# Interaction of Mobile Phone Waves with Tissues of Skeletal Muscles and Bone of Human Beings

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3 (4) q where 1 P 1 q (5) P (6) where ω is angular frequency of radiation, is permittivity, µ is the permeability and is conductivity of biological material. Specific absorption Rate (SAR): The specific absorption rate is defined as the time derivative of the incremental energy (dw) absorbed by or dissipated in an incremental mass (dm) contained in a volume element (dv) of a given density (). It can be defined as d dw SAR (7) dt dm d dw SAR dt dv By using Pointing vector theorem for sinusoidally varying electromagnetic fields. We get E SAR i (8) where is the conductivity of the material, E i is the field inside that material. This relation represents the rate at which the electromagnetic energy is converted into heat through well-established interaction mechanisms. It provides a valid quantitative measure of all interaction mechanisms that are dependent on the intensity of the internal electric field. IV. Results: Table 1 Induced electric field radiated from the cell phone hand sets Distance from Incident electric cell phone field (E 0 ) in in(cm) (V/m) Table Penetrated electric field inside the skin tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 800 MHz Distance Electric Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm) from field (E 0 ) mobile phone(cm) (V/m) Page

4 Table 3 Penetrated electric field inside the skin tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 900 MHz Distance Incident Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm) from cell electric phone(cm) field (E 0 ) Table 4 Penetrated electric field inside the skin tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 1800 MHz Distance Incident Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm) from cell electric phone(cm) field (E 0 ) Page

5 Table 5 Penetrated electric field inside the skin tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 450 MHz Distance Incident Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm) from cell electric phone(cm) field (E0) Table 6 Penetrated electric field inside the skeletal muscles tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 800 MHz. Distance Penetrated electric field, E z (V/m) at depth (m.m.) from mobile phone (cm) Table 7 Penetrated electric field inside the skeletal muscles tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 900 MHz. Distance Penetrated electric field, E z (V/m) at depth (m.m.) from mobile phone (cm) Page

6 Table 8 Penetrated electric field inside the skeletal muscles tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 1800 MHz. Distance from mobile phone (cm) Penetrated electric field, Ez (V/m) at depth (mm) Table 9 Penetrated electric field inside the skeletal muscles tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 450 MHz. Distance Penetrated electric field, Ez (V/m) in skeletal muscle at depth (mm) from mobile phone (cm) Page

7 Table 10 Penetrated electric field inside the bone tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 800 MHz Distance from Penetrated electric field ( Ez ) in (V/m) at depth mobile phone in (cm) Table 11 Penetrated electric field inside the bone tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 900 MHz Distance Penetrated electric field ( Ez ) in (V/m) at depth from mobile phone in (cm) Table 1 Penetrated electric field inside the bone tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 1800 MHz Distance from Penetrated electric field ( Ez ) in (V/m) at mobile phone depth in (cm) Page

8 Table 13 Penetrated electric field inside the bone tissues due to the penetration of mobile phone hand sets radiation of frequency 450 MHz Distance from Penetrated electric field ( Ez ) in (V/m) at depth mobile phone in (cm) Fig.1 Fig. Fig Page

9 Fig 4. Fig 5. Fig 6. Fig 7. Fig 8. V. Discussion: Different antenna configurations can be programmed, that exhibit different photon mission characteristics. The user can also specify the wavelength of the sender and its power. Mobile phone base station generally radiates 0 W to 60W and hand set radiate 1- W (peak) (8,13). In this paper, the power of the mobile phone is taken W. Heating of biological tissue is a consequence of high or low water content tissues. The amount of heating produced in a living organism depends primarily on the intensity of the radiation once it has penetrated the body. People generally keep the cell phone hand set near their body. It can be considered as the transmission towers which transmit the electric field. This electric field produces an electric blanket around the human body. The incident electric field, transmitted from the cell phones is calculated by the equation and represented in table 1. Calculations are made from 1cm to 15 cm distance of cell phone from the human beings. Because cell phone generally situated very near to the body of human beings, thus calculations are made only up to 15 cm 14 Page

11 [5]. Rezael, D., Ochbelagh, R., Borhanifer, A., Asadi, A., (009) Thermal Effects of Mobile Phone on Tissues, Asian J. Exp. Sci., 3, No. 1, [6]. Otto, M., Ernst, K., Mu8hiendahi, V., (007) Electromagnetic Fields: Do they play a role in Children s Environmental Health (CEH)? Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 10, [7]. Salem, N. M., (005) Thermal Effects of Photon-Phonon interaction on a simple tissue. The Environmentalist, 5, [8]. Hanafy, M. S., (006) Electric Field affected the molecular structure of the total serum proteins of the mice blood, Romanian J. Biophysics, 16, no. 3, Bucharest. [9]. Elisabeth Diem, Claudia Schwarz, Franz Adlkofer, Oswald Jahn and Hugo Rudiger, (005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobilephone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro, mutation research/genetic toxicology and environment mutagenesisnesis, 583 (), [10]. Zeni, O., Schiavoni, A. S., Sannino, A., Antolini, A., Forigo, D., Bersani, F. and Scarfì, M. R. (003) Lack of Genotoxic Effects (Micronucleus Induction) in Human Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Fields. Radiat. Res. 160, [11]. Leszczynski, D., Joenväärä, S., Reivinen, J. and Kuokka, R., (00) Non-thermal activation of the hsp7/p38mapk stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation,, 70: (doi: /j ) [1]. Joris Everaert and Dirk Bauwens, (007) A Possible Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phone Base Stations on the Number of Breeding House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 6, No. 1, 63-7 (doi: / ). [13]. ICNIRP: (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (upto 300 GHz). Health Physics, 74: Page

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