1 Fordham Law Review Volume 67 Issue 5 Article Collaboration Between Lawyers and Social Workers: Re-examining the Nature and Potential of the Relationship Paula Galowitz Recommended Citation Paula Galowitz, Collaboration Between Lawyers and Social Workers: Re-examining the Nature and Potential of the Relationship, 67 Fordham L. Rev (1999). Available at: This Article is brought to you for free and open access by FLASH: The Fordham Law Archive of Scholarship and History. It has been accepted for inclusion in Fordham Law Review by an authorized editor of FLASH: The Fordham Law Archive of Scholarship and History. For more information, please contact
2 COLLABORATION BETWEEN LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS: RE-EXAMINING THE NATURE AND POTENTIAL OF THE RELATIONSHIP Paula Galowitz* INTRODUCTION impetus for this Article was a case handled this past year by the Civil Legal Services Clinic which I teach at New York University Law School. In the clinic, third-year students represent clients in a variety of cases, including housing, government benefits, immigration, guardianship planning for clients who are HIV positive, and education. The students, who work in pairs, select from the clinic's docket the kinds of cases on which they want to work. The two students in this particular case chose to work on a case for a client who was HIV positive. This client was referred to us by a legal services office because he had a housing problem. He was living in public housing, the tenant of record had died, and the client was attempting to obtain succession rights to the apartment. The attorney who referred the case explained that the client was "a little difficult to work with." Although we consider a number of factors in our selection of cases (including whether the nature of the case allows students to exercise maximum responsibility as the client's attorney and whether the case involves substantial client contact), the ease of working wvith the client usually does not play a significant role in the determination.' Both of the students on this case had had substantial client interviewing experiences and therefore seemed to be prepared to deal with a client who might be uncooperative or difficult in some other way. After meeting with the client, the students quickly devoted themselves to helping him resolve his legal problems. As sometimes happens, the client's legal issues were not limited to the housing problems he had discussed wvith the original lawyer. The client was about to lose his food stamps due to his immigration status and his telephone service was about to be cut off because of unpaid * Clinical Professor of Law, New York University School of Law. My thanks to Randy Hertz and Nancy Morawetz for their thoughtful comments. 1. We do consider whether the client is competent and able to relate to the students. For discussions of the criteria that should affect the selection of cases in a clinical program and the design of a clinical program, see Margaret Martin Barry, A Question of Mission" Catholic Law School's Domestic Violence Clinic, 38 How. LJ. 135 (1994), and Susan Bryant & Maria Arias, Case Study. A Battered Women 's Rights Clinic Designing a Clinical Program Which Encourages a Problem-Solving Vision of Lawyering that Empowers Clients and Comnunity, 42 Wash. U. J. Urb. & Contemp. L. 207 (1992). 2123
3 2124 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 bills. Through extensive advocacy, the students were able to significantly reduce his telephone bill and preserve his service, expedite his application for his own apartment in public housing, delay the hearing about his rights to succeed to the apartment in which he was living, 2 and uncover the reasons his food stamps were terminated and start the process for reinstating benefits. At times, the client was cooperative and happy with the students' efforts. At other times, however, he was very angry, missed appointments, and often hung up during telephone conversations with the students. He was primarily angry about the unfairness of his situation, 3 a feeling the students understood and with which they could empathize. Occasionally, his anger was unfocused and he would ramble. The students discussed whether our client might need mental health assistance, either to help him work with us on the case or to aid him generally. The students and I searched the literature for guidance on when and how to get mental health assistance for clients, but we were unable to find anything that was helpful. The client became increasingly angry, upset, and more difficult to work with, and he ultimately threatened to commit suicide. After visiting the client at his home to ensure that he was not suicidal, we quickly obtained a referral to a social worker at a community agency and then worked with that social worker to assist the client. 4 Ultimately, however, we concluded that we were in over our heads and we transferred the case back to the original lawyer. 5 The clinic's experience in that case forced me to rethink the role of lawyers and their need to collaborate with mental health professionals 2. For a variety of legal reasons, his claims to succeed to the apartment were not strong. 3. For discussions of the deplorable conditions and unfair situations that indigent people regularly confront in the legal system, see Barbara Bezdek, Silence in the Court: Participation and Subordination of Poor Tenants' Voices in Legal Process, 20 Hofstra L. Rev. 533 (1992); Stacy Brustin, Expanding Our Vision of Legal Services Representation-The Hermanas Unidas Project, 1 Am. U. J. Gender & L. 39 (1993); Leigh Goodmark, Can Poverty Lawyers Play Well with Others? Including Legal Services in Integrated, School-Based Service Delivery Programs, 4 Geo. J. on Fighting Poverty 243 (1997); Gerald P. L6pez, The Work We Know So Little About, 42 Stan. L. Rev. t (1989); Louise G. Trubek, The Worst of Times... and the Best of Times: Lawyering for Poor Clients Today, 22 Fordham Urb. L.J (1995). 4. A number of other contacts with the client and other service providers ensued to assess his threat to commit suicide and whether we needed to contact emergency services. 5. The referral was made with great reluctance after many attempts to work with the client with the assistance of the social worker at the community agency. The client eventually refused to cooperate with the agency and would not speak with the students and the agency workers. The students and I were concerned that we were not able to assess his mental health without his interactions with the workers at the community agency and their assessment of his mental status. We felt that the mental health issues irreparably impaired our ability to assist him.
4 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2125 in some cases. As a social worker 6 and a lawyer, I have given a great deal of thought to the relative similarities and differences between the two professions and the ways in which they intersect. In the clinic case, however, I confronted, more clearly than ever before, the question of where lawyering ends and social work begins. That is the subject I begin to explore in this Article. This Article examines the value of collaboration between lawyers and social workers' in order to effectively serve the client. The kinds of cases on which I will primarily focus in this Article are not those in which social work or other mental health professional assistance is directly related to the client's legal problem or the legal strategies for winning the case-for example, cases in which the central issue is the client's mental competency or ability to care for a child. 8 The cases with which this Article is concerned are those in which a social worker can assist the lawyer in understanding or relating to the client, thereby assisting in the delivery of legal services to the client. What drove me to write this Article is the notion that, if a paper of this sort had been available to the students and I last year as we were struggling with our case, we might have had a clearer idea of when to seek mental health assistance. It might also have helped us deal with our distress over our inability to provide the client with what he needed. Part I describes the value of collaborations 9 between lawyers and social workers and the many important functions they fulfill, particularly in the legal services context. Part II examines the reasons why such collaborations tend to be rare and why even the occasional collaboration sometimes proves to be ineffective. The discussion in this part examines the attributes of the two professions that may inhibit or impair collaborations. Part III explores remedies that members of these professions can employ to rectify the impediments to effective 6. I have an M.S.W. and worked as a social worker before and during law school. I have frequently felt that my current role as a clinical teacher draws on my training in both social work and law. 7. The mental health professional need not be a social worker. It is my impression and experience, however, that social workers are the predominant mental health professionals with whom lawyers for the indigent work. 8. Examples include cases in which the testimony of a social worker is necessary to convince the court or the decision maker that a neglected or abused child could safely be returned to the parent in a foster care case, and the report or testimony of a social worker-or that of another mental health professional-to assist a client receive disability benefits based on a psychiatric disability. 9. Collaboration has been defined as a process that -involves shared decision making by fellow collaborators... [and] makes maximum use of the experiences and knowledge that each collaborator brings to the joint work." Susan Bryant, Collaboration in Law Practice: A Satisfying and Productive Process for a Diverse Profession, 17 Vt. L. Rev. 459, 460 (1993). The collaborative process has been characterized as one in which "the workers have joint responsibility for carrying out agreed-upon action." Marie Weil, Research on Issues in Collaboration Benveen Social Workers and Lawyers, 56 Soc. Serv. Rev. 393, 395 (1982).
5 2126 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 collaboration and to lay the groundwork for true interprofessional cooperation. I. SOCIAL WORKERS AND LAWYERS: THE VALUE OF COLLABORATION There are many ways in which mental health professionals can assist lawyers and their clients. Social workers' can be useful in interviewing, evaluation, crisis intervention, short-term casework, negotiation, and referral. As a result of social workers' training and education, they are better equipped than lawyers to provide services such as crisis intervention, evaluation of clients' needs, referrals to appropriate agencies, and direct casework." With respect to evaluation, a social worker's training in assessing personality and mental status "contributes significantly to the lawyer's appraisal of the facts."' 12 Social workers also can be effective trainers and collaborators in what has been called "the human arts of lawyering."' 3 As Carrie Menkel-Meadow has observed: To the extent that most lawyers spend most of their time with people there is insufficient attention given to the arts (and science) of interacting with others... [L]awyers must learn how to "feel with" 10. In this Article, the term "social worker" refers to those who have a master's degree in social work (M.S.W.). 11. See Lisa A. Stanger, Conflicts Between Attorneys and Social Workers Representing Children in Delinquency Proceedings, 65 Fordham L. Rev. 1123, 1133, 1135 (1996). When the lawyer and social worker function together effectively, the child client is more likely to receive appropriate social services that allow the court to choose less restrictive alternatives at disposition. In addition, a multi-disciplinary approach to delinquency proceedings results in the early intervention that is necessary to prevent criminal behavior from carrying over into adulthood. Thus, attorneys and social workers should operate as a team to provide both legal and social service assistance to alleged delinquents. Id. at 1135 (footnotes omitted). 12. James L. Scherer, How Social Workers Help Lawyers, 21 Soc. Work 279, 280 (1976). quoted in Jean Koh Peters, Concrete Strategies for Managing Ethically-Based Conflicts Between Children's Lawyers and Consulting Social Workers Who Serve the Same Client, Ky. Children's Rts. J., Mar. 1991, at 15, 25 n.9. It is important to distinguish between a social work assessment and a mental health intervention. A social work assessment is a psycho-social evaluation of the client's strengths and weaknesses, and outlines appropriate interventions based on those strengths and weaknesses-for example, need for, and means to obtain, day care or therapeutic intervention. A social work assessment is based on the results of a "mental status exam (accounting for one's orientation to person, place, time, situation, mood and affect, content of thought, and perception); the ability to comprehend abstract ideas and make reasoned judgments; a history of mental illness that might affect current judgment; and the client's recent and remote memory." Randye Retkin et al., Attorneys and Social Workers Collaborating in HIV Care: Breaking New Ground, 24 Fordham Urb. L.J. 533, (1997) (footnotes omitted). 13. Gary S. Goodpaster, The Human Arts of Lawyering: Interviewing and Counseling, 27 J. Legal Educ. 5, 5 (1975).
6 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2127 others... "[E]mpathy training" is an essential part of the clientlawyer relationship...[that] can be taught and learned... [It is] a willingness to truly apprehend the reality of the other (be it client or administrative bureaucrat or opposing counsel); not just to understand instrumentally how to move, persuade or affect that person, but to understand what meaning the interaction has for that person in a caring and existential sense. The lawyer who hopes to effectuate a successful transaction or settle a lawsuit or amend an administrative regulation needs to understand what the goals and feelings of the other are, if only to effectuate the needs and goals of the client (the "instrumental" justification for affective learning). I prefer to take this a step beyond the instrumental to suggest that the good lawyer needs to understand, from a human point of view, what the other wants to happen in the world (the "humanist" justification for affective learning).' 4 Empathy training is a critical part of social work education and an area in which social workers can assist lawyers. The collaborative approach also comports with some aspects of the "ethic of care,"' 5 which has been defined as "subjective, particularistic and contextual and emphasizes responsiveness and responsibility in relationships with others... [and it] values relationships and connectedness over autonomy."' 6 The ethic of care has been applied to the lawyer-client relationship and to counseling as a way to produce solutions that are more creative and better tailored to clients' problems; it is also seen as a way to resolve the "problem solving" dilemma, in which "the lawyer is tempted, in his role as expert problem solver, to 14. Carrie Menkel-Meadow, Narrowing the Gap by Narrowing the Field: What's Missing from the MacCrate Report-of Skills, Legal Science and Being a Human Being, 69 Wash. L. Rev. 593, (1994) (footnotes omitted). Menkel-Meadow also comments that the client-centered approach of David A. Binder, Paul Bergman, and Susan C. Price, see David A. Binder et al., Lawyers as Counselors: A Client-Centered Approach (1991), "pays insufficient attention to the emotive aspects both of the client's intra-psychic process in decision making and to the complex relationship between lawyer and client, which we now know may vary a great deal depending on the social distance between client and lawyer and other factors." Menkel-Meadow, supra, at 607 n Theresa Glennon, Lawyers and Caring: Building and Ethic of Care into Professional Responsibility, 43 Hastings LJ. 1175, 1175 (1992) (quoting Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development 63 (1982)); see also Stephen Ellmann, The Ethic of Care as an Ethic for Lawyers, 81 Geo. L , (1993) (stating that the ethic of care focuses on "connections between people" and is a form of moral reasoning). 16. Paul J. Zwier & Dr. Ann B. Hamric, The Ethics of Care and Relagining the Lawyer/Client Relationship, 22 J. Contemp. L. 383, 387 (1996) (footnotes omitted). "In contrast to the care perspective, the justice perspective values impartial application of abstract, universal principles and emphasizes individual rights and equality in making moral judgments." Id. The concept of the ethic of care originated in feminist writings and moral psychology-for example, the works of Beauchamp & Childress and Carol Gilligan, among others. See id. at 383 n.2 (citing Beauchamp & Childress, Principle of Biomedical Ethics (4th ed. 1994), and Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice (1982)).
7 2128 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 over-step his boundaries and impinges on the client's autonomy; or the client, in his role as autonomous rights seeker, impinges on the moral integrity of the lawyer." 17 The role of the "care provider/legal counselor is more of a facilitator of the discussion, or a consensus builder, rather than a problem solver... The possible solutions are the kind of solutions that nurses, social workers, or wise family friends might suggest. They are the kind of solutions proposed by someone who 'cares."" 8 A potentially fruitful area for collaboration between lawyers and social workers is for social workers to train lawyers in effective interviewing and counseling techniques. 9 Law schools generally do not offer much instruction in counseling clients, a very important aspect of practice. Consultation with social workers can help fill that gap. 20 A very significant though frequently overlooked reason for collaboration is to help share and ease the lawyer's burden. 2 Collaborative arrangements can help reduce the stress that lawyers often experience. Not only can social workers assist lawyers to represent clients more effectively (and thereby alleviate some of the burden), but they can also help lawyers deal with their feelings about their clients and their practice. As Susan Bryant observed, "[c]ollaborative arrangements... promote social support in the work environment which, in turn, can reduce stress., Id. at 388. The "ethic of care" concept has been applied in professional responsibility to include the "ideas that students' professional lives are connected to the lives of those who live in poverty and that, by working for and with people living in poverty, students can create relationships with clients and colleagues that are rewarding and sustaining." Glennon, supra note 15, at Theresa Glennon taught a civil procedure course in the Legal Theory and Practice program at the University of Maryland School of Law that placed first-year students in the role of counsel for a family in a special education or school discipline matter, and also assigned those students to a project in the area of education law. Students were encouraged to provide emotional support to each other and to share their responses about providing legal services to indigent persons. See id. at Zwier & Hamric, supra note 16, at 402, One of the recommendations for practice guidelines in interviewing and counseling for lawyers for children was that "lawyer[s] should be trained, and take the time to establish rapport with the child client." Recommendations of the Conference on Ethical Issues in the Legal Representation of Children, 64 Fordham L. Rev. 1301, 1303 (1996). The recommendations also included that law schools "should mandate training in legal interviewing, counseling, and negotiation skills." Id. at Moreover, "[a] lawyer.., has an obligation to become educated about the role of cultures, race, ethnicity, and class in the choices that a child client might make." Id. at See Peters, supra note 12, at "[S]ocial worker and attorney collaborations are not only useful for resolving the client's legal and psychosocial problems; they often help ease some of the professional's personal burden of this particular type of practice. Social workers are often helpful in dealing with the complex feelings that both clients and attorneys experience." Retkin et al., supra note 12, at Bryant, supra note 9, at 470. The author was primarily discussing collaboration among lawyers and law students but it is equally applicable to other areas of collaboration.
8 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2129 Interestingly, there is a significant body of social work literature that addresses the topic of social workers working together with lawyers,' but there is a paucity of such scholarship by lawyers and legal academics. Most of the legal scholarship on the topic that does exist tends to focus on social workers working with lawyers in the child representation context. 2 4 This is not surprising, given that lawyers often view Family Court cases as presenting problems that are "social work" in nature rather than legal. There is, however, some legal scholarship that addresses collaboration between lawyers and social workers in other areas, such as in cases of elderly clients or clients with HIV See, e.g., Jos6 B. Ashford et al., Advocacy by Social Workers in the Public Defender's Office, 32 Soc. Work 199, (1987) (discussing social workers' roles in the Public Defender's office); Preston N. Barton II & Bridget Byrne, Social Work Services in a Legal Aid Setting, 56 Soc. Casework 226 (1975) (discussing the use of the common goals and values of the two professions to develop an integrated approach to socio-legal problems); Franklin B. Fogelson, How Social Workers Perceive Lawyers, 51 Soc. Casework 95, (1970) (explaining that, in order to make legal services available to social work clients, social workers must understand the law and its limitations); Harriet L. Goldberg, Social Work and Law, 7 Children 167 (1960) ("Among social workers and lawyers there is a high regard for the dignity and worth of people... Both professions exist to help people, and they recognize that every case differs in some respects from every other. Thus, they share the concept of individualization and its application in daily practice."); James L. Scherer, How Social Workers Help Lawyers, 21 Soc. Work 279, 280 (1976) (arguing that successful lawyer-social worker collaborations can occur only if lawyers recognize that social workers can help them); Audrey D. Smith, The Social Worker in the Legal Aid Setting: A Study of Interprofessional Relationships, 44 Soc. Serv. Rev. 155, (1970) (detailing a study of lawyer-social worker relationships at the Chicago Legal Aid Bureau and determining that the most important service of the social workers was evaluating and then making suggestions about the desirability of the legal services that clients requested); Veil, supra note 9, at (finding that attitudes toward collaboration between lawyers and social workers were more positive when social workers had received training in court-related work). 24. See, eg., Frank P. Cervone & Linda M. Mauro, Ethics, Cultures, and Professions in the Representation of Children, 64 Fordham L. Rev. 1975, 1975 (1996) (discussing recommendations of the Fordham Conference on Ethical Issues in the Legal Representation of Children that lawyers cooperate with other professions, including social workers, when needed to assist a lawyer's relationship with a child client). But see Sia Anason et al., The Successfid Marriage of Law and Social Work, 23 Clearinghouse Rev. 450 (1989) (exploring, from the social worker's perspective, the interplay between law and social work when working with elderly clients); Heather B. Craige & William G. Saur, The Contribution of Social Workers to Legal Services Programs, 14 Clearinghouse Rev (1981) (advocating the increased hiring of social workers for legal services programs). 25. See, eg., Goodmark, supra note 3, at 243 (detailing the use of social workers and other professionals in an integrated service delivery model in a school setting); Retkin et al., supra note 12, at (examining the roles, responsibilities, and legal and ethical requirements of a social worker-attorney team in the context of H1V clients); Heather A. Wydra, Note, Keeping Secrets Within the Team. Maintaining Client Confidentiality While Offering Interdisciplinary Services to the Elderly Client, 62 Fordham L. Rev. 1517, 1517 (1994) (discussing problems of confidentiality that may arise in interdisciplinary collaboration in the context of elder law).
9 2130 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 The need for lawyer-social worker collaboration is particularly likely to arise in legal services and public defender cases. 26 Indigent clients have a variety of problems that contribute to or affect their legal situations, and these problems often require services beyond the expertise of lawyers. 2 7 Lawyers can spend much of their time trying to resolve non-legal problems that are inextricably intertwined with legal issues. 2 8 As stated by one commentator, "[t]he needs of low-income individuals and families often transcend legal categories. To meet [these needs], lawyers must work cooperatively with other service 29 professionals. The concept of having social workers on the staff of a legal services office is far from novel. One of the original models for provision of legal services in the 1960s30 involved the placement of such a program within a multi-service social service agency, premised on a belief that legal services could be part of an anti-poverty program. 31 Since the 26. The relationship between law and social work is certainly not new. As early as 1917, Mary Richmond, a key architect of modem social work, acknowledged the role of legal authorities in assisting her in formulating parts of her conceptual framework of casework. "The very structure from which Mary Richmond drew her theoretical base could trace its roots from that landmark legislation, the Elizabethan Poor Law, which was a declaration of the legal rights of the poor." Fogelson, supra note 23, at As observed in an article on social work and law, "[t]he interface between the professions of social work and law is of considerable significance due to the vulnerability of many of the consumers of social services, who require legal assistance or are otherwise forced to become involved in the legal system." Betty Sancier, Observations: Social Work and the Law, Prac. Dig., Fall 1984, at 3, See Memorandum from Jessica Brodey, student intern, Legal Aid Society of the District of Columbia, to Chris Herrling, Deputy Director, Legal Aid Society of the District of Columbia 1 (July 19, 1996) (on file with the Fordham Law Review) [hereinafter Brodey Memo]. 29. Goodmark, supra note 3, at "As a practical matter, poverty law did not exist before 1965." Alan W. Houseman, Political Lessons: Legal Services for the Poor-A Commentary, 83 Geo. L.J. 1669, 1671 (1995). 31. See id. at Four such programs were funded, each in a different city- New York City (Mobilization for Youth, known as "MFY"), New Haven (Legal Assistance Association), Washington, D.C. (United Planning Organization), and Boston (Action for Boston Community Development). See id. There were three different models of legal services funded in the 1960s as part of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) War on Poverty. In one model, the lawyer was part of a team of professionals, including social workers, who provided social, educational, and legal services. See Matthew Diller, Poverty Lawyering in the Golden Age, 93 Mich. L. Rev. 1401, (1995) (reviewing Martha F. Davis, Brutal Need: Lawyers and the Welfare Rights Movement, (1993)). This model was based on the view that "cultural poverty causes economic poverty." Id. at 1406 (internal quotation marks omitted). In the second model, developed by Edgar and Jean Cahn, lawyers were a resource for the community, working to make government more responsive to poor people's needs. See id. The third model, developed by Ed Sparer and Elizabeth Wickenden, called for the planning and filing of test cases to obtain judicial determinations of "a constitutional right to a subsistence income." Id.
10 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2131 beginning of the legal services movement, 3 2 lawyers and social workers have worked together to address the legal needs of their clients. 33 Historically, social workers have played a variety of roles and have provided a range of services to lawyers for indigent clients. 4 An article by two social workers published almost twenty years ago in a journal for legal services lawyers set forth the following inventory of contributions that social workers can make to legal services programs: 1. Clinical services Crisis intervention Psycho-social assessment For a history of legal services, see, for example, Houseman, supra note 30, at , which noted that the Office of Economic Opportunity created a unique and effective structure for delivery of legal services, and Earl Johnson, Jr., Justice and Reform: The Formative Years of the American Legal Services Program (1978), which discussed the governmental role in legal assistance to the poor and the development of the Legal Services Program. According to Houseman, there are five critical elements of legal services: acceptance of responsibility to all poor people as a "client community"; right of clients to control decisions about solutions to their problems through participation on the board of the legal services office; redress of past inadequacies in legal rights of poor people through reform of law and practice; responsiveness to legal need instead of to demand; and use of the full range of advocacy tools that private attorneys can employ, such as legislative advocacy and rule drafting. See Houseman, supra note 30, at See Craige & Saur, supra note 24, at The New Haven experiment used social worker-lawyer teams in neighborhood law offices to "diagnose, refer, and coordinate" the legal problems of the poor. Id. (quoting Johnson, supra note 32, at 22). 34. At the time that Josd Nazario, a social worker at Mobilization for Youth in New York City, wrote an article about the uses of social workers at that organization, there were twelve attorneys and seven social workers working in the program. According to Mr. Nazario, the work of a social worker in a legal setting includes "counseling, arranging services for families, preparation of home evaluations, presentation of reports to the court, and appearances as a witness in the hearing." Josd Nazario, Confronting the System. How Social Workers Can Challenge-and Change-the Laws, Prac. Dig., Fall 1984, at 4, See Craige & Saur, supra note 24, at 1268 ("[D]irect treatment-oriented services to individuals, families and groups in order to enhance their problem-solving capacities and social functioning, build personal relationships and establish links between people and resource systems."). 36. See id. [Crisis intervention] is a well-established clinical method for managing emotional reactions to loss or threats of loss. Legal services clients are often deeply upset when they seek help, as their legal problems typically involve significant loss or threat to survival [i.e., loss of apartment)... Without the availability of a skilled social worker, the emotional and social aspects of a case might be ignored; more likely, they will be handled (or mishandled) by an attorney with no training in crisis intervention. Legal services clients in crisis are better served if the psychosocial as well as the legal aspects of their problems are addressed by skilled professionals, Attorneys benefit from the presence of an in-house social worker by having more time to concentrate on legal issues. In addition, they are less likely to experience the frustration that comes with encountering repeated crises for which they have neither the time nor the training to respond adequately. Ild. 37. See id at
11 2132 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol Advocacy Working with community groups Community development Preventive legal education. 4 ' Liaison work with other agencies Community analysis. 4 3 Social policy analysis Administrative services-program administration. 45 Staff training. 46 The authors, who expressed the hope that their identification of social work services would increase the hiring of social workers by legal services programs, emphasized that social workers and lawyers have certain central goals and values in common: The social work profession has traditionally been identified with service to poor people in an agency setting, and throughout its history has maintained a dual focus on promoting social reform and facilitating the adjustment of the individual to existing situations. [S]tudy of a client's emotional and social situation... typically involves indepth interviews with the client, relevant family members and individuals from the social environment and the review of medical, psychiatric and social work reports from other agencies... Problems in the areas of family and juvenile law, for example, rarely present clear-cut legal issues. Id. 38. See id. at 1269 (stating that social workers can help clients obtain benefits from social welfare systems inasmuch as "[s]ocial workers have proven to be particularly effective at informal advocacy, when the 'other side' is another social worker"). 39. See id. ("Skilled community-oriented social workers are not only able to identify natural community networks and develop viable issue-oriented groups, but they can also analyze community problems from a broad perspective and develop strategies for social change which will have an impact on whole communities."). 40. See id. Community development involves the building of issue-oriented groups which work for changes in the social, economic and political structures of the community. Skills in community development are useful in a variety of activities in which legal services programs are involved such as facilitating lay advocacy groups, developing client advisory councils, and bringing together clients with similar problems for community legal education and to testify at public hearings. Id. 41. See id. (observing that, as nonlawyers, social workers may find it easier to write community education materials). 42. See id. 43. See id. at 1270 (noting that social workers can assess community needs and analyze community problems). 44. See id. ("[A] specialized area of social work practice in which proposed legislation and regulations in the area of social welfare, including health, mental health, education, family services and public benefits, are studied for their probable effects on low-income people."). 45. See id. ("[Sluch nonlegal aspects of program management as staff training and development, strategic planning and priority setting, personnel and grievance concerns, alternative service delivery systems, and program evaluation."). 46. See id. at 1271 (stating that social workers can train legal services staff in interviewing and crisis intervention skills).
12 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2133 Legal services attorneys share the goal of enhancing the lives of poor people through the provision of direct services to individuals and groups of poor people and through the modification of sociolegal systems in society. 7 The need for collaboration between lawyers and social workers is not, of course, dependent upon a particular model of legal services or a particular vision of practice. A quick survey of the primary models 4 " will help provide a broader context for the discussion of collaboration between lawyers and social workers. 49 Marc Feldman envisions a lawyer as an agent of social change, with the legal service program as a catalyst for changing the political economy. 50 Edgar Cahn has a conception of Time Dollars, a fee-for-service arrangement in which clients obtain legal services in exchange for time spent helping others. Cahn's approach has the goal of modifying the relationship that traditionally exists between legal services lawyers and clients "from one of dependency and implicit subordination, to one of reciprocity and mutuality."" Under Alan Houseman's vision, legal services would "focus its work on helping the economically deprived to effectively marshal and increase the resources, services, and opportunities available to benefit 47. Id. at 1267 (footnotes omitted). 48. See, e.g., Edgar S. Cahn, Reinventing Poverty Law, 103 Yale LI. 2133, (1994) (discussing the use of "Time Dollars" by poor clients to pay for legal services); Marc Feldman, Political Lessons: Legal Services for the Poor, 83 Geo. LJ. 1529, (1995) (advancing a model that a lawyer should be an agent of social change through the legal services program); Houseman, supra note 30, at (advocating a vision in which the legal services program focuses on helping economically deprived communities solve the problems they face); Paul R. Tremblay, Toward a Community- Based Ethic for Legal Services Practice, 37 UCLA L. Rev. 1101, (1990) (discussing the idea that a community-based model might diminish the tensions inherent in legal services practice). 49. See infra Part II. 50. See Feldman, supra note 48, at In Alan Houseman's response to Feldman, Houseman critiques Feldman's vision as resting on a flawed view of what can be achieved in the courts, agencies and legislatures; on a view that will deter funding from the government and foundations; and on a "notion that legal services lawyers should lead the charge [which] reinforces lawvyer domination and does little or nothing to empower the poor to assert their own rights and interests." Houseman, supra note 30, at Paul Tremblay suggests that legal services lawyers should consider the interests of the client community in selecting cases. See Tremblay, supra note 48, at Cahn, supra note 48, at Cahn and others have suggested that there is a crisis in poverty law. See, e.g., Anthony V. Alfieri, The Antinonies of Poverty Law and a Theory of Dialogic Empowerment, 16 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 659, ( ) [hereinafter Alfieri, Antinomies of Poverty law] (asserting that there is a need for a recasting of our conceptual and methodological understanding of poverty law); Cahn, supra note 48, at 2134 (stating that there is a fundamental need to reinvent poverty law). Two of the criticisms of recent poverty law practice are that lawyers fail to appreciate the need for grassroots organizing and that "the traditional relationships between poverty lawyers and their clients contribute to the disempowerment of poor clients and thereby bolster the status quo." Diller, supra note 31, at 1425 (footnote omitted).
13 2134 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 them," a vision that is "client-centered and client-driven" and utilizes "skills of people from a variety of different disciplines and develop[s] interdisciplinary and holistic approaches to advocacy."52 As Houseman notes: Many legal staff members view legal services as a social services program that provides necessary help but has no real political content; it is a job to be done as best as one can within the "helping" framework. Others view legal services as an advocate to enhance and protect the interests of the poor: to some it means using lawyers in courts and before legislative and administrative bodies to achieve social and economic justice for poor persons; still others view legal services as a means to empower the poor to act on their own behalf and help change their lives and the conditions under which they live and work. Even among those who see legal services in terms of empowerment and social change, there are widely divergent views about how best to achieve meaningful impact on the lives of the poor. Some favor policy advocacy; others favor affirmative litigation; still others see work on individual cases focused on clear targets as equally important and having significant and lasting impact. 53 For those who view legal services as coming within the "helping" framework, the value of collaborating with social workers is self-evident. For those who envision legal services as empowering and advocate political lawyering, 54 collaboration with social workers is equally essential. II. FACTORS THAT MAY PREVENT OR IMPAIR EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION OF LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS As someone trained in both the professions of social work and law, I have often wondered why there is not more collaboration between lawyers and mental health professionals. I think that there are many complex reasons for this, including difficulties in knowing when and how to collaborate, ethical concerns about differing standards of confidentiality, perceptions of the role of professionals in the other field, 52. Houseman, supra note 30, at Id. at Martha Minow notes: [P]olitical lawyering involves deliberate efforts to use law to change society or to alter allocations of power. Political lawyers use litigation, legislation, mass media, and social science research, assessing the consequences of each particular approach by reference to long-term visions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Political lawyers are partners, for the long haul, with clients and client communities in struggles for social justice. Martha Minow, Political Lawyering: An Introduction, 31 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 287, 289 (1996) (footnotes omitted). 55. See infra Part II.
14 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2135 and views of the nature of the professions. 56 To the extent that the lack of collaboration stems from a limited understanding of the other profession, the roots of this problem can be found in the training lawyers receive and the methods of practice they employ. The following discussion will explore each of these factors. A. Ethical Issues The relationship between lawyer and client differs in important respects from the relationship between mental health professional and patient. Moreover, each profession has developed its own specialized standards of confidentiality, ethics, and legal obligations.5 s As Jean Koh Peters stated in an article exploring the professional conflicts between lawyers and consulting social workers, "due to the distinct ethical mandates of the two professions... legal and social work practitioners must expect conflict and tension in cooperating to represent a common client." 58 Confidentiality is a core value for both professions. Because legal and mental health professions have different standards for privilege and confidentiality, 59 however, potential conflicts can arise when determining the range and degree of confidentiality owed to the client. For lawyers, confidentiality derives from the common law attorneyclient privilege, which protects confidential communications, including advice, opinions, and information transmitted, developed, or gathered in furtherance of the attorney-client relationship.' Confidentiality requires that lawyers not knowingly reveal their clients' confidences or secrets to anyone outside of the relationship. 6 Confidentiality covers not only the lawyer who was told the information by the client but 56. Some have suggested that the lack of collaboration may be due to psychological pre-conditions: lawyers and social workers might tend to operate out of different hemispheres in the brain (lawyers from the left side and social workers from the right side). See Judith Alphson Lau, Lawyers vs. Social Workers: Is Cerebral Hemisphericity the Culprit?, 62 Child Welfare 21, (1983). 57. See Brodey Memo, supra note 28, at Peters, supra note 12, at 15 (addressing and suggesting strategies for dealing with professional conflicts with consulting social workers hired or retained by a law firm, although, as suggested by the author, the strategies could apply to inter-agency situations where each professional is employed by a separate agency). 59. "[C]onfldentiality restricts the professional's ability to disclose while a privilege restricts the states right to compel disclosures." Gerard F. Glynn, Multidisciplinary Representation of Children: Conflicts over Disclosures of Client Communications, 27 J. Marshall L. Rev. 617, 626 (1994). The attorney-client privilege prevents the disclosure of evidence in litigation; confidentiality is an "overall ethical obligation." Retkin et al., supra note 12, at See New York Code of Professional Responsibility Canon 4 (1998); id. DR Confidences include all information protected by the attorney-client privilege while secrets include all other information gathered through the professional relationship that the client wishes to remain private or that could be embarrassing or detrimental to the client if disclosed. See id. DR Lawyers can be forced to reveal secrets in judicial proceedings, but not confidences. See N.Y. C.P.LR. 4503(a) (Mc-
15 2136 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW [Vol. 67 also others working in the law office, as well as all employees and associates of the lawyer, including law students, support staff, and other nonlawyers working on the case. It has been suggested that the confidentiality provisions of the Model Rules and the Code interfere with an interdisciplinary approach, since interdisciplinary teams need to share information and the Model Rules and Code generally prohibit the disclosure of confidential client information. 62 Under the current ethical standards, "true multiprofessional offices remain beyond the range of feasibility, despite the fundamental appeal of the concept of holistic problem solving centers." 63 Social workers have their own self-imposed standard of confidentiality through the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers ("NASW Code of Ethics"). 6 ' Under that Code, social workers must respect their clients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality Kinney 1997); New York Code of Professional Responsibility DR 4-101(c)(2) & cmt. (1998). 62. See Wydra, supra note 25, at Id. at 1533 (quoting Gary A. Munneke, Dances with Nonlawyers: A New Perspective on Law Firm Diversification, 61 Fordham L. Rev. 559, 573 (1992)). Heather A. Wydra suggests modifying the confidentiality provisions to create an exception for interdisciplinary communications and to allow for the creation of lawyer-nonlawyer partnerships. See id. at See National Ass'n of Soc. Workers, Code of Ethics (1996) [hereinafter NASW Code of Ethics]. Ethical Standard 1.07 (Privacy and Confidentiality) provides, in relevant part: (c) Social workers should protect the confidentiality of all information obtained in the course of professional service, except for compelling professional reasons. The general expectation that social workers will keep information confidential does not apply when disclosure is necessary to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a client or other identifiable person or when laws or regulations require disclosure without a client's consent. In all instances, social workers should disclose the least amount of confidential information necessary to achieve the desired purpose; only information that is directly relevant to the purpose for which the disclosure is made should be revealed. (d) Social workers should inform clients, to the extent possible, about the disclosure of confidential information and the potential consequences, when feasible before the disclosure is made. This applies whether social workers disclose confidential information on the basis of a legal requirement or client consent. (e) Social workers should discuss with clients and other interested parties the nature of confidentiality and limitations of clients' right to confidentiality. Social workers should review with clients circumstances where confidential information may be requested and where disclosure of confidential information may be legally required. This discussion should occur as soon as possible in the social worker-client relationship and as needed throughout the course of the relationship. Id. Ethical Standard Most mental health professionals have ethical standards, including ones relating to confidentiality. See, e.g., Jaffee v. Redmond, 518 U.S. 1, 13 n.12 (1996) (stating that a therapist must disclose the relevant confidentiality limits (citing American Counseling Ass'n, Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice A.3.a (1995); American Psychological Ass'n, Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code
16 1999] LAWYERS AND SOCIAL WORKERS 2137 of all information obtained during professional services. These confidentiality obligations have a statutory basis in federal and often state law. In the federal arena, the Supreme Court's decision in Jaffee v. Redmond 65 recognized that a privilege attaches to the relationship that social workers and mental health professionals form with their clients.' Issues still remain, however, as to the extent of the privilege and what limitations the state may impose on the privilege. 67 Confidentiality issues often arise most dramatically as a result of child welfare laws that mandate disclosure of instances of abuse or maltreatment of children to the appropriate child welfare agency. 6 In New York, for example, the Social Services Law requires that a variety of categories of professionals "report or cause a report to be made.. when they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child coming before them in their professional or official capacity is an abused or maltreated child," or when they have reasons to know of such abuse or maltreatment because "the parent, guardian, custodian or other person legally responsible for such child comes before them in their professional or official capacity and states from personal knowledge facts, conditions or circumstances which, if correct, would render the child an abused or maltreated child." 69 Because lawyers are not included in the statutory list of professionals, the attorney-client priviof Conduct, Standard 5.01 (1992); National Fed'n of Societies for Clinical Soc. Work, Code of Ethics V(a) (1988))) U.S See id. at 15. Confidential communications between a licensed psychotherapist and patient in the course of diagnosis or treatment are privileged under Rule 501 of the Federal Rules of Evidence and the privilege extends to confidential communications made to a licensed social worker in the course of psychotherapy. See id. In extending the privilege to social workers, the Supreme Court noted that "social workers provide a significant amount of mental health treatment... Their clients often include the poor and those of modest means who could not afford the assistance of a psychiatrist or psychologist... but whose counseling sessions serve the same public goals." Id. at (footnote omitted). 67. Historically, social workers have been accorded less respect and fewer legal protections than psychiatrists and psychologists. See id. at 16 n.16. This is slowly changing as there is an increasing recognition that all approaches to mental health care are important and that a large percentage of the public receives mental health assistance from social workers. See id. at These potential conflicts in the child welfare context highlight the differences that can arise in other areas. 69. N.Y. Soc. Serv. Law 413(1) (McKinney 1992). The categories of professionals are: any physician; registered physician assistant; surgeon; medical examiner;, coroner; dentist; dental hygienist; osteopath; optometrist; chiropractor; podiatrist; resident; intern; psychologist; registered nurse; hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons; a Christian Science practitioner; school official; social services worker, day care center worker; provider of family or group family day care; employee or volunteer in a residential care facility defined in subdivision seven of section four hundred twelve of this chapter or any other child care or foster care worker; mental health professional; substance abuse counselor alcoholism counselor;, peace officer; police officer;, district attorney or assistant district
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