Document Based Question

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1 Leigh Wishney Teaching American History Gina Giannone Leadership & Change Mary Arnone Summer 2013 Document Based Question This question is based on the accompanying documents. It is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purpose of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented. Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction several paragraphs, and a conclusion. Use evidence from at least three documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information. Historical Context: Prior to 1865, a major issue that faced the United States was the institution of slavery. Some individuals and groups were against slavery, and they promoted abolition in a variety of ways. During the same time, the government attempted to deal with the issue of slavery in other ways. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to: Discuss one government, individual and group effort to deal with the issue of slavery. Guidelines: In your essay be sure to: Develop all aspects of the task Incorporate information from at least two documents Incorporate relevant outside information Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme

2 Document 1 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) In 1846 a slave named Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet, sued for their freedom in a St. Louis city court. The odds were in their favor. They had lived with their owner, an army surgeon, at Fort Snelling, then in the free Territory of Wisconsin. The Scotts' freedom could be established on the grounds that they had been held in bondage for extended periods in a free territory and were then returned to a slave state. Courts had ruled this way in the past. However, what appeared to be a straightforward lawsuit between two private parties became an 11-year legal struggle that culminated in one of the most notorious decisions ever issued by the United States Supreme Court. On its way to the Supreme Court, the Dred Scott case grew in scope and significance as slavery became the single most explosive issue in American politics. By the time the case reached the high court, it had come to have enormous political implications for the entire nation. On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney read the majority opinion of the Court, which stated that slaves were not citizens of the United States and, therefore, could not expect any protection from the Federal Government or the courts. The opinion also stated that Congress had no authority to ban slavery from a Federal territory. This decision moved the nation a step closer to Civil War. The decision of Scott v. Sanford, considered by legal scholars to be the worst ever rendered by the Supreme Court, was overturned by the 13th and 14th amendments to the Constitution, which abolished slavery and declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens of the United States. (National Archives) Describe what led Dred Scott to bring his case to the Supreme Court. Based on the inscription on this tombstone state two results of the decision reached by the United States Supreme Court in the Dread Scott Case.

3 Document 2 A Ride for Liberty - - The Fugitive Slaves 1862 Eastman Johnson, American (Brooklyn Museum) Section 6 And be it further enacted, That when a person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States, has heretofore or shall hereafter escape into another State or Territory of the United States, the person or persons to whom such labor or service may be due... may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a warrant from some one of the courts, judges or commissioners aforesaid,... or by seizing and arresting such fugitive, where the same can be done without process, and by taking, or causing such person to be taken, forthwith before such court, judge, or commissioner...; and upon satisfactory proof being made,... to use such reasonable force and restraint as may be necessary, under the circumstances of the case, to take and remove such fugitive person back to the State or Territory whence he or she may have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial or hearing under this act shall the testimony of such alleged fugitive be admitted in evidence... According to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 what may happen to slaves that may decide to run away to free - states. Why would a family like the one in the painting decide to become fugitive slaves?

4 Document 3 "If it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments- I submit; so let it be done." John Brown, speaking on November 2, 1859 during his sentencing. John Brown would be hanged. The last moments of John Brown's life shown in this painting by Thomas Hovenden, painted in 1 (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Explain John Brown s view on slavery. Describe how Thomas Hovenden depicts John Brown in his painting.

5 Document 4 The American people, in the light of this reasoning, are at this moment, in obedience to their pride and folly, (we say nothing of the wickedness of the act,) wasting one sixth part of the energies of the entire nation by transforming three millions of its men into beasts of burden. What a loss to industry, skill, invention, (to say nothing of its foul and corrupting influence,) is Slavery! How it ties the hand, cramps the mind, darkens the understanding, and paralyses the whole man! Nothing is more evident to a man who reasons at all, than that America is acting an irrational part in continuing the slave system at the South, and in oppressing its free colored citizens at the North. Frederick Douglass, The Destiny of Colored Americans The North Star 1849 Frederick Douglass [seated portrait]. Albumen print mounted on card (carte de visite). New- York Historical Society Library, PR What may the portrait of Frederick Douglass tell about his personality? According to the quote from Frederick Douglass article, The Destiny of Colored Americans published in his abolitionist newspaper The North Star what is America losing by keeping the institution of slavery?

6 Document 5 Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman 1869 New- York Historical Society Library According to the map of the Underground Railroad, where do all these routes go and what might be some geographical challenges faced by the conductors. In the illustration of Harriet Tubman why would she be carrying a gun?

7 Document 6 This medallion was created by Josiah Wedgwood, a British ceramics maker and abolitionist, around The image of the kneeling slave in chains asking "Am I Not a Man and a Brother?" became an international symbol of the abolitionist movement. The image was widely reproduced during the late eighteenth century, appearing on crockery, snuffboxes, and jewelry, becoming a fashionable accessory among English abolitionists. Benjamin Franklin, who received a set of the medallions while serving as president of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, wrote of the image's effectiveness that it was "equal to that of the best written Pamphlet, in procuring favor to those oppressed People." Modelled By: William Hackwood 1786 Brooklyn Museum Explain why this medallion was used as a symbol of the abolitionist movement.

8 Cereal Box Slavery Project Prior to 1865, a major issue that faced the United States was the institution of slavery. Some individuals and groups were against slavery, and they promoted abolition in a variety of ways. During the same time, the government attempted to deal with the issue of slavery in other ways. Your task is to create a cereal box that will inform other students about the efforts that the government and individuals/groups made to deal with the issue of slavery. Front Side One Side Two Back Choose an individual who you believe best represents the institution of slavery (ie. Dred Scott, Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, Harriet Beecher Stowe) Paste a picture of your individual (it should be very large). It can be hand-drawn or from the Internet. A cereal brand name that relates to the topic (Oats of Freedom, Abolitionist Crispies) Ingredients: List three types of actions that the government/individuals/groups took to deal with the issue of slavery. Write a short blurb explaining the relevance of each of these actions Example: Abolitionist newspapers: Newspapers spread the word about the horrors of slavery and encouraged people to sympathize with their plight. Using the documents from your DBQ, create a timeline to show the progression of the actions that the government/individuals/groups took to deal with slavery. Type your final DBQ essay and paste it on the back of your box. Top Your name and class #

9 New York State Document Based Essay Rubric Score of 5: Thoroughly develops all aspects of the task evenly and in depth Is both descriptive and analytical (applies, analyzes, evaluates, and/or creates* information) Incorporates relevant information from at least xxx documents Incorporates substantial relevant outside information Richly supports the theme with many relevant facts, examples, and details Demonstrates a logical and clear plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Score of 4: Develops all aspects of the task but may do so somewhat unevenly Is both descriptive and analytical (applies, analyzes, evaluates, and/or creates information) Incorporates relevant information from at least xxx documents Incorporates relevant outside information Supports the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details Demonstrates a logical and clear plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Score of 3: Develops all aspects of the task with little depth or develops most aspects of the task in some depth Is more descriptive than analytical (applies, may analyze, and/or evaluate information) Incorporates some relevant information from some of the documents Incorporates limited relevant outside information Includes some relevant facts, examples, and details; may include some minor inaccuracies Demonstrates a satisfactory plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that may be a restatement of the theme Score of 2: Minimally develops all aspects of the task or develops some aspects of the task in some depth Is primarily descriptive; may include faulty, weak, or isolated application or analysis Incorporates limited relevant information from the documents or consists primarily of relevant information copied from the documents Presents little or no relevant outside information Includes few relevant facts, examples, and details; may include some inaccuracies Demonstrates a general plan of organization; may lack focus; may contain digressions; may not clearly identify which aspect of the task is being addressed; may lack an introduction and/or a conclusion Score of 1: Minimally develops some aspects of the task Is descriptive; may lack understanding, application, or analysis Makes vague, unclear references to the documents or consists primarily of relevant and irrelevant information copied from the documents Presents no relevant outside information Includes few relevant facts, examples, or details; may include inaccuracies May demonstrate a weakness in organization; may lack focus; may contain digressions; may not clearly identify which aspect of the task is being addressed; may lack an introduction and/or a conclusion

10 Performance Task Draft Grade 7 Step 1: Articulate the content understandings, skills developed and investigative questions. Historical Content: Prior to 1865, a major issue that faced the United States was the institution of slavery. Some individuals and groups were against slavery, and they promoted abolition in a variety of ways. During the same time, the government attempted to deal with the issue of slavery in other ways. Big Ideas/Essential Understandings: The United States Congress attempted to prevent conflict between slave and free states by passing various laws before the Civil War; these laws only temporarily prevented hostilities between sections of the United States. Individuals and groups of abolitionists took various steps to end slavery in the United States before the Civil War. Investigative or Essential Question: To what extent did the government, individuals, and groups of people try to deal with the issue of slavery prior to the Civil War? Common Core Learning Standards: RH1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. WH2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Social Studies Skills: Analysis of primary documents making observations & inferences Reading maps/charts/graphs

11 Step 2: Select: Select 2-3 related texts that can be used together to answer the inquiry question Text 1 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) National Archives Text 2 A Ride For Liberty The Fugitive Slaves (1862) Brooklyn Museum Fugitive Slave Act Section 6 (1851) Text 3 John Brown speech excerpt from sentencing (1859) John Brown painting by Hovenden Metropolitan Museum of Art Text 4 The Destiny of Colored Americans by Frederick Douglass (1849) Portrait of Frederick Douglass New York Historical Society Text 5 Underground Railroad route map (1860) Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman (1869) New York Historical Society Text 6 Abolitionist medallion (1786) Brooklyn Museum Step 3: Brainstorm possible additional sources and identify possible instructional purpose(s) Interactive Computer Game Mission- U.S.org Mission II: Flight to Freedom PBS: America: The Story of Us Film Clips Step 4: Draft the performance task and directions for students Performance Task What will students need to learn? Students will need to learn about different efforts that the U.S. Congress took in the early 1800s to deal with the issue of slavery. Additionally, students will need to learn about the abolitionist movement, including specific abolitionists and actions both individuals and groups took to combat slavery prior to the Civil War. After learning about these topics, students will be given six documents to analyze (two for government, two for individuals, two for groups). Students will pick three of the six documents in order to write a well- developed document based essay that answers the task above. Additionally, students will use their documents to create a cereal box project, which is also described above.

12 Criteria for Success in Writing Task (or evidence of learning that you will look for) - include measures for content knowledge, thinking, and presentation See above Directions to Students: See above

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