1 Weather Radar Monitoring using the Sun Iwan Holleman and Hans Beekhuis Technical Report, KNMI TR-272, 2004
3 Contents 1 Introduction 5 2 Detection of solar interferences Solar artifacts in reflectivity data Automated detection of interferences Attenuation correction Overlap and azimuthal averaging Corrected solar power 15 3 Position of the sun Celestial sphere and equatorial coordinates Equatorial coordinates of the sun Conversion to elevation and azimuth Refraction correction 20 4 Power of the sun Solar spectrum Solar flux monitor Conversion of flux to received power 26 5 Analysis of solar interferences Scatter plot analysis Numerical evaluation 28 6 Results Case 1: De Bilt radar Case 2: Den Helder radar 33 7 Conclusions 37 References 39
4 4 CONTENTS
5 Chapter 1 Introduction In conjunction with the 81 st meeting of the American Meteorological Society a radar calibration workshop was organized by Paul Joe (MSC, Canada). This workshop was held on 13 and 14 January 2001 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and about 35 presentations were given on various topics related to radar calibration. The use of the radio frequency radiation of the sun for off-line calibration of the alignment of the antenna and the sensitivity of the receiver was mentioned a number of times (Smith, 2001; Rinehart, 2001; Keeler, 2001; Crum, 2001; Tapping, 2001). Smith (2001) and Rinehart (2001) both discussed the use of the sun for measuring antenna gain patterns, but this is quite difficult because the sun is not a point target. The use of the sun for calibration of the alignment of the radar antenna was mentioned by Keeler (2001). Crum (2001) presented encouraging results of the receiver calibration of the entire NEXRAD radar network using the sun. Validation of the solar calibration method revealed that the obtained biases are consistent with field reports. Finally, Tapping (2001) from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Canada introduced the 10.7 cm solar flux monitor and detailed its use for calibration of antennas and receivers. At the 31 st conference on radar meteorology, Darlington et al. (2003) showed that the antenna pointing of weather radars can be monitored on-line using unprocessed polar data from the operational scans. So the solar monitoring did not interfere with the operational use of the radar. Huuskonen and Hohti (2004) have presented similar results at the recent European Conference on Radar Meteorology and Hydrology (ERAD) and they showed that a single sunrise or sunset is sufficient to determine the antenna elevation pointing. At KNMI, Herman Wessels has previously used the solar artifacts in the operational echotop product to point out a 0.3 degree elevation bias of the radar in Den Helder. In this technical report a tool for checking the antenna pointing and for on-line monitoring of the sensitivity of the radar receiver based on solar observations is presented. The monitoring tool does not interfere with the operational scanning of the weather radars: it merely analyzes the reflectivity volume scans which are produced in real-time. It is concluded that the potential of the solar monitoring tool is clearly demonstrated and that it should be consulted by the
6 6 Introduction maintenance staff on a daily basis. The outline of the remaining of the report is as follows: In chapter 2 it is demonstrated that solar interferences can be detected automatically in the reflectivity volume data from the operational weather radars. The motion of the sun along the celestial sphere is discussed in chapter 3 and the equations for calculation of the elevation and azimuth of the sun are given. In chapter 4 some details of the solar radiating spectrum are highlighted and the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) which runs a solar flux monitoring program is introduced. A method to analyze the collected solar interferences and to extract quantitative information on the biases of the elevation and azimuth reading of the antenna and on the received solar power is described in chapter 5. In chapter 6 two cases are discussed which illustrate that the daily display of the analyzed solar interferences is a useful tool for monitoring the performance of the weather radars. In the last chapter the conclusions and recommendations for further application are made.
7 Chapter 2 Detection of solar interferences In this chapter it is demonstrated that solar interferences can be seen in reflectivity volume data recorded operationally by weather radar and a method for automated detection of these interferences is proposed. Furthermore corrections of the received solar power for atmospheric attenuation and averaging losses are discussed. 2.1 Solar artifacts in reflectivity data In the low-altitude reflectivity composite of KNMI, which is composed of data from the radars in De Bilt and Den Helder, artifacts due to interference from the sun are present on a regular basis. The artifacts occur around sunrise or sunset and they can be recognized in the image as spokes in the direction of one of the radars. Because of the relatively high threshold of 7 dbz used by the KNMI radar displays, the artifacts are only observed when the sun s position is (almost) exactly in the direction of the radar antenna. In fact solar artifacts can be observed much more frequently in the raw polar volume data of the radars. Figure 2.1 shows a so-called B-scope plot of polar reflectivity data of De Bilt recorded at 15:17 UTC on 2 February 2004 using an elevation of 7.5 degrees. The horizontal axis of the figure represents the range, the vertical axis represents the azimuth, and the color scale represents the observed reflectivity. The horizontal line of reflectivity extending over all ranges at an azimuth of degrees is caused by interference from the sun. Note that this ray is averaged in tangential direction between 230 and 231 degrees azimuth by the radar processor. Because the sun is, in contrast to echoes from a pulsed weather radar, a continuous source of radio frequency radiation it is visible at all ranges. It is evident from figure 2.1 that the solar artifacts can easily be recognized in the polar reflectivity data and that their azimuth and elevation can be deduced, in this case and 7.5 degrees, respectively. In figure 2.2 a cross-section along the solar artifact, i.e., at an azimuth of degrees in figure 2.1, is shown. The upper frame shows the observed reflectivity as a function of range. The characteristic range dependence of the solar interferences is clearly visible as a
8 8 Detection of solar interferences Azimuth [deg] Range [km] Reflectivity [dbz] Figure 2.1: B-scope plot of polar reflectivity data of De Bilt recorded at 15:17 UTC on 2 February 2004 using an elevation of 7.5 degrees. The interference of the setting sun is clearly visible at 230 degrees azimuth.
9 2.1 Solar artifacts in reflectivity data 9 20 Reflectivity [dbz] Range [km] Power [dbm] Range [km] Figure 2.2: A-scope plot of the polar reflectivity data from figure 2.1 at an azimuth of degrees, i.e., in direction of the sun, is shown in the upper frame. The typical range dependence of an interference from continuous source of radio frequency radiation is clearly visible. In the lower frame the range correction of the reflectivity values has been removed and the values have been converted to received power.
10 10 Detection of solar interferences Table 2.1: This table lists the parameters that are used for the automated detection of solar interferences in the polar reflectivity data. Parameter Value Minimum elevation 1.0 deg Minimum range 200 km Fraction of valid data 0.9 Maximum angular deviation 5 deg Constant De Bilt db Constant Den Helder db Gaseous attenuation db/km continuously increasing background reflectivity. Only at ranges beyond roughly 250 km the signal from the solar interference exceeds the KNMI display threshold of 7 dbz. The range dependence of the solar artifact, which originates from a continuous source of radio frequency radiation, is caused by corrections applied by the radar signal processor. The received echo power is corrected by the radar signal processor for the geometrical 1/R 2 -reduction with range and for the attenuation due to scattering from molecular oxygen. The following equation is used by the processor to calculate the reflectivity in dbz from the received power in dbm (SIGMET, 1998): dbz = dbm log R + 2 a R + C (2.1) where R is equal to the range in km, a the one-way gaseous attenuation in db/km and C the radar constant in db. The applied values for the attenuation and radar constants are listed in table 2.1. Alternatively this equation can be used to recalculate the received power from the observed reflectivity. In the lower frame of figure 2.2 the received power calculated from the reflectivity data in the upper frame is plotted as a function of range. It is now clear that the observed artifact originates from a continuous source of radiation indeed. The received solar power of roughly 108 dbm is rather low, but it is well above the minimum detectable signal of the KNMI weather radars (< 109 dbm). In addition, it will be detailed below that the received solar power is attenuated by the averaging over 1 degree in azimuthal direction, and thus the received peak power was slightly higher. 2.2 Automated detection of interferences For a numerical evaluation of the solar interferences an automated detection procedure of these interferences in polar reflectivity data is a prerequisite. It has been shown in the previous section
11 2.2 Automated detection of interferences 11 Height [km] El=3.0 o El=2.0 o El=1.1 o El=0.3 o Range [km] Figure 2.3: This figure shows the calculated height of the radar beam as a function of range for the 4 lowest elevations used by the KNMI radars. The minimum range used for identifying solar interferences is marked by the vertical dashed line. The lowest elevation is dashed because it is excluded from the analysis. that the solar interferences give rise to very distinct artifacts in the polar data. Especially their extension to long ranges can be utilized for an automated detection procedure of the solar artifacts. In figure 2.3 the calculated height of the radar beam as a function of range for the 4 lowest elevations used by the KNMI radars is shown. It is evident from this figure that especially at the 3 highest elevations the radar beam gains height rapidly and that it, therefore, will overshoot precipitation at longer ranges. The presence of a consistent signal at long ranges, i.e., beyond 200 km, is the main signature for identification of solar interferences. During the automated detection a polar volume of reflectivity data is scanned ray-by-ray. Only polar data recorded above a certain minimum elevation of typically 1 degree are considered. For each ray the number of range bins with valid reflectivity data, i.e., a reflectivity higher 31.5 dbz, beyond a certain minimum range (default 200 km) is counted. A solar interference is detected when: the fraction of valid range bins is higher than a certain threshold value of typically 0.9, and
12 12 Detection of solar interferences 3 Attenuation [db] Elevation [deg] Figure 2.4: This figure shows the calculated attenuation between the radar antenna and the top of the atmosphere due to molecular attenuation as a function of elevation. the corresponding azimuth and elevation are close (default within 5 degrees) to the calculated position of the sun. For each detected solar interference, the date and time, the calculated solar azimuth and elevation, and the observed azimuth, elevation, and solar power are stored. The time at which polar data is recorded is crucial and it should be accurate within seconds for obtaining reliable results. Because the volume data files from the Gematronik Rainbow system (Gematronik, 2003) do not contain the exact time of each recorded elevation, a table with time offsets is used to calculate the time of a recorded elevation from the time stamp of the volume dataset. The parameters used for the automated detection of the solar interferences are listed in table Attenuation correction It has been detailed in section 2.1 that during the reconversion of the observed reflectivity to the received power the range-dependent attenuation correction is removed. For comparison of the
13 2.4 Overlap and azimuthal averaging 13 received solar power with a reference, the received power has to be corrected for the gaseous attenuation between the radar antenna and the top of the atmosphere. This correction depends on the length of the path through the atmosphere and thus on the elevation of the antenna. Using the commonly applied 4/3 earth s radius model (Doviak and Zrnić, 1993), the range r from the radar can be written as a function of the elevation el and the height z: r(z, el) = R 43 sin 2 el + 2z + z2 R R 43 R sin el (2.2) where R 43 is the 4/3 radius of the earth. For the calculation of the gaseous attenuation between the radar antenna and the top of the atmosphere, the atmospheric density as a function of height is assumed to be constant and non-zero up to the equivalent height z 0 and zero above. The gaseous attenuation is then be approximated by: A gas (el) a r(z 0, el) (2.3) where a is the one-way gaseous attenuation at ground level in db/km. The error due to this equivalent height approximation compared to using an exponential decaying density according to the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere is less than 8% for el = 0. The equivalent height z 0 of the atmosphere is chosen such that the integrated density is conserved: z 0 1 n 0 0 n(z) dz = p 0 n 0 g = RT 0 g (2.4) where the hydrostatic equation (Holton, 1992) has been used to evaluate the integral. Symbol T 0 represents the atmospheric temperature at ground level, R the gas constant, and g is the gravitation constant. Using the temperature from the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere (T 0 = K), an equivalent height of 8.4 km is obtained. In figure 2.4 the gaseous attenuation between the antenna and the top of the atmosphere is plotted as a function of elevation using equation 2.3. It is evident from the figure that attenuation between the antenna and the top of the atmosphere is significant (up to 3 db) at low elevations. The values of the parameters used to calculated the attenuation correction are listed in table Overlap and azimuthal averaging The observed solar power is attenuated by the (imperfect) overlap with antenna sensitivity pattern function and the averaging of received power while the radar antenna is rotating along the azimuth. The overlap and averaging attenuation can be estimated by a simple 1-dimensional model. The solar power S and antenna pattern f as a function of azimuth az are approximated by Gaussian distributions: ( ) 4 ln 2 4 ln 2 az 2 S(az) = exp (2.5) π 2 s 2 s
14 14 Detection of solar interferences Table 2.2: This table lists the parameters that are used for the correction of the received solar power. Parameter Value Receiver losses De Bilt 3.05 db Receiver losses Den Helder 2.34 db Gaseous attenuation db/km Equivalent height of atmosphere 8.4 km 4/3 earth s radius 8495 km Solar width, s 0.54 degrees Radar beam width, r 0.95 degrees Azimuthal bin size, 1.0 degrees f(az) = exp ( ) 4 ln 2 az 2 2 r (2.6) where s and r are the beam widths of the sun and the radar antenna, respectively. For the solar power, a boxcar function would be more appropriate but this severely hampers an analytical evaluation of the overlap and averaging losses. It can be shown that for a perfect overlap between the sun and the antenna, i.e., x = 0 (see below), the error due to this approximation is less than 7%. The prefactors have been chosen such that the integrated solar power and the maximum transmission of the radar antenna are equal to 1. The fraction of the solar power received by the radar antenna A can be approximated by: ( ) A(x) = S(az) f(az + x) daz = 2 r 4 ln 2 x 2 2 s + exp 2 r 2 s + 2 r (2.7) where x is the azimuthal deviation between the radar antenna and the sun. Even when the overlap between the sun and the radar antenna is perfect (x = 0), the received solar power is attenuated due to the antenna sensitivity pattern. The effect of averaging in azimuthal direction by the radar processing can be estimated by A avg : A avg = 1 x/2 π 2 A(x) dx = r x x/2 4 ln 2 x erf 2 ln 2 x (2.8) 2 s + 2 r where x is the azimuthal bin size and erf represents the error function (Press et al., 1992). Using a solar beam width of 0.54 degrees, a radar beam width of 0.95 degrees, and an azimuthal bin size of 1.0 degree, an overlap and averaging attenuation of 1.39 db is found. The values of the parameters used to calculated this attenuation are listed in table 2.2.
15 2.5 Corrected solar power Corrected solar power For comparison of the received solar power with reference observations it is a prerequisite that the power is corrected for all attenuation between the receiver and the top of the atmosphere. Two sources of attenuation have been discussed in the previous sections, and the third source of attenuation is caused by the receiver losses. Using these known sources of attenuation the corrected received solar power dbm ˆ can be written as: ˆ dbm = dbm + A avg + A gas (el) + A Rx (2.9) where dbm is the uncorrected received power calculated using equation 2.1 and A Rx represents the receiver losses including the dry radome attenuation. The values of the parameters used to calculated the corrections are listed in table 2.2.
16 16 Detection of solar interferences
17 Chapter 3 Position of the sun For the analysis of the solar inferences in the polar reflectivity data, the position of the sun at a given location and date/time needs to be known. This chapter describes the procedure that is used to calculate the elevation and azimuth of the sun. 3.1 Celestial sphere and equatorial coordinates Due to the daily rotation of the earth and different viewing angles, the position of an object in the sky depends on the date/time and the geographical longitude and latitude. The position of these objects as seen from earth is, therefore, described using the coordinates on the socalled celestial sphere. In this coordinate system dependencies due to the daily rotation of the earth and to the latitude and longitude of the observer are removed, and thus providing viewer independent coordinates of objects in the sky, like the sun. A schematic drawing of the celestial sphere and the equatorial coordinate system is presented in figure 3.1. The angles and plane which make up the celestial sphere and the equatorial coordinate system are defined as follows (Carroll and Ostlie, 1996): Celestial equator The plane passing through the Earth s equator and extending to the celestial sphere is called the celestial equator. Declination δ The declination is the equivalent of the latitude in the geographical coordinate system and it is measured in degrees north from the celestial equator. Vernal equinox Υ The sun crosses the celestial equator twice a year. The first annual crossing of the sun through the celestial equator is called the vernal equinox (around 20 March), and the second crossing is called the autumnal equinox (23 September). Right ascension α The right ascension is the equivalent of the longitude in the geographical coordinate system and it is measured eastward in hours along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox.
18 18 Position of the sun Celestial sphere NCP Sun Celestial equator Υ Earth α δ SCP Figure 3.1: The figure shows the celestial sphere and the equatorial coordinate system. This figure is inspired by Carroll and Ostlie (1996). The position of the sun on the celestial sphere is described by the declination δ and the right ascension α (see figure 3.1), i.e, the equatorial coordinates. 3.2 Equatorial coordinates of the sun The equatorial coordinates of the sun (α,δ) depend on the motion of the earth around the sun. According to the First law of Johannes Kepler, the motion of the earth around the sun is described by an ellipse. The position of the earth in its elliptical orbit is described by an angle θ. The change of this angle per unit of time is not constant in time, but depends on the distance between the earth and the sun. This important fact is known as the Second law of Kepler. The angle θ in degrees of the earth in its orbit around the sun as a function of day number n is given by (WMO, 1996): θ(n) = n sin θ sin 2 θ (3.1) θ = n (3.2)
19 3.2 Equatorial coordinates of the sun 19 Right ascension [hr] Summer solstice Declination [deg] Vernal equinox Autumnal equinox -20 Winter solstice 21-Dec 20-Mar 21-Jun 23-Sep 21-Dec Date Figure 3.2: The figure shows the annual path of the sun across the celestial sphere. This figure is inspired by Carroll and Ostlie (1996). where the day number n is defined as the number of days since 1 January 2000 or alternatively: n = julday where julday is the Julian day number. Apart from the angle θ one also needs the angle between the polar axis and the plane of earth s orbit around the sun (obliquity) to calculate the equatorial coordinates of the sun. The dependence of the obliquity δ 0 in degrees as a function of day number is (WMO, 1996): δ 0 (n) = n (3.3) and it thus can be considered constant for our application. Using the previous equations for the orbit angle θ and the obliquity δ 0, the right ascension and declination can be calculated using a straightforward rotation: tan α(n) = cos δ 0 tan θ (3.4) sin δ(n) = sin δ 0 sin θ (3.5) where the right ascension α is usually measured in hours and the declination δ in degrees. The declination as a function of the right ascension or the annual path of the sun across the celestial
20 20 Position of the sun sphere is depicted in figure 3.2. The elevation and azimuth of the sun can be calculated from the equatorial coordinates. 3.3 Conversion to elevation and azimuth For conversion of the right ascension and declination on the celestial sphere to the actual elevation and azimuth of the sun, the local latitude φ and longitude λ, and the current hour angle of the sun are needed. The hour angle ha is defined as the difference between the celestial object (the sun in our case) and the local longitude (Carroll and Ostlie, 1996). The hour angle of the sun is given by (WMO, 1996): ha = n + hh + (λ α)/15 (3.6) where hh is the current UTC time in (fractional) hours and ha is measured in hours. Using the laws of spherical trigonometry, the elevation el of the sun can be calculated from right ascension and declination: sin el = sin φ sin δ + cos φ cos δ cos ha (3.7) where elevations between 90 and +90 degrees are allowed and negative elevations naturally indicate night time. Similarly, an equation for the tangent of the azimuth az of the sun can be deduced: sin ha tan az = (3.8) cos φ tan δ sin φ cos ha where azimuths between 0 and 360 degrees are allowed. 3.4 Refraction correction The radiation of the sun is refracted during its propagation through the atmosphere due to the change of refractive index with altitude. Because the atmospheric density is monotonically decreasing with increasing altitude, refraction always makes that the sun is apparently at a higher elevation. The effect of refraction can be described by the following equation (Sonntag, 1989): el a = el + ϱ(el, p, T ) (3.9) where el a is the apparent elevation and ϱ is the refraction as a function of the true elevation el, pressure p, and temperature T at ground level. Many different equations have been deduced to approximate the refraction of the radiation from the sun or other stars as a function of elevation. Sonntag (1989) has optimized a straightforward equation for the refraction using tabulated values for the refraction as a function of
21 3.4 Refraction correction Refraction [deg] Elevation [deg] Figure 3.3: This figure shows the calculated refraction of the solar radiation as a function of the true elevation for T = K and p= hpa (1976 US Standard Atmosphere). pressure and temperature: ϱ(el, p, T ) = p T tan[el + 8.0/(el )] (3.10) where ϱ and el are measured in degrees, and the temperature T and pressure p in Kelvin and hpa, respectively. The calculated refraction as a function of the true elevation is plotted in figure 3.3. The calculated refraction of the sun is maximum at zero elevation, but never exceeds 0.5 degrees. Note that this calculated refraction is optimized for visible light, but similar refraction is expected for radio-frequency radiation.
22 22 Position of the sun
23 Chapter 4 Power of the sun For an absolute check of the calibration of the weather radar receiver using the detected solar interferences information on the solar flux at C-band is a prerequisite. In this chapter some details of the solar radiation spectrum are highlighted and a Canadian solar flux monitoring station is introduced. Finally, equations for estimation of the C-band power received by the weather radar from the solar flux monitoring data are presented. 4.1 Solar spectrum For an absolute calibration of the radar receiver, information on the solar flux at C-band is required. The surface of sun approximately radiates as a black body with an effective temperature of 5770 K (Carroll and Ostlie, 1996). Using this information the approximate solar spectrum can be calculated using the law of Max Planck for the radiation intensity from a black body as a function of wavelength (Carroll and Ostlie, 1996). In figure 4.1 the calculated solar spectrum is shown on a log-log plot. The vertical axis represents the calculated solar flux in so-called Solar Flux Units (sfu) defined as W/m 2 /Hz and the horizontal axis represents the frequency of the radiation in GHz. A solar solid angle of sterad is used for the calculation of the solar flux as received on earth. The log-log plot is chosen in order to facilitate a comparison of the fluxes in the radio frequency part (indicated by C-Band ) and the visible part (indicated by Visible ) of the spectrum. The visible part of the spectrum for humans is rather close to the peak of the solar spectrum. It is evident from the figure that the solar flux at C-band is about 9 orders of magnitude smaller than that in the visible part of the spectrum. Because the radio frequency region is so far in the tail of the black body spectrum of the sun and the effective temperature is mainly determined by the visible radiation, the C-band intensity is not accurately described by the theoretical spectrum of figure 4.1. In addition, the radio frequency intensity of the sun varies strongly with the phase of the solar activity cycle and the presence of hot spots on the sun. An absolute calibration of the received C-
24 24 Power of the sun Solar Flux [sfu] C-band Visible Frequency [GHz] Figure 4.1: The calculated spectrum of the sun using a black body temperature of 5770 K.The spectrum is displayed on a log-log plot in order to facilitate comparison of the intensities in radio frequency and visible radiation. band radiation using the sun can, therefore, only be done using observations from a reference monitoring station. 4.2 Solar flux monitor The solar flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm (S-band) is continuously monitored at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO, in Canada. This observatory is located at a site near Penticton, British Columbia, which enjoys extremely low interference levels at centimeter wavelengths (Tapping, 2001). Observations of the daily solar flux have started in 1946 and have continued to the present day. The current solar flux at 10.7 cm can be obtained from the website of the DRAO observatory: flux.shtml On this web page the current solar flux and the adjusted solar flux, corrected for changes in the distance between the sun and the earth, are refreshed each day at 23 UTC. Both solar flux numbers are corrected for the atmospheric attenuation at S-band. The system calibration is checked periodically using a dual-horn receiver and a calibrated noise source. In figure 4.2 a time series of more than 50 years of adjusted solar flux data recorded at the Dominion Radio
25 4.2 Solar flux monitor Adjusted Solar Flux [sfu] Year Figure 4.2: A time series plot of more than 50 years of 10.7 cm solar flux data recorded at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Canada. The solar flux is given in solar flux units equal to W/m 2 /Hz. These data are taken from the DRAO website: Astrophysical Observatory is plotted. It is evident from the figure that the solar flux at this wavelength is far from being a constant: it varies roughly between 75 sfu and 275 sfu. The large fluctuations are due to the year solar activity cycle and the small, noise-like fluctuations are due to shorter-time-scale variations of activity and the solar rotation with a period of about 30 days (Tapping, 2001). The 10.7 cm (S-band) solar flux measurements can be applied to other frequencies with an accuracy of roughly 1 db. This is possible because the solar emission at centimeter wavelengths can be divided into two distinct components: a steady base level and a superimposed slowlyvarying component with a constant spectral shape. Tapping (2001) has used this property to derive an equation for the solar flux at certain wavelengths from the observed flux at 10.7 cm (F 10.7 ). The estimated solar flux at C-band (F C ) is given by: F C = 0.71 (F ) (4.1)
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Astronomy 114 Summary of Important Concepts #1 1 1 Kepler s Third Law Kepler discovered that the size of a planet s orbit (the semi-major axis of the ellipse) is simply related to sidereal period of the
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Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Outline Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts Solar Spectra Terrestrial Solar Radiation: Effects of atmosphere, angular dependence of radiation,
The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The line of nodes descending node The Moon s orbital plane Moon s orbit inclination 5.45º ascending node celestial declination Zero longitude in the ecliptic The orbit
Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time
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Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)
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Introduction to the sky On a clear, moonless night, far from city lights, the night sky is magnificent. Roughly 2000 stars are visible to the unaided eye. If you know where to look, you can see Mercury,
ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format
ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative
Ionospheric Research with the LOFAR Telescope Leszek P. Błaszkiewicz Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, UWM Olsztyn LOFAR - The LOw Frequency ARray The LOFAR interferometer consist of a large
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Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.
Summer 2014 Astro 1 Lab Exercise Lab #4: ExoPlanet Detection Wednesday Aug 7,8 and 11 Room 200 in Wilder Lab reports are due by 5 pm on Friday August 15, 2013 Put it in the large ASTRO 1 Lab Box just inside
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Sound Power Measurement A sound source will radiate different sound powers in different environments, especially at low frequencies when the wavelength is comparable to the size of the room 1. Fortunately
Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ
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CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris
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Using Multiple Beams to Distinguish Radio Frequency Interference from SETI Signals G. R. Harp Allen Telescope Array, SETI Institute, 235 Landings Dr., Mountain View, CA 9443 Abstract The Allen Telescope
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name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of
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Specific Intensity Initial question: A number of active galactic nuclei display jets, that is, long, nearly linear, structures that can extend for hundreds of kiloparsecs. Many have two oppositely-directed
Lab 2: The Earth-Moon System and the Sun and Seasons Moon Phases We heard lectures about the moon yesterday, so here we will go through some interactive questions for lunar phases. Go to http://astro.unl.edu/naap/lps/lps.html.
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