Overview of ERDAS APOLLO... 5 About Us... 13

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1 Contents Overview of ERDAS APOLLO... 5 About Us Catalog Web Interface Logging In Browsing and Searching Content Advanced Search Managing Catalog Records ERDAS APOLLO Catalog REST Interfaces Publishing External Content Testing the CSW Endpoint Administration Options Delivering Data Delivering Map Images with a Web Map Service (WMS) Web Map Service Requests GetLegendGraphic Request WMS HTTP POST Requests WSDL and WMS HTTP SOAP Requests Delivering Image Data with a Web Coverage Service (WCS) Web Coverage Service Requests Requesting a Reference to a Coverage Georeferenced Coverages WSDL and WCS HTTP SOAP Requests Delivering Image and Point Cloud Data with Streaming Services Delivering Vectors/Features with a Web Feature Service (WFS) Web Feature Service Requests WSDL and WFS SOAP Requests OGC Compliant HTTP Request Samples Portraying and Styling Data Style Templates Creating Styles Creating Styles with Properties Creating Styles with SLD Deploying Styles Displaying Statistics in a Map Producing KML Limitations Coverage Portrayal Service (CPS) Operational Concept Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Starting the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Main Window

2 Contents Preferences Managing Projects Data Sources Layers Map Navigation Views Styling Data Managing Styles Scale Range Management Style Rules Business Data in the Catalog Coordinate Reference Systems Coordinate Reference System Engines Passing CRS Parameters in Web Requests Adding a Custom CRS Adding a Custom ERDAS APOLLO Coordinate Reference System Adding a Custom ERDAS IMAGINE Coordinate Reference System Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System Troubleshooting Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures during a WMS Request Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures When Crawling Vector Data Appendix A: Coordinate Reference Systems ERDAS APOLLO CRS Definition CRS Configuration Tags CRS Definition Tags ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System Appendix B: Schema and Database Mapping for WFS GML Application Schema and Mapping to Databases Key Concepts GML Application Schema Feature and Feature Type Mapping Feature Schema Configuration Feature Mapping Explicit Mapping Definition Steps SQL Mapping Definition Steps Automatic Mapping Definition Steps Relational (Explicit) Mapping Definition Steps Mapping of Enumerations Control Mapping Correctness Moving to GML Set Up an ERDAS APOLLO WFS Serving GML-SF (Simple Feature)

3 Contents Feature Mapping Tags Map Generation Transformer Using MapGen MapGen Tags and Attributes MapGen Tag Feature Properties (Re)definition scalemin and scalemax Filter - The "Where" Tag The "Last" Tag Warning: MapGen and Portrayal Rules Scale Dependent Table Protecting Data Disabling Interfaces Hiding Columns Disabling Output Formats Adding a Copyright or a Watermark Schema Generator From-SQL Generator WFS Loader Appendix C: Shapefile RTree Builder Technical Support and Information Index

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5 S E C T I O N 1 Overview of ERDAS APOLLO About ERDAS APOLLO ERDAS APOLLO is an enterprise-class, comprehensive data management, analysis, and delivery system enabling an organization to catalog, search, discover, process, and securely disseminate massive volumes of both file-based and web-enabled data. This solution consistently delivers virtually any digital object faster and with less hardware than competing server-based products. An interoperable OGC/ISO-based application that implements an out-of-the-box service-oriented architecture (SOA), ERDAS APOLLO is the solution for data management in the overall Hexagon Geospatial server story. Available in three product tiers, ERDAS APOLLO suits a spectrum of organizations integrating easily with other geospatial software and offering unparalleled performance even when handling massive data archives and many users. ERDAS APOLLO Essentials is the fastest geospatial image and LIDAR server in the world. A single server with standard hardware can serve terabytes of data to thousands of concurrent users. ERDAS APOLLO Essentials works with your GIS to provide geospatial data as quickly as possible. Examples of ERDAS APOLLO Essentials in action can be seen at ERDAS APOLLO Advantage is a comprehensive data management and delivery solution providing remarkable business value. This OGC/ISO standards-based solution can organize, securely manage and disseminate data within databases and also massive volumes of dynamic and static images, point cloud data, terrain, vector data, third party web services, and any digital resource in the enterprise. ERDAS APOLLO Advantage is scalable through clustering to meet an organization s specific needs, ensuring unprecedented performance even when handling the largest data archives. ERDAS APOLLO Professional is the most advanced product tier of ERDAS APOLLO. It offers on-the-fly geoprocessing through a powerful implementation of the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) specification. Users can run an entire model, such as change detection, site analysis, or elevation change, completely contained within a single web processing service (WPS). ERDAS APOLLO Professional is unrivaled in the complexity of algorithms stored under the hood. 5

6 Documentation for ERDAS APOLLO The following documents are installed (or are available for installation) with the product, or they are provided on the delivery media: Document ERDAS APOLLO Installation and Configuration Guide Description This document contains instructions and descriptions for installing and initially configuring ERDAS APOLLO. This includes pre-installation, system configuration, installation and configuration of applications via Setup Manager, and some manual post installation configuration. Post installation configuration content is limited to configuration activities that only need to be done once or very rarely. All other configuration and administration related content is described in the ERDAS APOLLO Administrator Guide. ERDAS APOLLO Administrator Guide This document contains instructions and descriptions for configuring and maintaining an ERDAS APOLLO system after the initial installation and configuration. The primary focus of this document is administration of an ERDAS APOLLO server/system. Content related to how to use ERDAS APOLLO to manage data or services is described in either the ERDAS APOLLO Server User Guide or the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager User Guide. ERDAS APOLLO Server User Guide ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager User Guide This document contains instructions and descriptions for using ERDAS APOLLO tools, utilities and applications to manage data and services. This document covers all aspects of using ERDAS APOLLO except for ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager which has its own dedicated User Guide. The ERDAS APOLLO Server User Guide includes documentation for foundational concepts such as web services, OGC services, data formats and coordinate references systems. It also as includes documentation for using the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog Web Interface, the ERDAS APOLLO Streaming Test Page and the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. This document contains instructions and descriptions for using ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager is designed to be the primary day to day user interface for managing data and services in ERDAS APOLLO. 6

7 ERDAS APOLLO Supported Environments ERDAS APOLLO Release Notes ERDAS APOLLO Issues Resolved A PDF file that lists the supported software configurations (required and optional) for the product. A PDF file that lists the enhancements for the current release. A PDF file that lists the product defects that have been fixed for the current release. The current versions of the Supported Environments, Release Notes, and Issues Resolved documents are available on the Contact Support https://sgisupport.intergraph.com/infocenter/index?page=contact_support page. They can also be accessed via links on the Intergraph Setup Manager dialog. ERDAS APOLLO Welcome Page After installing and configuring ERDAS APOLLO open the ERDAS APOLLO Welcome Page in a web browser. The default URL of the ERDAS APOLLO welcome page is: 7

8 See the ERDAS APOLLO Advantage/Professional Installation and Configuration Guide for complete instructions on installing and configuring ERDAS APOLLO. From this web page, you can access many ERDAS APOLLO tools and documents. In addition, links to certain tools and documents for ERDAS APOLLO Essentials and Geospatial Portal are also included. 8

9 See the Geospatial Portal User Guide or the Geospatial Portal Administrator Guide for detailed information using Geospatial Portal. 9

10 Copyright Intergraph Corporation and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Warning: This computer program, including software, icons, graphical symbols, file formats, and audio-visual displays; may be used only as permitted under the applicable software license agreement; contains confidential and proprietary information of Intergraph and/or third parties which is protected by patent, trademark, copyright and/or trade secret law and may not be provided or otherwise made available without proper authorization. Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS or subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of Commercial Computer Software -- Restricted Rights at 48 CFR , as applicable. Unpublished - rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States. Intergraph Corporation P.O. Box Huntsville, AL Terms of Use Use of this software product is subject to the End User License Agreement ("EULA") delivered with this software product unless the licensee has a valid signed license for this software product with Intergraph Corporation. If the licensee has a valid signed license for this software product with Intergraph Corporation, the valid signed license shall take precedence and govern the use of this software product. Subject to the terms contained within the applicable license agreement, Intergraph Corporation gives licensee permission to print a reasonable number of copies of the documentation as defined in the applicable license agreement and delivered with the software product for licensee's internal, non-commercial use. The documentation may not be printed for resale or redistribution. Warranties and Disclaimers All warranties given by Intergraph Corporation about software are set forth in the EULA provided with the software or with the applicable license for the software product signed by Intergraph Corporation, and nothing stated in, or implied by, this document or its contents shall be considered or deemed a modification or amendment of such warranties. Intergraph and its suppliers believe the information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date. The information and the software discussed in this document are subject to change without notice and are subject to applicable technical product descriptions. Intergraph Corporation and its suppliers are not responsible for any error that may appear in this document. Trademarks Intergraph, the Intergraph logo, and GeoMedia are registered trademarks of Intergraph Corporation. Hexagon and the Hexagon logo are registered trademarks of Hexagon AB or it subsidiaries. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Bing is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Google Maps is a trademark of Google Incorporated. Pictometry Intelligent Images is a registered trademark of Pictometry International Corporation. ERDAS, ERDAS IMAGINE, Stereo Analyst, IMAGINE Essentials, IMAGINE Advantage, IMAGINE Professional, IMAGINE VirtualGIS, Mapcomposer, Viewfinder, Imagizer, LPS, and ERDAS APOLLO are registered trademarks and exclusive property of Intergraph Corporation. Other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective owners. Government Reserved Rights. MrSID technology incorporated in the Software was developed in part through a project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, funded by the U.S. Government, managed under contract by the University of California (University), and is under exclusive commercial license to LizardTech, Inc. It is used under license from LizardTech. MrSID is protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835. Foreign patents pending. The U.S. Government and the University have reserved rights in MrSID technology, including without limitation: (a) The U.S. Government has a non-exclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced throughout the world, for or on behalf of the United States, inventions covered by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835 and has other rights under 35 U.S.C and applicable implementing regulations; (b) If LizardTech's rights in the MrSID Technology terminate during the term of this Agreement, you may continue to use the Software. Any provisions of this license which could reasonably be deemed to do so would then protect the University and/or the U.S. Government; and (c) The University has no 10

11 obligation to furnish any know-how, technical assistance, or technical data to users of MrSID software and makes no warranty or representation as to the validity of U.S. Patent 5,710,835 nor that the MrSID Software will not infringe any patent or other proprietary right. For further information about these provisions, contact LizardTech, 1008 Western Ave., Suite 200, Seattle, WA Portions of the user interface copyright 2013 Telerik AD. 11

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13 About Us Hexagon Geospatial helps you make sense of the dynamically changing world. Hexagon Geospatial provides the software products and platforms to a large variety of customers through direct sales, channel partners, and Hexagon businesses, including the underlying geospatial technology to drive Intergraph Security, Government & Infrastructure (SG&I) industry solutions. Hexagon Geospatial is a division of Intergraph Corporation. CUSTOMERS. Globally, a wide variety of organizations rely on our products daily including local, state and national mapping agencies, transportation departments, defense organizations, engineering and utility companies and businesses serving agriculture and natural resource needs. Our portfolio enables these organizations to holistically understand change and use information to make mission and business-critical decisions. TECHNOLOGY. Our priority is to deliver products and solutions that make our customers successful. Hexagon Geospatial is focused on developing leading-edge technology that is easily configurable. Through extensible, scalable and collaborative products, we enable you to transform multi-source content into dynamic and actionable information. We are constantly re-conceptualizing and improving our products. PARTNERS. As an organization, we are partner-focused, working alongside our channel to ensure we succeed together. We provide the right tools, products and support to our business partners so that they may successfully deliver sophisticated solutions for their customers. We recognize that we greatly extend our reach and influence by cultivating channel partner relationships both inside and outside of Hexagon. TEAM. As an employer, we recognize that the success of our business is the result of our highly motivated and collaborative staff. At Hexagon Geospatial, we celebrate a diverse set of people and talents; and we respect people for who they are and the wealth of knowledge they bring to the table. We retain talent by fostering individual development and ensuring frequent opportunities to learn and grow. HEXAGON. Hexagon Geospatial plays a key role in Hexagon s multi-industry focus, leveraging the entire portfolio for a wide variety of geospatial needs. Hexagon is a leading global provider of design, measurement and visualization technologies. Synergistic thinking is encouraged across all levels and functions at Hexagon companies, so that we all respond better and faster to our shared customer s needs. For more information, visit (http://www.hexagongeospatial.com) and (http://www.hexagon.com). 13

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15 S E C T I O N 2 Catalog Web Interface The Catalog Web Interface is a web application that allows you to search, browse and publish the data in your catalog. It also offers administration tools for the catalog service. For authenticated users, the Catalog Web Interface includes a page to aid in creating and submitting Catalog Service Web (CSW) requests. This page uses ERDAS APOLLO's implementation of the CSW-ebRIM profile for searching your ERDAS APOLLO catalog and delivering metadata describing catalog holdings. Finally, the ERDAS APOLLO catalog exposes its object model as a RESTful set of resources, with each resource type having its own dedicated URL endpoint. You can initiate the Catalog Web Interface by typing the following address in any web browser: For example, if your ERDAS APOLLO server is called MyApolloServer you would key-in: If SSL is configured, the example above would be: https://myapolloserver:443/apollo-catalog Another easy way to access the Catalog Web Interface is to select the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog Web Interface button on the ERDAS APOLLO Welcome Page: In This Section Logging In Browsing and Searching Content Publishing External Content Testing the CSW Endpoint Administration Options Logging In You can search for and browse the public data in the ERDAS APOLLO catalog without logging in. In order to view private data, publish data, or use the administration tools you must log in with a user name and password. To do so, select the Login button in the upper right corner of the page. 15

16 Logging in as the default data manager, dm, (or as any user that has been granted the data manager role), will enable the Publish link and allow you to Publish content. 16

17 Logging in as the default administrator, admin, (or as any user that has been granted the admin role), will enable the Publish, CSW, JSON and Admin links. 17

18 Browsing and Searching Content Select the Browse link to browse the contents of your ERDAS APOLLO Catalog. Filter By Data Type The drop-down data type filter allows you to filter your search based on specific data types. The data types filters are: Aggregates - Return only aggregates of datasets Documents - Return only business documents Image Datasets - Return only image datasets Point Cloud Datasets - Return only point cloud datasets Vector Datasets - Return only vector of datasets 18

19 Datasets - Return only datasets (image, point cloud, vector or documents) Processes - Return only Web Processing Services (WPS) Services - Return only data services (WCS, WFS or WMS) Coverage Services - Return only Web Coverage Services (WCS) Coverage Layers - Return only layers contained in Web Coverage Services (WCS layers) Vector Services - Return only Web Feature Services (WFS) Vector Layers - Return only layers contained in Web Feature Services (WFS layers) Map Services - Return only Web Map Services (WMS) Map Layers - Return only layers contained in Web Map Services (WMS layers) To remove the data type filter from your search, select the data type filter drop-down and use the up arrow on your keyboard until the field displays -CHOOSE DATA TYPE-. Filter By Keyword The keyword filter allows you to filter your search based on keywords and keyword patterns. The keyword patterns are compared against the names, descriptions and tags associated with the holdings in your catalog. Keyword searches can be combined using the following operators: Operator Description Example AND Logical AND between two keywords. road AND Atlanta OR Logical OR between two keywords. road OR Atlanta () Logical Group surrounding keywords. (road OR Atlanta) AND city The logical AND and OR operators must be entered in upper case. Topics Advanced Search Managing Catalog Records ERDAS APOLLO Catalog REST Interfaces

20 Advanced Search The Advanced Search panel can be opened by clicking on the arrow on the left edge of the Browse panel. This panel offers sorting options and a tree view of the object types available in the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog. Single-clicking on an object type will search for records of that type. Category objects can be multi-selected by pressing the CTRL key and then selecting one or more category objects. 20

21 Double-clicking on an object type will display the definition of the object type. 21

22 Managing Catalog Records If you are logged in as an authorized user, additional catalog record management links may be displayed for each object in the search result panel. An authorized user is either the user that originally published the object or any user that has been granted the admin role. 22

23 Delete The Delete link will delete the object from your ERDAS APOLLO catalog. Reharvest The Reharvest link will update the catalog metadata of a service object as well as the metadata of the layers associated to the service. Only service objects (Web Coverage Service, Web Feature Service and Web Map Service) support the Reharvest command. Reharvest makes it easy to update the ERDAS APOLLO catalog when layers are added to or deleted from a service or if the metadata associated with the service or one of its layers has changed. View Default The View Default link will display the default document associated with the object. The data returned by this command depends upon the type of the object. For example, service objects (WCS, WFS and WMS) will return a GetCapabilities document. Dataset and layer objects will return a default metadata document. Process objects will return a process description document. Business objects will generally return the document itself. ERDAS APOLLO Catalog REST Interfaces The ERDAS APOLLO Catalog exposes its object model as a RESTful set of resources, such that each resource type has a dedicated URL endpoint. REST is subject to an ongoing debate to define exactly what it is or isn't, and many REST-related concepts and questions are still looking for a clear answer. The following sections are not intended to define REST, but rather describe the REST architecture as it is pertains to ERDAS APOLLO. Topics REST Background ERDAS APOLLO REST Endpoints REST Background REST, meaning "REpresentational State Transfer", is a style of software architecture for distributed hypermedia systems such as the World Wide Web. REST strictly refers to a collection of network architecture principles which outline how resources are defined and addressed. Systems which follow REST principles are often referred to as "RESTful". See Chapter 5 of Roy Fielding's 2000 doctoral dissertation from the University of California, Irvine, "Representational State Transfer (REST)": The following terms are used in the description of the ERDAS Apollo architecture and its implementation of REST: 23

24 Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA): A software service architecture type that is resource-centric, as opposed to Remote Procedure Call (RPC) architecture that is process-centric. REST: REpresentational State Transfer, as defined in Fielding's dissertation. We consider REST as being an instance of ROA relying on the HTTP protocol; this is important as the term REST as it is used here will always refer to the HTTP implementation of an ROA. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Resources in an ROA must be identifiable by unique and static IDs. In REST these IDs are URIs that can be used to directly access the resource or to link to it in another resource representation. Representation: Resources are decoupled from their representations. A URI uniquely identifies a resource on the server, but the client interacts with the server using representations of resources. In a REST architecture, the representations are described by mime types. Hyperlinking: Representations of resources must express links between resources using hypermedia links. In a REST architecture, the URIs of resources are used as hyperlinks. RESTful systems have these characteristics: Each resource is published as a static URI, with an ID CRUD operations (Create, Read, Update, Delete) on resources are supported using the standard HTTP commands (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) Multiple representations (or encodings) of resources are supported, often by using a URI extension pattern Resources are linked using their URIs HTTP headers are used to perform content type negotiation In the scope of the ERDAS APOLLO catalog, a REST interface has been developed using the restlet framework (restlet.org). This REST approach enables the catalog to be easily accessible from web-based clients such as browsers. REST Examples for APOLLO The following examples illustrate how these REST concepts apply to ERDAS APOLLO: Issuing a GET request on items will return a list of all the items in the catalog: Issuing a GET request on services will return a list of all the services in the catalog: 24

25 A single item with id 'abc' can be accessed directly at its URL: Alternate encodings can be obtained by appending the desired extension. For example, a GET request of services.json will return a JSON encoded list of all the services in the catalog: REST URLs can be augmented with filtering parameters. The following request filters the result based on keyword and bounding box and also limits the number of returned results: 90)&maxresults=50 A new service can be published by issuing a POST request of its URL to: Specifics of all these examples will be explained in the following sections. ERDAS APOLLO REST Endpoints The REST interface base URL of the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog is: where <server_name> is replaced by the name of the ERDAS APOLLO Server. Every request sent through this interface will start with this pattern. The following endpoints are available off the base URL: Endpoint /items /aggregates /datasets /datasets/generic /datasets/images /datasets/pointclouds /datasets/vectors Description Query all catalog items Query only aggregates of datasets Query only datasets (image, point cloud, vector or document) Query only business documents Query only image datasets Query only point cloud datasets Query only vector datasets 25

26 Endpoint /services /services/wcs /services/wcs/resources /services/wfs /services/wfs/resources /services/wms /services/wms/resources /processes Description Query only data services (WCS, WFS or WMS) Query only Web Coverage Services (WCS) Query only layers contained in Web Coverage Services (WCS) Query only Web Feature Services (WFS) Query only layers contained in Web Feature Services (WFS) Query only Web Map Services (WMS) Query only layers contained in Web Map Services (WMS) Query only Web Processing Services (WPS) Issuing a HTTP GET request to any of those URLs will return a list of corresponding objects, with no filtering applied, with default paging settings, and where the encoding is chosen as explained in the Result Encodings (see "Result Representations/Encodings" on page 30) section below. It must be noted that the first endpoint (/items) is the main endpoint to retrieve any catalog object. Other endpoints are convenient ways to subset the result set by object types. Also, some specific operations described further are available only on specific endpoints. For example, publishing a service can only be done by POSTing to a /service endpoint. Topics Querying and Filtering Result Representations/Encodings JSON Model Querying and Filtering Accessing a Single Object Any of the ERDAS APOLLO REST endpoints can be appended with the id of an object, thereby providing a way to obtain a single object. For example a specific service can be accessed by referencing: id>, where <service_id> is replaced by the actual ID of the service. Similarly a specific image can be accessed by referencing: 26

27 mage_id>, where <image_id> is replaced by the actual ID of the image. Since the item endpoint gives access to all the object types, it is common to use that endpoint to reference any single object. As such, the service and image in the examples above would typically be accessed by using the following URLs: id> > REST Query Parameters In addition to querying for specific IDs, the ERDAS APOLLO REST endpoints support various other querying parameters. These parameters allow for filtering, ordering and paging of results. Some parameters are only available for specific object types. Parameter Name Value Type Supported By Description keywords space separated set of string keywords defaults to none All object types Performs a search in the catalog and t the given keywords against the name, the catalog items. orderby name of an object attribute defaults to none All object types Return the results ordered according to attribute name. The attribute must be a for the object type being queried. Use asc for ascending and desc for start integer defaults to 0 All object types Paging parameter - specifies the start objects to return. maxresults integer defaults to 10 All object types Paging parameter - specifies the maxim of results to return. intersect a WKT-encoded geometry defaults to none FeatureType, MapLayer, OgcCoverage Performs filtering using a spatial inters inurl part of a domain name OGCWebService, WebCoverageService, WebFeatureService, WebMapServeric, Performs filtering on the content of the resource URL, if any. 27

28 Parameter Name Value Type Supported By Description FeatureType, MapLayer, OgcCoverage Examples: roads egistrationdate asc maxresults=50 Use an ampersand, &, to separate multiple query parameters. =BBOX( ,180 90) m Advanced Querying in JSON Complex queries can be submitted to the service on a dedicated search.json endpoint. Those queries are expressed in JSON, and must be sent using HTTP POST on the /content/catalog/search.json endpoint. 28

29 Examples of such queries can be found on the JSON Test page. OpenSearch The OpenSearch specification defines a description language to describe web search engines. The OpenSearch Geo extension defines an extra set of spatial filtering parameters. Offering an OpenSearch description identifies a web service as being a web search engine; OpenSearch clients such as today's browsers recognize it and can add that service in their list of search engines. The ERDAS Apollo Catalog offers such an OpenSearch Geo description. It is published in the head section of any HTML page of the catalog. 29

30 Result Representations/Encodings Representation formats are identified with mime types. When querying, the format of a resource is determined using HTTP content negotiation represented by the HTTP Accept header. Any HTTP client can use that header to specify a set of accepted mime types. The server will then choose the best available mime type, produce that representation and set the Content-Type response header to specify what mime type was chosen for the representation. For instance, a typical web browser may issue GET requests like this: GET HTTP/1.1 Accept: text/html,application/xml Such a request means that the client prefers text/html, but can also accept application/xml. The content negotiation can be overridden by appending a format extension to the URI. For example, the following resource: will return an HTML representation by default, but its JSON representation can be retrieved by using: ERDAS APOLLO supports the following representations/encodings: Encoding URL Extension Description HTML.html Using this encoding, results are encoded using an HTML template defined on the server, ready to be displayed in a standard HTML browser. It must be noted that the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog Web client is actually the HTML encoding of the REST interface. Plain Text.txt This encoding is more of a debugging feature, to get a quick and simple display of the results. In particular, this encoding can be useful to output the URLs of the service currently stored in the catalog, for a quick backup or transfer, using a URL like: ervices.txt JSON.json This encoding returns the set of results encoded in JSON, and ready to be interpreted in a JavaScript environment. This is especially useful to build lightweight JavaScript applications that can run in a browser and can access the catalog data without the need for a server-side middle-tier. JSON types are named after their Java counterparts, using qualified 30

31 Encoding URL Extension Description class names such as com.erdas.rsp.babel.model.catalogitem. See JSON Model (on page 31) for more details. GeoRSS.atom Using this encoding, the results will be returned as a RSS feed, following the GeoRSS specification that defines ways to add location tags to RSS entries. This can be useful to be notified of the latest services harvested, by subscribing to the following feed: tems.georss?orderby=registrationdate&maxresults=50 KML.kml The KML encoding returns the set results encoded using OGC KML encoding, following the ML 2.2 specification. Results are encoded using their spatial extent when available; furthermore, if results are MapLayers, the KML document will contain special overlays that allow you to display the original data from the service directly in a KML browser (like Google Earth). Any REST query can be retrieved in any of the encodings. The encoding is specified by adding the corresponding extension to the URL, before the query parameters. For example, the following is a request for all services containing the keyword hydro, returned in a JSON representation: rds=hydro If no encoding is specified, the server checks the HTTP headers for preferred encodings, and decides what is the best encoding to choose. Typically, browsers send HTTP GET requests with HTML/XHTML as preferred encodings. Therefore omitting the encoding will usually result in an HTML encoded response. JSON Model The JSON model is exposed as a set of resources, under the REST path /content/catalog/mappings, using this URL pattern: name> As a consequence the description of the JSON model can be browsed in the catalog web interface. For example you can display a representation of the CatalogItem with the following URL: 31

32 The entire model can be browsed either by browsing through the HTML representation, or by double clicking a subnode of the "Catalog Objects" tree in the Advanced Search (on page 20) panel. JSON Reflection The JSON object model is also available, encoded in JSON, by appending the.json extension, thereby allowing reflection. For example, you can display the full JSON encoding for OgcWebService with the following URL: Profiles Profiles allow you to request views that contain only a subset of the data. Using profiles is a means of optimization and performance tuning. You can select a profile by including the profile specification at the end of your JSON request: name>/cadworx_plant The set of available profiles is displayed at the top right of the JSON model description page of any resource type: Clicking on a profile will bring the description of the model subset retrieved by that profile. 32

33 Publishing External Content Select the the Publish link on the Catalog Web Interface to register external service providers and geospatial processes in the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog. To publish an external service in the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog: 1. Select a resource type in the Select Resource Type drop-down box. The options are: W*S WFS WMS WCS WPS If you know the type of service that you want to publish, select it as the resource type. If you are not sure of the service type, select W*S and ERDAS APOLLO will try to determine the service type by issuing a GetCapabilities request to the URL. 2. Key in the URL of the service that you want to publish. 3. Click the Publish button (to the right of the URL field). The current user is considered the owner of data published this way. This means that only this user or users granted the admin role will be allowed to delete or reharvest the service. 33

34 Testing the CSW Endpoint Select the CSW link on the Catalog Web Interface to submit Catalog Service Web (CSW) requests. This page uses ERDAS APOLLO's implementation of the CSW-ebRIM profile for searching your ERDAS APOLLO catalog and delivering metadata describing catalog holdings. The left panel contains the CSW-ebRIM request and the right panel contains the response to the posted request. 34

35 Select one of the Sample CSW requests to populate the request in the left panel. You can submit the sample request as it is written or you can modify it in the left panel. Select Post request. The request will be sent to the server, and the response from the server will be displayed in the right panel. In the upper right of the page, a panel indicates the status of the CSW endpoint. The panel also contains buttons that allow you to Restart the CSW service, issue a GetCapabilities request or Refresh the service by flushing its cache. Note that the CSW endpoint will start automatically on demand; this status and button are for debug purposes only, to force a restart and a cache flush of the CSW stack. You may need to refresh the entire page to force the CSW Status field to update from Not Started to Running. Administration Options Select the Admin link on the Catalog Web Interface to access database administration utilities for the ERDAS APOLLO catalog. The Welcome panel at the top of the page identifies your login as well as all of the roles your login has been granted. Re-index keywords: This command regenerates the keyword index of the Apache Lucene Core used by the ERDAS APOLLO catalog. You may need to do this if you move your ERDAS APOLLO catalog database to a new server. Apache Lucene is an open source library that provides high performance full-featured text search. 35

36 Flush 2nd level cache: ERDAS APOLLO uses Hibernate to facilitate persisting data to the ERDAS APOLLO catalog. The Hibernate 2nd level cache improves data access performance by caching data so that repeated requests for the same data do not necessitate repeated database accesses. This command allows you to flush this cache. Using this command is only necessary in the rare instance when a process other than the ERDAS APOLLO server modifies the contents of the ERDAS APOLLO catalog database. Visit to learn more about Hibernate ORM. Manage DB schemas: This command opens a page that lists the currently installed database schema(s) and their version(s). If the current database schema is not in sync with the ERDAS APOLLO software version, this page allows you to run the upgrade process. 36

37 S E C T I O N 3 Delivering Data ERDAS APOLLO facilitates delivering your data to web clients in multiple ways. Image Delivery via OGC Compliant Services Web Map Service (WMS) Deliver portrayed GIS-ready and web-client-consumable styled map data to any OGC WMS client application such as ERDAS IMAGINE, GeoMedia, Geospatial Portal, AutoCAD, ArcGIS, Google Earth, or other custom applications. Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) Deliver portrayed GIS-ready and web-client-consumable tiles to any OGC WMTS client application; easily create mashups with OpenLayers and Google Maps. Web Coverage Service (WCS) Deliver raw pixel data of any supported imagery format and type to OGC imagery exploitation clients as an interoperable coverage. Image Delivery via Streaming Protocols ECWP Deliver ECW and JP2 wavelet-compressed imagery through ECWP protocol (ecwp://) to ECWP clients such as Geospatial Portal, ERDAS IMAGINE, AutoCAD or ArcGIS. JPIP Deliver JP2 wavelet-compressed imagery through the JPIP protocol (jpip://) to JPIP-compliant clients. Vector/Feature Delivery via OGC Compliant Services Web Feature Service (WFS/WFS-T) Deliver portrayed GIS-ready and web-client-consumable vectors/features to any OGC WFS client application. Publish, insert, delete and update vector data geometry and attributes using a Transactional Web Feature Service (WFS-T). The following sections describe how you can publish and deliver your catalog holdings. In This Section Delivering Map Images with a Web Map Service (WMS) Delivering Image Data with a Web Coverage Service (WCS) Delivering Image and Point Cloud Data with Streaming Services. 46 Delivering Vectors/Features with a Web Feature Service (WFS). 48 OGC Compliant HTTP Request Samples

38 Delivering Map Images with a Web Map Service (WMS) The Web Map Service (WMS) is an interface standard defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The OGC defines it this way: The OpenGIS Web Map Service Interface Standard (WMS) provides a simple HTTP interface for requesting geo-registered map images from one or more distributed geospatial databases. A WMS request defines the geographic layer(s) and area of interest to be processed. The response to the request is one or more geo-registered map images (returned as JPEG, PNG, etc) that can be displayed in a browser application. The interface also supports the ability to specify whether the returned images should be transparent so that layers from multiple servers can be combined or not. Visit to learn more about the OGC. Visit to learn more about the WMS standard. ERDAS APOLLO supports two versions of the OGC-WMS standard: WMS 1.1.1, and WMS (also approved as ISO 19128). Each has a different syntax. Complete documentation for both standards can be found on the OGC website: Web Map Service Implementation Specification, Version Open GIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification, Version Topics Web Map Service Requests GetLegendGraphic Request WMS HTTP POST Requests WSDL and WMS HTTP SOAP Requests Web Map Service Requests Both supported versions of the WMS standard (1.1.1 and 1.3.0) define the same three operations (or requests): GetCapabilities, GetMap and GetFeatureInfo. The following descriptions for each of these operations are taken from the version of the Open GIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification. Detailed documentation of these operations is beyond the scope of this document. The most accurate and up-to-date documentation for using OGC services can always be found on the OGC website and in the standard documents referenced above. 38

39 GetCapabilities The purpose of the mandatory GetCapabilities operation is to obtain service metadata, which is a machine readable (and human-readable) description of the server s information content and acceptable request parameter values. See sections 7.1 Web Map Service Implementation Specification, Version or section 7.2 Open GIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification, Version for details on calling GetCapabilities. GetMap The GetMap operation returns a map. See sections 7.2 Web Map Service Implementation Specification, Version or section 7.3 Open GIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification, Version for details on calling GetMap. GetFeatureInfo The GetFeatureInfo operation provides clients of a WMS with more information about features in the pictures of maps that were returned by previous Map requests. See sections 7.3 Web Map Service Implementation Specification, Version or section 7.4Open GIS Web Map Server Implementation Specification, Version for details on calling GetFeatureInfo. GetLegendGraphic Request The GetLegendGraphic request is described as part of the OGC-SLD 1.1 standard (05-078r3 - SLD Profile of WMS). Styled Layer Descriptor profile of the Web Map Service Implementation Specification The following description is from the document: GetLegendGraphic: The GetLegendGraphic operation itself is optional for an SLD-enabled WMS. It provides a general mechanism for acquiring legend symbols, beyond the LegendURL reference of WMS Capabilities. See sections 10.2 in the Styled Layer Descriptor profile of the Web Map Service Implementation Specification for details on calling GetLegendGraphic. WMS HTTP POST Requests The ERDAS APOLLO WMS services support HTTP requests using HTTP-GET and HTTP-POST. An OGC project document (Ref: r1 - Web Map Service Implementation Specification - Part 2: XML for Requests Using HTTP POST) describes the structure and encoding for WMS POST requests. 39

40 Web Map Service Implementation Specification -- Part 2: XML for Requests using HTTP POST The greatest benefit of HTTP-POST versus HTTP GET is realized in the GetMap operation, where the comma-separated list of layer names in HTTP GET can be replaced by a sequence of XML elements, each of which is either a named layer or a user-defined layer, and directly associates style and filter information within each layer. The GetFeatureInfo operation, which includes most of a GetMap request, benefits the user in a similar way. The OGC document presents the XML schema for the GetCapabilities, GetMap and GetFeatureInfo requests. The OGC proposal references an optional <Section> element to include in the GetCapabilities request to retrieve only one of the sections of a complete Capabilities XML document. The ERDAS APOLLO implementation does not support this feature. It always returns the entire Capabilities document. WSDL and WMS HTTP SOAP Requests A Web Service Description Language (WSDL) document provides a formalized description of the services and facilitates recording of the service(s) in a UDDI registry, such as a Systinet Registry. Once registered, the service can be invoked using the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). ERDAS APOLLO supports one of the OGC candidate WSDL solutions, by using a request=getwsdl request type. The syntax is similar to a classical HTTP-GET GetCapabilities request, except that the request name is "getwsdl" and an optional "SoapOnly" parameter is allowed. Note that the "Service" parameter will determine the nature of the output WSDL, as each service type (WMS, WFS, WCS) has a different WSDL description. The following is an example of a GetWSDL request: Delivering Image Data with a Web Coverage Service (WCS) The Web Coverage Service (WCS) is an interface standard defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The OGC defines it this way: The Web Coverage Service (WCS) supports electronic interchange of geospatial data as "coverages" that is, digital geospatial information representing space-varying phenomena. Examples of coverages are satellite imagery, digital elevation models, and triangulated integrated networks (TINs). A WCS provides access to potentially detailed and rich sets of geospatial information, in forms that are useful for client-side rendering, multi-valued coverages, and input into scientific models and other clients. Visit to learn more about the OGC. 40

41 Visit to learn more about the WCS standard. ERDAS APOLLO supports version of the OGC-WCS standard. Complete documentation can be found on the OGC website: Web Coverage Service (WCS), Version (Corrigendum) Topics Web Coverage Service Requests Requesting a Reference to a Coverage Georeferenced Coverages WSDL and WCS HTTP SOAP Requests Web Coverage Service Requests The WCS standard defines three operations (or requests): GetCapabilities, DescribeCoverage and GetCoverage. The following descriptions for each of these operations are taken from Web Coverage Service (WCS), Version (Corrigendum). Detailed documentation of these operations is beyond the scope of this document. The most accurate and up-to-date documentation for using OGC services can always be found on the OGC website and in the standard documents referenced above. Each of these request types can be formulated using HTTP-GET and HTTP-POST messaging. SOAP messaging is also supported. GetCapabilities Each Web Coverage Server must describe its capabilities. This clause defines an XML document structure intended to convey general information about the service itself, and summary information about the available data collections from which coverages may be requested. See section Web Coverage Service (WCS), Version (Corrigendum) for more details on calling GetCapabilities. DescribeCoverage A request to obtain a full description of one or more coverages available. The server responds to such a request with an XML document describing one or more coverages served by the WCS. See section in Web Coverage Service (WCS), Version (Corrigendum) for more details on calling DescribeCoverage. GetCoverage The GetCoverage operation allows retrieval of coverages from a coverage offering. A GetCoverage request may be encoded as key-value pairs, or as an XML document. 41

42 See section in Web Coverage Service (WCS), Version (Corrigendum) for more details on calling GetCoverage. Requesting a Reference to a Coverage Typically, a GetCoverage operation returns a coverage (values or properties of a set of geographic locations) bundled in a well-known coverage format. In other words, the GetCoverage operation returns data, not images. (Refer to Coverage Portrayal Service (see "Coverage Portrayal Service (CPS)" on page 70) for details on how to obtain an image from a coverage using a CPS.) You can also choose to store the coverage data on the server and request a reference to the coverage by using the STORE=TRUE option in the request. When the STORE=TRUE option is used, the output is an XML document referencing the coverage in a <CoverageData> tag. That document will look like the following: GetCoverage Output When STORE=TRUE <Coverage version="1.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/xmlschema-instance" xsi:schemalocation="http://www.opengis.net/wcs /LPR/CoverageType.xsd" xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/wcs" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"> <description>stored coverage result</description> <name>mod09ghk.eastcoast_1_grid_l2g_2d_tif</name> <CoverageRegion> <description>coverage region of stored GetCoverage result</description> <name>mod09ghk.eastcoast_1_grid_l2g_2d_tif</name> <domainsubset> <spatialsubset> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:envelope> <gml:rectifiedgrid dimension="2" srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:limits> <gml:gridenvelope> <gml:low>0 0</gml:low> <gml:high> </gml:high> </gml:gridenvelope> 42

43 </gml:limits> <gml:axisname>x</gml:axisname> <gml:axisname>y</gml:axisname> <gml:origin srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:origin> <gml:offsetvector> </gml:offsetVector> <gml:offsetvector> </gml:offsetvector> </gml:rectifiedgrid> </spatialsubset> </domainsubset> <rangesubset> <axissubset name="band"> <singlevalue>band1</singlevalue> </axissubset> </rangesubset> <CoverageData xlink:href="http://localhost:80/erdas-apollo/coverage/atlanta_list/requ EST/gettemp/DATA/LPR/TO4G1X303 4.tif" xlink:type="simple"> <format>geotiff</format> </CoverageData> </CoverageRegion> </Coverage> Georeferenced Coverages Coverage files are usually georeferenced and provide the bounds and a spatial reference system identifier for the coverage files. For example, a GeoTIFF file has a binary header which describes the data bounding box and reference system. This information is available in the DescribeCoverage documents. DescribeCoverage Document Subsets <spatialdomain> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:26910"> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:envelope> </spatialdomain>... <supportedcrss> <requestresponsecrss>epsg:26910</requestresponsecrss> <requestresponsecrss>epsg:4326</requestresponsecrss> <nativecrss>epsg:26910</nativecrss> </supportedcrss> The spatialdomain element describes the georeferencing of the coverage data, and the nativecrss element describes its native reference system. The requestresponsecrss 43

44 defines the reference system identifiers that can be used in a GetCoverage request (CRS parameter) and the ones in which the result can be reprojected (RESPONSE_CRS). Only a few request/response reference systems are described in the DescribeCoverage documents, but ERDAS APOLLO WCS can provide coordinate transforms from and to each reference system of its database. The following vendor-specific element in the GetCapabilities document expresses this Coordinate Transform/Reprojection ability: GetCapabilities Document Subset <VendorSpecificCapabilities> <supportdatasrs/> </VendorSpecificCapabilities> If only the bounds are provided in the source coverage file, it is possible to define the native reference system of the data using the 'srs' parameter in the providers.fac file entry. Logical Space Grid Coverage data can be queried in its logical space. A description of that logical space is provided in the following DescribeCoverage document: DescribeCoverage Document Subsets, Georeferenced Grid <spatialdomain> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:26910"> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:envelope> <gml:rectifiedgrid dimension="2" srsname="epsg:26910"> <gml:limits> <gml:gridenvelope> <gml:low>0 0</gml:low> <gml:high> </gml:high> </gml:gridenvelope> </gml:limits> <gml:axisname>x</gml:axisname> <gml:axisname>y</gml:axisname> <gml:origin srsname="epsg:26910"> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:origin> <gml:offsetvector>10.0 0</gml:offsetVector> <gml:offsetvector>0-10.0</gml:offsetvector> </gml:rectifiedgrid> </spatialdomain>... <supportedcrss> <requestresponsecrss>epsg:26910</requestresponsecrss> <requestresponsecrss>epsg:4326</requestresponsecrss> <requestresponsecrss>image</requestresponsecrss> 44

45 <nativecrss>epsg:26910</nativecrss> </supportedcrss> The RectifiedGrid element describes the logical space of the coverage data and the 'Image' value in the requestresponsecrss element means that the data can be queried in its logical space. The following is a valid GetCoverage request expressed in the logical space described above: HTTP-GET Example of a GetCoverage in Grid's Logical Space request=getcoverage &SERVICE=WCS &VERSION=1.0.0 &COVERAGE=TIF &CRS=IMAGE &Fields=ImageData4 &BBOX=0,0,7263,7272 &WIDTH=726 &HEIGHT=727 &FORMAT=GeoTIFF &INTERPOLATION=nearest neighbor If a coverage file does not provide a bounding box or a reference system, it still can be served. The data will be exposed in its logical space and can only be requested in that logical space. DescribeCoverage Document Subsets, Non-Georeferenced Grid <spatialdomain> <gml:envelope srsname="image"> <gml:pos>0 0</gml:pos> <gml:pos> </gml:pos> </gml:envelope> <gml:grid dimension="2" srsname="image"> <gml:limits> <gml:gridenvelope> <gml:low>0 0</gml:low> <gml:high> </gml:high> </gml:gridenvelope> </gml:limits> <gml:axisname>x</gml:axisname> <gml:axisname>y</gml:axisname> </gml:grid> </spatialdomain>... <supportedcrss> <requestresponsecrss>image</requestresponsecrss> <nativecrss>image</nativecrss> </supportedcrss> 45

46 WSDL and WCS HTTP SOAP Requests A Web Service Description Language (WSDL) document provides a formalized description of the services and facilitates recording of the service(s) in a UDDI registry, such as a Systinet Registry. Once registered, the service can be invoked using the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). ERDAS APOLLO supports one of the OGC candidate WSDL solutions, by using a request=getwsdl request type. The syntax is similar to a classical HTTP-GET GetCapabilities request, except that the request name is "getwsdl" and an optional "SoapOnly" parameter is allowed. Note that the "Service" parameter will determine the nature of the output WSDL, as each service type (WMS, WFS, WCS) has a different WSDL description. The following is an example of a GetWSDL request: &service=wcs&request=getwsdl&soaponly=true Delivering Image and Point Cloud Data with Streaming Services ERDAS APOLLO is able to stream some image and point cloud data using wavelet-based image compression. Enhanced Wavelet Compressed (ECW) files can be streamed using the Enhanced Wavelet Compression Protocol (ECWP) and JPEG 2000 files can be streamed using the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP). ERDAS APOLLO provides the following web page that you can use to test streaming of image data: The page allows you to test streaming of both ECW and JPEG 2000 imagery. The ECW JPEG 2000 Plugin for internet browsers must be installed on your client machine to enable ECWP or JPIP streaming. To install the plug-ins: 1. Go the server home page: name]/erdas-apollo 2. Click the link inside the ECWP Plugin box on the top right of the page. 3. The File Download dialog box opens. Click Run to install the plugins. 4. Go to the Streaming Test Page: name]/erdas-iws/samples/simpleexamplenative.htm Consult the ERDAS APOLLO Essentials User Guide for more details on streaming ECW and JPEG 2000 imagery with ERDAS APOLLO. 46

47 ECWP Streaming Any ECW image in the ERDAS APOLLO catalog can be streamed. The ECWP stream of the ECW dataset can be accessed as follows: ecwp://[server name]/apollo-catalog/[aggregate name]/[child aggregate name]/[dataset name].ecw For example, if your ERDAS APOLLO Server is apollo.mycompany.com and you have added an ECW image named world.ecw to an aggregate named MyImages, you would access it on the Streaming Test Page by entering the following in the field next to the Open File button: ecwp://apollo.mycompany.com/apollo-catalog/myimages/world.ecw JPIP Streaming Similar to ECW, any JPEG 2000 image in the ERDAS APOLLO catalog can be streamed. The JPIP stream of the JPEG 2000 dataset can be accessed as follows: jpip://[server name]/apollo-catalog/[aggregate name]/[child aggregate name]/[dataset name].jp2 For example, if your ERDAS APOLLO Server is apollo.mycompany.com and you have added a JPEG 2000 image named world.jp2 to an aggregate named MyImages, you would access it on the Streaming Test Page by entering the following in the field next to the Open File button: jpip://apollo.mycompany.com/apollo-catalog/myimages/world.jp2 Accessing Secure Resources You can stream secure resources that require a user name and password by appending the user name and password of the account to the URL. Use the pipe character ( ) as a delimiter as follows: or ecwp://[server name]/apollo-catalog/[aggregate name]/[child aggregate name]/[dataset name].ecw [user name] [password] jpip://[server name]/apollo-catalog/[aggregate name]/[child aggregate name]/[dataset name].jp2 [user name] [password] For example, you would use the following URL to access the image world.jp2 with the user name manager and the password JFKE8uek3 on the apollo.mycompany.com server: jpip://apollo.mycompany.com/apollo-catalog/myimages/world.jp2 manage r JFKE8uek3 47

48 Delivering Vectors/Features with a Web Feature Service (WFS) The Web Feature Service (WFS) is an interface standard defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The OGC defines it this way: The OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) allows a client to retrieve and update geospatial data encoded in Geography Markup Language (GML) from multiple Web Feature Services. The WFS operations support INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, LOCK, QUERY and DISCOVERY operations on geographic features using HTTP as the distributed computing platform. Visit to learn more about the OGC. Visit to learn more about the WFS standard. ERDAS APOLLO supports version of the OGC-WFS standard: Web Feature Service Implementation Specification Topics Web Feature Service Requests WSDL and WFS SOAP Requests Web Feature Service Requests ERDAS APOLLO implements these five operations (or requests) of the WFS standard: GetCapabilities, DescribeFeatureType, GetFeature, Transaction, and LockFeature. The following descriptions for each of these operations are taken from Web Feature Service Implementation Specification. Detailed documentation of these operations is beyond the scope of this document. The most accurate and up-to-date documentation for using OGC services can always be found on the OGC website and in the standard document referenced above. Each of these request types can be formulated using HTTP-GET and HTTP-POST messaging. SOAP messaging is also supported. GetCapabilities The GetCapabilities operation returns an XML document that describes the service and its capabilities. Specifically, it must indicate which feature types it can service and what operations are supported on each feature type. 48

49 See section 13 in Web Feature Service Implementation Specification and section 7 in OWS Common Implementation Specification for more details on calling GetCapabilities. The ERDAS APOLLO WFS service endpoint is configured to be exclusively for WFS requests, therefore the Service parameter is optional and will always default to "WFS". Although the AcceptFormats parameter is acceptable as part of the GetCapabilities request, ERDAS APOLLO WFS only outputs its capabilities in XML. DescribeFeatureType The DescribeFeatureType operation describes the structure and schema of any feature type serviced by the WFS. See section 8 in Web Feature Service Implementation Specification for more details on calling DescribeFeatureType. GetFeature The GetFeature operation provides the ability to retrieve feature instances. In addition, it provides the ability to specify which feature properties to fetch and how to constrain the query spatially and non-spatially. See section 9 in Web Feature Service Implementation Specification for more details on calling GetFeature. Transaction The Transaction operation is used to describe data transformation operations (insert, update and delete) that are to be applied to web accessible feature instances. When the transaction has been completed, a web feature service will generate an XML response document indicating the completion status of the transaction. If the ERDAS APOLLO WFS is configured to support editing and modification, it is considered to be transactional (WFS-T). It will support "Transaction" operations such as Insert, Update, Delete and possibly LockFeature. Even though the WFS-T request supports three operations (Insert, Update, Delete), it only allows the Delete operation for HTTP-GET. Transactional Insert and Update operations, in practice, would be very lengthy expressions and therefore not suitable for an HTTP-GET request. See section 12 in Web Feature Service Implementation Specification for more details on calling Transaction. 49

50 LockFeature The LockFeature operation allows the service to process a lock request on one or more instances of a feature type for the duration of a transaction. This ensures that serializable transactions are supported. See section 11 in Web Feature Service Implementation Specification for more details on calling LockFeature. Other WFS Request Types The WFS GetGmlObject and GetFeatureWithLock operations are defined in the WFS specification but are not supported by the ERDAS APOLLO WFS service implementation. WSDL and WFS SOAP Requests A Web Service Description Language (WSDL) document provides a formalized description of the services and facilitates recording of the service(s) in a UDDI registry, such as a Systinet Registry. Once registered, the service can be invoked using the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). ERDAS APOLLO supports one of the OGC candidate WSDL solutions, by using a request=getwsdl request type. The syntax is similar to a classical HTTP-GET GetCapabilities request, except that the request name is "getwsdl" and an optional "SoapOnly" parameter is allowed. Note that the "Service" parameter will determine the nature of the output WSDL, as each service type (WMS, WFS, WCS) has a different WSDL description. The following is an example of a GetWSDL request: &service=wfs&request=getwsdl&soaponly=true OGC Compliant HTTP Request Samples ERDAS APOLLO includes a set of sample data and sample OGC services. You can access these sample OGC services by visiting the OGC Compliant HTTP Request Samples page: Another easy way to access the OGC Compliant HTTP Request Samples is to select the OGC compliant HTTP request samples link on the ERDAS APOLLO Welcome Page: The links provided in the table invoke predefined WMS, WFS and WCS requests for specific demo data. You can invoke these requests immediately when your ERDAS APOLLO Server is running and configured properly. 50

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53 S E C T I O N 4 Portraying and Styling Data Portrayal is the use of rules to display and convert data such as GML, coverages, JDBC result sets or COM objects into an image or formatted text document. For Web Application developers using OGC interfaces, data is accessed through a WFS or WCS. The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine transforms a collection of features or coverages into the required output format. Output formats can be vector format (SVG), image formats (GIF, JPEG, PNG, WBMP and, GeoTIFF) or even textual formats (text, HTML, XML and, PDF). The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine uses server-side rules to portray information. These rules can be expressed in several languages: Property, SLD and Java. ERDAS APOLLO includes the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor (on page 85) which provides the ability to style data using ERDAS APOLLO predefined rules. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor can be used to portray data using these predefined styles and rules or using custom designed ones. Custom rules can be written using the Portrayal API. Portrayal rules and styles are two distinct concepts. Each entity provides a different level of service but both are needed to portray data. Rules are pieces of program code that provide a specific way to portray data using a classification scheme, such as classes representing a numeric attribute. Styles are text files that contain parameters defining how to portray a dataset. For example, a Style may define which field the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine will classify and what fill color and stroke width to use. Rules - Portrayal Logic Rules define the behavior to be used when portraying any kind of compatible feature or coverage collection. They are written once and used as many times as requested on as many different data sets as required. A rule resides in a Java class written using the ERDAS APOLLO API and is dedicated to render a defined kind of data, feature and coverage collections. A rule may also use a property or SLD file which is called a style. The Java code may be either generic to allow the rule to be used with as many feature or coverage types as possible or written to portray a specific feature or coverage collection in a more efficient way. ERDAS APOLLO provides a set of generic rules to be used with any kind of feature. Developing new portrayal rules requires advanced Java knowledge. The ERDAS APOLLO predefined rules have been extensively tested and optimized to provide open and powerful portraying of any feature collection. Rules also support advanced logic such as generalization, classification, and new feature creation to render an updated feature collection. Styles - Look and Feel Styles are collections of parameters that are used by a rule to render a specific set of data in a predefined way. They are different for each set of data and are only used by the specified data set. A style defines a set of parameters to portray data using a selected rule and the properties for use in labeling and classifying and in determining the geometry to render, the colors for fill, the 53

54 stroke to use and/or the image band to display. Styles are tied to the data being styled as well as to the rule it uses. Styles do not include any kind of logic and do not affect performance. These issues are addressed during the rules development process. The styling process only focuses on portraying the data. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor (on page 85) simplifies the process of building styles. It allows you to define, preview and deploy styles. In This Section Style Templates Creating Styles Deploying Styles Displaying Statistics in a Map Producing KML Limitations Coverage Portrayal Service (CPS) ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Style Templates The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is a Java-based GUI tool that can be used to create, edit, preview and deploy styles. It contains a range of styling functionality that allows the user to style data quickly and easily. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is tightly bound to the prebuilt style templates. Style Templates Description To facilitate the styling of data, ERDAS APOLLO includes a set of prebuilt rules referred to as Style Templates. The style templates provided with the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor may fulfill most rendering requirements, including classification and generalization. The style templates available in ERDAS APOLLO include the following: Uniform: This template applies a simple style to every feature. The stroke, fill and symbol can be configured for the entire feature collection and any property of the feature can be used for labeling. Known Symbol: This template applies a fast-to-render marker from a fixed, predefined set to the centroid of each feature. A property of the feature can be used for labeling. Uniform Roads: This is a style template dedicated to the display and portrayal of various types of roads. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor allows custom configuration of the outline, fill color, and center line to line or polyline geometry. Roads can be labeled with any property of the feature. Range Classification: This style is used to classify numeric data, ranked data (to show a progression of values), or to represent percentages. 54

55 Discrete Classification: This style template should be used to symbolize categorical data. Data values where the symbol for one value is no more or less prominent than the symbols for another value. It also handles lines and polygons stroke and fill color variations as well as line/outline width. Range Road Classification: A style is attached to a range of values of a property for the classification of nondiscrete data. Values must be numeric. Discrete Road Classification: This style template is used to render roads with a discrete classification that affects outline and centerline colors. HTML Report Fragment: This style template allows the rendering of a feature collection into an HTML fragment. A subtitle can be added that will appear in the output for this feature type. Variable Markers: This style template marks features with scaled and optionally rotated symbols. The size and orientation are determined using one of the properties of the feature. Patterner: This styling rule fills polygons with patterned backgrounds. Feature Numberer: This styling rule marks the features that are the nearest from the map center with sequential numbers. Symbol Roller: This styling rule renders linear geometries by stamping a list of symbols along the curve in a cyclic manner. Coverage Style: This is the only template applying to coverages. It permits choosing the channels, the colormap and the contrast operation. Creating Styles Two styling languages are available in ERDAS APOLLO, Property and OGC Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD). ERDAS APOLLO Solution Toolkit allows users to plug custom styling rules into the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine and/or create their own styling mechanisms. Topics Creating Styles with Properties Creating Styles with SLD

56 Creating Styles with Properties The "Property" language is a simple, key/value-based styling language that defines both the rule to load in the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine and the parameters to apply during the portrayal of the feature collection. Styles based on the Property language are typically created and modified using ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Since the set of available properties depends on the rule chosen, ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor offers a user-friendly, self-documenting way of setting the corresponding values. This language cannot be used to create styles that apply to coverages. That is handled by the SLD language. Creating Styles with SLD The OGC Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) is a powerful XML-based styling language. While the complete SLD mechanism is intended for WMS requests, the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine contained in this product is able to style specific feature types and coverages using a subset of the SLD tags. Visit to learn more about Styled Layer Descriptors. Supported SLD Tags The following list is a reference for style developers. Depending on whether the SLD document is provided in a GetMap request to a vector data server (ERDAS APOLLO vector servlet), an SLD Portray provider addressing a WFS, an SLD Portray provider addressing a WCS (also named a Coverage Portrayal service), or a Coverage Server, this list of supported SLD tags varies. Notation VP: Tags supported in the vector providers PP: Tags supported in the SLD Portray provider on top of a WFS CP: Tags supported by the SLD Portray provider on top of a WCS or in a Web Coverage Server ignored: The element does not produce an error and thus, has no apparent behavior. SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider NamedLayer StyledLayerDescriptor VP 56

57 SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider UserLayer StyledLayerDescriptor PP Name, Title, Abstract StyledLayerDescriptor StyledLayerDescriptor defaults to "1.0.0" Name NamedLayer VP LayerFeatureConstraints NamedLayer ignored NamedStyle NamedLayer VP UserStyle NamedLayer VP Name NamedStyle VP,PP Name UserLayer PP,CP RemoteOWS UserLayer PP,CP LayerFeatureConstraints UserLayer PP LayerCoverageConstraints UserLayer CP UserStyle UserLayer PP,CP Service RemoteOWS "WFS" or "WCS" OnlineResource RemoteOWS PP - "&" must be written "&" (i.e. xml encoding) FeatureTypeConstraint LayerFeatureConstraints PP CoverageConstraint LayerCoverageConstraints CP FeatureTypeName FeatureTypeConstraint PP Filter FeatureTypeConstraint PP Extent FeatureTypeConstraint ignored CoverageName CoverageConstraint CP 57

58 SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider Extent CoverageConstraint CP (to be deprecated. Use CoverageExtent instead) CoverageExtent CoverageConstraint CP TimePeriod Extent/CoverageExtent CP RangeAxis Extent/CoverageExtent CP Name UserStyle ignored: mapped with the STYLES parameter of the GetMap request Title, Abstract, IsDefault UserStyle ignored FeatureTypeStyle UserStyle Rendered sequentially (last on top) CoverageStyle UserStyle CP Name, Title, Abstract FeatureTypeStyle ignored FeatureTypeName FeatureTypeStyle Useless if the UserLayer has 1! feature type SemanticTypeIdentifier FeatureTypeStyle ignored Rule FeatureTypeStyle Rendered sequentially (last on top) Rule CoverageStyle CP Name Rule VP Title, Abstract Rule ignored LegendGraphic Rule ignored Filter Rule 1.0: parameters are supported and can be expressions ElseFilter Rule VP,PP MinScaleDenominator, MaxScaleDenominator Rule

59 SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider RasterSymbolizer Rule CP *Symbolizer (except Raster) Rule VP,PP Geometry *Symbolizer VP,PP - can be omitted if only one in the feature type. Stroke LineSymbolizer VP,PP PropertyName Geometry VP,PP CssParameter Stroke VP,PP ParameterValueType CssParameter VP,PP expression ParameterValueType VP,PP Graphic GraphicFill 1.0 Fill PolygonSymbolizer VP,PP Stroke PolygonSymbolizer VP,PP GraphicFill Fill 1.0 CssParameter Fill VP,PP Graphic PointSymbolizer VP,PP ExternalGraphic Graphic 1.0 Mark Graphic VP,PP Opacity Graphic CP Size Graphic 1.0 Rotation Graphic 1.0 OnlineResource ExternalGraphic 1.0 Format ExternalGraphic

60 SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider WellKnownName Mark VP,PP Fill Mark VP,PP Stroke Mark VP,PP Label TextSymbolizer VP,PP Font TextSymbolizer VP,PP LabelPlacement TextSymbolizer VP,PP Halo TextSymbolizer ignored Fill TextSymbolizer VP,PP CssParameter Font VP,PP PointPlacement LabelPlacement at the centroid of the geometry LinePlacement LabelPlacement ignored AnchorPoint PointPlacement ignored Displacement PointPlacement VP,PP Rotation PointPlacement VP,PP DisplacementX, DisplacementY Displacement VP,PP ChannelSelection RasterSymbolizer CP ContrastEnhancement RasterSymbolizer CP ColorMap RasterSymbolizer CP ShadedRelief RasterSymbolizer CP ReliefFactor ShadedRelief CP 60

61 SLD Tag Name Parent Element Supporting version/provider RedChannel, Green, Blue, Gray SourceChannelName ChannelSelection RedChannel, Green, Blue, Gray CP CP Normalize ContrastEnhancement CP Histogram ContrastEnhancement CP ColorMapEntry ColorMap ColorMapEntry ColorMapEntry CP Notes The NamedStyle is processed as a style name. Parsing The Filter in a Rule element is ignored if it applies to a feature property that does not exist. It is important to ensure the proper handling of syntax errors in property names. Globally, the Title and Abstract tags have no effect, as they only make sense when SLD content is published by a server. Default SLD version is "1.0.0". The LAYERS parameter must be mentioned in the GetMap request to an ERDAS WMS even when the SLD tag is used. Among the layers found in the SLD, only those found in the LAYERS parameter are rendered. This restriction does not apply to the Portray Provider or to the CPS. Unknown CssParameters do not produce an error message. A CssParameter can be specified multiple times overriding the values previously set. In Text Symbolizers, text anti-aliasing is enabled by default. The SLD parsing is lenient. If the file is not a valid XML document, the parser will detect an error. If it does not conform to the SLD DTD, the parser will try to extract the most valuable information and continue processing. Sample SLD Style <StyledLayerDescriptor version="1.0.0" xmlns:ogc="http://www.opengis.net/ogc" > <NamedLayer> 61

62 <Name>ESA_FIRE</Name> <UserStyle> <Name>MyStyle></Name> <FeatureTypeStyle> <FeatureTypeName>ESA_FIRE</FeatureTypeName> <Rule> <PointSymbolizer> <Geometry> <ogc:propertyname>geometry</ogc:propertyname> </Geometry> <Graphic> <Mark> <WellKnownName>square</WellKnownName> <Fill> <CssParameter name="fill">#ffff00</cssparameter> <CssParameter name="fill-opacity">1.0</cssparameter> </Fill> <Stroke> <CssParameter name="stroke">#0000ff</cssparameter> <CssParameter name="stroke-width">2.0px</cssparameter> </Stroke> </Mark> <Size>20.0</Size> </Graphic> </PointSymbolizer> <TextSymbolizer> <Geometry> <ogc:propertyname>geometry</ogc:propertyname> </Geometry> <Label> <ogc:add> <ogc:propertyname>long</ogc:propertyname> <ogc:literal>10</ogc:literal> </ogc:add> </Label> <Font> <CssParameter name="font-family">arial</cssparameter> <CssParameter name="font-size">12.0</cssparameter> </Font> <LabelPlacement> <PointPlacement> <Displacement> <DisplacementX>0</DisplacementX> <DisplacementY>0</DisplacementY> </Displacement> </PointPlacement> </LabelPlacement> 62

63 </TextSymbolizer> </Rule> </FeatureTypeStyle> </UserStyle> </NamedLayer> </StyledLayerDescriptor> 63

64 Deploying Styles The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine locates the styles to use for portraying features or coverages in a directory hierarchy whose root is defined by the STYLE DIR keyword in the CONFIGURATION section of the providers.fac file: <CONFIGURATION>... <STYLE DIR="c:\program files\hexagon\erdas apollo\config\erdas-apollo\rendering\" /> </CONFIGURATION> For ease of manipulation, the contents of that folder hierarchy can be packaged in a Grid Archive (GAR). The styles generated by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor tool are packaged in archives that should be copied to the STYLE DIR. The default installation folder for vector and coverage styling is: <APOLLO_HOME>\config\erdas-apollo\rendering If an appropriate style is not found in that folder hierarchy, the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine will first look for one in a global library folder and then in each of the locations specified in the servlet-engine CLASSPATH variable. This cascading behavior permits the sharing of style libraries between multiple applications or providers. Provider-Specific Styles If WFS/WMS provider-specific styles are defined, an additional level of subfolders with names based on the provider name can be created under the root of the hierarchy. For example, styles specific to a provider named ATLANTA_VECTOR can be copied to the following subfolder: <APOLLO_HOME>\config\erdas-apollo\rendering\atlanta_vector If such a subfolder exists, the corresponding provider will search there first for styles corresponding to the retrieved features. This is the easiest way to ensure that no feature type name conflicts will arise between multiple providers. Provider-specific styles cannot be created for WCS/WMS. Deployment Structure Styles In each style folder, styles are searched in a path structure composed by appending the lower case collection keyword, the feature type or coverage offering name and then the style name. The style filenames are composed based on the target format (SVG for SVG and raster 64

65 formats or HTML for HTML) and the extension is based on the language (.prop for property styles or.sld for SLD fragments.) For example, consider a WMS request for the portrayal of the Buildings feature type/layer with the outline style in PNG format. If the style is defined using properties the style path and filename should be: collection\buildings\outline\svg.prop If the style is defined using SLD if will be: collection\buildings\outline\svg.sld A "default" style is used if no style is mentioned in the request. The directory name for that style must be named "defaultstyle" if it applies to features but not for coverages. For example, the "default" style for rendering the "Buildings" layer in PNG is: collection\buildings\defaultstyle\svg.prop Symbols When a style contains a reference to a symbol, the path searched is composed by appending the symbol keyword, the symbol library name and the symbol filename. The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine libraries can contain symbols in a variety of raster formats such GIF, PNG, SVG and TrueType. An example of a Property style referencing a TrueType font used as a symbol is included in the distribution and can be invoked through the ATLANTA_VECTOR WFS provider using the place_names layer with the "truetype" style. The font set is: symbol/lib/hanshand.ttf. Displaying Statistics in a Map Displaying statistics in a map provides the ability to determine exactly what types of geometry and how much geometry is portrayed in the style/rule issued to the ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine. Display statistics can be used to analyze the service performance. Issue this request to the portrayal engine to return statistical information on the amount and complexity of the geometry and shapes requested. Geometry is defined in the feature type and includes point, line, polygon, ring, multipoint, multiline, or multipolygon. OGC Simple Feature Access - Part 1: Common Architecture A shape is a geometric property defined by the Java AWT interface. A shape is described by a PathIterator object which can express the outline of the shape as well as a rule for determining how the outline divides the two-dimensional plane into interior and exterior points. Each shape object provides callbacks to do the following: Get the bounding box of the geometry 65

66 Determine whether points or rectangles lie partly or entirely within the interior of the shape Retrieve a PathIterator object that describes the trajectory path of the shape outline The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine uses the SVG concept of a group to apply the same set of common property values to a set of geometries. To display statistics use the WMS GetMap request and append the "NEEDSTAT=TRUE" option. Statistics are only obtained when requesting a raster format. SVG and GML2 output do not contain portrayal statistics. The statistics are returned as left-aligned text in the image returned by the GetMap request. Example Response to NEEDSTAT=TRUE Total Geometry:n Total Group:n Total Shape:n Geometry Types: Type Unknown(0) : n Type Point(1) : n Type Line(2) : n Type Ring(3) : n Type Polygon(4) : n Type MultiPoint(5) : n Type MultiLine(6) : n Type MultiPolygon(7) : n Total Point:n Max Point:n Mean Point:n Total Color:n World Size:f x f Pixel Size:n x n StandardScale:f Line Total Geometry Total Group Total Shape Geometry Types Description The number of graphic geometries that are portrayed Number of SVG groups returned. The total number of Java AWT shapes that are rendered Total amounts are shown for different geometry 66

67 Line Total Point: Max Point Mean Point Total Color World Size Pixel Size StandardScale Description types, numbered 0 to 7 The total number of points - including points in geometry types other than point (line, polygons, etc) The maximum number of points in a geometry The mean number of points for the geometries returned The total number of colors requested in the map (based on an RGBA scale) The width and height of the map returned. Units are expressed in a specified unit of measure based on the coordinate transform system. Size in pixels of the output image (width and height). StandardScale is an SLD property, giving the denominator of the map scale. Refer to the SLD 1.0 specification for additional information on standardscale. Producing KML KML is a file format used to display geographic data in an Earth browser, such as Google Earth or Google Maps. You can output KML with ERDAS APOLLO in various ways for different types of KML contents. Without changing anything in your portrayal configuration, you can request maps (with the GetMap request) in KML out of a vector service (WFS), by providing the proper FORMAT parameter value: FORMAT=application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml Replace the "+" sign with "%2B" when entering as a URL You also need to be sure that the SRS used is EPSG:4326. Here is an example of a request: 67

68 & REQUEST=GetMap& SRS=EPSG%3A4326& BBOX= , , , & WIDTH=500& HEIGHT=500& LAYERS=protectedareas,hydro,roads,highways,place_names& STYLES=,,,,& FORMAT=application/vnd.google-earth.kml%2Bxml& BGCOLOR=0xffffff&TRANSPARENT=FALSE& EXCEPTIONS=application/vnd.ogc.se_xml The ERDAS APOLLO Portrayal Engine, after building the graphic objects that need to be rendered, produces a KML (XML) output instead of an SVG-like structure. This stage of the process has no more information about what entities (features) are to be rendered, so the produced KML is semantically poor and only holds graphic information. This is a basic KML output that can be produced with minimal configuration efforts and that can fulfill a set of use cases. Some limitations: Only the basic styling information is found in the KML document: predefined point icon, line stroke, polygon stroke and fill, polygon opacity. Some of the portrayal rules do not produce any output in KML: Predefined Symbols for lines and polygons. Some rules produce reduced output: Entity Numbering rules for lines and polygons only produce placemarks. The GetFeatureInfo request type, with INFO_FORMAT=application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml, will also produce a KML document that can be opened in your KML Browser. It will only contain the objects that are found by the request. For smarter map production in KML, you need to write a specific Java rule that receives as input the feature set to render and the set of portrayal parameters. You can use the ERDAS KML Helper API to easily generate the KML elements that fit your needs. For KML output out of the raster and coverage servlets, you will only get images. They can be referenced either as a GetMap URL in the KML document, or embedded as a raster image in a KMZ archive. For raster images in a KMZ archive, the format to use in the request is application/vnd.google-earth.kmz. When the output is KML from GetMap, ERDAS APOLLO leverages the Google Super-overlays technology so that further GetMap requests are executed with small tiles. 68

69 The ERDAS APOLLO Catalog is also able to output KML. It outputs the various selected catalog objects, with their title, abstract, description, object sub-tree if any, and footprint if any. If the object is a KML-enabled vector layer, it will contain a network link to a GetMap request to that service. If the object is a KML-enabled image layer, the output is a network link to a GetMap request producing Google Super-overlays (a technology allowing tiling). 69

70 Limitations Fast 2D Rendering The default behavior of the portrayal engine is to build an SVG-like tree of graphical elements before converting them into an image or a real SVG file. ERDAS APOLLO also includes an alternative portrayal method, which uses the Sun Java2D library. This method uses low-level functions to draw points, lines, polygons and several other shapes. It is several times faster than the normal portrayal method but it does not apply in all cases. Some of the situations where it does not provide a proper result are: If coordinate transform is needed When using area patterns, line dashes and SVG symbols When requesting SVG as output format Coverage Portrayal Styling capabilities are limited for coverages. The following limitations apply: No provider-specific style is interpreted by the portrayal engine. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor does not produce the GAR to allow deployment on the server. The hierarchy must be built manually. Only SLD styles are supported. Property styles are not read. Coverage Portrayal Service (CPS) The Coverage Portrayal Service (CPS) is an interface standard defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The OGC defines it this way: The CPS is an OGC Processing Service that adds value to the products of a Web Coverage Service. The CPS links together WMS clients and WCS services, using SLD as a service language. The CPS interfaces are slight extensions or restrictions of the corresponding WMS interfaces. The purpose of the CPS is to provide a standard interface for producing visual pictures from coverage data. Visit to learn more about the OGC. OWS1 Coverage Portrayal Service (WCS) 70

71 Topics Operational Concept Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) Operational Concept The OWS1 Coverage Portrayal Service (WCS) describes the operational concept of WCS in this way: 71

72 The CPS integrates into the OGC architecture by implementing two standard OGC interfaces, the WMS interface and the WCS interface. [The figure] shows how a thin WMS map viewer client, which has been generated on the fly by a server-side client generator, can use the services of a WCS by connecting through a CPS. Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) The Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) is an implementation specification defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The OGC defines it this way: 72

73 The OpenGIS Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) Profile of the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) Encoding Standard defines an encoding that extends the WMS standard to allow user-defined symbolization and coloring of geographic feature and coverage data. Visit to learn more about Styled Layer Descriptors. Styled Layer Descriptor profile of the Web Map Service Implementation Specification The Coverage Portrayal Service uses SLD as a language to apply a specific portrayal. In addition to request parameters, which serve to qualify the request action, additional information has to be provided to the CPS for it to work. This additional information can tell the CPS: where to obtain the coverage of interest for the client, what part or parts of the coverage data with which to work, and how the client wants the CPS to portray the data. SLD is used to express this additional information and to provide a user-defined styling of the coverage data. There is a parallel between the way that a client can direct a CPS to use data from a WCS and the way that a client can direct a WMS to use data from a WFS. Using SLD for both CPS requests and WMS requests exploits this parallel. The parts of the SLD that affect how the client wants the CPS to portray the data are contained in the SLD RasterSymbolizer element. The following subsections discuss some relevant aspects of this element. See Creating Styles with SLD (on page 56) for a description of the complete list of SLD tags supported by ERDAS APOLLO. Data selection with SLD RangeAxis Tag The SLD RangeAxis tag enables range axis subsetting. The following example shows the selection of different channels of a MODIS coverage offering and their mapping on the RGB channels of the resulting image. In this example the first three bands of the MODIS coverage, sur_refl_b01_1,sur_refl_b02_1,sur_refl_b03_1, are mapped to the red, green and blue bands of the portrayed image. 73

74 <sld:rangeaxis name="fields"> sur_refl_b01_1,sur_refl_b02_1,sur_refl_b03_1 </sld:rangeaxis> In this example the next three bands of the MODIS coverage, sur_refl_b04_1,sur_refl_b05_1,sur_refl_b06_1, are mapped to the red, green and blue bands of the portrayed image. <sld:rangeaxis name="fields"> sur_refl_b04_1,sur_refl_b05_1,sur_refl_b06_1 </sld:rangeaxis> TimePeriod Tag The SLD TimePeriod tag enables temporal subsetting. The following example shows the selection of different datasets of a MODIS coverage layer, using different temporal intervals. 74

75 <sld:timeperiod> T14:55:00Z </sld:timeperiod> <sld:timeperiod> T20:03:00Z </sld:timeperiod> Data Styling with SLD ContrastEnhancement Tag The SLD ContrastEnhancement tag can be used to reveal values that occupy a very small part of the data range. "Normalize" means to stretch the contrast so that the dimmest color is stretched to black and the brightest color is stretched to white, with all colors in between stretched out uniformly. "Histogram" means to stretch the contrast based on a histogram of how many colors are at each brightness level on input, with the goal of producing equal number of pixels in the image at each brightness level on output. This has the effect of revealing many subtle ground features. 75

76 ContrastEnhancement can also be used to define contrast enhancements for a channel of a false-color image or for a color image. In the case of a color image, the relative intensity (brightness) of the pixel color is used. First we show a single band (sur_refl_b04_1) of the MODIS image with no contrast enhancement. GrayChannel Without Contrast Enhancement <sld:channelselection> <sld:graychannel> <sld:sourcechannelname> Fields.sur_refl_b04_1 </sld:sourcechannelname> </sld:graychannel> </sld:channelselection> Here we show the same band being portrayed with the Normalize ContrastEnhancemant. GrayChannel with Contrast Enhancement <sld:channelselection> <sld:graychannel> <sld:sourcechannelname> Fields.sur_refl_b04_1 </sld:sourcechannelname> </sld:graychannel> </sld:channelselection> <sld:contrastenhancement> <sld:normalize/> 76

77 </sld:contrastenhancement> Here we show how Normalize and Histogram act differently on the same image. Gray Channel with "Normalize" Contrast Enhancement <sld:contrastenhancement> <sld:normalize/> 77

78 </sld:contrastenhancement> Gray Channel with "Histogram" Contrast Enhancement <sld:contrastenhancement> <sld:histogram/> 78

79 </sld:contrastenhancement> ColorMap Tag The ColorMap SLD tag can be used to classify the values of the coverage data. One color is chosen for each data range. In the example below, the color #4327ED (hexadecimal encoding of the color RGB[4,50,126]) will be applied on all "pixels" that have a value smaller than Note that in the example below the data is encoded in short values: this means that the data values are integers between and GrayChannel with Color Map <ColorMap> <ColorMapEntry color="#4327ed" quantity="-1.0"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#64bc89" quantity="0.1"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#50936c" quantity="250.0"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#9f803e" quantity="400.0"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#85531d" quantity="550.0"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#5e4023" quantity="1000.0"/> <ColorMapEntry color="#ffffff" quantity="1300.0"/> 79

80 </ColorMap> ShadedRelief Tag The ShadedRelief SLD tag can be used to apply the hill shading algorithm on elevation data. Hill Shading on Short Elevation Data <sld:shadedrelief> <sld:relieffactor> 1.0 </sld:relieffactor> 80

81 </sld:shadedrelief> Use Case for Portraying Coverages This use case presents the steps that might take place during a typical CPS session. In this use case there are three components: the WCS that provides a Spot View coverage, the CPS that styles the Spot View coverage, and a client application that knows how to define an SLD for a coverage, performs the WMS-SLD GetMap requests, and then displays the GetMap response. The result is a visual representation of the Spot View coverage that can be overlaid with additional WMS map layers. The figure below is an example of a georectified Spot View coverage that has been overlaid with an additional map layer showing watercourses. This map layer has been requested from another WMS. 81

82 Layering of Watercourses Over a Portrayed Coverage Below are the different steps: 1. A Web Coverage Service (WCS) publishes a layer containing a multiband grid of data located in a region. The WCS URL: 2. The user finds that the published layer overlaps with his current region of interest and wishes to view this data in order to determine if it requires further analysis or further processing. This can be done by executing a GetCapabilities request followed by a DescribeCoverage for a given coverage or directly by executing a global DescribeCoverage. This action will provide information about all the coverages available on the service. REQUEST=GetCapabilities&VERSION=1.0.0&SERVICE=WCS REQUEST=DescribeCoverage&VERSION=1.0.0&SERVICE=WCS 82

83 3. The client application knows of a CPS and requests it to provide a view of the data that can be overlaid with familiar map features. 4. The client builds a Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) document, which acts as a raster descriptor, to assign red to band 1 of the grid data, green to band 2, and blue to band 3 of the WCS. <sld:styledlayerdescriptor version="0.7.2"> <sld:userlayer> <sld:remoteows> <sld:service>wcs</sld:service> <sld:onlineresource xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="http://apollo.erdas.com/erdas-apollo/map/portray"/> </sld:remoteows> <sld:layercoverageconstraints> <sld:coverageconstraint> <sld:coveragename>spview_530_274_0_020809_5_1_j_3</sld:coveragename> <sld:coverageextent> <sld:timeperiod> T16:45:00Z/ T20:05:00Z </sld:timeperiod> <sld:rangeaxis name="band"> band1,band2,band3 </sld:rangeaxis> </sld:coverageextent> </sld:coverageconstraint> </sld:layercoverageconstraints> <sld:userstyle> <sld:coveragestyle> <sld:rule> <Name>ChannelSelection</Name> <Title>3 Channels Selection</Title> <sld:rastersymbolizer> <sld:channelselection> <sld:redchannel> 83

84 <sld:sourcechannelname>band.band1</sld:sourcechannelname> </sld:redchannel> <sld:greenchannel> <sld:sourcechannelname>band.band2</sld:sourcechannelname> </sld:greenchannel> <sld:bluechannel> <sld:sourcechannelname>band.band3</sld:sourcechannelname> </sld:bluechannel> </sld:channelselection> <sld:contrastenhancement> <sld:normalize/> </sld:contrastenhancement> </sld:rastersymbolizer> </sld:rule> </sld:coveragestyle> </sld:userstyle> </sld:userlayer> </sld:styledlayerdescriptor> 5. The client formulates a Web Map Service (WMS) request that includes the raster descriptor along with the other requested parameters: WIDTH, HEIGHT, BBOX, and SRS. 6. The client issues this WMS request to the CPS. 7. The CPS receives this WMS request from the client, fetches the SLD, and then formulates a WCS request for the data from the bands which were mentioned in the SLD that covers the BBOX mentioned in the WMS request and submits the WCS request. =1.0.0& REQUEST=GetCoverage& COVERAGE=SPVIEW_530_274_0_020809_5_1_J_3& CRS=EPSG:26910& BAND=band1,band2,band3& 84

85 BBOX= , , , & TIME= T16:45:00Z/ T20:05:00Z& WIDTH=500& HEIGHT=250& FORMAT=GeoTIFF 8. The WCS returns the requested coverage data to the CPS. If necessary, the CPS redraws the data in the requested BBOX and SRS, applies the SLD to produce an image of the requested format with the requested WIDTH and HEIGHT, and returns the image to the client. ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is a Java Swing client you can use to explore and style geographical data. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor can access OGC services such as Web Map Servers, Web Feature Servers, and Web Coverage Servers. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor also helps in the creation of styles which are used to render maps by the Portrayal Service. Use the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor to create rendering rules to style vector data that is published through ERDAS APOLLO services. When a WFS is set up using ERDAS APOLLO, you can use the Style Editor to generate point, line, and polygon styling rules allowing ERDAS APOLLO to publish the styled vector data through a WMS interface. \ Imagery, terrain, and point cloud styling can be done in the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. Cataloged vector datasets may also be styled in the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager in order to render a desired thumbnail or to set the style used for the dataset when rendered through the ApolloCatalogWMS* services. See the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager User Guide for more details. 85

86 Topics Starting the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Main Window Preferences Managing Projects Data Sources Layers 106 Map Navigation Views 117 Styling Data Managing Styles Scale Range Management Style Rules Starting the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is installed as part of ERDAS APOLLO. You can start ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor in the following way: Double-click the Style Editor icon located under the ERDAS APOLLO 2015 folder in the Windows Start menu. Run <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\styleeditor\styleeditor.bat After the splash screen, the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor main window opens. 86

87 Main Window ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Main Window Styles Panel: The Styles panel presents the current project structure as a tree. This panel shows all the data sources, map sources, and coverage sources that have been added to the project. Refer to Data Sources (on page 92) for more information. Map Panel: The Map Panel displays the contents of the Styles Panel and Layers Panel in a geographic view. Unless you specified a particular device screen (see Views (on page 117) for more information about device screens), the map panel will be resized when the main window is resized. 87

88 Layers Panel: The Layers Panel shows the list of layers that have been added to the preview. The Layers Panel includes buttons to reorder the list and remove layers from the preview. Please refer to Layers (on page 106) for more information. ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor Toolbar: This toolbar contains commands whose functions are described in Map Navigation (on page 111). Overview Panel: The Overview Panel is a collapsible area that shows a map of the whole world superimposed by either a yellow shaded rectangle area or red crosshairs representing the area or location being displayed in the Map Pane. Refer to the Map Overview section in Map Navigation (on page 111) for more information. Status Bar: A status bar with information such as cursor coordinates or measured lengths and areas. It contains a split pane which displays the Scale Range Manager described in Scale Range Management (on page 125). Map Panel Tabs: The Map Panel tabs allow you to switch to different views of the project as described in Views (on page 117). Processing Indicator: The Processing Indicator is an ERDAS APOLLO Server logo which animates when the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is performing an operation. The current operation can be canceled at any time by pressing the Stop button. Status History: The Status History button in the in the lower left corner opens the Status History dialog which displays a log of all the previously performed tasks. 88

89 Preferences This section explains how to personalize some of the options ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor uses to determine its behavior. The options are placed in the Style Editor Preferences window, accessible in the tools menu. Preferences item in the Tools menu Style Editor Preferences Dialog Setting the HTTP Connection Time-out This option determines the maximum time ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor waits for a server response. Selecting a time limit is useful to prevent situations where ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor could be kept waiting for a non-responsive server. The initial value of milliseconds is set to produce reasonable behavior for most situations. 1. Select the Preferences option from the Tools menu. 2. In the HTTP group, use the checkbox to activate or deactivate the Connection Time-out. 3. Set the text field with the desired value in milliseconds. 89

90 Setting the Logging Path ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor automatically creates log files you can consult (for instance, to view the generated map requests). By default, the files have a prefix log, and are placed in the preferences folder. 1. Select the Preferences item from the Tools menu. 2. In the Prefix text field, set the path and prefix for the log files. Managing Projects ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor stores its configuration in a centralized file called a project file. The project file contains information such as: a list of different views, each representing a map a list of data sources a list of layers style configuration miscellaneous settings Project files are associated with the.gar extension. 90

91 Project management commands such as New Project and Open are located under the File menu. Creating a New Project To create a new project, select New Project in the File menu. A new, empty, project will be created in a new window. When you start ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor (except for the very first time), a new blank project is opened for you to work with. To use your new project, you may want to start adding data sources. Read the next sections of this guide to learn how to add data sources. Opening an Existing Project To open an existing project, select Open... from the File menu. When asked to choose a file, select a project file with an extension of.gar or.styler. Typically, the projects are stored in the "projects" subfolder of your ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor installation. You can also open a project using the Open Recent menu item. Open Recent allows direct access to the 10 most recently opened projects. 91

92 Data Sources A data source is an OGC/ISO compliant service or a GIS resource such as a local Shapefiles directory. Data sources are used by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor to render maps. A data source may also be queried on its capabilities, its list of layers (if it's a WMS), its feature descriptions (if it's a WFS), and so forth. The current version of ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor supports the following data sources: Remote WFS through the HTTP protocol Local Feature Server, from a.fac file Local Shapefiles directory Remote WMS through HTTP Local georeferenced image Remote WCS with remote CPS OGC WMS Contexts Adding a Data Source Adding a data source, whatever its type, is accomplished by using the Data menu shown below: The next sections present the detailed procedure for each data source type. Topics Adding Features Resources Adding Raster Resources Adding Coverage Resources Authenticated Connections Managing Data Sources

93 Adding Features Resources This section explains how to add remote OGC/ISO Web Feature Servers and Shapefiles directories to the project. 1. Select Data/Add Data Source... in the menu or right click on the Project in the Styles panel and select Add Data Source. 2. On the Attach a New Feature Server dialog choose either to add a Web Feature Server (WFS), a Local Feature Server or a collection of Shapefiles located in a given directory. Adding a Web Feature Server To add a reference to a remote Web Feature Server, select Web Feature Server (HTTP) on the initial Attach a New Feature Server dialog and then select Next. 93

94 In the next dialog choose a previously entered URL from the list or enter a New service URL and click the Add button. Note that all valid URLs are automatically collected for future use. Select Next Provide both a Name and a Title for the service. Name is used in styles in order to achieve the mapping between a service and a rule bundle while Title is the human-readable title that will be displayed in the Project Structure panel. 94

95 The Name must be in lowercase and must correspond to the name of the provider specified in the configuration of the WFS. Please refer to Servlet-Specific Configuration Parameters (providers.fac) section in the Administrator Guide. If the WFS service requires authentication, select Next. (See Authenticated Connections (on page 101) for more detail). Select Finish You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. Adding a Local Feature Server To add a reference to a local Web Feature Server, select Local Feature Server (From '.fac' file) on the initial Attach a New Feature Server dialog and select Next. You may either Key in the full File path and name of the.fac file or, Select the "... " button to browse for a.fac file or, Select from the preexisting Entries list. Select Finish You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. 95

96 Adding a Collection of Shapefiles To add a collection of Shapefiles, select Shapefile Directory on the initial Attach a New Feature Server dialog. First choose a Directory that contains Shapefiles (common extensions are.shp,.shx,.dbf ). Since Shapefiles do not export any SRS information, you have to manually specify the native SRS in which your data is expressed. The drop-down list of SRS is a history of your previous selections, not a list of suggested SRS for the given Shapefiles directory. Select Next On the next panel, enter a Name and Title for your data source. The Name must be in lowercase and must correspond to the name of the provider that will be used when configuring your Portrayal Service. Select Finish You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. 96

97 Adding Raster Resources This section explains how to add remote OGC/ISO Web Map Servers and local georeferenced images to the project. 1. Select Data/Add Data Source... in the menu or right click on the Project in the Styles panel and select Add Map Source. 2. On the Attach a New Map Server dialog choose either to add a Web Map Server (HTTP) or a Local Georeferenced Image. Adding a Web Map Server To add a reference to a Web Map Server, select Web Map Server (HTTP) on the initial Attach a New Map Server dialog and then select Next. 97

98 In the next dialog choose a previously entered URL from the list or enter a New service URL and click the Add button. Note that all valid URLs are automatically collected for future use. If the WMS service requires authentication, select Next. (See Authenticated Connections (on page 101) for more detail). Select Finish You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. Adding a Local Georeferenced Image Georeferenced images are not saved in the project file. They must be manually added each time ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is run. To add a reference to a local georeferenced image, select Local Georeferenced Image on the initial Attach a New Map Server dialog and select Next. In the next dialog choose an image File: Key in the full File path and name or, Select the "... " button to browse for an image file or, Select an image file from the File drop-down list 98

99 Specify the native SRS of the image, even if your georeferenced image already defines an SRS. The drop-down Image SRS list is a history of your previous selections, not a list of suggested SRS for the given georeferenced image. Select a provider mode. Please refer the ERDAS APOLLO Server Administrator's Guide for more details on provider modes. Select Finish You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. Adding Coverage Resources This section explains how to add remote OGC/ISO Web Coverage Servers and their associated Coverage Portrayal Services to the project. 1. Select Data/Add Coverage Source... in the menu or right click on the Project in the Styles panel and select Add Coverage Source. 2. In the Attach a New Coverage Server dialog, choose a previously entered WCS URL from the list or enter a New WCS service URL and click the Add button. Note that all valid URLs are automatically collected for future use. 99

100 The coverage service doesn't support on-the-fly coordinate transform. For example, to use the ATLANTA_SINGLE coverage service, you will first need to change the coordinate system to EPSG:2240, which is the SRS supported by ATLANTA_SINGLE. 3. Select Next 100

101 4. In the next dialog choose a previously entered CPS URL from the list or enter a New CPS service URL and click the Add button. Note that all valid URLs are automatically collected for future use. 5. Enter a unique Name and a Title for the coverage. The name must be in lowercase and should preferably correspond with the WCS provider. 6. If the WCS service requires authentication, select Next. (See Authenticated Connections (on page 101) for more detail). 7. Select Finish. You should now see the data source in the Styles panel. Authenticated Connections Some data services (WFS, WMS or WCS) may require authentication in order to establish connection. The authentication is done through a login and password which can be defined when adding the data source. 1. Follow the normal Add Data Source procedure for the specific type you wish to add. In the final step of the procedure, select Next (instead of Finish). 2. Enter the server's Login and Password. 101

102 3. If you want ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor to memorize the login and password for future utilization, even if the service URL is used as another type of data source select the Try remember checkbox. 102

103 Managing Data Sources Browsing a Data Source The Styles panel displays all the data sources that have been added to the project in a tree structure. To browse a specific data source, double-click the data source name or click its expand icon. Each data source expands to show its containing elements. The list of elements is specific to each data source. For instance, a WFS will list feature types while a WMS will list layers. Right click on the data source to display a context menu containing a list of commands for operating on the data source: Remove Data Source Create Report Global Style Properties Dressing Style Properties Reporting Style Properties Properties 103

104 Data Source Properties The Properties command allows you to view (and in some cases edit) the properties you specified when you initially added the data source. The Forgiving Checkbox If you try to add a WFS style based on a nonconforming geometry to the Map panel, an error will be displayed alerting you that the actual geometry does not match the type defined in the feature schema. This is a sign that the server is improperly configured and should be fixed in order be compliant with the WFS specification. In some circumstances, you may want to allow the introduction of nonconforming geometry layers in your project despite that mismatch. To do so, select the Forgiving checkbox to make ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor behave less restrictively and accept the layer. The Forgiving checkbox only appears on WFS Data Source Properties dialog boxes. Removing Data Sources To remove a data source, right click on the data source in the Style panel and select Remove Data Source. A confirmation dialog will be displayed so that you can confirm the remove command. This action is irreversible. It will remove all the styles created from the selected source, even if they are currently being used. Data Source History List Each time you add a valid web service URL it is stored in the data source's history. This history is conveniently shown to you when trying to add data sources, so you don't need to remember or retype the same URL multiple times. 104

105 The data source's history list can be modified by right clicking on any entry in the list. You can organize the list of URLs by moving entries up or down or removing those that are no longer needed. Adding Resources from a Web Map Context You can add a data source by importing an OGC Web Map Context. See OGC Web Map Contexts Documents for more details. To import a local context into ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor, select the Import Context... from the File menu, select the OGC context XML file you want to import, as shown by the following. 105

106 Layers When rendering a map, the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor will overlay different layers to form a single image. The list of layers that the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor considers when composing its map are taken from the layers panel. Adding a Layer to the Map To add a layer to the map, right-click on one of the sub-elements of a data source in the data source panel and select Add To Preview. The selected layer will then appear in the layers panel and the Map panel will automatically be refreshed. Renaming a Layer The layers you add to the map are created with the same name as its corresponding data source sub-element, allowing you to quickly start using the layer. ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor gives you the ability to rename each layer, allowing you to choose the best suited name in the context of your own project. To rename a layer: 1. Right right-click on the layer in the Layers panel and select Layer Properties 2. Edit the Title field with the new label title and select OK. Removing a Layer from the Map To remove a layer from Layers panel and Map panel, right-click on a layer in the Layers panel and select the Remove Layer from Preview menu entry. The Map will refresh itself and the layer will be removed from the Layers panel. Toggle Visibility for a Layer To keep a layer in the Layers Panel but force it not to be rendered in the Map panel, right-click on the layer in the Layers panel and select the Toggle Layer Visibility menu entry. The layer will no longer display in the Map panel and will appear grayed out in the Layers panel. Select Toggle Layer Visibility again to turn visibility back on for the layer. 106

107 Ordering Layers The order in which layers compose on the Map can be changed. To make a layer appear above another layer, click the layer in the Layers Panel and select the Up button. The map will automatically reload to reflect this change. Similarly use the Down button to move a layer down in the display order. Limiting WFS Features This Max Count setting allows you to limit the number of results obtained. This is useful in limiting data transfer delays when a request retrieves more data than anticipated. As an example, consider a server with detailed information on all of the streets in the United States. You may only be interested in streets in a local region, but if you start with the entire United States in your Map panel, you will generate a request for all the streets in the U.S. The Max Count setting limits the data returned so that you can navigate to the region of interest or analyze the retrieved data in order to understand which data should be filtered out. The Max Count setting only applies to WFS servers. Other services, such as WMS or WCS, have other data limiting filters. To set Max Count on a WFS: 1. Right-click on a feature layer in the Layers panel and select Layer Properties 2. In the Layer Properties window: Toggle the Max Count checkbox to activate or deactivate it. 107

108 Edit the Max Count text field to specify the retrieved feature limit. 3. Select OK. Spatial Filtering Spatial filtering is used to limit the retrieved information to the area being currently displayed on your screen. This may be used both with WFS and WMS servers. To enable Spatial Filtering 1. Right-click on a feature layer or map layer in the Layers panel and select Layer Properties For feature layers, toggle the Spatial Filtering checkbox. 108

109 For map layers, toggle the Use Box checkbox. 2. Select OK on the Layers Properties dialog. Additional Service Parameters Some servers accept proprietary parameters in their requests such as ServiceName or Quality. ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor allows you to specify these additional parameters for the service requests of each layer. 1. Right-click on a map layer in the Layers panel and select Layer Properties 2. Select New in the Layer Properties window. 109

110 3. In the New Entry window, insert the server specific Key and Value. 4. Select OK. 5. Repeat steps 2-4 for all additional service parameters. 6. Select OK on the Layer Properties dialog. Layer Statistics The statistics option allows you to obtain detailed information on the elements contained in WMS layer built over a WFS. This information includes the number of retrieved geometries and the type of geometries. This is a feature only available with ERDAS APOLLO servers. Follow this procedure to activate layer statistics. 1. Right-click on a map layer in the Layers panel and select Layer Properties 2. Toggle the Statistics checkbox to activate/deactivate this option. 110

111 3. Select OK on the Layers Properties dialog. Map Navigation This section presents the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor navigation tools that allow you to change the current view of the map by zooming, panning or quickly jumping to specific locations. Pan Tools The Pan tool allows you to re-center the view on a point indicated by a single click on the map. 111

112 Zoom Tools The Zoom In tool allows you to zoom in (by a factor of 2) by clicking on a single point or to zoom in to a specific area by clicking down and dragging a box around the desired area. The Zoom Out tool allows you to zoom out (by a factor of 2) by clicking on a single point. Changing Scale The Scale tool in the Scale panel also allows you to zoom in the Map panel. Scale can be modified quickly by using the slider or precisely by entering an exact value in the Scale text field. If Scale panel expander arrow is pointing to the left, click it to expand the Scale panel and view the Scale tool. Fit View to Layer Use the Fit View to Layer command to set the view extents of the Map panel the envelope of a specified layer. This is the quickest way to view the content of an entire layer. To fit the Map panel to a specific layer: Right-click on a feature layer in the Layers panel and select Fit View to Layer Switching Map Extents You can quickly navigate to previous views of the Map by using the Back and Forward icons in the toolbar. For example, clicking the Back icon will take you back to the previous map extent. 112

113 Setting the Map Panel Extents and Spatial Reference System Use the Envelope Panel to precisely control the extents of the Map panel, as well as its Spatial Reference System. If the Envelope panel's expander arrow is pointing to the left, click it to expand the Envelope panel and view the Envelope parameters. The Envelope Panel also offers additional features in the Envelope menu. To start using these features, click the menu icon (to the right of the SRS field) and select the appropriate menu entry. Switch SRS... displays a dialog that allows you to change the spatial reference system of the Map panel. Copy Envelope copies the SRS and envelope parameters (formatted as a BBOX) to the clipboard. Example: &SRS=EPSG%3A4326&BBOX= , , , Paste Envelope pastes a similarly formatted string into the fields of the Envelope panel. Go To... displays the Go To Point dialog which allows you to enter a specific point and SRS to center the Map panel on. Parse... displays the "Magic Envelope" dialog which allows you enter a WMS GetMap request URL and extract the SRS and bounding box parameters. Map Overview The Overview panel gives an indication of where the current Map view is situated within a broader context, such as the world. 113

114 The box of the active map will be represented on the overview map as either a red cross or a yellow rectangle area, depending on whether the box of the active map can be drawn meaningfully as a rectangle area on the overview map. Measuring Distances and Areas The Measure tool will let you draw polygons while displaying, in the status bar, the distance and area of the currently drawn geometry. After selecting the Measure tool, simply click in the Map panel to define lines or areas. The Measure tool will automatically report the length and the area of the defined geometry in the status bar at the bottom of the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor window. 114

115 Left click with your mouse to add new points and right click with your mouse on an existing point to delete it. View Feature Properties 115

116 The Feature Info tool allows you to view information about selected features. The kind of information you will obtain is dependent on the type of the feature. To use this function, click the Feature Info icon and then either click a point in the Map panel or drag a rectangle in the Map panel. The Feature Info dialog will display. The Feature Info dialog allows you to view feature information for all of the features in the selected area. The Features drop-down allows you to select the feature you want to review. (You can also use the next and previous arrow buttons to the right of the Features drop-down to browse through the features one at a time). All properties of the selected feature are listed in the table. Note that, in the example above, the selected feature is of Type roads with ID of roads

117 Views The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor allows you to create multiple views of your data in the Map panel. A View is an interactive map that lets you display, explore, query, analyze and style geographic data in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Views are saved as part of the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor project. A view defines the geographic data that will be used and how it will be displayed, but it does not contain the geographic data sources or map servers themselves. Instead, a view references these data sources. This means that a view is dynamic, because it reflects the current status of the data source. If the data source changes, a view that uses its data will automatically reflect the change the next time the view is drawn. This also means that the same data can be displayed on more than one view. Another powerful feature of the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor is that it allows you to share styles between different views. Each style created in the scope of a project can be used to render data in any view of that project. 117

118 This feature allows you to easily compare multiple maps in single instance of ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. You will be able to preview your maps at different scales and see how your maps look like on a specific device. Additionally, you will be able to export your view as an OGC Web Map Context. Creating a View A default view, called View 1, will be created when you initiate a new project. If you want to create a new view in your project, you can do it in two ways: In the View Menu, select Create New. A new view will be displayed. Or you can right click on a existing view and select New. 118

119 View Properties The View Properties dialog allows you to change the name of the view as well as set some OGC Web Map Context attributes such as the Context Title, Abstract and Keywords. To display the View Properties dialog, right click on the view tab and select Properties from the context menu. Enabling Map Dressing Enabling map dressing gives you the option to add a legend, a scale bar, or a grid to the Map. To enable or disable Map Dressing, select or un-select Map Dressing in the View menu. If map dressing hasn't been configured for your data source you will not see any results when you enable Map Dressing on the View. Map dressing configuration requires you to select what kinds of dressing elements you want to add to your map, such as a legend, a grid, a scale bar, etc. To configure map dressing, right-click on the data source and select the Dressing Style Properties. Show Transparent Areas Enabling Show Transparent Areas will result in transparent areas being rendered with a checker board pattern. To enable or disable Show Transparent Areas select it or deselect it in the View menu. 119

120 Configuring a Device Use the Device Screen sub-menu to define or select "Devices" for previewing styles in the Map panel. A "Device" is simply a named set of parameters that define specific dimensions and color depth. You can define new "Devices" to represent actual hardware tools such as smart phones, tablets or other hand held devices. Select View->Device Screen->Manage to define new devices or edit the properties of existing devices. To preview how your styles will look on the device simply select the device from the View->Device Screen menu. Select View->Device Screen-><Default> to return the default Map panel view. Saving a View as an OGC Web Map Context The current view can be saved as an OGC Web Map Context. Saving the context will serialize the current view and its associated data sources to an XML file on your hard disk. To save the current view as a context, select the Export Context... from the File menu. A standard Save As dialog will display so that you can save the context as an XML file. The XML context file can be later re-used by importing it into ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Local Shapefiles cannot be exported in a context file. If you have local Shapefile layers you will receive a warning and be given the opportunity to save the context without Shapefile layers. Styling Data Styling is the process of creating stylesheets, which are sets of parameters to be applied when portraying a particular feature type. Refer to Portraying and Styling Data (on page 53) for more details. Styling Architecture The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor tool gives you the ability to preview style changes before publishing them. To accomplish this, the tool embeds the following components: A "client" version of ERDAS APOLLO's versatile portrayal engine, with support for plug-in styling rules. The same bundle of styling rules that is available on the server side, with additional configuration/user interface descriptors. The rules are used in three distinct ways by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor: To create and present a user-friendly interface that allows intuitive parameter editing/selection. 120

121 To generate preview renderings of the style against sample feature sets extracted from your real-world data. To create style packages that will later be published on the server. The published styles will then be available via the WMS interface of the service. The diagram below shows how the rule bundle is always available on both the client and server, while the style packages produced by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor tool are published on the server. Managing Styles You can create new styles for any feature in the Styles pane using the Add Style wizard. To create a new style: 121

122 1. Right-click on any feature in the Styles panel and select Create Style... from the context menu. This will initiate the Add Style wizard. 2. Select the geometry type you want to use, then click Next. This step will only appear for sources with more than one geometry type defined. 3. Choose if you prefer to create a new style or use one of the predefined styles, then click Next. 4. Select the styling rule your style will be based on from the drop-down menu (a small description of the rule behavior will appear under the drop-down control when available), then click Next. 5. Enter the name that will be used to reference the style once it is deployed on the server, then click Finish or Properties... to create the style and insert it in the database. Since style names have to conform to the WMS naming conventions, the Finish and Properties... are enabled only when the name is valid. While the name is invalid, a descriptive tip explaining the cause should appear under the control. The Properties... button performs the same action as Finish, and then invokes the inspector for you to edit the style parameters. Deleting Styles You can delete an existing style by right clicking on the style in the Styles panel and selecting Delete from the context menu. If you confirm the deletion, the style is removed from the database and every preview layer that depends on it is also deleted. 122

123 Modifying Styles You can edit properties of a style using the Style Properties dialog. To open the Style Properties dialog, either double click the style in the Styles panel or right click on the style in the Style panel and select Properties. Style Rule: The rule the current style is based on. If you select another rule, the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor tool will try to migrate your current style settings to the new rule (when applicable). Style Inspector: The tabs in the central part of the dialog embed an inspector for the currently selected styling rule. You will find the description of these inspectors in Style Rules (on page 126). OK: Applies the current settings to the style, commits them to the style database, and closes the dialog. 123

124 Apply: Temporarily applies the current settings to the underlying style, and causes the views that depend on it to refresh themselves. The Apply button does not close the dialog, and can be clicked more than once. Cancel: Undoes any temporary changes made to the underlying style and then closes the editing dialog. Style Rules Summary The styling rules provided with the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor are: Uniform - Uniformly applies a simple style to every feature. The stroke, fill, and symbol to use can be configured for the whole feature collection, and a property of the feature can be used for labeling. Discrete Classification - This style rule should be used for displaying categorical data (data values such that the symbol for one value is no more or less prominent than the symbols for any other value). It also handles lines' and polygons' stroke and fill color variations as well as line/outline width. Range Classification - This style is used to classify raw data (such as population counts), ranked data (to show a progression of values such as best to worst scholastic scores in a given region), or to represent percentages (such as percentage of given area that are affected by pollution). Known Symbol - Applies a fast-to-render marker (from a fixed, predefined set) at the centroid of each feature. A property of the feature can be used for labeling. Uniform Roads - This is a style type dedicated to the display and portrayal of various types of roads. It allows you to configure an outline, fill color, and center line to line or polyline geometry; it can also label the road with a property of the feature. Discrete Road Classification - This style type is used to render roads with a discrete classification that affects outline and center line colors. Range Road Classification - This style type is used to render roads with a range classification that affects outline and center line colors Variable Markers - This styling rule marks features with scaled and (optionally) rotated symbols. The size and orientation are determined from one of the properties of the feature. Patterner - This styling rule fills polygons with patterned backgrounds. Feature Numberer - This styling rule marks the features that are the nearest from the map center with sequential numbers. Symbol Roller - This styling rule renders linear geometries by stamping a list of symbols along the curve in a cyclic manner. 124

125 Styling Various Types of Geometries Styling is specific to geometry contained by the selected layer. Graphic Options According to Geometries Points Lines Polygons You can select the specific marker desired and set display properties, such as color, size and labels. You can set a color, width, and dash type for lines as well as determine linear capping and join parameters. You have the same styling options as available for Lines, as well as the ability to add a fill color. Deploying Styles The easiest (and recommended) way to deploy styles is to package them in a GAR archive which will be subsequently dropped in the rendering directory of the portrayal service. Refer to Deploying Styles (on page 64) for more information about the rendering directory organization. If you are saving your styling project in a GAR package (which is the default format in this version of the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor tool), no additional steps are necessary: you can just drop your project file as-is in the rendering directory. If you are using an old-style.styler archive, you can generate a GAR archive using the File/Styles/Create Bundle... command. This command generates a metadata-augmented archive format similar to the Save As... command, but does not change the filename and package format of the current project. Scale Range Management The scale panel can help you specify the scale ranges at which layers should be displayed. 125

126 The scale panel contains the list of the layers selected in a particular view. The scale panel can be activated by dragging the icon located in the bottom left corner just below the map. The map can be viewed at different scales by moving the red scale cursor to different points along the scale line. Changing the scale by moving the red scale cursor to different points will automatically update the view's scale box and of course the current bounding box. Changing the scale line maximum and minimum values, will result in a different mix of the features being displayed, depending on which feature's range bars are dissected by the scale cursor. This change can be done in three different ways. You can do any of the following: 1. Double click on the scale bar, to display the Edit Scale Range dialog. 2. Right-click in the scale bar, and select Properties to display the Edit Scale Range dialog. 3. Drag one of the extremities of the bar with the mouse pointer. Feature types not toggled in the layer visibility will be highlighted in dark green on the Feature Type list and will not be affected by the scale line placement. In order to configure a WMS server with the scale configuration you designed, you must export your project as an OGC Web Map Context, and based on it, build a ContextProvider. See Saving a View as an OGC Web Map Context for more details on how to export a context. When the WMS server you access publishes "Scale Hint" information for a layer, this hint is converted to the Scale Range for this layer in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Further changes in the Scale Range panel will override the Scale Hint. Style Rules Each rule is customizable through a set of parameters organized in tabs on the Style Properties dialog. 126

127 Topics Uniform Rule Classification Rules Uniform Roads Rule Known Symbol Rule Feature Numberer Rule Variable Markers Rule Patterner Rule Symbol Roller Rule Common Elements Uniform Rule The Uniform styling rule is valid for applying the same default style (colors and symbols) to all of the features types in a layer. This is useful for demonstrating where the features of a layer are located. 127

128 Whether you want to portray points, lines, or polygons, use this basic rule to control the various parameters relevant to the chosen geometry. The Uniform rule is customizable through a set of parameters organized in the following tabs: Graphic Tab: Edit parameters associated with drawing the feature geometry. Marker Tab: Use the Marker tab to select the type of marker to portray your point symbols. Additionally, you may customize additional parameters to modify the marker's appearance such as the marker size, labeling properties, symbol type, color and fill. This option is present only with the point geometry type. Label Tab: Edit parameters associated with labeling the feature. 128

129 Topics Uniform Rule for Point Features Uniform Rule for Line Features Uniform Rule for Polygon Features Uniform Rule Example Uniform Rule for Point Features Graphic Settings Antialiasing - Antialiasing is used for smoothing jagged edges in text characters and line segments. Enabling it may dramatically improve readability, but may affect the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's performance. These anti-aliasing options are available from the drop-down menu: None Shapes Only Text Only Full Antialiasing is not applied at all, resulting in faster performance but jagged edges may appear on text characters and line segments. Antialiasing is applied only to line segments. Text at small sizes may appear jagged. Antialiasing is applied to text only, but line segments may appear jagged. This is the default value for this option. Antialiasing is applied to both text and line segments. This is the smoother and the slower rendering mode. 129

130 Marker Settings Size - Two values, expressed in pixels, define the width and height of the marker. Only On Labels - Defines whether the marker will be rendered for each instance of a point feature or for each attached label. When markers are tied to the label, they are rendered after the clash management process. This renders an easier-to-read map with properly placed labels. Selected Render a marker for each label generated. This takes place after the Clash Management process, meaning some labels and symbols may have been removed for ease of map viewing. Unselected One marker will be rendered for each geometry, regardless of the Clash Management process. Symbol - Choose a symbol in the drop-down list of standard symbols or by selecting an SVG, PNG, GIF or TrueType font file on your local computer or mounted network disks. The chosen symbol is resized according to the size expressed in the size option. 130

131 While browsing the existing symbols, you can add your own symbols and remove the existing ones. This is achieved through the context menu opened by right-clicking a symbol. There are two kinds of symbols. Some symbols enclose the outline and fill color, while others can be customized using Inherits in this panel. Blue Circle, Blue Square, Green Circle, Green Square, Red Circle, Red Square Draws the symbol selected from the default symbol menu. Inherited Style Circle or Square Renders a Circle (or Square) whose colors are defined in the Inherits section of the Marker panel. Inherits Section - Define the outline and fill colors for an Inherited Style SVG symbol. When correctly encoded to allow inheritance, an SVG symbol can be modified by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. This means you are able to change its color properties for both the outline and fill of the symbol. Stroke Paint - Defines the outline color for the selected Inherited Style symbol. Select colors from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Set the stroke color to none by un-checking the box to the left of the colors drop-down list. Fill Paint - Defines the fill color for the selected Inherited Style symbol. Select color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Set the fill color to none by un-checking the box to the left of the colors drop-down list. When the chosen symbol is a TrueType font (generally a.ttf file), an additional panel opens to choose the symbol (glyph) from the list. 131

132 Label Settings Property - Lists all properties exposed by the data source (either WFS or local shapefile) where you select the one you want to use as the labeling property. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. The fonts available in the font chooser are the ones installed on your local computer. Ensure the font that you chose is available on your remote server. If the selected font is not available on the remote server, font substitution will take place and the produced map may be slightly different from the preview in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Halo - You can add a Halo to your labels. The Halo option is essentially a background color for your labels. You can use it to draw attention to the labels that you have created. You can select a color and width in pixels for the halo of your text labels. This functionality is useful if you want to be sure your text can be read when used in every 132

133 kind of map, regardless of the color used in the other layers. For example, you may want to set a black text and a white surrounding halo. In this way your text can be read regardless of the underlying layer colors. Width - Sets the width of the halo in pixels. You can deactivate the halo by deselecting the check box in front of the size entry box. Color - Defines the halo color for the label. A color can be chosen from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Management - You may choose to align your feature labels in the same location with respect to the feature being labeled. Choosing the alignment management option allows you to pick the location in which the label should be located in terms of the point feature. Alignment - Select where to render the label relative to the point (or geometry). There are nine values for label alignment. Top Left Top Top Right Left Center Right Bottom Left Bottom Bottom Right Anti Clashing - You can choose to avoid label text that "runs-into" other label text on your display. The Anti-Clashing option activates Clash Management whose goal is to avoid label overlapping at rendering time. Max. Count - Sets the maximum number of labels to be kept after Clash Management. For example, if you have a layer with 1000 points, you may ask the Clash Management to: Remove any overlapping labels. Only keep a maximum number or a given number of labels (100, for example) to insure map readability. Target Layer - Specify whether you want the labels to be drawn on the current layer or to be drawn on the Map Dressing layer. This Labels are drawn on the current layer. Dressing Labels are drawn on the Map Dressing layer. Using this method, the labels will be on the upper most layer for this provider. This ensures better readability of the produced map. Label Distribution - Specify how you want labels to be placed on features with multiple geometries. Biggest Only label the largest geometry in the collection 133

134 First All Only label the first geometry in the collection Label all geometries in the collection Uniform Rule for Line Features Graphic Settings Antialiasing - Antialiasing is used for smoothing jagged edges in text characters and line segments. Enabling it may dramatically improve readability, but may affect the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's performance. These anti-aliasing options are available from the drop-down menu: None Shapes Only Antialiasing is not applied at all, resulting in faster performance but jagged edges may appear on text characters and line segments. Antialiasing is applied only to line segments. Text at small sizes may appear jagged. 134

135 Text Only Antialiasing is applied to text only, but line segments may appear jagged. Full This is the default value for this option. Antialiasing is applied to both text and line segments. This is the smoother and the slower rendering mode. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Percent Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Cap - Choose the type of end caps for your linear features. End caps specify the shape of the endpoints of an open path. Butt Round Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with no added decoration. By default, end caps use this setting. Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a round decoration that has a radius equal to half of the width of the line stroke. 135

136 Square Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a square projection that extends beyond the end of the segment to a distance equal to half of the line width stroke. Join - Sets how you want your lines to be joined together: Bevel Miter Join path segments by connecting the outer corners of their wide outlines with a straight segment. A beveled join will display corners as squared-off path segment corners, so that the joint appears flat rather than rounded or pointed. Join path segments by extending their outside edges until they meet. This is the default option. Miter joins path segments with sharp corners that extend to a single point. Round Join path segments by rounding off the corner at a radius of half the line width. Dashing - Set if you want lines to be continuous, dashed, or dotted. Continuous Dotted... Dashed Dash Dot Dash Dot Dot

137 Label Settings Property - Lists all properties exposed by the data source (either WFS or local shapefile) where you select the one you want to use as the labeling property. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. The fonts available in the font chooser are the ones installed on your local computer. Ensure the font that you chose is available on your remote server. If the selected font is not available on the remote server, font substitution will take place and the produced map may be slightly different from the preview in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Halo - You can add a Halo to your labels. The Halo option is essentially a background color for your labels. You can use it to draw attention to the labels that you have created. You can select a color and width in pixels for the halo of your text labels. This functionality is useful if you want to be sure your text can be read when used in every kind of map, regardless of the color used in the other layers. For example, you may 137

138 want to set a black text and a white surrounding halo. In this way your text can be read regardless of the underlying layer colors. Width - Sets the width of the halo in pixels. You can deactivate the halo by deselecting the check box in front of the size entry box. Color - Defines the halo color for the label. A color can be chosen from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Management - You may choose to align your feature labels in the same location with respect to the feature being labeled. Choosing the alignment management option allows you to pick the location in which the label should be located in terms of the point feature. Alignment - Select where to render the label relative to the point (or geometry). There are nine values for label alignment. Top Left Top Top Right Left Center Right Bottom Left Bottom Bottom Right Anti Clashing - You can choose to avoid label text that "runs-into" other label text on your display. The Anti-Clashing option activates Clash Management whose goal is to avoid label overlapping at rendering time. Max. Count - Sets the maximum number of labels to be kept after Clash Management. For example, if you have a layer with 1000 points, you may ask the Clash Management to: Remove any overlapping labels. Only keep a maximum number or a given number of labels (100, for example) to insure map readability. Target Layer - Specify whether you want the labels to be drawn on the current layer or to be drawn on the Map Dressing layer. This Labels are drawn on the current layer. Dressing Labels are drawn on the Map Dressing layer. Using this method, the labels will be on the upper most layer for this provider. This ensures better readability of the produced map. Label Distribution - Specify how you want labels to be placed on features with multiple geometries. Biggest Only label the largest geometry in the collection 138

139 First All Only label the first geometry in the collection Label all geometries in the collection Uniform Rule for Polygon Features Graphic Settings Antialiasing - Antialiasing is used for smoothing jagged edges in text characters and line segments. Enabling it may dramatically improve readability, but may affect the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's performance. These anti-aliasing options are available from the drop-down menu: None Antialiasing is not applied at all, resulting in faster performance but jagged edges may appear on text characters and line segments. 139

140 Shapes Only Text Only Antialiasing is applied only to line segments. Text at small sizes may appear jagged. Antialiasing is applied to text only, but line segments may appear jagged. Full This is the default value for this option. Antialiasing is applied to both text and line segments. This is the smoother and the slower rendering mode. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Percent Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Cap - Choose the type of end caps for your linear features. End caps specify the shape of the endpoints of an open path. Butt Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with no added decoration. By default, end caps use this setting. 140

141 Round Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a round decoration that has a radius equal to half of the width of the line stroke. Square Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a square projection that extends beyond the end of the segment to a distance equal to half of the line width stroke. Join - Sets how you want your lines to be joined together: Bevel Miter Join path segments by connecting the outer corners of their wide outlines with a straight segment. A beveled join will display corners as squared-off path segment corners, so that the joint appears flat rather than rounded or pointed. Join path segments by extending their outside edges until they meet. This is the default option. Miter joins path segments with sharp corners that extend to a single point. Round Join path segments by rounding off the corner at a radius of half the line width. Dashing - Set if you want lines to be continuous, dashed, or dotted. Continuous Dotted... Dashed Dash Dot Dash Dot Dot Fill - Selects a paint color for filling the area of a polygon. Choose a color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. 141

142 Label Settings Property - Lists all properties exposed by the data source (either WFS or local shapefile) where you select the one you want to use as the labeling property. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. The fonts available in the font chooser are the ones installed on your local computer. Ensure the font that you chose is available on your remote server. If the selected font is not available on the remote server, font substitution will take place and the produced map may be slightly different from the preview in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Halo - You can add a Halo to your labels. The Halo option is essentially a background color for your labels. You can use it to draw attention to the labels that you have created. You can select a color and width in pixels for the halo of your text labels. This functionality is useful if you want to be sure your text can be read when used in every kind of map, regardless of the color used in the other layers. For example, you may want to set a black text and a white surrounding halo. In this way your text can be read regardless of the underlying layer colors. Width - Sets the width of the halo in pixels. You can deactivate the halo by deselecting the check box in front of the size entry box. 142

143 Color - Defines the halo color for the label. A color can be chosen from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Management - You may choose to align your feature labels in the same location with respect to the feature being labeled. Choosing the alignment management option allows you to pick the location in which the label should be located in terms of the point feature. Alignment - Select where to render the label relative to the point (or geometry). There are nine values for label alignment. Top Left Top Top Right Left Center Right Bottom Left Bottom Bottom Right Anti Clashing - You can choose to avoid label text that "runs-into" other label text on your display. The Anti-Clashing option activates Clash Management whose goal is to avoid label overlapping at rendering time. Max. Count - Sets the maximum number of labels to be kept after Clash Management. For example, if you have a layer with 1000 points, you may ask the Clash Management to: Remove any overlapping labels. Only keep a maximum number or a given number of labels (100, for example) to insure map readability. Target Layer - Specify whether you want the labels to be drawn on the current layer or to be drawn on the Map Dressing layer. This Labels are drawn on the current layer. Dressing Labels are drawn on the Map Dressing layer. Using this method, the labels will be on the upper most layer for this provider. This ensures better readability of the produced map. Label Distribution - Specify how you want labels to be placed on features with multiple geometries. Biggest First Only label the largest geometry in the collection Only label the first geometry in the collection All Label all geometries in the collection Label distribution - Specify how to label multi-polygon features: all polygons of the collection, the first one, or the biggest one. 143

144 Uniform Rule Example Here is a sample map, composed of three layers and produced by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor using Uniform style rules: Uniform - Sample Styles Placename Layer Rivers Land Use Composed of three features with point geometry. They are displayed in green with a fill color. No labels have been drawn for these points. Composed of lines and are rendered in blue with a 1 pixel width. Composed of polygons rendered in yellow with a red outline of 1 pixel width. Classification Rules Classifying data is the process of grouping your data together into classes that have similar values. One classifies data in order to make the different data in your map easier to understand and manage. You can also classify your data to discover and expose spatial patterns in your geodata that are not obvious. The ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor includes two different methods to classify your data. The type of classification that you choose should depend on the type of data you intend to classify. Discrete Classification - If your data are categorical, such as unique names for land use parcels or types of roads, you should choose the discrete classification type. Range Classification - If your data are raw (such as population counts), ranked to show a progression of values (such as best to worst scholastic scores in a given 144

145 region), or represent percentages (such as percentage of given area that are affected by pollution), you should use the range classification type. You can apply classification on any valid data type: points, lines or polygons. Simply open the properties of the layer you want to classify by right-clicking on the layer or double-click the layer itself. To help you create styles for each value or range of values of your classification, use the Classes Populator in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. This tool creates a collection of styles by allowing you to modify their parameters according to a specified color palette or color gradient. You can also edit or create additional styles manually to append additional values to your classification or even create a brand new classification. Topics Discrete Classification Range Classification Classification Rule Example Discrete Classification After you open the styling properties of a layer, choose the Discrete Classification option. The Discrete Classification style presents three tabs: General Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. It changes according to the geometry you want to render. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129), Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) or Uniform Rule for Polygon Features (on page 139) for more information about the options in the panel. Classification Settings: Build your classification's classes. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Label panel. See the Label Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129) for more information about the options in the panel. 145

146 Classification Settings Property - In order to classify your data, you must choose a field from your geographic data that contains valid information for classification. If your layer references a valid table or object database, you may click the drop-down menu on the Property dialog. The menu exposes the fields in your table or object database that are valid for creating classifications for the selected layer's features. Type - Defines the type of data you build your classification upon. Literal Integer Matching is done on a character-by-character basis between the key and the string value of the data field. This is the default matching type and corresponds to the most common usage. Matching is done on an integer basis. This may be useful when the classification keys are logically integers, but the feature data field has a real number type (values are rounded to the nearest integer before matching). 146

147 Real Number Matching is done on a real number basis, with a limited precision of 1/1000th. This ensures that the right classification styles are chosen when using real number data, including between different computer architectures (values are rounded a bit before matching). Styles - Define all your classification's classes either manually or by using the Classes Populator. This table lists the already defined classes by their key value. There is an overview of the style associated with each class. Key: Value to which the selected feature's property should be rendered as defined in the associated style. Style: This area displays an icon previewing the associated style (mainly line and fill color). See Creating Classes Manually for Discrete Classification below for information on how to create and edit classes manually. Opacity - Opens a window to control the opacity level for the entire layer. Opacity ranges from 0 to 255 and is set once for the layer. You can also define an opacity level for one class by setting the "opacity" property of its associated style fill color. Populate - Open the Classes Populator. See Creating Classes with Classes Populator for Discrete Classification to learn how to use this tool. 147

148 Creating Classes Manually for Discrete Classification Classes can be created manually. You must first create a new entry in the classes table, assign it a value and define a style for it based on the Labeled Basic Style type. To create a new class: 1. Right-click on any class and select Insert. A new line is added to the Styles Table. 2. Enter a key value for your class. Right-click on this class and select edit. The Edit dialog opens. 3. Set the style options to reflect the display you want and then click the Close button to close the window and save your changes. Click the Next button to edit the following class (according to the Styles Table order). 148

149 The following Edit window options are available to define a style for a specific class: Title - Define a title for your classification. This title will be used when displaying a legend for your classification. If no values are entered here, the legend is generated with the key value as a title for the class. Graphic - Define the display of the feature classification. The options are the same as for the Graphic panel of the Labeled Basic Style rule. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. 149

150 Percent Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Cap - Choose the type of end caps for your linear features. End caps specify the shape of the endpoints of an open path. Butt Round Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with no added decoration. By default, end caps use this setting. Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a round decoration that has a radius equal to half of the width of the line stroke. Square Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a square projection that extends beyond the end of the segment to a distance equal to half of the line width stroke. Join - Sets how you want your lines to be joined together: Bevel Miter Join path segments by connecting the outer corners of their wide outlines with a straight segment. A beveled join will display corners as squared-off path segment corners, so that the joint appears flat rather than rounded or pointed. Join path segments by extending their outside edges until they meet. This is the default option. Miter joins path segments with sharp corners that extend to a single point. Round Join path segments by rounding off the corner at a radius of half the line width. Dashing - Set if you want lines to be continuous, dashed, or dotted. Continuous Dotted... Dashed Dash Dot

151 Dash Dot Dot Fill - Selects a paint color for filling the area of a polygon. Choose a color from the drop-down color list or using the color palette by clicking the... button. Next - Saves your modifications and displays the styles parameters for the next class according to the order of the layers. Close - Saves your modifications and closes the window. Creating Classes with Classes Populator for Discrete Classification Use the Classes Populator to easily populate classifications of your data. It provides an easy way to build classifications based on a color palette, color gradient, or a two color interpolation. The tool also lets you specify a fixed number of values (or value ranges when used from a Range Classification). To create classes using the Classes Populator: 1. Create a new Discrete Classification rule. Open the style properties and select the Classification panel. 2. Select a feature property to classify upon. 3. Select a type for the feature's property. 4. Click the Populate button. The Populate Style List dialog opens. 5. Set the General parameters on the Populate Style List dialog Max. Value Count - Defines the maximum number of different values to be kept when generating classes. 151

152 When used with a Discrete Classification, the n -being the maximum number of valuesfirst values coming from the features are kept while all other values are displayed using the default style as defined in the General panel of the Discrete Classification. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Percent Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Fill Color - Selects a paint color for filling the area of a polygon. Choose a color from the drop-down color list or using the color palette by clicking the... button. 152

153 6. Set the Advanced parameters Max. Feature Count - Defines the maximum number of features to be retrieved from the data source, either local or remote, to build the classes. The check box in front of the input field allows you to de-activate this feature. Reducing the maximum number of features to be retrieved may significantly improve classes building time if the data source holds a large amount of features. When used, the classes' values are computed over the reduced set of data fetched. This means some values may not be taken into account when viewing the complete data set. Clear Existing Styles - Determines whether the existing classes should be erased when generating new classifications. If you want to create a brand new set of classification classes, choose True. If you want the newly generated classes to be appended to the existing ones, choose False. Key Sorting - This section handles the generated classes order. This is important if you style your classification with the color gradient or color palette and you want the colors to reflect a data value. Ordering - Even when doing a discrete classification, it is better to have values ordered in a logical way. Note that this setting has no effect on rendering, but may ease the editing of generated classes lists. None Natural Numeric Classified values are not sorted. This is the fastest option. Classified values are sorted lexicographically. This is the default option. Classified values are sorted in a pseudo-numeric order. 153

154 Reversed - When an ordering has been set on classification keys, you may reverse the resulting list. 7. Click OK for the classes to be generated and added to the Styles Table. Range Classification After you open the styling properties of a layer and select the Range Classification option, the Range Classification Rule presents three panels: General Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. It changes according to the geometry you want to render. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129), Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) or Uniform Rule for Polygon Features (on page 139) for more information about the options in the panel. Classification settings: This panel is similar to the Discrete Classification panel except for the lack of the feature's property type selection. Range classification assumes the property type is numeric. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Label panel. See the Label Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129) for more information about the options in the panel. 154

155 Classification Settings Property - Sets the feature's property upon which you build your classification. The drop-down list shows the complete list of available properties for the selected layer's features. Range classification can only be made upon numeric values. This is why you cannot select a property type. The Discrete Classification - Classification panel allows this type of behavior. Entries - Define all your classification's classes either manually or by using the Classes Populator. This table lists the already defined classes by their key value. There is an overview of the style associated with each class. Key: Range of values to which the selected feature's property should be rendered as defined in the associated style. The key values here are composed of two comma separated numeric values to represent the range. 155

156 Style: This area displays an icon previewing the associated style (mainly line and fill color). See Creating Classes Manually for Range Classification below for information on how to create and edit classes manually. Opacity - Opens a window to control the opacity level for the entire layer. Opacity ranges from 0 to 255 and is set once for the layer. You can also define an opacity level for one class by setting the "opacity" property of its associated style fill color. Populate - Open the Classes Populator. See Creating Classes with Classes Populator for Range Classification below to learn how to use this tool. Creating Classes Manually for Range Classification Classes can be created manually. You must first create a new entry in the classes table, assign it a value and define a style for it based on the Labeled Basic Style type. To create a new class: 1. Right-click on any class and select Insert. A new line is added to the Styles Table. 156

157 2. Enter a key value for your class. Right-click on this class and select edit. The Edit dialog opens. 3. Set the style options to reflect the display you want and then click the Close button to close the window and save your changes. Click the Next button to edit the following class (according to the Styles Table order). The following Edit window options are available to define a style for a specific class: Title - Define a title for your classification. This title will be used when displaying a legend for your classification. If no values are entered here, the legend is generated with the key value as a title for the class. Graphic - Define the display of the feature classification. The options are the same as for the Graphic panel of the Labeled Basic Style rule. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. 157

158 Pixels Meters Percent Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Cap - Choose the type of end caps for your linear features. End caps specify the shape of the endpoints of an open path. Butt Round Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with no added decoration. By default, end caps use this setting. Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a round decoration that has a radius equal to half of the width of the line stroke. Square Terminate unclosed subpaths and dash segments with a square projection that extends beyond the end of the segment to a distance equal to half of the line width stroke. Join - Sets how you want your lines to be joined together: Bevel Miter Join path segments by connecting the outer corners of their wide outlines with a straight segment. A beveled join will display corners as squared-off path segment corners, so that the joint appears flat rather than rounded or pointed. Join path segments by extending their outside edges until they meet. This is the default option. Miter joins path segments with sharp corners that extend to a single point. Round Join path segments by rounding off the corner at a radius of half the line width. Dashing - Set if you want lines to be continuous, dashed, or dotted. 158

159 Continuous Dotted... Dashed Dash Dot Dash Dot Dot Fill - Selects a paint color for filling the area of a polygon. Choose a color from the drop-down color list or using the color palette by clicking the... button. Next - Saves your modifications and displays the styles parameters for the next class according to the order of the layers. Close - Saves your modifications and closes the window. Creating Classes with Classes Populator for Range Classification Use the Classes Populator tool to easily create all the classes of a classification. However, the panels slightly change in terms of handling numeric values as opposed to key values. To create classes using Classes Populator: 1. Create a new Range Classification rule. Open the style's properties and select the Classification panel. 2. Select a feature property to classify upon. 3. Select a type for the feature's property. 4. Click the Populate button. The Populate Style List dialog opens. 159

160 5. Set the General parameters on the Populate Style List dialog Nb of Classes - Defines the number of classes to be generated. Graphic Sources - You can query data from the data source, check the selected property's range values and then split it in "n" sub ranges (n being the number of requested steps). Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. 160

161 Percent Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Fill Color - Selects a paint color for filling the area of a polygon. Choose a color from the drop-down color list or using the color palette by clicking the... button. 6. Set the Advanced parameters Max. Feature Count - Defines the maximum number of features to be retrieved from the data source, either local or remote, to build the classes. The check box in front of the input field allows you to deactivate this feature. Reducing the maximum number of features to be retrieved may highly improve classes building time if the data source holds a large amount of features. When used, the classes' values are computed over the reduced set of data retrieved. This means some values may not be taken into account when viewing the complete data set. Clear Existing Styles - Determines whether or not the already existing classes should be erased when generating new ones. If you want to create a brand new set of classification classes, select True. If you want the newly generated classes to append the existing ones, select False. Classification - Type - Select from three different classification types: Linear, Logarithmic, and Quantile to compute the bounds of the intervals. First choose the number of classes you want and the classification types. For example, you have a 161

162 population property for 20 regions in a country. The value range is from 0-20,000. You have chosen to display only five classes or intervals. Linear Logarithmic Quantile Divides the value range into five equivalent intervals. For the example, the first class displays values from and the second class displays from Each region that has less than a population of 4000 is drawn using the geometry properties assigned to the first classification interval. Divides the value range into five intervals using a logarithmic progression to compute each interval range. Therefore, in the example, the first class is 0 to and the second is to The interval sizes actually grow in an exponential way. Each class contains the same number of features. Population counts (as opposed to density or percentage), for example, are usually not suitable for quantile classification because only a few places are highly populated. Quantiles are best suited for data that is linearly distributed; in other words, data that does not have disproportionate numbers of features with similar values. 7. Click OK for the classes to be generated and added to the Styles Tables. Classification Rule Example Here is a sample map, composed of two layers and produced by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor using the Classification style rules: Protected Areas Ranged classification with a style variation on the fill opacity (from 85 to 175). 162

163 Land Use Discrete classification upon land usage code styled with a dedicated color palette. 163

164 Uniform Roads Rule This rule is meant for rendering data representing types of roads. Although the parameters are similar to the Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134), the rendering process has been updated to enable users to portray roads and line segment junctions more efficiently. The labeling contained in this rule also allows road and river specific behaviors, such as spline labeling. This rule can be used with line geometry only. The rule configuration is composed of three panels. Graphic Settings: As with the Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) setting, you may configure the options for styling lines and center lines in terms of color, line types, end points and joining. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. Symbol Settings: Apply a symbol to the feature being drawn, either from those already supplied with ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor or by importing one of your own collections. 164

165 Graphic Settings Antialiasing - Antialiasing is used for smoothing jagged edges in text characters and line segments. Enabling it may dramatically improve readability, but may affect the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's performance. These anti-aliasing options are available from the drop-down menu: None Shapes Only Text Only Antialiasing is not applied at all, resulting in faster performance but jagged edges may appear on text characters and line segments. Antialiasing is applied only to line segments. Text at small sizes may appear jagged. Antialiasing is applied to text only, but line segments may appear jagged. Full This is the default value for this option. Antialiasing is applied to both text and line segments. This is the smoother and the slower rendering mode. Outline, Centerline - These groups set the line features of the road outline and centerline. 165

166 Width - Defines the line's width. This value is expressed in the unit chosen from the drop down unit selector. See the table below for details on width unit options. SRS Units Pixels Meters Percent Width value is a number of units in the result image SRS. These units may be degrees, meters, inches or any other linear measure depending on the SRS used. This way width is strongly tied to the image scale. Value is expressed in pixels in the resulting image, regardless of its scale. Width value is converted into meters in the resulting image SRS. This is somewhat the same behavior as the SRS Units option. Value is expressed as a percentage of the result envelope. See section "7.10 Units" of W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 for more details on unit specification. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. 166

167 Label Settings Property - Lists all properties exposed by the data source (either from a WFS or local shapefile). Select the one you want to use as the labeling property. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. The fonts available in the font chooser are the ones installed on your local computer. Ensure the font you have chosen is available on your remote server. If the selected font is not available on the remote server, font substitution will take place and the produced map may be slightly different from the preview in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down color list or by using the color palette by clicking the... button. Placement - You may choose to align your feature labels in the same location with respect to the feature being labeled. Choosing the alignment management option allows you to pick the location in which the label should be located in terms of the point feature. Horizontal Labels are written horizontally at the centroid of the feature geometry. 167

168 On Curve (Stairs) On Curve Over Curve Individual characters from the text are drawn along the curve without being rotated, producing a staircase effect. Individual characters from the text are drawn and rotated to follow the curve. Individual characters from the text are drawn and rotated to follow the curve, but are offset to "float" over the curve. Under Curve Individual characters from the text are drawn and rotated to follow the curve, but are offset to "hang" under the curve. Offset - The number of pixels to offset the label from the road. Path Smoothing - The amount of "smoothing" to apply to the label text. 168

169 Symbol Settings Symbol - Defines the symbol to be used. Click Browse button to choose the symbol in the Select Symbol dialog. Add new items (SVG, PNG, GIF or TrueType font) and remove the existing ones by right-clicking in the Select Symbol dialog. 169

170 If you choose to add a new item, a browse window opens directly in ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's Symbols folder where you find other useful images (for example, in Road_Signs you find a shield to properly label U.S. routes). Inherits - This group of options is specific to SVG symbols which allow color override. If the selected symbol is not an SVG, or if it is an SVG which does not support this feature, this group is not accessible and its options are displayed in light grey. Fill Paint - Define the interior color of the selected symbol. Stroke Paint - Defines the outline color of the selected symbol. Label Label Property - Lists all properties exposed by the data source (either from a WFS or local shapefile) and allows you to pick the one you want to use as the labelling property. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down color list or by using the color palette by clicking the... button. Geometry Size - Define the size of your symbol in pixels. Uniform Roads Rule Example Here is a sample map, composed of two layers and produced by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor using Uniform Roads style rules: Highways Displays a red centerline with a black outline. 170

171 Roads Displays a gray centerline with a black outline. Known Symbol Rule This rule is meant to display symbols quickly for selected features rather than portray their feature geometry. For performance reasons, it only allows the selection of the symbol from a fixed, predefined set of fast-to-render markers rather than allowing the selection of an arbitrary SVG, PNG, or GIF file as the other rules do. This rule can be used with any kind of geometry. The configuration is composed of three panels. Graphic Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. Symbol Settings: Configure the appearance of your symbol in terms of size and rotation angle. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Label panel. See the Label Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129) for more information about the options in the panel. Graphic Settings Antialiasing - Antialiasing is used for smoothing jagged edges in text characters and line segments. Enabling it may dramatically improve readability, but may affect the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's performance. These anti-aliasing options are available from the drop-down menu: 171

172 None Shapes Only Text Only Antialiasing is not applied at all, resulting in faster performance but jagged edges may appear on text characters and line segments. Antialiasing is applied only to line segments. Text at small sizes may appear jagged. Antialiasing is applied to text only, but line segments may appear jagged. Full This is the default value for this option. Antialiasing is applied to both text and line segments. This is the smoother and the slower rendering mode. Stroke, Fill - Colors to use to draw and fill the symbols. Paint - Selects a paint color for the feature. Symbol Settings Select this color from the drop-down color list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Deactivate the Paint option by unchecking the box next to the color drop down option. Known Name - Choose one of the symbol shapes: Square Circle Triangle 172

173 Cross Plus Moon Pentagon Hexagon Size (pixels) - Define the width and height of the symbols to be displayed. Angle - Set a rotation angle for the symbols to be displayed. Known Symbol Rule Example Here is a sample map, composed of three layers and produced by the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor using Known Symbol style rules: Place Names Protected Areas Land Parcels White circles with a black stroke Green crosses Yellow filled triangles with a red stroke Feature Numberer Rule The Feature Numberer marks the features with sequential numbers based on the distance of the feature's centroid from the center of the map. A symbol can be specified, in which case the label containing the feature number is overlaid on top of it. A maximum number of symbols/labels can 173

174 be set; if reached, only the features that are the nearest to the map center get numbered and displayed. This rule can be used with any kind of geometry. The configuration is composed of three panels. Graphic Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. It changes according to the geometry you want to render. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129), Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) or Uniform Rule for Polygon Features (on page 139) for more information about the options in the panel. Marker Settings: Select a symbol on which the numeric counter labels are overlaid. Numbering Settings: Set aspects of the rule that affect numbering. Marker Settings Use this panel to select a symbol on which the labels representing the numeric counter will be overlaid. It contains the following configurable properties: Symbol - Select a symbol already present in the symbol library of the provider, or import a new one by clicking the Browse... button. Size - Set the width and height (in pixels) to which the chosen symbol will be resized for display on the map. Select an appropriate marker size according to the numbering font, so that the text appears "circled" by the selected symbol. 174

175 Numbering Settings This panel contains the properties related to the numbering (and subsequent labeling) of features. Font - Choose the font to be used for text labels through a standard font chooser. The fonts available in the font chooser are the ones installed on your local computer. Ensure the font that you chose is available on your remote server. If the selected font is not available on the remote server, font substitution will take place and the produced map may be slightly different from the preview in the ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor. Color - Defines the text color for the label. Select a color from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Halo - You can add a Halo to your labels. The Halo option is essentially a background color for your labels. You can use it to draw attention to the labels that you have created. You can select a color and width in pixels for the halo of your text labels. This functionality is useful if you want to be sure your text can be read when used in every kind of map, regardless of the color used in the other layers. For example, you may want to set a black text and a white surrounding halo. In this way your text can be read regardless of the underlying layer colors. Width - Sets the width of the halo in pixels. You can deactivate the halo by deselecting the check box in front of the size entry box. Color - Defines the halo color for the label. A color can be chosen from the drop-down list or use the color palette by clicking the... button. Management Max Count - Constrain the number of numbered features to be displayed on the map. For example, a Max Count of 5 limits the display to only the five nearest interest points. If the checkbox is left unchecked, no constraints are applied and all features are drawn. 175

176 Store As - When set, it instructs the rule to store a list of (feature, number) pairs in the rendering context for later processing. This is useful when the rule is used in conjunction with external clients. Variable Markers Rule This rule is meant to pin a marker on a geometry, optionally scaling and rotating it according to the feature's property values. This rule is also known under the name "Pinner." This rule can be used with any kind of geometry. The configuration is composed of three panels. Graphic Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. It changes according to the geometry you want to render. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129), Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) or Uniform Rule for Polygon Features (on page 139) for more information about the options in the panel. Marker Settings: Define the marker to be used and how to configure rotation and scaling according to the feature's properties. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Label panel. See the Label Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129) for more information about the options in the panel. 176

177 Marker Settings Anti Clashing - Activate the Clash Manager on the generated marker. The Clash Manager is in charge of making all markers visible and avoiding overlap either by slightly moving them or by grouping some of them into a single marker if they are to be drawn in the same area. Clash Management is made according to the map request's scale. 177

178 Symbol - Defines the symbol to be used. Click Browse button to choose the symbol in the Select Symbol dialog. Add new items (SVG, PNG, GIF or TrueType font) and remove the existing ones by right-clicking in the Select Symbol dialog. If you choose to add a new item, a browse window opens directly in ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's Symbols folder where you find other useful images (for example, in Road_Signs you find a shield to properly label U.S. routes). Inherits - This group of options is specific to SVG symbols which allow color override. If the selected symbol is not an SVG, or if it is an SVG which does not support this feature, this group is not accessible and its options are displayed in light grey. Fill Paint - Define the interior color of the selected symbol. Stroke Paint - Defines the outline color of the selected symbol. Size Source - Determine how the size of the marker will be computed according to the selected feature's property, a property's value range, and a marker size range. The final marker size is computed by mapping the value range to the marker size range linearly. Property - The property to use to determine the size of the marker. Value Range - The minimum and maximum values of the property. Property values outside of this range will automatically be clipped to the nearest bound. Marker Size Range - The minimum and maximum sizes for the marker. Orientation Source - Determine how the orientation of the marker will be computed according to the selected feature's property and a rotation value range. The final rotation is computed by linearly mapping the property value range to the rotation range (0 to 360 degrees). 178

179 Property - Numeric property used when varying the rotation of the marker. Value Range - The minimum and maximum values of the property. Property values outside of this range will automatically be clipped to the nearest bound. Patterner Rule This rule is meant to fill polygonal geometries with a symbol serving as a pattern. A template mechanism on the symbol file name allows you to change the symbol based on the values of the feature type's properties. The rule configuration is made of three panels: Graphic Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. It changes according to the geometry you want to render. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129), Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) or Uniform Rule for Polygon Features (on page 139) for more information about the options in the panel. Pattern Settings: Where you define the pattern to be used. Label Settings: Define your labeling options. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Label panel. See the Label Settings section in Uniform Rule for Point Features (on page 129) for more information about the options in the panel. 179

180 Pattern Settings Symbol Template - Here you may provide a link to a local or remote symbol through an HTTP link. You may also use a relative reference to the rendering symbol directory of the portrayal engine. You may also enter strings with template parameters that evaluate to the name of a symbol file in the renderer library. Parameters within curly brackets are substituted with the corresponding feature property values to generate the symbol template filename. Example: lib/{type}-{code}.png Size - The pixel-equivalent width and height of a pattern title Pattern Color Sources Foreground - Here you may select an integer (RGB 32 bits) property of the feature whose value will be used as the pattern foreground color. Background - Here you may select an integer (RGB 32 bits) property of the feature whose value will be used as the pattern background color. 180

181 Symbol Roller Rule The Symbol Roller styling rule stamps scaled/rotated symbols along curves. It obtains the symbols to use for stamping by cycling through a user-configured list. The Symbol Roller rule is composed of two panels. Graphic Settings: Provides a set of options to configure a display for values for your specified classes. This panel offers the same options as the Uniform styling rule's Graphic panel. See the Graphic Settings section in Uniform Rule for Line Features (on page 134) for more information about the options in the panel. Symbol Settings: Provides the configuration mechanism for the list of symbols used for stamping. Use this panel to insert, edit, delete, and reorder the entries of the list of symbols used for stamping. Note that the rule cycles the elements in the list to determine the next symbol to apply, so the order of the entries affects the rendering. Right-click to open the menu options. New - Creates a new entry, and opens the companion configuration dialog. The entry is inserted in the list when the dialog is closed by clicking OK. See the New Entry dialog below for more information. Move Up - Moves the current entry up by one position. Move Down - Moves the current entry down by one position. Delete - Removes the current entry for the list (destructive operation). Properties - Shows the companion configuration dialog for the current entry. The Next option is a simple shortcut to skip to the next entry once the current one is configured. 181

182 New Entry Dialog This dialog opens when you click New or Properties in Symbol Rollers dialog. Symbol - Defines the symbol to be used. Click Browse button to choose the symbol in the Select Symbol dialog. Add new items (SVG, PNG, GIF or TrueType font) and remove the existing ones by right-clicking in the Select Symbol dialog. If you choose to add a new item, a browse window opens directly in ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor's Symbols folder where you find other useful images (for example, in Road_Signs you find a shield to properly label U.S. routes). Inherits - This group of options is specific to SVG symbols which allow color override. 182

183 If the selected symbol is not an SVG, or if it is an SVG which does not support this feature, this group is not accessible and its options are displayed in light grey. Fill Paint - Define the interior color of the selected symbol. Stroke Paint - Defines the outline color of the selected symbol. Symbol Orientation - Change the orientation of the symbol by dragging either endpoint of the arrow so that it points in the desired direction. Common Elements This section describes windows and palette commonly used in the style definition like color palette or font chooser. Color Chooser The Color Chooser opens from anywhere in the application where a color is requested. It offers the possibility to pick one color from an RGB palette or to make a specific color with Hue-Saturation-Brightness values or Red-Green-Blue values. It also offers the ability to set an opacity level for a rendered color. Color Chooser - Swatches Panel Select one of the swatches available from the complete palette or from the recently used colors (in the "recent" palette showing the recently chosen colors). The Preview section displays a set of sample usage of the selected color for texts, areas, and reverse texts. 183

184 Color Chooser - HSB Panel This panel allows you to select a color by giving its hue-saturation-brightness values or selecting from within the color gradient. The panel provides, as an indication, the values of the selected color in RGB. Color Chooser - RGB Panel 184

185 The RGB (Red-Green-Blue) panel allows you to select a color by entering its RGB values (ranging from 0 to 255). Color Chooser - Opacity Panel The opacity panel provides a way to set an opacity or transparency level to the selected color. Opacity values range from 0 to 255, 0 being totally transparent and 255 completely opaque. 185

186 Font Selector The font selector is a window used each time a font has been requested as your input. It offers basic font selection behavior and allows you to select one of the fonts installed on your local machine. Be sure to select a font that is also available on the server where you want to deploy your styles. If the selected font is not available on the server, the server will substitute the most similar system font available. Business Data in the Catalog The most common use of the ERDAS APOLLO catalog is to store imagery, vectors, and service providers. However, you can also catalog business data files such as spreadsheets, PDFs, movies, and other documents. You can add business data using the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager, the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog Web Interface, or the REST interface of the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog. After you add business data, you will be able to locate it and view it in the Search tab of the ERDAS APOLLO Geospatial Portal or on the Browse page of the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog Web Interface. Business Data with Exif Metadata When you crawl image data that contains Exif metadata, ERDAS APOLLO will automatically extract and store the Exif metadata in the catalog. The Exif metadata can be viewed in Data Manager or in the Catalog Web Interface. In Data Manager, the Exif metadata for a dataset is 186

187 displayed under the Free Metadata node in the Properties tab. In the Catalog Web Interface, the Exif metadata for a dataset is displayed as properties in the FREE_METADATA section of the web page for a dataset. Defining Metadata with GIM Files ERDAS APOLLO allows you to define metadata to be associated with a cataloged business document through the use of an optional auxiliary file called a Generic Item Metadata (GIM) file. A GIM file is an xml file that includes metadata about the business document and is associated to it using a naming convention. To associate a GIM file with a business data file, name the GIM file with same name as the business data file but append an extra ".gim" extension to the name. For example, if the business data file name is BalboaPark.png, the GIM file should be named BalboaPark.png.gim. Copy or save the GIM file into the same folder as the business data file. Create the GIMf file before crawling the business data file. ERDAS APOLLO looks for and reads the information in the GIM file when the business data file is crawled. The xml schema for a GIM file includes the following: Tag Description and Example Optional Mandator item type <identifier> <name> <title> Object Type (mime type) - the type of the object is a Concept that is identified by a name. An object type can have a parent object type so it is possible to build a tree of object types. type="image/png" Identifier - a user-identifier that must be unique within the whole catalog (and preferably across catalog, such as a global unique identifier). If none is provided, one is generated automatically. <identifier>58dcd95c0a2c7eb601ad4febd </identifier> Name - the name of the item <name>balboapark</name> Title - the title of the item, that is a short human-readable description of the item (255 chars max) <title>balboa Park in San Diego, CA</title> Mandatory Optional Optional Optional <description> Description - the full description of the item (also known as an abstract, 4,000 chars max) <description>map of Balboa Park in San Diego, California</description> Optional 187

188 <tags> <footprint> Tags - a list of tags which are single words that describe/categorize the item without a formal classification (this can be seen as the tagging system in Web 2.0) <tags>balboa, Park, California, San Diego</tags> Footprint - the footprint of the item expressed in WKT. The SRS of any coordinates included in the WKT is assumed to be in EPSG 4326 unless the srs="epsg:<code>" parameter is included. Footprint coordinates should always be specified in x,y or long,lat order. <footprint POINT ( )</footprint> or <footprint srs="epsg:3857" POINT ( )</footprint> Optional Optional <resource-url> <icon-url> <properties> Resource URL - a reference to a document or any other resource to link to the document (image, document, video, music, and so forth) <resource-url mimetype="application/pdf">balboaparkmap.pdf</resource-url > Icon URL - a reference to a thumbnail <icon-url mimetype="image/jpeg">balboaparkthumb.jpg</icon-url> Properties - a set of arbitrary properties that you can create for the object type so that you can store additional metadata for objects of that type. <properties></properties> Optional Optional Optional The following is an example of a complete GIM file based on the example snippets from the table above: <?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?> <item xmlns="http://schema.erdas.com/apollo/catalog" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/xmlschema-instance" xsi:schemalocation="http://schema.erdas.com/apollo/catalog version="1.0" type="image/png" identifiedby="identifier"> 188

189 <identifier>58dcd95c0a2c7eb601ad4febd </identifier> <name>balboapark</name> <title>balboa Park in San Diego, CA</title> <description>map of Balboa Park in San Diego, California</description> <tags>balboa, Park, California, San Diego</tags> <footprint srs="epsg:3857" POINT ( )</footprint> <resource-url mimetype="application/pdf">balboaparkmap.pdf</resource-url> <icon-url mimetype="image/jpeg">balboaparkthumb.jpg</icon-url> </item> Viewing Business Data in the Catalog Web Interface You can search for business data documents on the Browse page of the Catalog Web Interface (see "Browsing and Searching Content" on page 18) by selecting "Documents" in the Data Type Filter. The Catalog Web Interface displays all of the documents returned by the search. When you click the name of a resource, Catalog Web Interface uses the mime type of the resource to launch the correct application so you can view it. 189

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191 S E C T I O N 5 Coordinate Reference Systems This section explains how coordinate reference systems are used in ERDAS APOLLO. ERDAS APOLLO software and documentation use the terms "Coordinate Reference System (CRS)" and "Spatial Reference System (SRS)" interchangeably. In This Section Coordinate Reference System Engines Passing CRS Parameters in Web Requests Adding a Custom CRS Coordinate Reference System Engines ERDAS APOLLO uses several coordinate reference system engines to manage the geospatial data stored in its catalog and to communicate with the wide variety of clients that use ERDAS APOLLO data and services. The primary ERDAS APOLLO coordinate system engine supports over 4,700 geographic and projected coordinate reference systems. These coordinate reference systems as well the transformations that convert coordinates between the various systems are based on the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset. The EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset is a collection of coordinate reference systems and transformations originally created by the European Petroleum Survey Group and now maintained by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP). In this system, a coordinate reference system is specified by referencing a simple four or five digit number commonly referred to as an EPSG code. A second coordinate reference system engine used by ERDAS APOLLO is based on the ERDAS IMAGINE projection system. ERDAS APOLLO utilizes a subset of ERDAS IMAGINE raster libraries to read various types of image files. In these cases, the ERDAS IMAGINE projection system is used to read and interpret the georeferencing information and coordinate reference system associated with the image file. A third coordinate reference system engine used by ERDAS APOLLO is based on the Intergraph GeoMedia and Geospatial SDI common coordinate system platform (CCS). When ERDAS APOLLO crawls vector data it uses CCS to read and interpret the coordinate reference system associated with the vector data. An internal representation of a CCS coordinate reference system, called a CCS moniker, is used when ERDAS APOLLO communicates with the Geospatial SDI WMS service. Because the WMS service is used to generate thumbnails for raster data, CCS is also needed when crawling raster data. When ERDAS APOLLO uses the ERDAS IMAGINE projection system or the Geospatial SDI common coordinate system to read data, it always converts the coordinate reference system information back to an EPSG code so that the information maintained in the ERDAS APOLLO catalog is stored in the primary ERDAS APOLLO coordinate system. 191

192 Passing CRS Parameters in Web Requests ERDAS APOLLO supports two different syntaxes for passing coordinate reference system parameters in web requests. The first is an OGC standard based on a simple syntax of code:value, where code is either "EPSG" or "AUTO". "EPSG" is followed by the EPSG code of the coordinate reference system. "AUTO" is used for Automatic projections, as defined in the WMS specification appendix. Examples of CRS parameters in code:value syntax are: EPSG:4326 for the WGS84 geographic system EPSG:32632 for the UTM 32 North projection based on the WGS84 datum AUTO:42003,9001,-100,45 for an Automatic CRS in UTM, meters, centered on (-100,45) Coordinate reference system parameters may also be passed as Universal Resource Names (URNs). CRS URNs as defined by OGC must have the form: urn:opengis:def:crs:authority:version:code. "authority" can be one of "OGC" or "EPSG" "version" will generally be empty "code" is the value given by the authority Examples of CRS parameters in URN syntax are: urn:opengis:def:crs:ogc::84 for the WGS84 geographic system urn:opengis:def:crs:epsg::32632 for the UTM 32 North projection based on the WGS84 datum CRS parameters in code:value or URN syntax can be used in HTTP-GET and HTTP-POST requests and can be found in Service Metadata (capabilities) documents as well as in other XML outputs such as responses to a DescribeFeatureType request or in a GML output. Adding a Custom CRS Although many common coordinate reference systems are supported by the ERDAS APOLLO, ERDAS IMAGINE and CCS coordinate reference system engines, you may encounter cases where the CRS of your data is not supported in one or more of the engines. In these cases, you can customize each of the CRS engines as needed so that ERDAS APOLLO can crawl and serve your data. 192

193 For raster data, all three engines must support the CRS of the data. The ERDAS APOLLO and CCS engines are needed for vector data. Refer to the Troubleshooting sections Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures during a WMS Request (on page 211) and Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures When Crawling Vector Data (on page 212) for detailed instructions on generating and interpreting log files to check for CRS failures. Topics Adding a Custom ERDAS APOLLO Coordinate Reference System 193 Adding a Custom ERDAS IMAGINE Coordinate Reference System 200 Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System 201 Adding a Custom ERDAS APOLLO Coordinate Reference System Follow the instructions in these sections to add a custom CRS to the native ERDAS APOLLO CRS engine. Topics Unzipping cots-srs.jar Creating or modifying usersref.xml Modifying coordinate_system_category.xml Rezipping new files into cots-srs.jar Updating ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager Restarting the Application Server Unzipping cots-srs.jar All of the ERDAS APOLLO coordinate reference system related files are located in the cots.srs.jar file which is located in the <APOLLO_HOME>\webapps\erdas-apollo\WEB-INF\lib folder. Open the cots-srs.jar file with a zip utility. Unzip the file to a separate location and browse to \com\ionicsoft\sref\impl\resource\. The following CRS files are included: sref.xml - contains a factory reference location - do not modify this file factorysref.xml - default ERDAS CRS file - contains the information for all ERDAS-supported CRSs - do not modify this file ionicsref.xml - contains additional CRSs requested by customers usersref.xml - contains any custom CRSs - this file is not included in the installation. It is created it when you add a custom CRS 193

194 coordinate_system_category.xml - groups CRSs found in factorysref,xml, ionicsref.xml, and usersref.xml into Geographic, Projected, or Custom categories Unzipping cots.srs.jar may also unpack some files not listed above. Do not modify any of these files. The entry file is sref.xml. It contains INCLUDE references to the other files. Creating or modifying usersref.xml If usersref.xml already exists, you can skips steps 1 and 2, open the existing usersref.xml in a text editor and create a new entry after the last </PROJCS> closing tag. 1. Create a new usersref.xml by opening any text editor and copying or typing the following lines into the new file: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <SREF> </SREF> 2. Save the new file as usersref.xml (in the same folder where you unzipped cots-srs.jar) 3. Open either ionicsref.xml or factorysref.xml from the previously unzipped cots-srs.jar file and find a <PROJCS> entry that uses the same projection (PROJECTION NAME) as the CRS you want to create. 4. Copy the entire entry beginning with a <PROJCS> tag and ending with the </PROJCS> tag. 5. Paste the entry into the usersref.xml file, between the <SREF> and </SREF> tags. Use this as a template to define your custom CRS. A sample of the CRS for EPSG code is shown here: <PROJCS ID="32104" NAME="NAD83 / Nebraska"> <UNIT ID="9001" /> <GEOCS ID="4269" /> <PROJECTION NAME="Lambert Conformal Conic"> <PARAMETER NAME="central_meridian" VALUE="-100.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_easting" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_northing" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="latitude_of_origin" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="standard_parallel_1" VALUE="43.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="standard_parallel_2" VALUE="40.0"/> </PROJECTION> </PROJCS> 194

195 6. Change the PROJCS ID number to the EPSG number you are using for this custom CRS. 7. Change the NAME value to the name you are using for the custom CRS. 8. Change the UNIT ID to the code that represents the units used in the coordinate system (feet, meters, kilometers, etc.) Valid UNIT ID codes can be found in the factorysref.xml file. 9. Change the GEOCS ID to the code that represents the datum or spheroid used for the custom CRS. Valid SPHEROID ID and DATUM ID codes can be found in the factorysref.xml file. When a standard EPSG code DATUM ID conflicts with SPHEROID ID, GEOCS ID, or PROJCS ID, a value of is added to the DATUM ID to eliminate the conflict. For example, in factorysref.xml, DATUM ID 6052 conflicts with PROJCS ID To prevent the conflict, the DATUM ID is renamed to All GEOCS definitions that reference DATUM ID 6052 in factorysref.xml are updated to DATUM ID Change the parameter values (PARAMETER NAME) as needed for projection you are adding. 11. Save and close the usersref.xml file. This is an example of a newly created usersref.xml defining a Projected CRS with an EPSG code of Note that the UNIT ID has been changed from 9001 to 9003 (meters to U.S. survey feet) and that false easting and northing are now expressed in U.S. survey feet instead of meters. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <SREF> <PROJCS ID="26852" NAME="NAD83 / Nebraska (ftus)"> <UNIT ID="9003"/> <GEOCS ID="4269"/> <PROJECTION NAME="Lambert Conformal Conic"> <PARAMETER NAME="central_meridian" VALUE="-100.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_easting" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_northing" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="latitude_of_origin" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="standard_parallel_1" VALUE="40.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="standard_parallel_2" VALUE="43.0"/> </PROJECTION> </PROJCS> <SREF> If the usersref.xml file will be used with another program such as ERDAS APOLLO Style Editor or the command-line tool, copy it to a location with the com\ionicsoft\sref\impl\resource structure and add the root of that structure to CLASSPATH. 195

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197 Modifying coordinate_system_category.xml Adding your new CRS to a logical location in coordinate_system_category.xml will make it easier to find and select your CRS in other ERDAS APOLLO commands. 1. Navigate to the folder where you unzipped cots-srs.jar and open coordinate_system_category.xml in a text editor. 2. Browse through coordinate_system_category.xml to decide where to add your new coordinate system. Notice that the categories have a two-level hierarchy. There are only two categories in the top level: Geographic Coordinates Systems and Projected Coordinate Systems. These two categories are split into many subcategories representing locations around the world. If you want to add your CRS to an existing location category, be sure to select one in the correct top level category. If you decide not to use an existing category, you can create your own category in either the Geographic Coordinate Systems section or the Projected Coordinate Systems section. To do so, add opening and closing tags for a new category name. For example, here is one for a category called "Custom": <crs:category name="custom"> </crs:category> Ensure any name provided does not conflict with an existing name in the file. The new <crs:category name="custom"> and </crs:category> tags must come before the </crs:categories> end tag. 3. Add your new CRS to the category of your choice. Here is an example of adding the "NAD83 / Nebraska (ftus)" CRS created in an earlier section to the "Custom" category. <crs:category name="custom"> <crs:code name="nad83 / Nebraska (ftus)" value="epsg:26852" /> </crs:category> 4. Save coordinate_system_category.xml and close the text editor. 197

198 Rezipping new files into cots-srs.jar After you have created or modified usersref.xml and/or coordinate_system_category.xml, you must integrate them back into cots-srs.jar. 1. First stop the ERDAS APOLLO application server. 2. Navigate to <APOLLO_HOME>\webapps\erdas-apollo\WEB-INF\lib\and copy cots-srs.jar to a safe folder as a backup. 3. Open cots-srs.jar in a zip file utility. 4. Copy the newly created (or modified) usersref.xml file to the com\ionicsoft\sref\impl\resource folder of the cots-srs.jar file using the zip file utility. 5. Copy the modified coordinate_system_category.xml to the com\ionicsoft\sref\impl\resource folder of the cots-srs.jar file using the zip file utility. 6. Save the cots-srs.jar zip file and exit from the zip utility. Updating ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager The cots-srs.jar file modified for ERDAS APOLLO Server is also used by ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. For each installation of ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager, perform the following steps: 1. Open a DOS command prompt window and navigate to: C:\ProgramData\Hexagon\ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager\Configuration\org.eclipse.osgi\bundles 2. To find the location of the file, type the following at the DOS prompt: dir /s cots-srs.jar This command will return the folder name that contains cots-srs.jar file used by ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. The following highlights the folder returned in a sample installation: C:\ProgramData\Hexagon\ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager\Configuration\org.eclipse.osgi\bundles>dir /s cots-srs.jar Volume in drive C is OS Volume Serial Number is XXXX-XXXX Directory of C:\ProgramData\Hexagon\ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager\Configuration\org.eclipse.osgi\bundles\7\1\.cp\lib 11/14/ :41 PM 424,770 cots-srs.jar 1 File(s) 424,770 bytes 198

199 Total Files Listed: 1 File(s) 424,770 bytes 0 Dir(s) 250,358,890,496 bytes free C:\ProgramData\Hexagon\ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager\Configuration\org.eclipse.osgi\bundles> 3. Make a backup copy of the cots-srs.jar file located in the folder from step 2. In the example above the cots-srs.jar file is in the following folder: C:\ProgramData\Hexagon\ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager\Configuration\org.eclipse.osgi\bundles\7\1\.cp\lib 4. Copy the cots-srs.jar from the <APOLLO_HOME>\webapps\WEB-INF\lib\ folder on the ERDAS APOLLO server to the ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager sub folder identified in step 2. Restarting the Application Server Many ERDAS APOLLO configuration tasks require you to stop and restart the ERDAS APOLLO application server. To stop or start the ERDAS APOLLO application server: 1. Open the Microsoft Windows Services utility. You can find the Services utility in the Administrative Tools section of the Windows Start menu or Start screen 2. If you are using JBoss as your application server select ERDAS APOLLO JBoss Application Server If you are using Tomcat as your application server select ERDAS APOLLO Tomcat Application Server. Right click on the selected service and select Start, Stop or Restart. 199

200 Adding a Custom ERDAS IMAGINE Coordinate Reference System ERDAS IMAGINE coordinate reference systems are defined in <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\native\raster\etc\projections\epsg.plb. To add a new CRS to your ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System, create a new entry in epsg.plb. 1. Navigate to <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\native\raster\etc\projections\ and copy epsg.plb to a safe folder as a backup. 2. Open epsg.plb in a text editor. 3. Create a new entry. The easiest way to create a new entry is to find an existing entry that is similar to the CRS that you want to add, create a copy of it, and then modify the parameters as needed. Pay attention to how the parameters for the projection are defined in the mapprojections.dat file to ensure that you enter them in the correct units. Parameter values must be entered in (scientific) E notation and require 17 significant digits and 3 digits for the exponent. For example: enter as E-003 enter 12,450,000 as E+007 The top level structure of a CRS definition in the epsg.plb file is shown below. Refer to ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System (on page 228) for detailed information on the complete structure of epsg.plb and its supporting files. The following color coded figure shows an example of a CRS definition in epsg.plb. The corresponding color coded table describes the elements of the CRS definition and which of the supporting files these elements reference. Example of an entry in epsg.plb 200

201 Element Color Element Name Description CRS Name The name of the CRS as it will be displayed in the metadata. EPSG Code Projection Identifier The EPSG code for this CRS. You can check the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry at to verify that your number is unique. Identifies the map projection in the mapprojections.dat file to use. Spheroid Name Identifies the name of the spheroid to use in the spheroid.tab file to use. Datum Name Zone Number Identifies the name of the datum. There is a list of the commonly associated datums within the spheroid s definition in the spheroid.tab file. This is applicable only to the UTM and State Plane projections and is specified in sptable.tab. For everything else, this should be zero. Projection Parameters The projection parameters for this CRS, such as false easting, false northing, longitude of the central meridian, etc. The mapprojections.dat file indicates which parameters must be specified for each projection. Units The unit of measurement used in the coordinate system. This unit must have an entry in the units.dat file. Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System The ERDAS APOLLO WMS Service uses the Geospatial SDI WMS Service that serves data registered in the ERDAS APOLLO Catalog. The ERDAS APOLLO WMS Service is used for all WMS GetCapabilities and GetMap requests. WMS GetCapabilities requests are passed directly to the SDI WMS Service. WMS GetMap requests are routed to either the 201

202 internal SDI vector renderer or to the ERDAS APOLLO raster renderer, depending on the type of data. The ERDAS APOLLO vector data crawling service also uses the Geospatial SDI vector geoprocessing infrastructure. The vector data crawling service crawls and catalogs shapefiles, FGDB, GML, and database vector data. In ERDAS APOLLO, EPSG CRS-based definitions are widely used in the system because, after being cataloged, the data is predominantly served using OGC Services with EPSG as the authority for the CRS. The SDI-based vector data crawling and WMS services do not use the ERDAS APOLLO CRS. These services use an SDI internal CRS as well as a CCS based coordinate reference system engine. During a WMS request or during data crawling, the following flow occurs when accessing the data with an attached source CRS. For raster data with an associated CRS ERDAS APOLLO crawls and catalogs the raster data. The source data CRS is mapped to ERDAS APOLLO EPSG code. The EPSG code is also mapped to the SDI internal CRS representation. The associated EPSG CRS is displayed on the properties tab in ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. For shapefile data with an associated ESRI.prj file and FGDB data with an embedded ESRI WKT string The WKT string in the.prj file or the FGDB-embedded ESRI WKT string is mapped to the SDI internal CRS representation. When the vector crawling or WMS services interact with ERDAS APOLLO, the internal CRS representation is converted to an EPSG CRS before being passed to ERDAS APOLLO. The associated EPSG CRS is displayed on the properties tab in ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. For GML data with an embedded srsname If the srsname is of the form "EPSG:<code>", the EPSG code is extracted from the srsname and is mapped to the SDI internal CRS representation. When the vector crawling or WMS services interact with ERDAS APOLLO, the internal CRS representation is converted to an EPSG CRS before being passed to ERDAS APOLLO. The associated EPSG CRS is displayed on the properties tab in ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. For vector data in a Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, or PostGIS database The internal database Spatial Reference System Identifier (SRID) is mapped to the SDI internal CRS representation. When the vector crawling or WMS services interact with ERDAS APOLLO, the internal CRS representation is converted to an EPSG CRS before being passed to ERDAS APOLLO. 202

203 The associated EPSG CRS is displayed on the properties tab in ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. The SDI-based vector crawling and WMS services support all standard EPSG codes as of the EPSG 8.5 dataset. However, they do not support GML srsname strings of a form other than "EPSG:<code>". Also, in some cases they do not support ESRI WKT string to EPSG code mappings. For these cases, an SDI CRS plugin system is provided that allows custom CRS definitions to be added to the system and provides srsname or ESRI WKT string to EPSG code mappings. The CRS plugin system uses a configuration file to provide a mapping between source data CRS and the SDI internal CRS representation. It also provides a mapping between SDI internal CRS representation and EPSG code. The CRS plugin system configuration file is located here:...\program Files\Common Files\Hexagon\Common\CSFStore\CSFStore.config The CSFStore.config file is used in the following cases: If the vector crawling or WMS services are unable to map the source data CRS to an internal CRS representation then the CSFStore.config file provides the mapping. If the vector crawling or WMS services are unable to map the internal CRS representation to an EPSG code then the CSFStore.config file provides the mapping. If the WMS Service is unable to map the WMS GetMap request EPSG code based CRS parameter to an internal CRS representation code then the CSFStore.config file provides the mapping. There may be cases where a service is able to perform one of these mapping steps but fails on the other. For example, the WMS Service may be able to convert an ESRI WKT string to internal CRS representation but fails to convert the internal CRS representation to an EPSG code. Topics Mapping between EPSG Code and WMS Service Internal CRS Representation Mapping a Source Data WKT or GML srsname to an SDI Internal CRS representation CSFStore.config Examples Mapping between EPSG Code and WMS Service Internal CRS Representation The RegisterEPSGCodes utility application can be used to help create the mappings between EPSG codes and the CCS based coordinates references systems used by the WMS service. The RegisterEPSGCodes utility is used in the following cases. The vector crawling or WMS services are unable to map the WMS Service internal CRS representation to an EPSG Code. 203

204 The WMS request EPSG code based CRS parameter is not understood by the WMS Service internal CRS system. In these cases, the CSFStore.config file is used to map an EPSG CRS definition file (.csf file) to an EPSG code. The RegisterEPSGCode utility automates entering the mapping instructions within the CSFStore.config file. Perform the following steps to map the EPSG.csf file to an EPSG code. 1. Create an EPSG CRS definition file (EPSG<code>.csf) file by performing the following steps: Create a CRS definition file for the source data CRS using CCSDefCSF.exe tool located in %CommonProgramFiles%\Intergraph\Coordinate Systems\3.0\Program. Documentation for this tool is available at %CommonProgramFiles%\Intergraph\Coordinate Systems\3.0\Resdlls\0009\CommonCoordinateSystemsHelp.chm. Save the CRS definition file to <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\RegisterEPSGCodes\bin\. Be sure to name the file EPSG[code].csf. For example, to create a CRS definition file for EPSG code 2240, name the file EPSG2240.csf. 2. Run RegisterEPSGCodes.exe, found in the <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\RegisterEPSGCodes\bin. 204

205 3. Enter the EPSG code to be mapped in numeric form. Multiple, comma separated EPSG codes may be entered together. 4. Click Register. a. If the utility is successful, the Registration Status area displays: EPSG code [<code>] successfully added. b. If the utility is not successful, the Registration Status area displays one of the following failure messages: Unable to find [EPSG<code>.csf] in [..\ERDAS APOLLO\tools\RegisterEPSGCodes\bin\] application directory. Ensure the.csf file is located in the same directory as RegisterEPSGCodes.exe. Failed to copy [EPSG<code>.csf] to [ \Hexagon\Common\CSFStore]. No CRS definition file was found for the provided EPSG code. The CCSCsfDef tool must be used to manually build the CRS definition file as outlined in Step 1. Once built, the.csf file must be placed in the same directory as the RegisterEPSGCodes utility before attempting to register the.csf file. [ \Hexagon\Common\CSFStore\CSFStore.config] already contains an <Id> entry for [EPSG:<code>]. The CSFStore.config file already contains a mapping between CRS definition file and EPSG code. Input [<code>] is not a valid EPSG code. The EPSG code entered is not valid. The EPSG code provided must be an integer between 0 and Click the Restart IIS AppPools button to automatically restart the DecodingServiceAppPool, ApolloCatalogWMSAppPool, and ApolloCatalogWMSPublicAppPool. Restarting the IIS AppPools on a production ERDAS APOLLO server will cause a brief outage of the OGC WMS service while the WMS AppPools recycle. 6. Close the utility after all codes have been registered and IIS AppPools have been restarted. Mapping a Source Data WKT or GML srsname to an SDI Internal CRS representation If the vector crawling or WMS services are unable to map the source data CRS to an internal CRS representation, the CSFStore.config file is used to provide the mapping. The steps to provide the mapping differ based on the whether the source data is defined in a standard EPSG code or a custom EPSG code. 205

206 Mapping to custom EPSG codes Perform the following steps to provide the mapping if the source data is in a custom coordinate system: 1. First perform all steps from Mapping between EPSG Code and WMS Service Internal CRS Representation (on page 203) defined above. This will map a WMS Service internal CRS definition file (.csf file) to its corresponding EPSG code. 2. Open %CommonProgramFiles%\Hexagon\Common\CSFStore\CSFStore.config using a text or XML editor. 3. Find the <CRS> element containing <Id value="epsg:[code]"/> for the EPSG code added in Step Add the new CRS definition snippet in the bolded text shown below: <CRS csffilename="epsg[code].csf"> </CRS> <Id value="epsg:[code]" primaryid="true" /> <Id value="<esri WKT string or GML srsname string" primaryid="false" /> Any quotes (") in the WKT or srsname string must be converted to """ so that the string can be read as an XML tag. Using a string conversion utility, such as the one found at is useful for generating properly formatted XML. For example, the following WKT: PROJCS["Hong_Kong_1980_Grid_System",GEOGCS[ should be converted to the following in CSFStore.config: <Id value="projcs["hong_kong_1980_grid_system",geogcs[ Be sure to set primaryid="false" on the <Id> element. 5. Save the CSFStore.config. Run RegisterEPSGCodes.exe, found in the <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\RegisterEPSGCodes\bin. 1. Click the Restart IIS AppPools button to automatically restart the DecodingServiceAppPool, ApolloCatalogWMSAppPool, and ApolloCatalogWMSPublicAppPool. Restarting the IIS AppPools on a production ERDAS APOLLO server will cause a brief outage of the OGC WMS service while the WMS AppPools recycle. 206

207 Mapping to standard EPSG codes Perform the following steps to provide the mapping if the source data is in a standard EPSG coordinate system: 1. Open %CommonProgramFiles%\Hexagon\Common\CSFStore\CSFStore.config using a text or XML editor. 2. Create as new CRS definition as shown below: <CRS csffilename="ccs:epsg:[code]"> </CRS> <Id value="epsg:[code]" primaryid="true" /> <Id value="<esri WKT string or GML srsname string" primaryid="false" /> Where [code] is a standard EPSG code from the EPSG 8.5 database. Any quotes (") in the WKT or srsname string must be converted to """ so that the string can be read as an XML tag. Using a string conversion utility, such as the one found at is useful for generating properly formatted XML. For example, the following WKT: PROJCS["Hong_Kong_1980_Grid_System",GEOGCS[ should be converted to the following in CSFStore.config: <Id value="projcs["hong_kong_1980_grid_system",geogcs[ Be sure to set primaryid="false" on the <Id> element. Run RegisterEPSGCodes.exe, found in the <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\RegisterEPSGCodes\bin. 1. Click the Restart IIS AppPools button to automatically restart the DecodingServiceAppPool, ApolloCatalogWMSAppPool, and ApolloCatalogWMSPublicAppPool. Restarting the IIS AppPools on a production ERDAS APOLLO server will cause a brief outage of the OGC WMS service while the WMS AppPools recycle. CSFStore.config Examples This is an example of a CSFStore.config entry that fixes cases when the vector crawling or SDI WMS service is unable to map a source data CRS in ESRI WKT form to an internal CRS: <CRS csffilename="epsg8307.csf"> <Id value="epsg:8307" primaryid="true" /> 207

208 <Id value=" GEOGCS["GCS_WGS_1984_Oracle_Modified",DATUM["D_WGS_1984",SPHEROID["WGS_1984", , ]],PRIMEM["Greenwich&q uot;,0],unit["degree", ]]" primaryid="false" /> </CRS> This is an example of a CSFStore.config entry that fixes cases when the vector crawling or SDI WMS service is unable to map a source data standard EPSG CRS in ESRI WKT form to an internal CRS: <CRS csffilename="cc:epsg:2326.csf"> <Id value="epsg:2326" primaryid="true" /> <Id value=" PROJCS["Hong_Kong_1980_Grid_Precision_Degree_Units",GEOGCS["GCS_ Hong_Kong_1980",DATUM["D_Hong_Kong_1980",SPHEROID["Internati onal_1924", ,297.0]],primem["greenwich",0.0],unit["degree ", ]],PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],PARAM ETER["false_easting", ],PARAMETER["false_northing", ],PARAMETER["central_meridian", ],PARAMETER["scale _factor",1.0],parameter["latitude_of_origin", ],unit[&qu ot;meter",1.0]]" primaryid="false" /> </CRS> This is an example of a CSFStore.config entry that fixes cases when the SDI WMS service is unable to map a source data CRS GML srsname in URN form representing a standard EPSG code to an internal CRS representation. <CRS csffilename="ccs:epsg:2326"> <Id value="epsg:2326" primaryid="true" /> <Id value="urn:ogc:def:crs:epsg::2326" primaryid="false" /> </CRS> This is an example of a CSFStore.config entry that fixes cases when the SDI WMS service is unable to map a source data CRS GML srsname in URN form representing a custom CRS to an internal CRS representation. <CRS csffilename="epsg8307.csf"> <Id value="epsg:8307" primaryid="true" /> <Id value="urn:ogc:def:crs:epsg::8307" primaryid="false" /> </CRS> 208

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211 S E C T I O N 6 Troubleshooting In This Section Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures during a WMS Request 211 Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures When Crawling Vector Data 212 Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures during a WMS Request ERDAS APOLLO may appear to successfully crawl raster data but fails to generate thumbnails. When this occurs, the following symptoms will manifest. WMS GetCapabilities calls on the ERDAS APOLLO catalog fail for any OGC client WMS GetLayer calls on the crawled data fail in Geospatial Portal If these failures occur, perform the following steps to determine if the failure is caused by an unsupported EPSG code. 1. Check <CommonProgramFiles>\Hexagon\Services\Instances\ApolloCatalogWMS\Web.config and ensure that <level value=""> is set to "WARN" or "INFO": If you changed the default folder for the Portal and WMS instances in the ERDAS APOLLO Server Configuration Wizard you should look there to find the APOLLO Catalog WMS Web.config file. <root> <level value="warn" /> <appender-ref ref="rollingfileappender" /> </root> and <logger name="intergraph.geospatial.server.sdi.commonplatforms.common.config urationprovider"> <level value=" WARN" /> <appender-ref ref="rollingfileappender" /> </logger> 2. Click the Restart IIS AppPools button to automatically restart the DecodingServiceAppPool, ApolloCatalogWMSAppPool, and ApolloCatalogWMSPublicAppPool. 211

212 Restarting the IIS AppPools on a production ERDAS APOLLO server will cause a brief outage of the OGC WMS service while the WMS AppPools recycle. 3. Perform the WMS operation again. 4. Open <CommonProgramFiles>\Hexagon\Services\Instances\ApolloCatalogWMS\log\rol-log.txt file If you changed the default folder for the Portal and WMS instances in the ERDAS APOLLO Server Configuration Wizard you should look there to find the APOLLO Catalog WMS rol-log.txt file. 5. If the log file contains: ArgumentException: Invalid crsid: EPSG:XXXX. The WMS Service is unable to map the WMS request EPSG code to an internal CRS representation. The CSFStore.config file must be used to perform the mapping. Refer to Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System (on page 201). Checking for Unsupported EPSG Code Failures When Crawling Vector Data If the failure occurs when crawling vector data, perform the following steps to determine if the issue is an unsupported EPSG code. 1. Check <APOLLO_HOME>\DecodingService\Web.config and ensure the <level value=""> is set to "WARN" or "INFO": <root> <level value="warn" /> <appender-ref ref="rollingfileappender" /> </root> 2. If <level value=" " /> is changed, be sure to recycle the DecodingServiceAppPool after making the change. Recycling is done using Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager in the Application Pools view. 3. Recrawl the vector data source. 4. Open <APOLLO_HOME>\DecodingService\log\rol-log.txt file If the log file contains: "Cannot load [ ] into a CoordSystem", or "epsgcode [ ] format not supported" or 212

213 "epsgcode [ ] with EPSG number format [ ] is not supported." or "Cannot convert code [ ] into a moniker." The WMS service is unable to map the source data SRS to WMS Service internal CRS representation. The CSFStore.config file must be used to map the source data CRS to a WMS Service Moniker. Refer to Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System (on page 201). If the log file contains: "Attempt to convert moniker [ ] into EPSG code failed." or "Cannot convert moniker[ ] into EPSG code", The WMS Service is unable to map the internal CRS representation to an EPSG code. The CSFStore.config file must be used to map the WMS Service internal CRS representation to an EPSG code. Refer to Adding a Custom Geospatial SDI Coordinate Reference System (on page 201). 213

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215 S E C T I O N 7 Appendix A: Coordinate Reference Systems In This Section ERDAS APOLLO CRS Definition ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System ERDAS APOLLO CRS Definition All of the ERDAS APOLLO coordinate reference system related files are located in the cots.srs.jar file which is located in the <APOLLO_HOME>\webapps\erdas-apollo\WEB-INF\lib folder. Open the cots-srs.jar file with a zip utility. Unzip the file to a separate location and browse to \com\ionicsoft\sref\impl\resource\. The following CRS files are included: sref.xml - contains a factory reference location - do not modify this file factorysref.xml - default ERDAS CRS file - contains the information for all ERDAS-supported CRSs - do not modify this file ionicsref.xml - contains additional CRSs requested by customers usersref.xml - contains any custom CRSs - this file is not included in the installation. It is created it when you add a custom CRS coordinate_system_category.xml - groups CRSs found in factorysref,xml, ionicsref.xml, and usersref.xml into Geographic, Projected, or Custom categories Unzipping cots.srs.jar may also unpack some files not listed above. Do not modify any of these files. The entry file is sref.xml. It contains INCLUDE references to the other files. The following tables describe the entries that can be found in each of these files and can be used as a reference for adding new coordinate reference systems to usersref.xml. CRS Configuration Tags These tags are used for configuring and defining the overall ERDAS APOLLO CRS system. They are primarily found in sref.xml and in most cases don't need to be modified or added to userref.xml. Tag Attributes Description SREF The root element of the XML file STORAGE 215

216 TYPE The type of storage to use. Allowed values are FILE or MEMORY OPTION Define one option NAME VALUE The option name The option value INCLUDE Include a file NAME OPTIONAL The file name to include (usually a relative path) If yes, the file is an optional one and no error is generated if it is missing INCLUDEESRI Include the ESRI mapping file (see structure info below) NAME OPTIONAL The file name to include If yes the file is an optional one and no error is generated if it is missing NAMESPACE ASSOCIATE Defines additional namespaces of IDs Associates other ids to an existing id STORAGE The storage tag should be the first child of the SREF root tag. It defines the type of storage to use. Currently two types are available: FILE: Uses a btree file as database support MEMORY: Uses a memory map. This is intended for a small CRS database. 216

217 OPTION The option tag defines options (hints) about different conversions to the CRS or ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager. The following options are defined: useostn97: specify if the ostn97 conversion is used to go from OSGB1936 to WGS84. This conversion uses 1,000,000 bands that are stored into memory. parseesriid: specify if the INCLUDEESRI instruction should really parse the esri ids file. unknowndatumaswgs84: if set (default is yes) an unknown datum is considered as equal to WGS84 during datum transformation. If not set an error will be produced during datum transformation. The option names are case insensitive and their usual values are 'yes' or 'no' (also case insensitive). INCLUDE The 'include' tag allows the inclusion of other files. It allows splitting the configuration into several files and acts as if the content of the included file is inline. INCLUDEESRI The INCLUDEESRI tag references a simple text file that defines associations between EPSG codes and ArcSDE system names. The text file should contain one line per mapping. Each line has the following structure: EpsgId=EsriName[=IsForced] Where EpsgId is the EPSG code of the coordinate reference system EsriName is the name used in the ESRI SDE Server IsForced is an optional boolean whose usage is required to force mapping of EPSG id greater than If IsForced is not set, all mappings for ids greater than are ignored. NAMESPACE Used to define their custom namespace IDs. For example, to add the FIPS and NASA namespaces, add the block: <NAMESPACE> <DEFINE ID="FIPS" /> <DEFINE ID="NASA" /> </NAMESPACE> NAMESPACE declarations should occur after the STORAGE definition and before the IDs are used. 217

218 ASSOCIATE The projected and geographic system include other associated IDs by having their tags added to the system's definition. Currently the tags OGC, ESRI, DMS and ALIAS are defined. Their ID attribute is associated to the system as another ID candidate which can only be used to get the system reference through the CRS manager. Generally, the ESRI ID is defined in another file named esri.txt and associated with the EPSG ID through the INCLUDEESRI tag in the main sref.xml file. Nevertheless, it is possible to associate other IDs to each defined objects, using the namespace mechanism. Example: <PROJCS ID="206" NAME="St Lucia 1955 / British West Indies Grid"> <DMS ID="My DMS ID" /> </PROJCS> Other ID domains can be added later using the ASSOCIATE element. <ASSOCIATE ID="206"> <DMS ID="My DMS ID" /> <FIPS ID="2900" /> </ASSOCIATE> The ALIAS ID is implicitly associated to the "name:" protocol and allows IDs to be retrieved by their name of indirectly if they end an anchor. CRS Definition Tags These tags are used for defining ERDAS APOLLO coordinate reference. You can review factorysref.xml to see examples of how these tags are used. You can copy excerpts from factorysref.xml into userref.xml and then modify the copied version as needed to create your own custom coordinate reference systems definitions. To create your own custom coordinate system, all objects listed in the table below must be defined. Tag Attributes Description UNIT MERIDIAN SPHEROID DATUM GEOCS PROJCS Defines a unit Defines a meridian Defines a spheroid Defines a datum Defines a geographic system Defines a projected system 218

219 COORDINATESYSTEM Defines a coordinate system Used to define the axis unit of a coordinate system. This allow to support XXXX ids. UNIT Items ID NAME VALUE Description The unit ID The unit name The unit factor relative to the reference unit. The reference unit is the meter for metric units and the radian for angular units. Example: <UNIT ID="9001" NAME="meter" VALUE="1.0"/> MERIDIAN Items ID NAME VALUE DELTA Description The meridian ID The meridian name The offset from Greenwich longitude in degrees The offset from Greenwich latitude in degrees (only used in EXTENDEDMERIDIAN) Example: <MERIDIAN ID="8913" NAME="Oslo" VALUE=" "/> or <EXTENDEDMERIDIAN ID="50000" NAME="HongKong" VALUE=" " DELTA=" "/> 219

220 SPHEROID Items ID NAME FLATTENING SEMIMAJORAXIS Description The spheroid ID The spheroid name The 1/f value The length of the semi-major axis in meters Example: <SPHEROID ID="7001" NAME="Airy 1830" FLATTENING=" " SEMIMAJORAXIS=" "/> DATUM Items ID NAME SPHEROID METHOD Description The datum ID When a standard EPSG code DATUM ID conflicts with SPHEROID ID, GEOCS ID, or PROJCS ID, a value of is added to the DATUM ID to eliminate the conflict. All references to the DATUM ID are updated. For example, in factorysref.xml, DATUM ID 6052 conflicts with PROJCS ID To prevent the conflict, the DATUM ID is renamed to All GEOCS definitions that reference DATUM ID 6052 in factorysref.xml are updated to DATUM ID The datum name The spheroid definition The method used to transform this datum to the WGS84 datum (Values are PV, CFR, GO or SHIFT) Default is PV which stands for Position Method Vector, Coordinate Frame Rotation, Geographic Offset and Shift. 220

221 CFR/PV additional parameters (The values comes from the EPSG database) SHIFTX The X shift in meters (default is 0) SHIFTY The Y shift in meters (default is 0) SHIFTZ The Z shift in meters (default is 0) ROTX The X rotation (default is 0) ROTY The Y rotation (default is 0) ROTZ The Z rotation (default is 0) SCALEFACTOR The scale factor GO additional parameters ROTX The X offset (default is 0) ROTY The Y offset (default is 0) Example: <DATUM ID="6124" NAME="Rikets_koordinatsystem_1990" SHIFTX=" " SHIFTY=" " SHIFTZ=" " ROTX=" " ROTY=" " ROTZ=" " SCALEFACTOR="0" METHOD="CFR" > <SPHEROID ID="7004" /> </DATUM> GEOCS Items ID NAME Description The geographic system ID The geographic system name 221

222 UNIT MERIDIAN DATUM ORDER The angular unit definition The meridian definition The datum definition (Optional) If provided, indicates the geometry ordinates order for this CRS. Valid values are: "XY", "YX" (default), "XYZ", "YXZ", "XYZT". Example: <GEOCS ID="4125" NAME="Samboja"> <UNIT ID="9108" /> <MERIDIAN ID="8901"/> <DATUM ID="6125" /> <ORDER>YX</ORDER> </GEOCS> PROJCS Items ID NAME UNIT GEOCS PROJECTION VALIDITY ORDER Description The projected system identification The projected system name The projected unit definition The geographic system definition The projection definition The area of validity of the projected system. (Optional) If provided, indicates the geometry ordinates order for this CRS. Valid values are: "XY" (default), "YX", "XYZ", "YXZ", "XYZT". 222

223 The validity information is defined by four attributes: X1,Y1,X2,Y2. Currently it is automatically defined for some projections as Transverse Mercator. The values must be set in the associated geographic system. Example: <PROJCS ID="206" NAME="St Lucia 1955 / British West Indies Grid"> <UNIT ID="9001" /> <GEOCS ID="4606" /> <PROJECTION NAME="Transverse Mercator"> <PARAMETER NAME="central_meridian" VALUE="-62.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_easting" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_northing" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="latitude_of_origin" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="scale_factor" VALUE="0.9995"/> </PROJECTION> <ORDER>XY</ORDER> </PROJCS> PROJECTION Items NAME PARAMETER Description The projection name A set of projection parameters Each parameter has the following attributes NAME VALUE The parameter name The parameter value, alternatively a parameter can be given as deg/min/ sec using three attributes instead of one DEG MIN SEC 223

224 REF Projection If present, it must have the value Greenwich to specify that the unit is relative to Greenwich instead of the prime meridian of the geographic system. Parameters Albers Conical central_meridian latitude_of_origin standard_parallel_1 standard_parallel_2 false_easting false_northing EquiCylindrical central_meridian standard_parallel_1 false_easting false_northing Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area central_meridian latitude_of_center azimuth false_easting false_northing 224

225 Lambert Conformal Conic Lambert Conformal Conic 2sp Lambert Conformal Conic 2sp Belgium Lambert Conformal Conic 1sp Mercator same as Albers Conical same as Albers Conical same as Albers Conical same as stereographic same as Polar stereographic Mollweide central_meridian false_easting false_northing Oblique Stereographic central_meridian latitude_of_origin scale_factor false_easting false_northing Orthographic central_meridian latitude_of_origin false_easting false_northing Polyconic same as Polar Stereographic Polar Stereographic 225

226 central_meridian latitude_of_center false_easting false_northing Transverse Mercator same as Oblique Stereographic Oblique Mercator latitude_of_center longitude_of_center rectified_grid_angle azimuth scale_factor false_easting false_northing Hotine Oblique Mercator Swiss Projection Sinusoidal same as ObliqueMercator same as Oblique Mercator same as Mollweide Spatial Oblique Mercator false_easting false_northing ascending_orbit inclination_orbit 226

227 Spatial Oblique Mercator B satellite_ratio path_flag satellite_period false_easting false_northing satellite_number path_number The latitude and longitude in the projection parameters are given in the underlying geographic system unit, for example, longitudes are relative to the prime meridian of the geographic system. If this is not the case, use the REF attribute. Example: <PROJECTION NAME="Transverse Mercator"> <PARAMETER NAME="central_meridian" VALUE="-62.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_easting" VALUE=" "/> <PARAMETER NAME="false_northing" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="latitude_of_origin" VALUE="0.0"/> <PARAMETER NAME="scale_factor" VALUE="0.9995"/> </PROJECTION> COORDINATESYSTEM Items ID NAME XYUNIT ZUNIT Description The coordinate system ID The coordinate system name The unit of the XY axis The unit of the Z axis (if any) Example: <COORDINATESYSTEM ID="6413" NAME="Ellipsoidal 3D CS. Axes: latitude, longitude, ellipsoidal height. Orientations: north, east, up. UoM: deg, deg, m." > 227

228 <XYUNIT ID="9102" /> <ZUNIT ID="9001" /> </COORDINATESYSTEM> Object Sharing Objects can be defined and then shared. The general rules are: a. Objects must be defined before being used. b. IDs must be unique among all definitions. c. Objects are reused and shared based on their IDs. In this first example, a new geographic system is defined and as part of that definition a new UNIT, ID=9108 is also defined. <GEOCS ID="4312" NAME="MGI" > <UNIT ID="9108" NAME="Toto" VALUE="0.5" /> </GEOCS> In the second example we first define unit and then use it in the definition of the new geographic system. <UNIT ID="9108" NAME="Toto" VALUE="0.5" /> <GEOCS ID="4312" NAME="MGI" > <UNIT ID="9108" /> </GEOCS> You can use the UNSHARED tag to redefine a local definition. In this example we redefine a datum to use another Bursa-Wolf transformation variant, but only locally for the geographic system. <GEOCS ID="4312" NAME="MGI"> <UNIT ID="9108" /> <MERIDIAN ID="8901" /> <DATUM UNSHARED="YES" ID="6312" NAME="MGI" SHIFTX=" " SHIFTY="90.129" SHIFTZ=" " ROTX="5.137" ROTY="1.474" ROTZ="5.297" SCALEFACTOR="2.4232"> <SPHEROID ID="7004" /> </DATUM> </GEOCS> ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System All of the CRS information that the ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System needs is contained in the following files. 228

229 epsg.plb mapprojections.dat spheroid.tab units.dat sptable.tab The first file, epsg.plb, is located in this folder: <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\native\raster\etc\projections The last four files are located in this folder: <APOLLO_HOME>\tools\native\raster\etc\ epsg.plb This file contains all of the CRS definitions for the ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System. You can add a new CRS to your ERDAS IMAGINE Projection System by modifying this file. The entries in epsg.plb reference other entries in the four supporting files, mapprojections.dat, spheroid.dat, units.dat, and sptable.tab. The following color coded figure shows an example of a CRS definition in epsg.plb. The corresponding color coded table describes the elements of the CRS definition and which of the supporting files these elements reference. Example of an entry in epsg.plb Element Color Element Name Description CRS Name The name of the CRS as it will be displayed in the metadata. EPSG Code The EPSG code for this CRS. You can check the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry at to verify that your number is 229

230 unique. Projection Identifier Identifies the map projection in the mapprojections.dat file to use. Spheroid Name Identifies the name of the spheroid to use in the spheroid.tab file to use. Datum Name Zone Number Identifies the name of the datum. There is a list of the commonly associated datums within the spheroid s definition in the spheroid.tab file. This is applicable only to the UTM and State Plane projections and is specified in sptable.tab. For everything else, this should be zero. Projection Parameters The projection parameters for this CRS, such as false easting, false northing, longitude of the central meridian, etc. The mapprojections.dat file indicates which parameters must be specified for each projection. Units The unit of measurement used in the coordinate system. This unit must have an entry in the units.dat file. mapprojections.dat This file contains definitions of all the most commonly used map projections. The entries in the epsg.plb file must be linked to one of the projection definitions in mapprojections.dat using the projection identifiers. You do not need to modify this file to add a custom CRS. 230

231 Example entries from the mapprojections.dat file Projection Parameter in mapprojections.dat The entries in mapprojections.dat file also indicate which parameters you need to supply in the epsg.plb for a CRS associated with the projection. 231

232 In the figure below, the items highlighted in purple are the parameters you must provide in an epsg.plb entry for a CRS associated with the Albers Conical Equal Area projection. The items highlighted in silver indicate the measurement type of each item. Example of Projection Parameters in mapprojections.dat 232

233 spheroid.tab This file contains the mathematical definitions of the most commonly used spheroids, along with definitions of the datums that are most commonly used with the spheroid. You do not need to modify this file to add a custom CRS. In the example below a spheroid name (GRS 1980) is highlighted in purple and one of the datums associated with the GRS 1980 spheroid (HARN) is highlighted in cyan. 233

234 Example of a Spheroid definition with multiple Datums in mapprojections.dat 234

235 units.dat This file contains all of the units of measure most commonly used for coordinate systems and projections. The file is divided into different blocks representing different measurement types such as angles, distance, and area. Each block contains a list of units that ERDAS IMAGINE can recognize, along with a conversion factor that is used internally by the software. You do not need to modify this file to add a custom CRS. 235

236 Example of Units in units.dat 236

237 sptable.tab This file contains definitions for the State Plane coordinate systems that are used in the United States of America. You do not need to modify this file to add a custom CRS. Example of State Plane definitions in sptable.dat 237

238 238

239 S E C T I O N 8 Appendix B: Schema and Database Mapping for WFS When configuring an ERDAS APOLLO WFS provider you need to have an XML Schema document for your feature types and a mapping document to establish correspondence between your schema and the data source. In most cases the default schema and mapping files generated automatically by ERDAS APOLLO Data Manager will be sufficient. The following sections provide more information on defining an application schema and database mapping for situations that require finer grained control. In This Section GML Application Schema and Mapping to Databases Map Generation Transformer Protecting Data Schema Generator From-SQL Generator WFS Loader GML Application Schema and Mapping to Databases The Web Feature Server (WFS) makes it possible to expose data to the world, providing a view or an abstraction of the physical data. This is achieved through the definition of an Application Schema, that is interoperable, ISO compliant, and prevents users from gaining visibility into the nature of the computational infrastructure. For example, no one will know if the data is stored in data files, in a database or computed on the fly. A subset of the existing data can be presented while keeping confidential information out of reach. The exposed features are named Geospatial objects, and are a translation of the actual underlying data. The WFS responds to the requirements of a secure web service for interoperable exchange of geospatial objects, compliant with ISO, exposing one or multiple restricted views on an existing proprietary data resource. The figure below shows the relationship between the data model used inside the content repository and the GML application schema exposed by the WFS. The relationship between those two models is achieved through a "mapping" mechanism which is configured at the time of setting up the service. The possibility of publishing a data model that is different from the internal one depends on the software used to deploy the nodes. The mapping is the configuration that describes the link between the Feature Type definition and the objects stored in the underlying engine. The mapping document associated with a WFS presents the necessary information for the WFS to convert client requests to queries understood by the data server. It also converts the result into a compliant collection of features. Therefore, it makes the link between the internal data structure and the published information. This section's purpose is to expose the different types of Feature Type relations, how to express these relations in a GML Application schema, how to implement them in a relational database and finally how to map this internal relational data model with the exposed object model. 239

240 Internal Data Model versus Exposed Feature Types Topics Key Concepts GML Application Schema Feature and Feature Type Mapping Feature Schema Configuration Feature Mapping Explicit Mapping Definition Steps SQL Mapping Definition Steps Automatic Mapping Definition Steps Relational (Explicit) Mapping Definition Steps Mapping of Enumerations Control Mapping Correctness Moving to GML Set Up an ERDAS APOLLO WFS Serving GML-SF (Simple Feature) 274 Feature Mapping Tags

241 Key Concepts To map an Application Schema onto a Database Model, it is necessary to understand clearly what each of those words mean. The scope of this section is to provide a short explanation. Application Schema The ISO standard "Rules for application schema" provides the following definition and purpose of an application schema: An application schema provides the formal description of the data structure and content required by one or more applications. An application schema defines: The content and structure of data; Specifications of operations for manipulating and processing data by an application. The purpose of an application schema is twofold: to provide a computer-readable data description defining the data structure, making it possible to apply automated mechanisms for data management; to achieve common and correct understanding of the data, by documenting the data content of the particular application field, and thereby making it possible to unambiguously retrieve information from the data. ISO application schemas are defined in a conceptual schema language: the Universal Modeling Language (UML). In the case of a geospatial application schema, the concepts of the General Feature Model (GFM) are mapped to the concepts of the UML conceptual language. The General Feature Model is a model of concepts required to classify a view of the real world expressed in UML. The objects that are classified are called features; relations between features are feature associations and inheritance. Feature Types have properties that are feature attributes, feature operations and feature association roles. The GFM is a meta model of feature types [ISO01b]. As an application schema deals with representing features, the structure of the GFM has to be kept in mind while creating the application schema. For more detailed information refer to the ISO19109 document. GML Application Schema A Geographic Markup Language (GML) application schema is an XML schema that describes one or more types of geographic objects [OGC03]. One can consider the GML application schema as a physical implementation of an ISO application schema. GML application schemas define the encoding of geospatial information. GML application schemas are used by Web Feature Servers (WFS) to encode geospatial data into GML and deliver it over the Web. User s Application Schemas have to extend the basic types defined in the GML Schema in order to be manageable by a WFS and be compliant with the GML specification (Figure below). 241

242 GML Schema Structure Feature and Feature Type A feature is an abstraction of real world phenomena. It is a geographic feature if it is associated with a location relative to the Earth. The state of a feature is defined by a set of properties. The number of properties a feature may have together with their names and types are determined by its type definition, the feature type. An abstract feature type provides a set of properties common to several feature types. A concrete feature (by opposition to abstract) must derive from this type and may specify additional properties. Mapping GML Application Schemas are object-oriented while most databases are relational. The mapping consists of writing a correspondence between a GML Application Schema document and a Database Model, thus it is in an object-to-relational mapping. The way the mapping is done is specific to a vendor. ERDAS writes the mapping in an XML document that can be built either using one of the command-line tools coming along with ERDAS APOLLO, or manually. In some cases, the mapping is implicit and does not need any document. 242

243 Feature Schema Configuration The XML Schema associated with a WFS gives the GML Application Schema (structure) needed by the WFS to expose its feature types. The schema provides the type descriptions structure for each feature type and its properties. GML Application Schema Construction A XML Schema definition document should be provided for the feature types to be published as GML, either through a WFS or not. The syntax has to conform to the W3C XML Schema specification and respect the GML constraints. This schema does not need to be built manually if it is provided by an authority. It could also be built with one of the tools provided in the ERDAS APOLLO distribution (see the Tools and Viewer section). Note that such a schema is independent from the vendor who provides an infrastructure to expose the features. Only the limitations of the vendor's product are to be considered. Here s a sample of a GML feature Type named "Road". Example: A Simple Feature Type Definition <xsd:schema targetnamespace="http://www.erdas.com/wfs" elementformdefault="qualified" version="0.1"> <xsd:import namespace="http://www.opengis.net/gml" schemalocation="http://schemas.opengis.net/gml/3.1.1/base/feature.xsd"/ > <xsd:element name="road" type="wfs:roadtype" substitutiongroup="gml:_feature"/> <xsd:complextype name="roadtype"> <xsd:complexcontent> <xsd:extension base="gml:abstractfeaturetype"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="streetname" type="string"/> <xsd:element name="centerline" type="gml:linestringpropertytype"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexcontent> </xsd:complextype> </xsd:schema> Construct the Feature Type Schema These steps aim to help manually build the GML Application Schema for the information to publish. This information must be expressed in terms of feature types and properties of each feature type. Tip: The following steps do not apply if a mapping of type "SQL" is applied. In that case, the feature type schema is created on-the-fly based on the database schema. 243

244 See the "Feature Mapping" section below for a complete explanation of the types of mappings available, and which one to use depending on the case. 1. Decide the names of the features types to publish. The first task is to build the list of feature type names to publish. It often closely correlates with relational table names or entities of the real world (building numbers, land usage types, tree locations). 2. Decide the names, types and cardinalities of the properties. For each of the feature types, decide which properties will be visible. These can be a sub-set of the existing data properties, or a super-set where calculated properties are defined, or a 1 to 1 matching with actual properties. For each property, figure out its type (integer, string) and cardinality. It is strongly recommended to reuse existing types as often as possible. This is because when mentioning existing schema's in <import> clauses, the generic type "xsd:string" given to the property "STATION" can be replaced by a type (fictive):"ceos:stationtype". The "ceos" prefix has to be defined in the header of the schema, with a syntax like: xmlns:ceos="http://www.ceos.org/ceos" and this schema must be included in the deployment, with a clause like: <xsd:import namespace = "http://www.ceos.org/ceos" schemalocation = "ceos.xsd" />. For geometric properties, also analyze existing data to determine their type, and decide what WFS geometric property it matches. The most common geometries are Point, LineString (List of points that defines a line), Polygon and Text. Compound properties like MultiLineString, MultiPolygon are also supported. If a property is a collection of other feature types, this feature type must be defined recursively and the proper type name set in the main feature type definition. 3. Consider other options for the properties. If a property can be empty, the server will either output it with an empty value, avoid to output it at all, or output it with no value. If the property has to be output, the attribute minoccurs="1" should be added to the schema. If it has to be output, even as a null string (looking like: <Prop1/>), the nillable="true" attribute should be added. The minoccurs="1" attribute should be added if it is expected that users will request output to the ShapeFile format (option outputformat=shape in the GetFeature request). If not, ShapeFile readers could fail due to absent properties in some features. 4. Encode the feature type and property definitions in the XML Schema encoding Edit the document manually with a text editor or by using an XML editor. It is suggested use one of the sample XML Schemas provided with the product and replacing the sections with the specific information. 5. Mention the schema file in the providers.fac associated to the service. 244

245 Control the Schema correctness and GML FeatureType definition: Check whether the schema is syntactically correct by using any third-party commercial tool that performs XML and XML Schema validation (xalan or saxon). To see if the feature type schema is correct, wait until the WFS service is fully configured, and ask for a DescribeFeatureType on all the feature types of the WFS. It should provide an answer that matches the definitions. Feature Mapping This section introduces the key aspects of the mapping configuration: What is mapping What are the different types of mapping How to choose what mapping to use Explicit Mapping SQL Mapping Automatic Mapping Relational (Explicit) Mapping Mapping of Enumerations Other Mappings Mapping Concepts The mapping is the configuration that describes the way ERDAS WFS achieves the link between the FeatureType definition and the objects returned by the underlying engine. The mapping document associated with an ERDAS WFS presents the necessary information for the WFS to convert client requests into queries understood by the data server. It also converts the result into a compliant collection of features. Therefore, it makes the link between the internal data structure and the published information. 245

246 WFS Mapping The mapping file, written in XML, defines how the features types declared in the XML schema document are mapped onto the underlying data server. The mapping file name is either referenced by the "MAPPING" parameter of the provider (see the "Provider Configuration" section) or the mapping information is in the feature schema file. The mapping information is contained in several tags: <MAPPING> is the main one. The <INFO>, <EXPORT>, <COLLECTION> and <OPTION> tags can be used to provide additional information such as Spatial Reference Systems, Bounding Box and additional dimensions. Mapping Methodology To map a set of Feature Types to database tables and relations, we propose several ways to achieve the mapping. Each applies in given situations and this section provide guidance in choosing the appropriate type of mapping. Types of Mapping The mapping can be explicit or implicit. If the mapping is explicit, then the file will contain all the information needed by the connector to manage the mapping. This is the case for the "Explicit Mapping" where for each element of the FeatureType, there will be an explicit link to an attribute 246

247 of a table or a view. The mapping can also be implicit and completely managed by the connector or the framework itself. This is the case when the mapping is done by the code of the connector based on internal hypothesis or knowledge. Explicit Mapping: Explicit mapping is where a fully specified details of the feature are mapped to a database. With this mapping, define the mapping by hand in an explicit way, or use a tool to build it from the database model or from the GML Schema. SQL Mapping: The SQL mapping allows taking a table or multiple tables and asking the framework to make a 1:1 mapping from the table to a dynamically created feature. Implementing this, makes going from Table to Feature simple. There are no feature types to define and no complex mapping to do. The mapping from the tables to the feature type is implicit and managed by the framework. Automatic Mapping: This mapping is somehow the reverse of the SQL mapping. In automatic mapping, define a FeatureType in GML Application Schema and then submit the FeatureType to the engine that will create all the tables needed to support. The mapping from the FeatureType to the tables is implicit and managed by the framework. Relational (Explicit) Mapping: It is an explicit mapping, but where several tables are mapping onto a single feature type with complex properties. Auto-Generated Mapping: This mapping, derived from the Automatic Mapping, permits generating the mapping file instead of having the framework manage it. It allows a user to make changes in the mapping to fit the database model. XML Enumeration and Relational Enumeration Mappings: Allows mapping of enumerated values to an XML list or a table. Choose a Mapping To find out which mapping is best, look at these tips: If there are simple tables or Shapefiles be to publish in a minute, use the SQL mapping. If there are simple tables or Shapefiles, but well formatted, well named or retyped attributes are to be exposed, use the explicit mapping. Use one of the "runfromsqlxxx" script to build the schema and mapping files automatically from the data source. If there are complex GML FeatureTypes and the database is not yet built, use the Automatic mapping to create the tables. If there are a set of tables whose columns should appear in a single GML Feature Type, define a Relational Explicit Mapping. If there are a complex GML Application Schema with some of the data types being abstract in the GML Specification, the Auto-Generated Mapping is required to build the tables from the schema, and to be able to substitute those abstract types with real ones. 247

248 If there are a set of feature types with enumerated values for some of the properties use the XML Enumeration Mapping if the values are listed in the schema or the Relational Enumeration Mapping if those values are stored in a table. Mapping Tags Description The mapping file is made of XML elements, named <MAPPING>, <INFO>, <EXPORT>, <COLLECTION> and <OPTION>. Please refer to the "Mapping tags" appendix for the list of XML tags that can appear in the mapping section document. <MAPPING> Tag This tag describes the link between the FeatureType definition and the objects returned by the underlying engine. See the "Feature Mapping Tags" Appendix for a complete description of the sub-tags or the next section for step-by-step building of the mapping. <INFO> Tag As the data store may not provide all the information necessary for the service to be OGC-compliant, this tag contains additional information to complete it. Spatial Reference Systems, Bounding Box, additional dimensions, allowed operations are some of the possible entries. See the "Feature Mapping Tags" Appendix for a complete description of the sub-tags. <EXPORT> Tag This tag defines which FeatureTypes are really presented to the world. See Feature Mapping Tags (on page 275) for a complete description of the sub-tags. <COLLECTION> Tag This tag renames the root element produced by a GetFeature request. The default is "featurecollection" but may be renamed if needed. See Feature Mapping Tags (on page 275) for a complete description of the sub-tags. <OPTION> Tag This tag sets properties that apply to all feature types or just those related to the requests. Settings like output image resolution or Transactions response can be defined. See Feature Mapping Tags (on page 275) for a complete description of the sub-tags. 248

249 Explicit Mapping Definition Steps Also named "specific mapping" this mapping makes no assumptions on the correspondence between the feature type structure and the actual data. Create the GML schema definition of the feature type (see previous section). Edit the mapping document so that each property of the feature type is mapped to the correct corresponding data field. The following section describes all the possible tags accepted in the mapping document. Most of them apply in the explicit mapping. All of the connectors support this type of mapping. This description explains how to fill the XML mapping document when the data source supports SQL requests and the mapping is explicit. For non-relational or specific data sources, please call ERDAS to obtain the appropriate guide. Follow these steps: 1. Build a <Mapping>... </Mapping> block that contain the mapping tags, and the additional information. 2. Build one <SQL>... </SQL> block and one <Info>... </Info> block per feature type defined in the XML Schema. 3. The <SQL> element must have a "name" attribute whose value must be the name of the feature type (case-sensitive) preceded by the namespace prefix declared in the XML Schema header (commonly "wfs:"). The SQL value can also have a "generation" attribute with the value "specific" that notes that this type of mapping is used. This is the default value. 4. If a data server table is mapped onto a feature type, the <Table> element must contain the name of that table. If a data server table is mapped onto a feature type, create as many <Element> entries as there are columns to map with a property. 5. Each feature type has a "fid" attribute that uniquely identifies it. The <Primary> element is required and it must contain the name of the primary key column in the data server table. 6. Other elements can be added in the <SQL> section. They are listed and described in the previous section. 7. In the <Info> section, a "name" attribute must be define with the same rule as for the <SQL> element described above. 8. There must be at least one <SRS> that identifies the reference system of the data store. If more than one SRS is to be published in the capabilities, add all of them in the <SRS> tag separated by spaces. Being aware that the first item of the list is seen as the internal one. 9. Put at least one <BoundingBox> element giving the extents of the data. 249

250 10. If more request types are required beyond those supported by the Basic WFS, add an <Operations> element that lists the supported operations. See previous section for a complete list of operations. Mention the mapping file in the providers.fac, associated to the service (see "Providers Configuration" section). Example: Explicit Mapping File... <Mapping> <SQL name="wfs:roadtype"> <Table namesql="road"/> <Primary namesql="road_id" type="int"/> <Element name="wfs:streetname" namesql="name"/> <Element name="wfs:centerline" namesql="geometry"/> </SQL> </Mapping> <Info name="wfs:roadtype"> <SRS>EPSG:4326</SRS> <BoundingBox SRS="EPSG:4326" minx="-180." miny="-90." maxx="180." maxy="90." /> <Operations>Query</Operations> </Info> <Export generation="exportonly"> <Add name="wfs:roadtype"/> </Export> SQL Mapping Definition Steps This type of mapping allows a much lighter configuration, as the mapping manager achieves a one-to-one conversion from the SQL schema to the feature type schema. So, NO GML Schema is necessary when this mapping type is used. This type of mapping allows building the feature type schema from the database schema. Simply define the name of the table to publish and the framework does the job of building the feature type description. (Note: For non-relational or specific data sources connectors, the mapping may be implicit or explicit with specific behavior. Please call ERDAS to obtain the appropriate guide.) When this type of mapping is used, the <SQL> element can only contain a <Primary> property. None of the other tags belonging to the <SQL> section is allowed. All vector connectors, except the "GML" connector, support this type of mapping. It is also useful to note that, in the particular case of the SQL mapping, the table name provided can also be a pattern. The widest pattern is "%", and will lead to the mapping of each of the tables accessible by the user onto a feature type. This means that all tables found, including System tables, may be matched. This can be restricted either by giving a more restrictive pattern, for example "ADMIN%", or by adding the "schema" attribute to the <SQL> 250

251 element to restrict its scope to the given database schema (or user). An alternative is to do an explicit mapping and adding the "user" attribute in the <Table> element. For SQL mapping, follow these steps: The process followed by the mapping manager is to analyze the SQL metadata and build the feature type schema accordingly. The minimum information to provide is the name of the table to map, and the script 'generation="sql' so that the manager knows it has to do the mapping. However, additional explicit information can be provided, like the primary key column name, so that some flexibility is retained. 1. Build a <Mapping>... </Mapping> block that will contain the mapping tags, and the additional information. 2. Build one <SQL>... </SQL> block and one <Info>... </Info> block per feature type to define. 3. The <SQL> element must have a "name" attribute whose value must be the name of the table found in the database schema, or a pattern. The widest pattern is "%" and will lead to the mapping of each of the tables accessible by the user onto a feature type. Beware that if the user has privileges to access system tables, they will also be mapped. 4. It must also have a "generation" attribute, with the value "sql". 5. Each feature type having a "fid" attribute which uniquely identifies it. A <Primary> element must be created that contains the name of the primary key column in the data server table. If no <Primary> tag is defined, the "fid" value is built randomly and no persistence is insured for this value. 6. No other element can be added in the <SQL> section. 7. When starting the <Info> section, the element must have a "name" attribute whose value must be the name of the feature type (case-sensitive, equivalent to the name of the table) preceded by the namespace prefix "wfs:". 8. In the <Info> section, include at least one <SRS> element identifying the reference system of the data store. If publishing more than on SRS in the capabilities, add all of them in the <SRS> tag separated by spaces. Being aware that the first item of the list is seen as the internal one. 9. Put at least one <BoundingBox> element giving the extents of the data. 10. If extending the request types supported beyond those of a Basic WFS, add an <Operations> element that lists the supported operations. See previous section for a complete list of operations. 11. Mention the mapping file in the providers.fac associated to the service (see "Providers Configuration" section). Example: SQL Mapping File <Mapping> <SQL name="%" generation="sql" > </SQL> <Info> <SRS>EPSG:4326</SRS> 251

252 <BoundingBox SRS="EPSG:4326" minx="-180" miny="-90" maxx="180" maxy="90" /> </Info>... </Mapping> The distribution contains a sample SQL mapping file, named generic_sql_mapping.xml, located in the same directory as the WFS providers.fac file. Use it as a template for the own mapping. Automatic Mapping Definition Steps This type of mapping is the way to convert a given feature schema onto a database schema based on feature type definitions. To achieve this mapping, it is first necessary to use the "Schema Generator" tool that builds a SQL script to generate the tables. As the mapping manager uses the same logic as the schema generator tool, the mapping is done automatically at run time. Note that this type of mapping still allows mapping rules since these rules are used when generating the SQL script. For example, a mapping rule can tell if a sub-collection is stored as a Blob, binary large object, or if it is expanded in each of its components in the data store. When the XML Schema document describing the feature types is the starting point, and the database structure can be created from it, this type of mapping applies. Automatic mapping is also a convenient way to set-up storage for complex feature types. This mapping implies a two - step process: First, run the "Schema Generator" tool provided with the distribution. As entry parameters, it takes the name of the XML schema, and, optionally, the name of the mapping document. The output is a SQL script for the database schema generation (tables, indexes, or sequences). Then, at run time, the framework does the mapping automatically. In term of mapping directives, the <SQL> element must mention the attribute "generation" with the value "auto". Connectors supporting this type of mapping are Oracle Thin, Oracle OCI and PostgreSQL. Follow these steps: 1. Take the XML schema file or build it according to GML rules. 2. Build a mapping file giving some mapping rules and input the value "auto" into the "generation" attribute. 3. Run the Schema Generator to obtain the SQL script. 4. Run this SQL script once to generate the tables. 5. Run the Schema Generator again, with the -delete option, to obtain the deletion SQL scripts. Backup the produced script, allowing for later removal of the tables. This script is useful when the number of tables is large. 6. If the WFS manages transactions, make sure the LOCKTIMEOUT table is created, as it will store locking information along with the "LK" field generated by the tool. The SQL script to generate the LOCKTIMEOUT table can be found in the distribution CD under data/db/lock.sql. 252

253 You can name the Lock-Id field (predefined as "LK") differently, as soon as you add a <Lock> tag in the mapping file to tell the service what field is used to manage locking. If you do not want to manage transactions, it could be necessary to explicitly disable the "Lock" operation in the <Operations> tag for your feature type(s). 7. At this stage, insert and then retrieve a feature to ensure the structure corresponds to the expectations. If not, modify the schema file or the mapping rules, run the del.sql script to remove the tables, and return to step 3. Example: Automatic Mapping File In the following example, the feature type is named AnnotationListType, defined in an XML Schema whose prefix has been set to "xima". The <Element> items in the mapping allow restricting the type of values in the given properties. The <Info> tag contains an <Operations> element that explains which types of requests are allowed on this feature type. The "*" sign means ALL and corresponds to "Insert, Delete, Update, Lock and Query". Note that the sample is for illustration purposes only and, therefore, the additional information necessary is not provided (such as "xima" schema, "iap" schema, and the definitions of the other feature types mentioned in the example). <Mapping> <SQL name="xima:annotationlisttype" generation="auto"> <Element name="xima:metadata"> <Type name="iap:annotationmetadatatype"/> <Type name="iap:imagemetadatatype"/> </Element> <Element name="xima:content"> <Type name="iap:simplecontenttype"/> </Element> <Element name="xima:imagereference"> <Type name="iap:imageurltype"/> </Element> </SQL> <Info name="xima:annotationlisttype"> <Operations>*</Operations> <SRS>EPSG:4326</SRS> <BoundingBox SRS="EPSG:4326" minx="-180." miny="-90." maxx="180." maxy="90." /> </Info>... </Mapping> Relational (Explicit) Mapping Definition Steps It starts with defining a simple Explicit Mapping for each of the tables to map with one feature type per table. Then, changed have to be done like described below in order to map the relations. 253

254 The first case described is for a composition where a single feature type gets its properties from a nested table. Another case is the association where several feature types have their own existence but are related (like the Parcel/Person relationship). By definition, "The aggregation is a special type of association used to represent a "part of" relationship between two feature types. A key indicator of an aggregate relationship is feature types that share a lifetime. If the containing feature type is destroyed the contained feature type is destroyed with it." And "A composition is the strongest relationship between two feature types. Composition is a special form of aggregation that indicates not only lifetime association but typically exclusive containment as well." Composition The explanation is based on the Road vs. Lane relationship where a Road is composed of one or more Lanes as shown in the UML diagram below. Road-Lane UML Diagram It is assumed that the underlying database is Oracle and the relationship between the ROAD and LANE tables is based on a primary key - foreign key relationship as in the diagram below. Road-Lane Relational Diagram As soon as an Explicit Mapping has been produced for the Road and Lane feature types, there should be a GML Application Schema with those two feature types defined, as in the "Simple Feature Type Definition" example above. Note that the GML3 rules are being used to define 254

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