [14] which has been originally designed for cable modems. The first version of the standard, i.e., IEEE [15] only supported point-to-multipoint (PMP) fixed wire-less access between a Base Station (BS) and several registered Subscriber Stations (SS). Since IEEE in the GHz frequency range, this technology required line-of-sight (LOS) communication. The next version of the standard namely, IEEE [16] extended the frequency range into the 2-11 GHz band, thus enabling non line-of-sight (NLOS) communication. Among other improvements in this version mesh mode was introduced. Until now, the most prominent version of the standard, namely IEEE e-2005 [17] specifies numerous major improvements including the full mobility support. Subscribers are now characterized as Mobile Stations MSs (in the following we use the terms MS and SS interchangeably). This became possible as the standard employs Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (SOFDM) in the physical layer. Additionally, it supports advanced security features such as mutual authentication for both the BS and MS j-2009 [18] added support for multihop relays. Finally, the latest version of the standard, namely m-2011 [19] (also known as WiMAX release 2), added support for data rates as high as 100 Mbps for mobile nodes and 1 Gbps for stationary users. III. RELATED WORK According to author [20], Denial of service attacks attempt to degrade the performance of multimedia networks flooding them with dummy packets. According to author, the network coding of physical layer [21] [22], is especially valuable in wireless networks when we consider the limited bandwidth and power resources of the nodes. As network coding may possibly permit data errors and/or corrupted packets to spread broadly and damage the data recovery procedure when reaching to the final destination, previous research into network coding security focused on the protection of data dissemination procedures and the detection of malicious activities such as pollution attacks [23] [24]. Author [25] proposed a new scheme that overcomes the limitations of the traditional Markov decision process for optimal call admission control policy characterizing the network behaviors in the heterogeneous system more exactly. A systematic examination of the design issues of multimedia downlink scheduling in the multicast/broadcastbased WiMAX system is presented in [25]. In particular [25] proposes a feasible end-to-end model (framework) by adopting cross-layer development and designing like Queue such as flow queuing and prioritization, scheduling for accommodating diversity in link variations as per the service required, queue fluctuations, reception diversities and in he source coding. Author of [26] talking about the signaling attack (also known as DoS), Author uses the term Signaling attack instead of DoS, The targets of most denial of service (DoS) attacks so far are wire line endpoints, whose prevalence provides vast opportunities for an attacker to explore and launch new at-tacks. As the roll-out of nation-wide wireless data net-works continues, we expect more types of DoS attacks will start targeting wireless networks. 68

4 Currently, third generation (3G) wide-area wireless networks based on the CDMA2000 [27] and UMTS [28] standards are widely deployed. As of December 2005, there were over 300 million CDMA subscribers worldwide [27]. Emerging 3G data standards, like EDGE, HSUPA, HSDPA and Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), promise to deliver broadband mobile Internet services with peak rates of 2.4 Mbps and 14.4 Mbps, respectively. The number of data subscribers is projected to reach a billion before As the number of data-capable wire-less endpoints escalates, they will become susceptible targets of new DoS attacks in the near future. Apart from the sheer number of mobile endpoints, a huge number of additional factors also there to pony up wireless and 3G networks more susceptible to attack. Some of them are listed below- 1. Limited wireless link bandwidth: As opposed to most wire line links, 3G wireless links tend to have much lower capacity thus it takes significantly less traffic to overload the link. 2. Signaling overhead: For transferring uniform size (amount) of information or data more controlling messages (signaling/handshakes) are required using existing wireless 3G networks as compared to wired network. For example to the extent to improve the utilization of limited radio resources, a radio channel is allocating policy is dynamic (grant when required) to a mobile or mobile subscriber and it will be revoked after an idleness action (or after a threshold amount of time). Such dynamic channel allocation and revocation (provisioning) procedures precedes lots of signaling operations. 3. Heavy control processing: The hierarchical nature of current 3G (CDMA2000 or UMTS) networks places certain critical system functions such as power control, resource allocation, paging, etc. on a few infrastructure elements. The radio network controller (RNC) and the base stations (BS) are involved in these activities for each mobile. By necessity, the engineering of these network elements is typically based on a certain load profile that is derived from the projected traffic patterns and behaviors of mobiles. Any serviceable discrepancy from design hypothesis may lead to serious pile condition, and probably awkward perversion. In a nutshell, 3G wireless networks are significantly more fragile than wire line networks. To begin, most of the wireline DoS attacks would still apply to a wireless network. In addition, the above unique vulnerabilities of 3G networks can be exploited by new forms of wireless-specific DoS attacks. In the article author has dogged about a novel DoS types attack phrase signaling attack, which seeks to overload the control plane of a 3G wireless network using low-rate, lowvolume attack traffic, based on some of the aforementioned 3G-specific vulnerabilities. Unlike conventional DoS attacks that focus on the data plane, the signaling attack creates havoc in the signaling plane of a 3G network by repeatedly triggering radio channel allocations and revocations. To accomplish this, an attacker first sends a low-volume pack-et burst to a mobile. If the mobile does not currently have a radio channel, the network will allocate a new one to complete the data transfer. After an inactivity timeout, the radio channel is torn down to recycle it back for others use and help preserve the mobile energy that will other-wise be wasted on maintaining the channel. Immediately after the channel release, the attacker sends another low-volume packet burst to the mobile so as to trigger another radio channel establishment. By repeatedly doing so at appropriately timed periods, this can generate a consider-able number of signaling operations. As detailed in Section 2, each channel establishment/release requires the RNC and BS to process more than 20 signaling messages. Launching this against large number of mobiles can easily introduce an excessive amount of signaling messages. The potential damage includes (1) overloading of RNC and BS, leading to reduced system performance, (2) denial of ser-vice to legitimate signaling messages due to congestion in the signaling paths, and (3) shortening of the mobile battery life. Modern Denial of Service attacks produce intrusive traffic (high volume) while in signaling attack can be exploit producing with generating less volume of traffic at slower rate as compared to DoS. Hence, signaling attack can efficiently dodge by applying modern intrusion detection/prevention approach especially via the mechanism of flooding-based DoS attacks detection. To understand the damage caused by the signaling at-tack, suppose that a 3G wireless network has inactivity timeout set to 5 s 1 and that an attacker generates a 40-byte packet burst (e.g., a TCP/IP packet with zero payloads). Experiments shows that if an attacker sends packet bursts in interval of 5 seconds or large than only 64 bits per second traffic volume has been produced by the attacker, which is undetectable by volume-based recognition systems. In other experiments, suppose if attacker is use a cable modem having 1.5 Mbps uplink bandwidth capacity then it can concurrently attack approximately 24 K mobiles, a number that is sufficient to bring down a wireless network infrastructure. Note that this signaling attack can also be mounted to other emerging wide-area networks such as /WiMAX that shares the same vulnerability. Author [29], has address the security issues and insight the need of authentication in B3G environment, Beyond 3rd Generation (B3G) networks are materialized from the gradual integration of heterogeneous wireless and wired networks to a common core network platform (3GPP TS (v8.0.0), 2008), which provides users and networks autonomy and supports a wide range of multimedia services in a seam-less manner. A B3G network architecture generally consists of three different Network Domains (NDs): (i) ND1 that includes the different Radio Access 69

5 Networks (RANs) technologies (e.g., GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), Wireless LAN (WLAN) and Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)); (ii) ND2 that comprises the core network and performs administrative tasks such as mobility management, accounting, billing, etc.; and (iii) ND3 that contains the provided network services (e.g., IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Location Based Services (LBS), etc.). Although B3G networks offer great prospects in network evolution, they also present some serious operational drawbacks, driven mainly by the integration of different technologies. One of these drawbacks is related to users authentication through the multiple network domains. More specifically, a user, in order to get access to the network services, has to perform one authentication step for each domain, called as multi-pass authentication. B3G Network architecture As mentioned previously, ND1 of a B3G network architecture includes the different RANs technologies such as UTRAN, GERAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc. WLANs consist of wireless Access Points (APs), which act like Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA) (Laat et al., 2000) clients that forward security related messages to the AAA server using Diameter (Calhoun et al., 2003). On the other hand, WiMAX consists of BSs and a gateway called Access Service Network (ASN) gateway, which connects WiMAX with the AAA server. ND2 includes the core network elements of B3G such as the Packet Data Gateway (PDG), the AAA server, and the Home Subscriber Server (HSS)/Authentication Centre (AuC). PDG connects a WLAN with the provided network services and acts as an AAA client, which communicates with the AAA server using Diameter. The latter (i.e., AAA server) retrieves authentication information from HSS/AuC and validates authentication credentials provided by users. Finally, ND3 consists of the IMS network, which provides multimedia services to users (i.e., MMS, LBS, etc.). In IMS, services are provided by the Call Session Control Functions (CSCF) using the SIP protocol (Rosenberg, 2002). There are three types of CSCFs: (i) a Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) that is connected with PDG and is responsible for controlling IMS sessions; (ii) a Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) that communicates with HSS/AuC to receive IMS subscriber data and authentication information; and (iii) an Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) that is responsible for selecting an S-CSCF for a user. Security Survey by author [29] This section provides a security analysis in order to examine whether the application of both forms (i.e., security identity binding and security key binding) of the proposed security binding mechanism in the improved 3G-WLAN and WiMAX authentication procedures downgrades the provided level of security. To achieve this, we identify and elaborate on possible attacks that threaten the operation of the improved proce-dures, the users and the underlying network. We examine the feasibility of these attacks and, if required, we propose secu-rity measures to defeat them. First we elaborate on a common array of attacks, which can be performed in both proposed procedures. An adversary may attempt to obtain authentication credentials of the proposed procedures (i.e., identities and keys) by intercepting the communication links between NDs or compromising NDs. In case the adversary obtains an exchanged authentication credential, then it can impersonate a valid user, perform a replay attack or overcharge a user. However, these attacks cannot take place considering that there is a trust relationship between NDs (see Section2.2). The latter can deploy and maintain security associations (IPsec/TLS tunnels, Radius, etc.) to counteract malicious actions that target the security of them (i.e., NDs) or the communication links between them. It is important to mention that an adversary cannot compromise the wireless link between the user and ND1 to obtain authentication credentials, since it is protected using the session keys established in the first authentication step. Another malicious action can be performed if an adversary tries to perform a DoS attack by flooding PDG or the ASN gateway in the improved 3G-WLAN or WiMAX procedure respectively to deplete the resources of the B3G core network. However, this is not possible because the wireless APs or the WiMAX BS forward messages to the core network that are originated only by authenticated users (from the first authentication step) and discard any other. On the other hand, both the proposed and legacy procedures are vulnerable to DoS attacks that target the radio interface of WLAN or WiMAX networks. In [30], a real-time congestion control mechanism for multimedia transmission over 3G Wireless Networks is presented that takes into consideration the link s sudden congestion, the packet loss rate, and the congestion level to increase packet successful delivery rate, reduce congestion and to improve the overall performance. An optimal prioritybased call admission control scheme in heterogeneous wireless networks is proposed in [31]. Author [32], has proposed the solution of wormhole detection in wireless network using the concept of network coding applying on physical layer. The core idea of authors proposed approach is, The basic idea of our proposed approach is as follows: when the long sequences from two senders collide at the receiver, the starting point of the collision between the sequences is jointly determined by the sending time and the physical distances across all the receiver and senders. For two receivers, their starting points of collision will be different, and this difference is restricted by the physical distance between them. Therefore, through measuring and comparing 70

6 the overlapping parts of the received sequences, we can estimate the physical distance between two wireless nodes and detect the fake connection between them. Since the proposed approach only measures the starting point of the collision in the sequences, we do not need time synchronization among the wireless nodes. Our analysis will also show that the physical distances among the senders and receivers will not impact the detection results. Therefore, we can choose the senders from a large area within the network. Author of [33], has addresses a new attack called The adversarial attack on his article, Adversarial attacks that can lead a network to instability can be seen as a type of denial of service attack since their purpose is to flood the network (or a sub network) with packets whose sole purpose is to overload the local system in order to hamper (or prevent) legitimate users from having access to the system. Author has talking about two types of adversarial attack, two enhanced types of adversarial attacks were proposed in where the adversary can change dynamically the capacities or slowdowns of the network links. Another domain where this paper could be useful is the study of the behavior of e-banking, e-commerce and e- government multimedia applications, all the applications that need real-time processing in general. Such applications are distributed from their nature and it is common to use largescale multimedia heterogeneous networks like the Internet in order to communicate with the end-user. IV. CONCLUSION Global internet is increasingly pervasive; and wireless networks are a future communication platform to access internet freely and with low cost. WiMax is future network to access the remote services with high speed. Due this reason security is the major concern for better shielding of communication from suspicious attack. DoS, DDoS and flooding are the major and simple deployable weapon to jam the network. In this article we have surveyed the WiMax network and its related current research domain. This article contains all the beneficial information about WiMax technology. REFERENCES [1] St ephane Rousseau, Farid Benbadis, Damien Lavaux and Laurent San Overview and Optimization of Flooding Techniques in OLSR, IEEE International Symposium on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), [2] SalehYousefi,Mojtaba Mazoochi and Saeed Bashirzadeh Architecture for Large Scale Deployment of WiMAX Networks, IEEE, International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, [3] Ayesha Altaf, Rabia Sirhindi and Attiq Ahmed A Novel Approach against DoS Attacks in WiMAX Authentication using Visual Cryptography, IEEE, The Second International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, [4] EEE Std Copyright IEEE [5] IEEE Std e/D12, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Sys-tems, IEEE Press, [6] Kaveh Pahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, Principles of Wireless Networks: A unified Approach, Pearson Education, Prentice Hall PTR, [7] Anmin Fu, Yuqing Zhang, Zhenchao Zhu, Qi Jing and Jingyu Feng An efficient handover authentication scheme with privacy preservation for IEEE m network, Elsevier, computers & securi ty 31 (2012) 741e749. [8] Haidar Safa and Farah Abu Shahla A Policy-Based Trust- Aware Adaptive Monitoring Scheme to enhance WiMax QoS, Elsevier, Computer Networks 55 (2011) , [9] Std standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: Air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems. Technical report, [10] IEEE Std e-2005 standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: Air interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems amendment 2: Physical and medium access control layers for combined fixed and mobile operation in licensed bands and corrigendum 1. Technical report, [11] IEEE Std standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: Air interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems, Revision of IEEE Std Technical report, [12] Constantinos Kolias, Georgios Kambourakis and Stefanos Gritzalis Attacks and Countermeasures on : Analysis and Assessment, IEEE, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FIRST QUARTER [13] Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. Available at: pdf [14] Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specifications, Baseline Privacy Plus Interface Specification. Available at: com/specifications/cm-sp-bpi+-c pdf [15] , I.S. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Wireless Access Systems. Availiable at: [16] , I.S. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Wireless Access Systems. Availiable at: [17] e-2005, I.S. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Wireless Access Systems. Availiable at: pdf. [18] j-2009, I.S. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan 71

7 Wireless Access Systems. Available at: pdf [19] m-2011, I.S. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan area net-works Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Sys-tems. Available at: html. [20] D. Levine, G. Kessler, Denial of service attacks, in: Computer Security Handbook, fourth ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2002 (Chapter 11). [21] Zhang Shengli, Liew S C, Lam P P. Hot topic: Physi-cal-layer network coding. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Net-working (MobiCom). Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2006: [22] Katti S, Gollakota S, Katabi D. Embracing wireless interference: Analog network coding. In: Proceedings of the conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (SigComm). Kyoto, Japan, 2007: [23] Charles D, Jain K, Lauter K. Signatures for network coding. Int. J. Inf. Coding Theory, 2009, 1(1): [24] Dong Jing, Curtmola R, Nita-Rotaru C. Practical defenses against pollution attacks in intra-flow network coding for wireless mesh networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security (WiSec). Zurich, Switzerland, 2009: [25] H. Du, J. Liu, J. Liang, Downlink scheduling for multimedia multicast/broadcast over mobile wimax: connection-oriented multistate adaptation, IEEE Wireless Communications (2009) [26] Patrick P.C. Lee, Tian Bu and Thomas Woo On the detection of signaling DoS attacks on 3G/WiMax wireless networks, Elsevier, Computer Networks 53 (2009) pp , [27] UMTS, Release 5. 3G Partnership Project. [28] CDMA Development Group. [29] Christoforos Ntantogian, Christos Xenakis and Ioannis Stavrakakis A generic mechanism for efficient authentication in B3G networks, Elsevier, com pute rs & se curity 29 (2010) [30] X. Zhao, Y. Dong, H.-T. Zhao, Z. Hui, J. Li, C. Sheng, A real-time congestion control mechanism for multimedia transmission over 3G wireless networks, in: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Int l Conf. on Communication Technology, 2010, pp [31] W. Chen, J. Yu, F. Pan, Optimal priority-based call admission control scheme for QoS provisioning in heterogeneous wireless networks, Journal of Networks 6 (2) (2011) [32] Zhiwei Li, Di Pu, Weichao Wang and Alex Wyglinski Forced Collision: Detecting Wormhole Attacks with Physical Layer Network Coding, IEEE, TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSNll ll05/09llpp , Volume 16, Number 5, October [33] Dimitrios Koukopoulos Instability behaviour of heterogeneous multimedia networks under dynamic adversarial attacks, Elsevier, Mathematical and Computer Modelling 57 (2013)

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