1 Applying to Graduate School in Psychology Nick Bremner, M.Sc. June 15 th, 2013
2 Overview O Presentation O Discussion with graduate student panel
3 Quick Introduction O Who I am: O Currently study Industrial/Organizational Psychology O Hold an M.Sc. in Management Science O I ve gone through this process twice! O Who you are: O Year of study? O Major? O Goals?
4 Today s Presentation O General Information, Definitions, and Statistics O Getting Ready to Apply O The Application Process O Choosing a Potential Supervisor O Pros and Cons O Surviving and Thriving
5 General Info and Stats O Psychology has highest undergraduate enrollment in Canada next to business/commerce and general liberal arts and sciences (Simner, 2009). O Less than 10% actually enroll in postgraduate education (Rajecki & Anderson, 2004). O But getting into graduate schools in psychology is getting more competitive! O Therefore, careful preparation and hard work are required to succeed!
6 General Info and Stats O Over 45 psychology departments in Canada (CPA, 2011) O Application costs vary widely O $55 to $150 per program O Higher for international students O Tuition : $4,000 $8,000 per year O M = $4,790 (Statistics Canada, 2012)
7 Definitions: What kind of degree do I want? M.A. = Master of Arts M.Sc. = Master of Science M. Ed. = Master of Education M.A./M.Sc. then Ph.D versus Streamlined Ph.D Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy Psy.D. = Doctor of Psychology 2 years + 3 to 5 years CPA accreditation (CPA, 2013); APA accreditation (APA, 2013)
8 Subfields of Psychology 13 main subfields (Simner,. 2009) Clinical Psychopathology Assessment and intervention Counseling Everyday problems ; personal growth Educational settings Industrial/ Organizational Workplace behaviour Agencies and businesses Neuropsychology Explore relationships between brain and behaviour Academic or clinical settings General Experimental Theory testing and research Academic settings
9 Acceptance Rates O In Canada: (CPA, 2009) O Experimental: 5 to 40% (M = 24%) O Clinical: 0.74 to 17% (M = 9%) O Counseling: 8 to 27% (M = 21%) O In USA: (Norcross, et al., 2010; Norcross et al., 2003) O Experimental: 37.6% O Clinical: O Practice-oriented: M = 16% O Research-oriented: M = 7% O Psy.D: 26 to 50%
10 Getting Ready to Apply
11 Set the Ground Work O Know what you want O Area of psychology O Specific research interests O Is grad school for me? O Prepare yourself O Take relevant classes O O Get to know your professors and university staff Acquire research experience (in your area of interest if possible!) O Start early!!
12 Is Grad School for me? Ask yourself O O O O O Am I avoiding anything by going to graduate school? What am I gaining by going to graduate school? Who am I going to graduate school for? Do my career goals require a graduate degree? Do I have the O time, money, stamina, maturity, ability, patience, dedication, O curiosity, organizational skills, ability to function on 2 hours of sleep, perseverance, and interest?
13 Getting Professional and Research Experience O Many psychology programs are research intensive research experience is a good way to differentiate yourself O Potential sources of research experience O Research assistantships O Volunteer experience in research lab O Honours thesis O Acquiring other forms of professional experience shows that you are proactive and invested in your career choice O Volunteer as CPA campus rep, or on CPA executive
14 Parlez-vous francais et anglais? Nous sommes à la recherche d un nouvel agent des affaires francophones. Responsabilités: Traduire toutes les communications de la Section Entreprendre des initiatives pour communiquer avec les étudiants francophones et les programmes francophones au Canada Représenter les communautés francophones à travers le Canada Contactez Justin Feeney: ou parlez à un membre de notre équipe. Do you speak English and French? We are looking for a new Francophone Affairs Officer. Responsibilities: Translates of all section materials Engages in outreach activities to francophone students and psychology programs in Canada Represents francophone communities across Canada Contact Justin Feeney: or speak with any member of the Section for Students executive.
15 The Application Process
16 What programs should I apply to? Apply to programs that Have an emphasis that is in line with your personal goals E.g., Research- vs. Practice-oriented Have faculty with research interests in line with your own Are feasible to attend Geographically Financially
17 Typical requirements Transcripts GRE scores Statement/letter of intent 2-3 reference letters (sometimes four!) Curriculum Vitae (CV) Education, Honours/Awards, Publications, Presentations, Relevant Experience, Professional Memberships Application fee
18 A note about organization O Good organization is absolutely crucial for success University Degree Emphasis Potential Advisors Supporting Documents Deadline + Fee Reference Letters Tests Notes University of Western Ontario PhD I-O Psych Scientist- Practitioner Model Meyer Allen - Statement of Interest - Writing sample (optional) Jan 8 th $95CDN 2 GRE Has a "Research Unit for Work & Productivity" for giving students practical experience. O Keep track of program requirements O Keep track of what you have completed O Make sure you have enough time to create strong applications for each school
19 Grades/Transcripts O What grades are typically required? O Minimum B+, but this varies by program O Official transcripts must be mailed to every university you apply to
20 Graduate Record Examination (GRE) O Standardized test used around the world as criteria to evaluate who will be admitted into graduate school programs O Required for a variety of different graduate programs (e.g., Engineering, Humanities, Business, Psychology)
21 O O O GRE: For Psychology Students You may be required to write up to two forms of the GRE Revised General Test O O O Verbal Reasoning Quantitative Reasoning Analytical Writing Psychology Subject Test (~205 MC questions) O Experimental 40% O Social 43% O Other 17% O General (4-6%) O Measurement/Methodology (11-13%)
22 What you learn from the GRE O Before studying for GRE Verbal: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. O After studying for GRE Verbal: Exclusive dedication to necessitous vocational pursuits without interludes of hedonistic diversion renders Jack a hebetudinous fellow.
23 GRE: Fees O General Test: $185 O Psychology Test: $150 O Additional score reports (first four are free): $25 O Test preparation: O POWERPREP II, and associated ETS prep material: Free O Textbooks: $ O Courses: Kaplan: ~$1,100; Oxford Seminars: ~ $565
24 GRE: Where and When O General Test: Computer-based only in Canada O Where: Any ETS testing center (visit ETS website) O When: Year-round (subject to availability) O Psychology Test: Paper-based only O Where: O See test center list: O When: O September 28 th, 2013 (register by Aug 16, 2013) O October 19 th, 2013 (register by Sept 6, 2013) O April 5 th, 2014 (register by Feb 21, 2014)
25 Applying for Funding: Federal O Tri-Council Funding O SSHRC (www.sshrc-crsh.gc.ca) O Most psychology research falls under their jurisdiction O CIHR (www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca) O Some Clinical and Health Psychology research O NSERC (www.nserc-crsng.gc.ca) O Cognitive/Neuropsychology
26 Applying for Funding: Provincial O O O O O A few examples Ontario Ontario Graduate Scholarship (OGS) O See websites of Ontario universities you plan to attend Québec Fonds de recherche: O Société et culture (www.fqrsc.gouv.qc.ca) O Nature et technologies (www.fqrnt.gouv.qc.ca) O Santé (www.frsq.gouv.qc.ca) Check on the websites of the universities you apply to Two additional resources: O O
27 Letter of Intent O Essentially a short (1-2 page) description of: O Your research interests O Why you want to go to grad school O Why you will succeed O Very important part of your application O Your chance to differentiate yourself from the competition
28 Letter of Intent O Tips: (Buskist & Burke, 2007; Hill, 2008) O Be clear and professional (humour can be dangerous) O Follow directions O Do not include irrelevant details O Consult with professors and graduate students O Tailor the letter to each program O Apply to potential advisors; know of, and intelligently discuss, their research O Many more resources online: O Search letter of intent or statement of purpose
29 Reference Letters O Most schools require a minimum of two reference letters from professors O The best reference letters are written by professors who know you and your work O Not enough to say: Katie Keener received a mark of 99.9% in my class O The committee will see this on your transcript anyway!
30 Reference Letters Supply your referees with: A(n) (unofficial) transcript of your grades Your letter of intent (ideally 2 nd or 3 rd draft) GRE scores Specific instructions for writing reference letters for each school (especially the deadline!) Addressed envelopes
31 Kisses of Death 1. Damaging personal statement 2. Harmful letters of recommendation 3. Lack of program information 4. Poor writing skills 5. Misfired attempts to impress (Appleby & Appleby, 2006)
32 Notes about Applying O Application deadlines vary from December 1 st to March 1 st O Admissions decisions typically by made by April 1 st O Accepted applications typically have until April 15 th to respond O Don t feel pressured; consider all options (CPA, 2010)
33 Summary: Checklist Professional experiences Transcripts GRE scores Funding opportunities Curriculum Vitae (CV) Contact potential advisors Reference letters Personal statements Breath and treat yourself Wait!
34 Summary: Timeline A route to success Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Mar Apr GREs; Prepare funding applications Determine programs; visit if possible; Funding applications due Transcript requests; Letters of recommendation Finalize statements; mail applications Finalize statements; mail applications Accept and decline offers Celebrate or regroup (APA, 2007)
35 Summary: Costs Item Cost Transcript $10 Application $85 General GRE $185 Psych GRE $150 Supplies and postage $100 TOTAL (1 application) $530 2 applications $615 3 applications $700 4 applications $785
36 Choosing a Supervisor
37 Why this is an important decision: O Your supervisor will be your boss for many years O Your supervisor heavily influences your graduate experience
38 Factors to Consider O Area of expertise O Style, personality, standards O Ability to collaborate O Track record O Ability to guide beyond the program O Availability (Datta, et al., 2009; Ray, 2007)
39 Where to Look for Potential Advisors O Visit faculty and lab websites O Consult graduate studies office O Review CVs and publications O Ask
40 How to Contact a Potential Advisor O Carefully evaluate prospective supervisors on the basis of objective criteria O Begin initial contact by indicating that you are inquiring about options and not necessarily ready to make a decision O Outline your ideas or objectives and relate it to their current work O Indicate you would like to discuss this further O Create an opportunity to meet the professor in person, if possible, visit the laboratory
41 Pros and Cons
42 Pros and Cons of Grad School Pros You get to research a topic that you enjoy! You get paid to research that topic you enjoy! Your schedule is flexible You have the opportunity to discuss ideas, concepts, and theories with people who are passionate about the same subject You may travel to exotic locations for conferences You are independent You have a broad range of career opportunities Cons You will have less time to do other things you enjoy You don t get paid much You re often overscheduled You have to discover what you re actually interested in You have to write something to get published for You may have too much independence It will take you at least 5 years to graduate
43 Surviving and Thriving
44 Surviving and Thriving O Time management O Identify your strengths and weaknesses O Make a list of your responsibilities O Prioritize them O Break projects into smaller steps or goals O You must become your own project manager O Don t spread yourself too thin O Seize opportunities, but also need to learn to say no
45 Surviving and Thriving O Clarify what is expected of you by your supervisor O Look out for yourself O Research O Teaching assistantships O Show initiative O You acquire the most important skills outside of the classroom
46 Surviving and Thriving O Seek mentorship O Get involved: your grad school experience is what you make it O Attend department events, volunteer O Network!
47 Thank you! Nick Bremner
48 Graduate Student Panel Nick Bremner, PhD student, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Western University Helen Lee, PhD student, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Western University Meredith Rocchi, PhD student, Experimental Psychology, University of Ottawa Missy Teatero, PhD student, Clinical Psychology, Lakehead University Karen Zhang, PhD student, Clinical Psychology, Western University
49 Graduate Student Panel O O O O How early should I start preparing for graduate school? Should I include personal information in my statement of intent? What if I mess up on the GREs? What are some GRE study tips? O What's the best program for X? O O Can I take maternity/paternity leave while in graduate school? Will I be able to get a job after graduate school?
50 Additional Resources O Resources for students offered by CPA: O O Openings for American Schools (as of 15/04/2013): O O Graduate Study in Psychology (2013 edition; APA, 2013)
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