1 Materials Structure, vol. 8, number 2 (2001) 55 POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROSCOPY I. Procházka Department of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovièkách 2, CZ Praha 8, Czech Republic Abstract Positron annihilation spectroscopy is nowadays well recognised as a powerful tool of microstructure investigations of condensed matter. An overview of the method aimed for users from other fields is given and supplemented with several examples of applications. Keywords positron-electron annihilation, positron lifetime, Doppler broadening, angular correlation of annihilation radiation, electronic structure, positron trapping, defects in solids, free volume in polymers 1. Introduction An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and its applications to condensed matter studies and materials research is presented. The overview is aimed as an introduction for potential users of PAS in these areas. Detailed treatment of PAS method can be found in several books, e.g., in Proceedings [1, 2]. PAS applications to various kinds of materials (metals and alloys, semiconductors and macromolecular solids) are briefly discussed below and several examples are given. 2 Principles of PAS Positron (e + ) is the antiparticle of electron (e ). The electromagnetic interaction between electrons and positrons makes possible annihilation of e + e pairs in which the total energy of the annihilating pair may be transferred to quanta of the electromagnetic field (photons ). Principal channel of this reaction is the two-photon annihilation, e e 12 (1) The role of conservation of energy and momentum in process (1) is illustrated in Fig. 1. In the centre-of-mass frame of the e + e pair, the energies of the both annihilation photons are equal to the rest energy of the electron (positron), E 0 = m 0 c 2, and the two photons are emitted in the strictly opposite directions. In the laboratory frame, in which positron is considered to be in the rest, energies of the two annihilation photons are shifted with respect to E 0 by E ± cp,l /2 and the angle between emission directions of Figure 1. Kinematic diagram of two-photon annihilation of the e + e pair. In the laboratory frame (positron resides in the rest) momenta of electron (positron) are denoted as p (p + ) while momenta of the annihilation photons are p ã,i (i=1,2). Subscripts L, T denote longitudinal and transversal components, respectively, related to emission of ã 1 -quantum. Corresponding quantities in centre-of-mass frame are marked with the apostrophe. the two photons differs from by p,t /m 0 c. In these expressions, non-relativistic approximation is used and symbols p,l and p,t denote longitudinal and transversal components of the electron momentum, respectively. The electron (positron) rest mass is designated as m 0 and c is the light velocity. Process (1) is characterised also with annihilation rate (positron lifetime = 1 ). Theoretical treatment reveals, see e.g. Ref. , that is proportional to the effective electron density n e sampled by positron, viz. r c 2 cn e, where r c stands for the classical electron radius 1. To get a rough idea of magnitudes of quantities, E and for e + e annihilation in condensed matter, one must insert realistic estimates of n e and electron momentum p into the above expressions. Conduction electron densities in metals are typically of order of m 3 . Core electron momenta in atoms may be taken roughly as /2r a, where atomic size is characterised by Bohr s radius r a and is the Planck s constant. Then the following estimates of, E and may be obtained: (i) Positron lifetimes 600 ps are expected in metals 2. (ii) Doppler shifts of annihilation photon energies amount E 1 kev. (iii) Angular correlation curves should exhibit widths of a few mrad. Conventional sources of positrons for PAS are artificial radioisotopes emitting + -radiation. Energy spectra of positrons emitted by such radioisotopes are continuous ranging from zero to an end-point energy which is typically of order of MeV. Stopping profiles of 1 The n e represents the overlap integral of the electron and positron densities 2 This guess is significantly higher than the experimental observations of positron lifetimes in metals. The reason is in neglecting enhancement of the local electron density at the positron site caused by Coulomb attraction between the positron and mobile conduction electrons of the host. The enhancement factors in metals amount typically to 4 5leading thus to values of ps, in agreement with experiments.
2 56 I. PROCHÁZKA 3.7 ps stable Ne 2.602y 1274 kev Figure 2. Decay scheme of 22 Na 0 22 Na + -particles in solids decrease exponentially with increasing penetration depth z, P(z) ~ exp( z/z 0 ), where typical mean penetration depths z 0 are of order of µm . Thus positrons from radioisotope sources probe volume properties of matter. The most frequently used among them is 22 Na radioisotope. Its decay scheme is shown in Figure 2. End-point energy of 22 Na is at 545 kev. An important feature of the 22 Na decay is simultaneous emission (within a few ps) of + - and -radiation (E = 1274 kev, see Fig. 2). Recent progress in development of positron beams has made possible to utilise the variable energy positron beams as positron sources in PAS studies . Positron beam energies range typically from 10 ev to 100 kev. The mean stopping depths of such positrons vary with energy from 1 nm to a few µm which illustrates potential of positron beams for PAS studies of near-surface regions in condensed matter. Before annihilation, positrons penetrating through matter undergo various processes influencing the state from which the positron annihilates with an environmental electron. When the energetic positrons (E kin MeV) are implanted into a condensed medium, they rapidly lose their energy. At highest positron energies, the main mechanism of energy losses is ionisation, i.e., the positron excites core electrons in collisions with the host atoms. At lower energies the electron-hole excitations take over. When the positron energy has degraded to a fraction of ev, the scattering off phonons dominates. Eventually, positrons reach thermal equilibrium with the medium, maintained due to phonon emission and absorption. During thermalization, the initial kinetic energy of positrons drops below 0.1 ev, i.e., by almost six orders of magnitude. Despite of such a colossal change in energy, positron thermalisation times t th are typically as short as a few picoseconds , i.e., much shorter compared to the above estimated positron lifetimes. Thermalised positrons are characterised with thermal wavelength + 50(300 K/T) ½ m  which implies that such a positron moves through the medium as a quantum-mechanical wave. After reaching thermal equilibrium with the host, the positron state develops as a diffusion process. In metals at room temperature, the positron mean free path l + is typically of the order of 10 nm whereas total diffusion length before annihilation L + is of the order of 100 nm . During diffusion the positron 3 + E.C. (9.5 %) kev (90.4 %) + (0.1 %) interacts with its surroundings and eventually annihilates with an environmental electron. In homogeneous defect-free media all positrons annihilate with the same rate b which is a characteristic of the given material. Due to the Coulomb repulsion by the positive-ion cores, positron in a condensed medium preferably resides in the inter-atomic space. At open-volume defects (monovacancies, larger vacancy clusters, dislocations etc.), the potential sensed by the positron is lowered due to reduction in the Coulomb repulsion. As a result, a localised positron state at the defect can have a lower energy than the state of delocalised (free) positron. The transition from the delocalised state to the localised one is called positron trapping. Positron binding energies E b to defects like, e.g., monovacancies are typically of a few ev, see e.g. Ref. . Thermal detrapping is impossible from such deep traps and positron remains trapped until annihilation. If a positron trap is shallow enough (E b < 0.1 ev), phonon-assisted detrapping occurs. As local electron density at the defect site is lowered compared to that of the unperturbed regions, lifetime t of the trapped positrons is correspondingly longer than b = 1 b. Positron trapping is characterised by trapping rate which is proportional to defect concentration c t in the sample, = c t. Trapping coefficient, together with annihilation rate t = 1 t, are specific for given kind of defects. As a result of positron trapping, additional exponential components occur in measured positron lifetime spectra. Their appearance can be explained by the trapping models which give the rate equations for the positrons annihilating from the delocalised state and from the localised states. Examples of such models and their use in the quantitative analysis of PAS data can be found in Refs. [5, 7, 8]. In many insulators, the positron can form a bound state with a host electron, positronium (Ps), which is an analogue of the hydrogen atom . The binding energy of Ps atom is 6.1 ev and its radius is nm. Ps atom can exist in the singlet (parapositronium, pps) or the triplet (orthopositronium, ops) state. While the two-photon self-annihilation of pps is an allowed process, the two-photon annihilation of ops can proceed only via the pick-off reaction with an electron of the host. Due to exchange interaction of its electron with environmental electrons, Ps atom is repelled to an unoccupied space in the material. Basic principles which PAS investigations of condensed matter rely upon can now be summarised as follows: When positrons are implanted into a condensed medium, they get quickly in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. Being thermalised, positrons interact with their environment and eventually annihilate with electrons of the medium. Measurable parameters of annihilation reaction reflect the structure of the medium. There are two ways how the dependencies of the PAS parameters on the medium structure arise: Through the state of the electron participating in the annihilation reaction. This introduces dependence on the local electronic structure of the host at the annihilation site.
3 POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROSCOPY 57 Through the state of the positron itself at the moment of annihilation: the free positron, positron captured at a trap, different states of the Ps atom in the medium. This state is a result of medium-dependent positron interactions prior to annihilation. The processes which positrons undergo in matter before they annihilate with environmental electrons proceed with characteristic time and length scales. Considering the conventional PAS studies in metals, characteristic lengths can be ordered in the following way: + 5nm l + 10 nm < L nm < z 0. Similar ordering of characteristic lengths appears also for semiconductors. For interpretation of PAS data it is important to compare length scales of positron processes in matter with lengths characterising microstructure of materials like, e.g., grain size, average inter-defect distance, size of sample inhomogeneities etc. Characteristic times of annihilation process are 3 typically much longer than t th and can be ordered according to the state from which positron annihilates. This is illustrated in Table Experimental Techniques of PAS PAS involves several experimental techniques which originally came from subatomic physics, namely from nuclear spectroscopy. This is why progress in PAS is closely related with achievements in nuclear experimental methods. Positron-lifetime measurements (PAS/LT). Principle of the PAS/LT measurements with 22 Na positron source is given in Figure 3. The positron is implanted into the sample almost simultaneously with the birth -ray 1274 kev. Lifetimes of individual positrons, t, can be measured as time differences between emission of the birth -quantum Table 1. Characteristic time scales of various positron annihilation processes in matter Positron state Type of process Charact. lifetime free e ns trapped e ns pps ops 2, self-annihilation 2, pick-off process 3, self-annihilation 2, pick-off process 0.1 ns >1ns 140 ns >1ns and one of the annihilation photons. PAS/LT measurement then consists in measuring the spectrum of delayed coincidences kev. In Figure 3, the simplest configuration of a lifetime spectrometer, referred to as the fast-fast one, is also shown. Detectors D1 and D2 (BaF 2 or plastic scintillators) detect the birth and annihilation photons, respectively. Fast signals related to moments of emission of corresponding -quanta are generated by constant-fraction differential discriminators (CFDDs). These signals are lead to the start and stop inputs of a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). Coarse energy selection is provided by the CFDDs, too. The fast coincidence unit (FCC) produces gate signal for the TAC provided that the coincidence event of photons with proper energies occurred. Amplitude of the TAC output signal, which is proportional to time delay t between the birth and the annihilation photons, is digitalised by an analog-to digital converter (ADC) and the event is then stored at corresponding address of a histogramming memory (HM). Thus the spectrum of positron lifetimes is obtained as the histogram of counts in dependence on t, N(t). PAS/LT measurements are also feasible with pulsed positron beams. In this case start signal is generated by positron-beam pulse (pulses of length as short as 100 ps are necessary). One of several such facilities has been recently built up at TU München . Spectrum of positron lifetimes is a sum of exponential components n N( t) Iii exp( it) (2) i1 Annihilation rates i = 1 i and positron fractions I i can be obtained using standard computer procedures [10-12]. Number of components n is equal to number of different states which positrons can annihilate from, e.g., in the case of k types of defects n = k+1. Generally n should be regarded as an unknown parameter, too. In practise only up to three components can typically be resolved in spectra without involving any constraints on parameters. On the other hand, for complex systems with many different annihilation sites it is often more adequate to consider even continuous distributions of. Standard computer programs are available also for this case [13-15]. The experimentally obtained spectra differ from the analytical description (2) by convolution with time resolution function R(t) which is the response of the spectrometer to prompt coincidences. The R(t) function resembles Gaussian like shape and is characterised by the full width at half maximum (fwhm). The fwhm and count rate are crucial characteristics of each PAS/LT spectrometer which determine quality of experimental data. The time resolution may be improved using the fast-slow coincidence scheme in which a more precise energy selection of coincidence events than that inherent to the scheme of Figure 3 is accomplished. see, e.g., Ref. . This may result, however, in considerable reduction of 3 Exclusions of this rule, however, may occur in insulators, where energy losses due to collisions of host electrons are not as effective as in metals or semiconductors.
4 58 I. PROCHÁZKA 22 Na D1 CFDD Positron age t e + Birth ã-ray 1274 kev start Sample FCC TAC ADC e gate stop Annihilation photon 511 kev coincidence count rate. In practise one have to choose a compromise between time resolution and count rate, depending on the nature of the problem studied. The best time resolution reported so far in real PAS experiments is 150 ps fwhm for 22 Na which was achieved at a reasonably high count rate of 80 s 1 using the spectrometer built in Prague . Under such conditions components with lifetimes as short as 40 ps and intensities as weak as 10 % could be resolved if ~ 10 7 coincidence events were accumulated in the spectrum, i.e., 24 hour measurements . Capability of resolving such components is especially important for defect studies in metals, because knowledge of free-positron lifetime and fraction is necessary for obtaining full information about positron trapping process, see e.g. Ref. . D2 CFDD HM DEL PC Figure 3. Principle of PAS/LT method with 22 Na positron source and a simple fast-fast PAS/LT spectrometer: D1,D2 detectors, CFDD constant-fraction differential discriminator, DEL delay line, FCC fast coincidence unit, TAC time-to-amplitude converter, ADC analog-to-digital converter, HM histograming memory, PC computer. Doppler broadening of annihilation line (PAS/DB) can be measured with a standard -ray spectrometer equipped with the HPGe detector. Energy resolution of such devices E 1.2 kev at 511 kev is now being normally achieved. Observed line shapes are usually characterised with shape parameters S and W. The former parameter is experimentally determined as the relative area of the central part of the line shape while the latter one expresses the relative contributions of the peak tails to the total peak area. Thus the S-parameter is higher if relative contribution of lower-momentum electrons to positron annihilation is enhanced while the W-parameter becomes greater if contribution of the core electrons with higher momenta tends to increase. For instance, relative increase in fraction of positrons trapped at the open-volume defects can be markedly reflected by increase in the observed S-values. An useful approach is to present experimental data in term of S-W plot which allow to draw some conclusions about evolution of defects participating in positron trapping, see e.g. Ref.  for details. A substantial problem that severely limits capability of PAS/DB method in its simplest configuration described above is high background. This is especially expressed for the measurements of the high-momentum parts of the annihilation peak. The background can be drastically reduced by use of the coincidence technique which registers both annihilation photons. The coincident -quantum is almost anti-collinear to the primarily registered annihilation photon and it serves to suppress Compton background near 511 kev energy which arises from the 1274 kev -ray of 22 Na. The best results can be obtained with the coincidence system with two Ge detectors. The two-dimensional spectrum is recorded where the axes represent the energy scales of the respective detectors. The improved peak-to-background ratio of 10 5 and better energy resolution were obtained in this way using the spectrometer . Angular correlation of annihilation photons (PAS/AC). The origin of angular correlation of annihilation radiation can be seen in Fig. 1. The two annihilation photons are emitted simultaneously. Thus as a function of the transversal electron momentum component can be measured in coincidence arrangement with position-sensitive detectors. A simple position sensitive detection can be realised in one dimension by mechanical movement of a long scintillation detector with lead slits allowing for angular resolution . The momentum distribution can also be recorded in two dimensions using a twodimensional detector arrays . The sample-to-detector distance amounts typically to several metres so that - quanta from only a small solid angle are detected. Hence much stronger positron sources compared with conventional PAS/LT and PAS/DB techniques are required. On the other hand, angular resolution can be adjusted in the range of 0.2 to 5 mrad . This corresponds to the energy resolution of PAS/DB measurement in the range of 0.05 to 1.3 kev. Thus PAS/AC technique provides essentially the same kind of information as PAS/DB, however, the momentum resolution of the method is much better. Age-momentum correlation (AMOC). This technique combines PAS/LT and PAS/DB using the same annihilation event . One of the two annihilation photons provides the stop signal for the positron lifetime while the second photon is used for the measurements of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation line. The triple coincidences of both the annihilation photons with the start signal are registered. The Ge detector for measurement of the annihilation photon energy in coincidence must be arranged opposite to the scintillator detector for the stop signal. Two dimensional spectra are stored with the positron age and Doppler shifts being represented along the co-ordinate axes. Thus dependence of the electron
5 POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROSCOPY 59 momentum distributions on the positron lifetime can be measured. For example, Doppler curves for ops events with a very long lifetimes can be separated out of the annihilation events related to pps or positrons that did not formed Ps. 4. Examples of PAS Applications There are three main classes of materials which have so far been studied by means of PAS. Historically earliest PAS applications were devoted to studies of metals and alloys. Then PAS investigations were extended towards semiconductors. In both these fields positron plays a role of the main probe and formation of Ps is usually of less significance. The third area of PAS applications, which is nowadays intensively developing both in the experimental as well as theoretical planes, is concerned with studies of polymers and the other macromolecular substances containing large fraction of unoccupied space. Contrary to the above two kinds of materials, Ps is often formed with a high yield and becomes a principal probe in these systems. Metals and alloys. It has been already noted in Section 2 that Coulomb attraction between positron and conduction electrons in metals effectively increases local electron density at positron and thus reduces positron lifetime. Observed lifetimes of positrons in defect-free metals, b, lie typically in 100 to 200 ps region . There are only several cases when positron lifetimes exceed 300 ps, e.g., in alkali metals. Theoretical calculations of positron states in matter and PAS parameters are feasible, including Coulomb screening factors . These are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Positron trapping at monovacancies, dislocations and vacancy clusters in metals has been extensively studied by means of PAS . Lifetimes of positrons trapped at monvacancies, 1V, are usually observed to be 1V 1.6 b . Specific trapping rates at monovacancies are expected to be 1V ~ s 1 . Thus the range of sensitivity of PAS to detect vacancy concentrations lies between Vacancies represent a deep traps for positrons while dislocations are shallow traps. It is however generally accepted [7, 22] that once positron is trapped at the dislocation it quickly diffuses along the dislocation line and is subsequently trapped at point-like defects associated with the dislocation. This assumption may serve as an explanation why observed lifetimes of positrons trapped at dislocation are close to those of monovacancies . Extensive PAS/LT and PAS/DB study of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been performed by Prague positron group with the aim to contribute to knowledge of the neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement of the steels during operation of the nuclear reactors. Firstly, detailed microstructure characterisation of non-irradiated specimens was made  which revealed the dislocations are the main positron traps in these materials. The ratio of the screw to edge dislocations could be deduced in these experiments. Then RPV specimens irradiated by fast neutrons at various fluences and fluxes were investigated . To suppress unwanted contribution of 60 Co to positron lifetime spectra measured with the irradiated samples, a three-detector setup has been constructed  and for the first time used in real measurements. Small vacancy clusters were identified in  as a product of irradiation. Their size of 5 vacancies was not changed while their concentration slightly increased with increasing neutron fluence. Microstructure of ultra fine grained (UFG) copper has recently been investigated by means of the high-resolution PAS/LT technique in Prague, too . Positrons were found to be trapped mainly at dislocations in distorted regions along grain boundaries and at microvoids (of size of 5 vacancies) distributed homogeneously throughout the grains. Recovery of UFG structure during annealing, involving abnormal grain growth followed by primary recrystallisation and further growth of the recrystallised grains at higher annealing temperatures, was observed, see Ref.  for detailed description. The common feature of both the RPV steels and UFG materials is a strongly non-homogeneous spatial distribution of dislocations which represent the main positron traps. Due to this circumstances the conventional trapping model  had to be modified [7, 23] in order to obtain consistent description of positron trapping. This model was successfully applied to RPV steels . Further improvement of the model leading to the diffusion trapping model was introduced  to obtain consistent description of experimental data on UFG copper. Aluminium based alloys were also investigated by PAS/LT in Prague. As an example the contribution  can be regarded. Semiconductors. In semiconductors Coulomb screening of positrons is not so effective as in metals [5, 6, 17]. This is why observed positron lifetimes for semiconductors are generally larger than those for metals, i.e., b ~ ps. On the other hand, 1V 1.2 b is typically found in semiconductors  which makes identification of monovacancies in semiconductors more difficult compared to metals. Important advantage of PAS of semiconductors is its sensitivity to the charge state of positron trap. Remarkably different temperature dependencies of trapping rates may be observed if the defect is charged positively, negatively or is neutral [6, 17]. Polymers. In polymers three components are typically resolved, the two lowest lifetimes being attributed to pps, free and trapped positron annihilations . The third one arises from the ops annihilation via pick-off process and is characterised with lifetimes ops of a few ns. It is generally accepted that ops can serve as a measure of the free-volume hole size seen by Ps. The simple model of Ps in a spherical potential well of radius R leads to correlation between ops and R [28, 29], ops R 1 R sin 2 R R 2 R R 1, (3) where R = nm is an empirical parameter and ops is given in ns. Despite of simplicity of the model assumptions, Eq. (3) seems to hold surprisingly well in the
6 60 I. PROCHÁZKA region of R up to 1 nm and constitutes a base for numerous PAS applications to studies of the free volume and its changes in polymers, e.g., glass transitions , pressure dependencies , free-volume collapse [30-33] and blending . On the other hand, interpretation of the ops intensities as a measure of the hole concentration must be taken with certain caution because of possible influence of various factors on Ps formation, e.g., irradiation effects [34, 35], which have not yet been sufficiently understood. 5 Conclusions PAS has demonstrated itself as a powerful tool of microstructural studies of condensed matter. Atomic-scale details of the microstructure like, e.g., electronic structure and small-sized defects can be investigated by PAS. The main advantages of PAS can be summarised as follows: Small-sized defects at low concentration can be detected by PAS which can otherwise be hardly investigated by traditional basic techniques like, e.g., TEM or X-ray diffraction. PAS can probe both the bulk properties of matter as well as near-surface regions and layered structures. Reliable theoretical calculations of PAS parameters are nowadays feasible in metals and semiconductors. These may substantially simplify unique interpretation of data measured by PAS. PAS is a non-destructive technique. In many cases PAS becomes not only substantial complement of traditional methods (e.g., TEM or X-ray diffraction), but it is an equivalent and independent method of microstructural investigations of condensed matter. Acknowledgement This work was supported by Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports under contract No References 1. W. Brandt and A. Dupasquier (editors), Positrons Solid-State Physics, Proc. Internat. School of Physics «Enrico Fermi», Course LXXXIII, Varenna 1981, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1983). 2. A. Dupasquier and A.P. Mills, Jr., (editors), Positron Spectroscopy of Solids, Proc. Internat. School of Physics «Enrico Fermi», Course CXXV, Varenna 1993, IOS Press, Amsterdam (1995). 3. W. Brandt, in , p P. Coleman (editor), Positron Beams and Their Applications, World Scientific, Singapore (2000). 5. P. Hautojärvi and C. Corbel, in , p M.J. Puska and R.M. Nieminen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 66 (1994) J. Èíek, I. Procházka, T. Kmieè, P. Vostrý, physica status solidi (a) 180 (2000) J. Èíek, I. Procházka, M. Cieslar, R. Kuel, J. Kuriplach, F. Chmelík, I. Stulíková, F. Beèváø, O. Melikhova, Phys. Rev. B, to be published. 9. W. Bauer-Kugelmann, P. Sperr, G. Kögel and W. Triftshäuser, Materials Science Forum (2001) P.Kirkegaard, N.J. Pedersen, M. Eldrup, Tech. Rep. Riso-M-2740, Riso Nat. Lab., Roskilde (1989). 11. J. Kansy, Nucl. Instr. Methods A 374 (1996) I. Procházka, I. Novotný, F. Beèváø, Materials Science Forum (1997) A. Shukla, M. Peter, L. Hoffmann, Nucl. Istr. Methods A 335 (1993) A. Shukla, L. Hoffmann, A.A. Manuel, M. Peter, Materials Science Forum (1997) H. Cao, G.H. Dai, J.-P. Yuan, Y.C. Jean, Materials Science Forum (1997) F. Beèváø, J. Èíek, L. Lešták, I. Novotný, I. Procházka, F. Šebesta, Nucl. Instr. Methods A 443 (2000) K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, in Identification of Defects in Semiconductors, (ed. by M. Stavola), Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 51A, Academic Press, San Diego (1998). 18. R. Krause-Rehberg, H.S. Leipner, Positron Annihilation in Semiconductors, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1999). 19. S. Berko, in , p H. Stoll, M. Koch, K. Maier, J. Major, Nucl. Instr. Methods B (1991) 582. H. Stoll, in , p A. Seeger, F. Banhart, physica status solidi (a) 102 (1987) L.C. Smedskjaer, M. Manninen, M.J. Fluss, J. Phys. F 10 (1980) J. Èíek, I. Procházka, J. Koèík, E. Keilová, physica status solidi (a) 178 (2000) J. Koèík, E. Keilová, J. Èíek, I. Procházka, J. Nucl. Materials, to be published. 25. J. Èíek, F. Beèváø, I. Procházka, Nucl. Instr. Methods A 450 (2000) O. Melikhova, J. Èíek, I. Procházka, J. Kuriplach, I. Stulíková, J. Faltus, 27. Y.C. Jean, in , p M. Eldrup, D. Lightbody, J.N. Sherwood, Chem. Phys. 63 (1981) H. Nakanishi, S.J. Wang, Y.C. Jean, in Positron Annihilation Studies of Fluids (ed. by S.C. Sharma), World Scientific, Singapore (1988), p K. Ito, Y. Ujihira, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, J. Polymer Sci. B 36 (1998) 1141, 31. K. Ito, Y. Ujihira, T. Yamashita, K. Horie,Polym. Gels and Networks 6 (1998) 367, 32. K. Ito, Y. Ujihira, T. Yamashita, K. Horie,Polymer 40 (1999) 4315, 33. K. Ito, Y. Ujihira, T. Yamashita, K. Horie,J. Polymer Sci. B 38 (2000) J. Èíek, V. Motyèka, I. Procházka, M. Ilavský, J. Kolaøík, Materials Science Forum (2001) J. Zrubcová, J. Krištiak, W.B. Pedersen, N.J. Pedersen, M. Eldrup, Materials Science Forum (2001) 359.
1 DETECTION OF GAMMA RADIATION FYSZ460 Syventävien opintojen laboratoriotyöt 1. Introduction Detection of gamma radiation is one of the most important research tools in nuclear physics. Detection of gamma
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the p-n junction Charge collection
Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics
NUKLEONIKA 2013;58(1):215 219 ORIGINAL PAPER Annealing behaviour of plastically deformed stainless steel 1.4307 studied by positron annihilation methods Ewa Dryzek, Maciej Sarnek, Krzysztof Siemek Abstract.
Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Slide 1. Gamma Spectrum Analysis In this module, we will apply the concepts that were discussed in Tutorial 4.1, Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Slide 2. Learning
Tunnel Effect: - particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier - quantum mechanically the particle can penetrated
EPJ Web of Conferences 69, 0 00 24 (204) DOI: 0.05/ epjconf/ 2046900024 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 204 Comparison of approximations to the transition rate in the DDHMS preequilibrium
Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles
Chapter 4 Calibration The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data analysis. The stability of the gain and offset for energy and time calibration of all detectors involved
EXPERIMENT 1 Gamma-Ray Absorption and Counting Statistics Note: Please read the Radiation Safety Regulations at the back of this book Introduction The detecting medium in a scintillation counter is a solid
PHYS-01 LAB-03 Bohr s Model and Emission Spectra of Hydrogen and Helium 1. Objective The objective of this experiment is to study the emission spectrum of hydrogen and to understand its origin in terms
The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of
Introduction to Geiger Counters A Geiger counter (Geiger-Muller tube) is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Basically it consists
Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.7x10 10 disintegrations per second.
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 10-1 10-10 10-8 4 to 7x10-7 10-4 10-1 10 10 4 gamma
Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand
Section 7: In this section, we present a basic description of atomic nuclei, the stored energy contained within them, their occurrence and stability Basic Nuclear Concepts EARLY DISCOVERIES [see also Section
GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES 1. K. Siegbahn, Alpha, Beta and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Vol. I, particularly Chapts. 5, 8A. 2. Nucleonics Data Sheets, Nos. 1-45 (available from the Resource Centre) 3. H.E.
3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated
Doped Semiconductors Dr. Katarzyna Skorupska 1 Doped semiconductors Increasing the conductivity of semiconductors by incorporation of foreign atoms requires increase of the concentration of mobile charge
Low energy ion scattering study of 4 on Cu(1) Chapter 8. Low energy ion scattering study of 4 on Cu(1) 8.1. Introduction For a better understanding of the reconstructed 4 surfaces one would like to know
Vilnius University Faculty of Physics Department of Solid State Electronics Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics Experiment No. ENERGY LOSS OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN GASES by Andrius Poškus (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 2, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2000 Translated from Denshi Joho Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. J82-C-I, No. 6, June 1999, pp. 310 317 Analysis of Electromagnetic Propulsion
Gamma Ray Attenuation Properties of Common Shielding Materials Daniel R. McAlister, Ph.D. PG Research Foundation, Inc. 955 University Lane Lisle, IL 60532, USA Introduction In areas where people are likely
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 331 Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna Qing Chang 1, Dongxiao Yang 1,2, and Liang Wang 1 1 Zhejiang
Electron spectroscopy Lecture 1-21 Kai M. Siegbahn (1918 - ) Nobel Price 1981 High resolution Electron Spectroscopy 653: Electron Spectroscopy urse structure cture 1. Introduction to electron spectroscopies
Gamma Rays OBJECT: To understand the various interactions of gamma rays with matter. To calibrate a gamma ray scintillation spectrometer, using gamma rays of known energy, and use it to measure the energy
7. DYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERING 7. First order temporal autocorrelation function. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies the properties of inhomogeneous and dynamic media. A generic situation is illustrated
Radiation Detection and Measurement June 2008 Tom Lewellen Tkldog@u.washington.edu Types of radiation relevant to Nuclear Medicine Particle Symbol Mass (MeV/c 2 ) Charge Electron e-,! - 0.511-1 Positron
White Dwarf Properties and the Degenerate Electron Gas Nicholas Rowell April 10, 2008 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Discovery....................................... 2 1.2 Survey Techniques..................................
1 IRRMA6 #21 A Digital Spectrometer Approach to Obtaining Multiple Time-Resolved Gamma-Ray Spectra for Pulsed Spectroscopy H. Tan a,, S. Mitra b, A. Fallu-Labruyere a, W. Hennig a, Y. X. Chu a, L. Wielopolski
PUMPED Nd:YAG LASER Last Revision: August 21, 2007 QUESTION TO BE INVESTIGATED: How can an efficient atomic transition laser be constructed and characterized? INTRODUCTION: This lab exercise will allow
The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission B. Maffei Bruno.email@example.com Nuclear Fission 1 Introduction! We saw previously from the Binding energy vs A curve that heavy nuclei (above A~120)
IX: Angular Correlation of Gamma Rays I. References Brady, E. L. and Deutsch, M., Angular Correlation of Successive Gamma- Rays, Physical Review 78, no. 5 (1950), pp. 558-566. Frauenfelder, H. and Steffen,
Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences)) Volume 37.Number 5.A ((2011)) Available online at: www.basra-science -journal.org ISSN 1817 2695 Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the
Publication VI C. Rauch, F. Tuomisto, P. D. C. King, T. Veal, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff. Selfcompensation in highly n-type InN. arxiv:1204.3299v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci], pages 1 5, April 2012. c 2012. Reprinted
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does
Lecture 8: Cloud Stability Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Balance of heating and cooling processes helps to set the temperature in the gas. This then sets the minimum internal pressure in a core
Radiation Interactions with Matter: Energy Deposition Biological effects are the end product of a long series of phenomena, set in motion by the passage of radiation through the medium. Image removed due
SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics Lecture 4 Main points of Lecture 3 Strong and coulomb interaction processes conserve angular momentum and parity External properties 1) Charge number of protons (ze) 2)
Vilnius University Faculty of Physics Department of Solid State Electronics Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Experiment No. 10 ATTENUATION OF GAMMA RAYS by Andrius Poškus (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could
AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0, - 1/ for the three
PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order
Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy Presentation Materials The Electromagnetic Spectrum E = hν ν = c / λ 1 Electronic Transitions in Formaldehyde 2 Electronic Transitions and Spectra of Atoms
Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties
Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
Some history Simple applications Radiation transport modelling Flux and Dose calculations Variance reduction Easy Monte Carlo Pioneers of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method: Stanisław Ulam (1909 1984) Stanislaw
High Resolution Spatial Electroluminescence Imaging of Photovoltaic Modules Abstract J.L. Crozier, E.E. van Dyk, F.J. Vorster Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Electroluminescence (EL) is a useful
Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Band formation in semiconductors 2 3 Classification of semiconductors 5 4 Electron effective mass 10 1 Introduction Metals have electrical
Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson Rules for this test 1. This test is open book and open notes, including our class notes page online, and your homework solutions.
Chapter 7 Photon Counting and Spectroscopy in the Gamma Ray Energy Range 7.1 Objective Determine whether a radioactive source or set of sources obey Poisson statistics, and whether the radiation is isotropic.
Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT http://prism.mit.edu/xray An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
Proc. 25th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2009) 000 000 25th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics Big Sky, Montana, USA February 1 8, 2009 Digital Calorimeter Edwin Norbeck 1, Burak Bilki 1, Yasar
Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications Janet E. Semmens Sonoscan, Inc. 2149 E. Pratt Boulevard Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 USA Phone: (847)
Monday 11 June 2012 Afternoon A2 GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G495 Field and Particle Pictures *G412090612* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships
ctivity BP RDIOCTIVE DECY Section 8: RDIOCTIVE DECY In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay. Radioactive Decay Naturally occurring
Calorimeters The energy of hadrons, pions, photons and electrons can be measured with calorimeters. This in contrast with muons: their momentum is measured from their track curvature (sagitta). The principle
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used
Energy Transport Focus on heat transfer Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Conduction Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is physical contact
1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).
Orbits of the Lennard-Jones Potential Prashanth S. Venkataram July 28, 2012 1 Introduction The Lennard-Jones potential describes weak interactions between neutral atoms and molecules. Unlike the potentials
PHY 192 Half Life 1 Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life. Introduction This experiment will once again use the apparatus of the first experiment, this time to measure radiation intensity as a function
EPJ Web of Conferences 67, 212 (214) DOI: 1.11/ epjconf/ 21467212 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 214 Collision of a small bubble with a large falling particle Jiri Vejrazka 1,a, Martin
Technical articles X-ray thin-film measurement techniques II. Out-of-plane diffraction measurements Toru Mitsunaga* 1. Introduction A thin-film sample is two-dimensionally formed on the surface of a substrate,
Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser E. Allaria on behalf of the FERMI team Work partially supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research under grants FIRB-RBAP045JF2 and FIRB-RBAP06AWK3
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
FISSION OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this lesson the trainee will be able to: 1. Explain where the energy released by fission comes from (mass to energy conversion). 2. Write a typical fission reaction.
Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal
Quantum Mechanics Bohr's model: BUT: In 1925-26: by 1930s: - one of the first ones to use idea of matter waves to solve a problem - gives good explanation of spectrum of single electron atoms, like hydrogen
Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes. Size Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why
An Innovative Method for Dead Time Correction in Nuclear Spectroscopy Upp, Daniel L.; Keyser, Ronald M.; Gedcke, Dale A.; Twomey, Timothy R.; and Bingham, Russell D. PerkinElmer Instruments, Inc. ORTEC,
Advanced Materials Science - Lab Intermediate Physics University of Ulm Solid State Physics Department Electrical Conductivity Translated by Michael-Stefan Rill January 20, 2003 CONTENTS 1 Contents 1 Introduction
CCD Primer Page 1/7 11/19/2008 CCD Camera I. CCD Camera Operation: Solid State Physics A. MOS Capacitor Gate The basic component of a CCD pixel is a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. MOS capacitors
Chemical Sputtering von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff W. Jacob Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching Content: Definitions: Chemical erosion, physical
DETECTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES WITH SILICON DETECTORS A) DESCRIPTION OF SILICON CHARGED PARTICLE DETECTOR The silicon charged particle detector is a wafer of silicon having surface contacts forming a p-n