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1 [13:01:26] peternewman : Hello all, this is Peter Newman... your F9 Tutor for this evening. How can I assist you? [13:02:08] mrasheedat : pls i need u to explain to me the permanent current asset nd the temporary current asset [13:02:36] mrasheedat : also the funding of working capital management [13:05:46] peternewman : {mrasheedat} Financing W/C FIRSTLY necessitates identifying the main components of W/C - the variable (Short-term ) element and fixed (permanent) elements of W/C. [13:08:59] peternewman : Next, you essentially apply the "Matching Principle" whereby you seek to finance the PERMANENT element of w/c with a suitable source of LT Finance... and this can be either be D or E or a combination of both. The variable(seasonal/short-term ) element should then be financed with bank Overdraft [13:10:00] shollybabe : does an increase in cost of equity increases the level of gearing, [13:10:17] peternewman : bank overdraft finance or other suitable source of short term finance.... eg: factor Finance, invoice discounting, creditors, Leasing (Operating leasing esp., ( [13:12:20] mrasheedat : 10ks [13:13:39] peternewman : {shollybabe} Firstly, how are you defining Gearing?... Do you mean Capital Gearing as opposed to Operational Gearing? Usually, people are referring to capital Gearing. lets make that assumption. Thus what does this mean? Answer: it can mean anything... so you MUST provide your definition in the E [13:14:18] skull : Would u define TERP and also how do we calculate it. [13:15:48] shollybabe : i mean in d context of d capital structure of a firm taking into consideration m and m view and d traditional approach [13:16:14] peternewman : definition in the exam. I find the following definition works best... D/E. This means the ratio of debt to equity in the B/S, normally measured in market value terms. In a nutshell Gearing describes how the company is financed ( as between the 2 principle sources of finance..d and E). Thus Gea [13:18:12] peternewman : Gearing measures FINANCIAL RISK...which is important when calculating the Ke (Cost of Equity Finance) under CAPM. Gearing or Financial Risk ios said to amplify Ke and so the cost of equity tends to increase as the level of gearing increases in the company. [13:19:57] peternewman : {skull} TERP means the "Theoretical Ex-rights price per share after a rights issue of shares to existing shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholding [13:20:47] skull : ok

2 [13:21:00] krishna42 : hi sir [13:21:05] shollybabe : thanks got that [13:21:12] skull : and is there any formula to calculate it? [13:21:23] peternewman : The approach I find best is to work an a share by share basis rather than TOTAL basis as follows:... 3 steps: [13:21:25] abf101 : {peternewman} could you briefly go through Invoice Discounting? [13:23:16] krishna42 : which methods will be best for invoicing...effective interest rate method or simply dividing [13:23:29] krishna42 : invoicing [13:23:55] peternewman : {skull} not a formula but more like a template as follows: Example say a 1 for 4 RI at a 20% discount to current MPS of $2.50(1) Existing position [13:24:42] peternewman : Current position 4 x $ $10.00 [13:24:46] shollybabe : i always get confused with risk mgt, can u briefly explain what to look out for when buying, selling either me or d bank. also when do i divide or moltiply with ex. rate [13:25:04] skull : {peternewman} yup [13:25:11] peternewman : Rights Issue! x [13:25:35] peternewman : TERP... 12/5 $2.40 [13:26:15] peternewman : {skull} Sorry, but I am unable to lay it out for under the format of the CHAT ROOM BOX!!! [13:26:33] skull : {peternewman} dats no problem.. [13:26:34] krishna42 : which methods wil be best for invoicing...effective interest rate method or simply dividing [13:26:39] skull : i have got th idea [13:26:41] skull : thanx for dat [13:27:37] mrasheedat : pls can u explain the difference between future currency in forex and interest rate risk [13:29:27] baguma : {peternewman} Hi Peter, what methods is the examiner likely to bring for business valuations? I am having trouble with the EPS and PE ratios [13:29:32] peternewman : {abf101} Invoice Discounting is a facility that you normally set up and agree with your bank, say in January at the start of the Financial year. You provide the bank with a list of your credit customers that are in the banks eyes "Risk Free". for example, a Government department, M&S, Tescos, a Uni

3 [13:31:48] peternewman : a University, etc., The facility is that if you run short on cash any time during the year you simply photocopy the invoice to one of these customers, fax it to the bank, and they immediately credit your current with say 80^% of its face value. It is a very practical and useful source of ST finance [13:31:55] baguma : {peternewman} What is the difference between risk and uncertainty? [13:32:25] peternewman : Finance, especially in these time of a severe "Credit Crunch" [13:34:04] abf101 : Can we expect a numerical question in regards to Invoice Discounting? [13:35:44] peternewman : {mrasheedat} In forex a currency future is a binding contract to Buy/Sell a fiked amount of foreign currency on a fixed delivery date in the future at a fixed rate of exchange... think FR/FD/FA. for a complete list of the points to watch out for under both Interest Rate Risk and Forex Risk pleas [13:35:53] krishna42 : which methods wil be best for invoicing...effective interest rate method or simply dividing as opentuition,com [13:36:34] chubbybai : money market hedge is difficult to apply [13:36:40] peternewman : please see the Opentuition "ASk the Tutor Forums for F9" where I have given the points need for both of these separate hedging techniques [13:37:24] chubbybai : k [13:37:33] skull : {peternewman} wat is gearing and ungearing of Beta in Cost of equity? [13:38:12] chubbybai : what is diff between financial and operating risk? [13:38:18] peternewman : {abf101} No you should definitely be ready for a theory question though! That is, can you describe and COMPARE Debt Factoring with Invoice Discounting (10 marks.. 10 points)? [13:39:01] prince999 : {peternewman} can u xplain abt EPS and PE ratios? [13:39:29] mrasheedat : thanks [13:39:38] dead : {peternewman} what is the difference between debt factoring n invoice discounting? [13:40:16] abf101 : {peternewman} 10 points? Could you please go through? [13:40:36] chubbybai : p/e =mv/eps [13:40:42] baguma : {peternewman} regarding invoice discounting and debt factoring, if we are asked to describe and compare do we have to show numerical examples? [13:41:04] chubbybai : eps * p/e=mv

4 [13:41:09] peternewman : {baguma} Risk is quantifiable whereas Uncertainty is not. So for Risk we can attach probabilities to various possible outcomes affecting ouyr Cash flows for example... and derive Expected values for each variable under consideration... thus enabling us to quantify the variability of the cash flows [13:42:54] peternewman : Uncertainty..,. tends to be "time related".. so that the longer the time to maturity the graeter the uncertainty. Or maybe the longer the Payback Period of an Investment then the greater the Uncertainty. [13:43:39] chubbybai : what time does this chat end? [13:43:56] peternewman : Techniques for dealing with uncertainty include: Sensitivity Analysis, Simulation, Probability Analysis (Expected Values) and decision Trees [13:45:02] peternewman : I would definitely be ready for a 10 mark question on Risk V Uncertainty and the techniques available for dealing with Risk as I have mkentioned above. [13:45:09] julia_zyc : {peternewman} pls could u also list the techniques for dealing with risk... [13:45:23] krishna42 : sir we can,t assign probability on simulation method [13:45:39] baguma : {peternewman} thanks Peter [13:46:49] mrasheedat : can we get a question on sensitivity analysis,simulation,probability analysis [13:47:03] chubbybai : magement of working capital [13:47:10] krishna42 : simulation method for risk or uncertainty [13:49:18] peternewman : {prince999} EPS is a very important ratio to shareholders as it provides them with a measure of the return after tax Per Share held. Depending on the company's historical payout ratio it therefore also provides a very good indication of the likely DPS.... and of course dividends are a key componenf [13:50:47] krishna42 : sir we can,t assign probability on simulation method [13:51:21] peternewman : of the shareholders overall TOTAL RE TURN on his investment(ie share).. The other component is the CAPITAL Gain on the Share i.e the change in the share price over the year divided by what you paid for the share at the start of the year [13:52:45] peternewman : When you put the % Div paid together with the % CG then you have a measure of the TOTAL RETURN on A Share and this ratio is called the TSR (Total Shareholders return). [13:53:49] peternewman : So what in a nutshell is Dividend Policy? It's all about how this Total Return to shareholders is PACKAGED... ie split between dividends and capital gains [13:55:19] chubbybai : does opentuition sell f9 audio and video lectures

5 [13:56:08] dead : {chubbybai} dey are free to use [13:56:21] peternewman : {krishna42} Simulation is when you have several variables ( lets say within your Investment Appraisal table of Cashflows) moving or changing SIMULTANEOUSLY, hence the word simulation. it is a Risk analysis technique and involves complex financial modeling (think excel spreadsheets!) [13:56:48] chubbybai : i mean offline on cd or dvd sumthnig [13:57:13] peternewman : {chubbybai} ALL OT resources are FREE of charge to STUDENTS [13:57:37] chubbybai : are the y downloadable [13:58:43] peternewman : {mrasheedat} I would definitely expect a question on Sensitivity analysis, Simulation, Probability analysis, Decision Trees...ergo Risk v Uncertainty. [14:00:13] mrasheedat : (chubbybai) u can download as well as print notes [14:00:38] mrasheedat : (peternewman) thank you very much [14:00:50] chubbybai : what abt audio and video [14:01:36] peternewman : There is a fantastic question at the back of the OT Lecture Notes on page 190 called GLITTER RAILWAYS [14:01:41] mrasheedat : (chubbybai) i dont think u can download the video nd audio but u can access them any time u like [14:01:58] amarain : Is it risky not to study the theory that appeared in Dec 2009 or is it just common sense not to do it? [14:03:19] mrasheedat : (perternewman) the lecture note is can see ends at page 158 [14:03:46] julia_zyc : {peternewman} thx. i can see the question, will practice on that. [14:04:24] mrasheedat : pls where did u get it from [14:04:51] julia_zyc : {mrasheedat} try download the new version 2010 [14:05:35] mrasheedat : ok i wud do dat 10ks [14:05:56] peternewman : {chubbybai} Financial risk refers to how the company is FINANCED and is measured by the Gearing ratio or level, say D/E. Operational gearing refers to the BUSINESS Risk of the company and is measured by the ratio of fixed costs /variable costs or FC/TC or EBIT/Sales or contribution/ebit, etc...again [14:07:19] mrasheedat : (julia_zyc) it is still d same [14:07:20] dead : please tell me difference between debt factoring n invioce discounting

6 [14:07:54] peternewman : again there is no universal definition here - just as there is no universal definition for Capital Gearing. Basically, BUSINESS RISK is all to do with the STABILITY of the companys OPERATING CASH FLOWS [14:07:55] dead : i am finding both of dem similar only no major difference...except for tht in ID we sell our invioices [14:09:39] peternewman : The more risky the cash flows the more risky we say the business is... think Tescos versus Toyota. tescos has stable cash flows(low revenue sensitivity) Toyota has more volatile c/f's )High Revenue sensitivity) [14:12:24] peternewman : ANY LAST QUESTIONS before I sign off until next week?????? [14:12:55] mrasheedat : wat time is it next week [14:13:16] dead : yessssssssssss [14:13:17] shollybabe : what time pls [14:13:22] dead : please answer my questionsss [14:13:25] chubbybai : {shollybabe} w [14:13:42] dead : please tell me difference between debt factoring n invioce discounting [14:13:52] peternewman : OK - good night everyone... Don't forget you can leave or post your questions on the OT "Ask The TUtor FORUMS" anytime and I will get back to you within 24 hours. [14:14:39] amarain : <i>yes please... what about studying Dec 2009 paper theory? Is it a wating of time.. isn't it?</i> [14:14:58] julia_zyc : {peternewman} thank you very much for your time. [14:15:10] peternewman : {Dead} OK DEAD give me just 3 minutes to do this... it's a good question as I believe it's be on the June paper [14:15:25] dead : {peternewman} yeah sure...thanks..i',m waiting [14:15:42] abf101 : {peternewman} thanks sir [14:16:04] mrasheedat : (peternewman) thank you [14:16:32] abf101 : {peternewman} plz countinue with Dead's query [14:18:35] peternewman : {Dead} I can't put it into the chat box for you as it is too small... Can you go to the ask the tutor forum for F9 and I will have it there for you in under 5 minutes??? [14:19:11] dead : {peternewman} okies..lemme put it there... [14:19:34] dead : u'll be putting it up or i shud post this question of mine there? [14:19:47] mrasheedat : (dead)wud other be able to view on ask the tutor [14:19:52] mrasheedat : i mean the answer

7 [14:19:59] chubbybai : bye [14:20:45] abf101 : can any1 guide me for the same question {mrasheedat} asked? [14:21:11] dead : {abf101} qhich question? put it agian? [14:22:03] abf101 : would we be able to view the answer on ask the tuotor? [14:22:27] dead : yeah ofcoz.. [14:22:31] julia_zyc : bye. see u next week [14:22:49] dead : just opened the ask tutor forum...hopefully the answer will be up soon [14:23:04] dead : its there [14:23:06] dead : go check

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