ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟ ΟΕΥ ΣΥΔΝΕΫ ΚΛΑΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ Α. ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΟΠΟΙΗΣΗ ΑΝΑ ΦΟΡΕΑ / ΘΕΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΥΠΟΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΑ. Απρίλιος 2014

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1 ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟ ΟΕΥ ΣΥΔΝΕΫ Απρίλιος 2014 ΚΛΑΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ ΑΝΑΛΥΣΗ ΕΠΙΜΕΡΟΥΣ ΤΟΜΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣΕΙΣ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΩΝ Ο περιβαλλοντικός κλάδος στην Αυστραλία έχει απασχολήσει τις Αρχές ιδιαίτερα από τις αρχές της προηγούμενης δεκαετίας λόγω των συνεπειών της κλιματικής αλλαγής (ακραία καιρικά φαινόμενα που έχουν παρατηρηθεί στην τεράστια αυτή ήπειρο και που έχουν πλήξει τόσο τις αστικές περιοχές όσο και τις αγροτικές εκτάσεις προξενώντας ανυπολόγιστες ζημιές). Παρά τα ανωτέρω προβλήματα, σε όρους αγοράς, δεν έχουν υπάρξει ευρείες βάσεις δεδομένων από Φορείς που να καταγράφουν τις μεγάλες εταιρείες που εξειδικευμένα αναπτύσσουν δραστηριότητα στον κλάδο του περιβάλλοντος. Εν τούτοις, στο τέλος της μελέτης (σελ.18) παραθέτουμε δύο κατατοπιστικές βάσεις δεδομένων συναφών εταιρειών- συμβούλων. Αξιοσημείωτο είναι ότι τα κυριότερα παραδείγματα των Αυστραλιανών μεγάλων εταιρειών που ασκούν περιβαλλοντικό έργο εντάσσονται στο πεδίο της εταιρικής κοινωνικής ευθύνης (CSR/Corporate Social Responsibility) μέσω της δαπάνης σημαντικών κονδυλίων για να χρηματοδοτηθούν δράσεις που σχετίζονται με τους διαφόρους τομείς της επιστήμης της διαχείρισης του περιβάλλοντος. Το κύριο στοιχείο που χαρακτηρίζει την Αυστραλιανή Περιβαλλοντική Πολιτική είναι η περίφημη διάταξη περί της κατάργησης του Φόρου του Άνθρακα (ενός εκ των κύριων αρνητικών παραγόντων για την εμπέδωση της ανάπτυξης στην Αυστραλιανή οικονομία λόγω των ποικίλων επιπβαρύνσεων που προκαλούνται στα Αυστραλιανά νοικοκυριά και επιχειρήσεις). Η νεο- εκλεγείσα Κυβέρνηση των Φιλελευθέρων κατά την έναρξη των 44ων Κοινοβουλευτικών Εργασιών, στις , εισήγαγε την εν λόγω διάταξη όμως το σχετικό υπό ψήφιση Νομοσχέδιο το οποίο θα καταργούσε τον καθ ύλη αρμόδιο οργανισμό Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) απερρίφθη από τη Γερουσία (τελεί υπό τον έλεγχο της Αντιπολίτευσης) στις Εκ νέου προσπάθειες της Κυβέρνησης απέβησαν άκαρπες το Μάρτιο 2014 ενώ ελπίδες για νεώτερη θεώρηση του ζητήματος εναπόκεινται στη νέα Γερουσία του Ιουνίου Η μελέτη επικεντρώνεται στους κύριους πυλώνες που η εν λόγω επιστήμη βρίσκει γόνιμο έδαφος υλοποίησης (Κυβέρνηση, Επιστημονικοί Φορείς, Επιχειρήσεις) ανά θεματική κατηγορία. Τοιουτοτρόπως, για τη διερεύνηση δυνατοτήτων εγχώριων και διεθνών συνεργασιών που είναι και το ζητούμενο, δεν αρκεί μόνον η επικοινωνιακή επιλογή με κάποιον εκ των ανωτέρω κατηγοριών οργανισμών αλλά και η ανάλυση της θεματικής υποδιαίρεσης εντός ενός εκάστου εξ αυτών, η οποία αναλόγως των δυνατοτήτων του εκάστοτε Φορέα (ανθρώπινων/υλικών) δύναται να λάβει απεριόριστες διαστάσεις για περαιτέρω έρευνα και ανάπτυξη. Α. ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΟΠΟΙΗΣΗ ΑΝΑ ΦΟΡΕΑ / ΘΕΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΥΠΟΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΑ Ι. DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος) 1

2 Συνιστά τον κύριο Φορέα υλοποίησης της Κυβερνητικής πολιτικής σε ομοσπονδιακό επίπεδο. Οι κύριες θεματικές ενότητες αφορούν (με τις αντίστοιχες ηλεκτρονικές συνδέσεις): Θεματικές Ενότητες Αυστραλιανού Υπουργείου Περιβάλλοντος A Cleaner Environment Clean Air Clean Land Clean Water National Heritage Biodiversity Threatened species & ecological communities Invasive species Wildlife trade Biodiversity conservation Climate Change Emissions Reduction Fund Renewable Energy Target Repealing the Carbon Tax Environment protection Environment assessments Fuel quality National Waste Policy Ozone and Synthetic Greenhouse Gases Heritage About Australia s heritage Heritage places Historic shipwrecks Australian Heritage Strategy Land National Reserve System Native vegetation Rangelands Marine Fisheries and the environment Great Barrier Reef Marine Reserves Marine Species 2

3 National parks Kakadu National Park Uluru- Kata Tjuta National Park National Landscapes World Parks Congress Sustainable communities Sustainable population Measuring sustainability Suburban jobs Sustainable regional development Science and research Australian Biological Resources Study National Environmental Research Program State of the Environment reporting Supervising Scientist Division Water The Basin Plan Commonwealth Environmental Water Office Rural water Water Quality Portfolio websites Australian Antarctic Division Bureau of Meteorology Climate Change Sydney Harbour Federation Trust Ενότητες Διαχείρισης του Περιβάλλοντος Μελέτη Αερίων Θερμοκηπίου ανά Αυστραλιανή Πολιτεία: Οδηγίες Εγκαθίδρυσης και Λειτουργίας του Εθνικού Συστήματος Διαχείρισης Προστατευμένου Περιβάλλοντος: Στοχεύει στην υποβοήθηση Φορέων και Κοινοτήτων για την ανάπτυξη του National Reserve System (NRS), με τελικό στόχο την παράδοση σε λειτουργία του Προγράμματος National Reserve System Program (NRSP), το οποιο τελεί υπό την αιγίδα του Commonwealth Government s Natural Heritage Trust of Australia. Οι εν λόγω οδηγίες αξιολογήθηκαν και τέθηκαν στην πράξη από την National Reserve System Scientific Taskforce του Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC). Συνοδεύουν ως κείμενο τη Βιο- Γεωγραφική Κατηγοριοποίηση Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (Thackway and Cresswell (Eds), 1995), (IBRA). Προγράμματα Επιδοτήσεων και Χρηματοδοτήσεων: 3

4 us/grants- and- funding Προκηρύξεις Συναφών Μειοδοτικών Διαγωνισμών: us/business- us/tenders ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΒΙΩΣΙΜΩΝ ΚΟΙΝΟΤΗΤΩΝ communities/government- sustainability National chemical reference guide standards in the Australian environment Designed to help you find relevant information about chemicals as quickly and easily as possible. Information has been arranged into topics to help focus your search; alternatively you can use the search facilities on the left. Water Accounting Standards Board (WASB) The Board works with the water industry to develop consistent standards for water accounting which will improve the economic, social and environmental outcomes of water management. Water efficiency guide: office and public buildings efficiency- guide- office- and- public- buildings Offers practical how to help for building owners, managers and users to reduce water use by up to 30% to 40%. Providing an introduction to the technical and behavioural opportunities that exist in office and public buildings for reducing water consumption and increasing water reuse. The second part of the publication is the National water intensity benchmarks for office buildings and public buildings. Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Scheme The Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) Scheme aims to improve water efficiency by assisting people to purchase, and encouraging industry to manufacture, more water efficient products. Your Home Design for lifestyle and the future Your Home is a suite of consumer and technical guide materials and tools developed to encourage the design, construction or renovation of homes to be comfortable, healthy, less expensive to run while more environmentally friendly. II. DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS & TRADE (ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΕΞΩΤΕΡΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΟΥ) Media release 25 January 2014 Australia joins push for free trade in environmental goods The Minister for Trade and Investment, Andrew Robb MP, has welcomed a commitment by a group of WTO members to begin preparing for negotiations on the elimination of tariffs on environmental goods. Mr Robb said Australia was very pleased to be a part of this new initiative which was launched overnight in Davos, Switzerland, as part of the World Economic Forum (WEF). "Prime Minister Tony Abbott highlighted just yesterday the Australian Government's strong commitment to liberalising trade during his address to the WEF and this is another step on that journey," Mr Robb said. The initiative brings together WTO Members which account for 86 percent of global trade in environmental goods. It will involve many of the 4

5 world's largest economies, including China, the European Union, Japan, Korea and the United States. The negotiations will be open to any other countries sharing the ambition to promote free trade in environmental products. "Working to eliminate tariffs on environmental goods provides a concrete and tangible way to really help ensure we do the right thing for the environment and the planet," Mr Robb said. "It will also be a good thing for Australian businesses and innovators." The negotiations will build on the 2012 APEC commitment to reduce tariffs on 54 environmental goods. They will be seeking to cover a broad range of additional products and to respond to changing technologies in one of the most dynamic sectors of the international market. Mr Robb said the initiative was a strong example of how a regional agreement in APEC can provide the basis for multilateral action in the WTO. The foundation participants are Australia, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, Chinese Taipei and the United States. Trade and Environment Overview The 1994 Marrakesh Agreement refers to the importance of optimally using the world s resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development and seeking to protect and preserve the environment. As such, the role of the WTO in relation to trade and environment is to ensure that environmental policies do not act as obstacles to trade, and that trade rules do not stand in the way of legitimate domestic environmental protection. Trade and environment issues within the WTO are dealt with by the Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE), which was created by the 1994 Ministerial Decision on Trade and Environment. The Committee s mandate is broad, and provides opportunities for WTO members to raise a wide range of issues relating to trade and environment. Some of the topics currently being examined by the Committee include eco- labelling and environmental technology dissemination. Further information on the Trade and Environment debate in the WTO Environmental Goods Negotiations Trade and Investment Minister Andrew Robb announced in January 2014 that Australia would join 13 other members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to negotiate a plurilateral agreement to remove tariffs on a range of environmental goods. The global market for these environmental goods was worth US$1 trillion in 2012, and is expected to expand to around US$3 trillion by Australia s exports of these environmental goods in 2013 were estimated at $1.3 billion, and imports at $7.2 billion. In addition to Australia, other countries that have agreed to participate in these negotiations are Canada, China, Costa Rica, the European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, Chinese Taipei and the United States. Removing tariffs on a wide range of environmental goods is in the interests of the Australian economy. It would help reduce costs for Australian industries and exporters, and give them better access to this significant and fast growing global sector. The agreement would also be good for the environment by making environmental goods cheaper and more accessible for everyone. This could directly improve the quality of life by providing a cleaner environment and better access to safe water, sanitation or clean energy. While the agreement will not solve the environmental challenges we face locally and globally, it would make a contribution. The production of environmental goods encompasses a wide variety of areas, including equipment for air pollution control, management of solid and hazardous waste and recycling systems, soil and water remediation, renewable energy, heat and energy management, waste and water management, potable water treatment, noise and vibration abatement, and environmental monitoring, analysis and assessment. This is an innovative sector, and a growing number of Australian firms are finding niche markets in several overseas markets, using cutting- edge technology and unique Australian innovation. The negotiations will focus initially on the APEC list of 54 environmental goods agreed by APEC Leaders in 2012, and will be expanded to take into consideration rapidly changing technologies in the environment sector. The negotiations are important in reinforcing the rules- based multilateral trading system by: being open to all WTO members; extending tariff elimination to all WTO members; and only coming into force when a critical mass of global trade in the relevant goods is covered. They have brought together WTO Members which account for 86 per cent of global trade in environmental goods. The agreement will be open to any other countries sharing the ambition to promote free trade in environmental products. Its successful launch highlighted the value of a major group of economies working together to further liberalise trade. 5

6 Submissions: The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) is inviting submissions (see Departmental media release) as input into these negotiations. DFAT is also seeking comments on products Australian industry would like to have covered in the agreement in addition to the 54 items already identified (see above). Submissions can be lodged at A pro- forma is attached [DOCX 30 KB] [PDF 82 MB] to assist those who wish to make focused submissions on product coverage for the agreement. The information provided in the proforma will be treated on a strictly commercial- in- confidence basis. It would be helpful if information could include detailed description of products, their tariff numbers, and environmental uses and benefits. Submissions will be made publicly available on the DFAT website unless otherwise specified. Contact us: Free Trade Agreement Policy and New Issues Section Office of Trade Negotiations R.G. Casey building John McEwen Crescent Barton ACT 0221 Phone: * Fax: ΙIΙ. CSIRO/COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION Κύριες Θεματικές Ενότητες του Οργανισμού: Animal, Food and Health Sciences From the farm, to fork, to health, we re applying the latest in animal, life and food sciences to support a sustainable and healthy future for your industries and communities. Astronomy and Space Science CSIRO s provider of technology and services for radio astronomy, spacecraft tracking and space sciences. Earth Science and Resource Engineering Providing science and engineering solutions for the continuing growth of Australia s resources industry whilst delivering benefits to the economy, society and the environment. Ecosystem Sciences We apply multidisciplinary science to the sustainability of Australia s agriculture and forestry, built environments, biodiversity, communities, and industries. Energy Technology We are playing an essential role in researching and developing technologies to achieve the objective of near zero emissions from the use of energy worldwide. Computational Informatics Transforming information and decision making to enhance productivity, foster collaboration and deliver impact through services across a range of sectors. Land and Water CSIRO Land and Water conducts research to understand natural and engineered land and water systems and to predict how they respond to change. Marine and Atmospheric Research Marine, atmospheric and earth systems research driven by issues affecting Australia and the world. Learn more about CMAR Materials Science & Engineering Our innovation in new materials occurs at the intersection of biology, chemistry, and physics. Our research is making an impact for Australians in manufacturing, health, automotive and aerospace, defence and resource exploration. Plant Industry Plant Industry promotes profitable and sustainable agrifood, fibre and horticultural industries, developing new plant products and improving how plants use natural resources through world- leading research. Process Science and Engineering Advancing Australia s resource, energy and manufacturing sectors through innovative processing solutions Κύριοι Στόχοι του Οργανισμού: 6

7 Biosecurity Flagship CSIRO s Biosecurity Flagship is focused on helping to protect Australia from biosecurity threats and risks posed by serious exotic and endemic pests and diseases. Climate Adaptation Finding ways to adapt to the impacts of climate change and variability. Digital Productivity & Services We aim to create A$4 billion per annum in value for the economy by 2025, by delivering more efficient and innovative services for Australia. Energy Flagship Developing clean, affordable energy and transport technologies for a sustainable future. Food Futures The programs of Food Futures Flagship will transform the agrifood sector of the nation through new technologies and collaborations. Future Manufacturing Developing cleaner advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to grow Australia s future productivity and prosperity. Minerals Down Under Delivering science and technology solutions to the Australian minerals industry. Preventative Health Our goal is to improve the health and wellbeing of Australians through research into prevention and early detection of common chronic diseases. Sustainable Agriculture Flagship CSIRO s Sustainable Agriculture Flagship aims to secure Australian agriculture and forest industries by 2030 through a 50 per cent increase in productivity and a 50 per cent reduction in carbon emissions intensity, while enhancing the resource base and partnering for global benefit. Water for a Healthy Country Addressing the sustainable management of Australia s water resources. Wealth from Oceans Delivering science and technology to provide Australians with enduring social, environmental and economic wealth from our vast ocean territory. Δυνατότητες Συνεργασιών με τον Οργανισμό: Collaborate Accelerate your organisation s research by tapping into CSIRO s amazing expertise. Invest or technology transfer Grow your business with market- ready CSIRO technology through licensing, co- investment or purchase. Access our Services Access a range of expertise through our research consultancies and technical services. SME Engagement Centre We re connecting knowledge to help Australian small and medium- sized businesses (SMEs) grow. IV. ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ LIVING GREENER» Provides a starting point for information about living more sustainably and reducing your environmental impact. It also includes information on rebates, grants and loans to help with the initial cost of practical solutions for saving energy and water. V. CONSULT AUSTRALIA 7

8 Architecture Cost consulting (quantity surveyors) Engineering Environmental science Landscape architecture Planning Project management VI. ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA & N.ZEALAND VIΙ. ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΡΟΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑΣ ΝΕΑΣ ΝΟΤΙΟΥ ΟΥΑΛΙΑΣ «ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (NSW)» Θεματολογία: Air quality hourly updates Smoky vehicles Dust from coal mining Waste Less, Recycle More Grants Illegal waste dumping Safely disposing of asbestos waste State of the Environment reports Who cares about the environment? Australian Rail and Track Corporation VIII. ECOLOGICAL CONSULTANTS OF NSW IX. «THE NATURE CONSERVANCY» Habitats Rivers and Lakes Oceans and Coasts Forests Grasslands and Prairies Deserts and Aridlands Urgent Issues Conservation Action Climate Change Water Rainforests Coral Reefs Migratory Birds 8

9 Land Conservation People and Conservation Smart Development Global Agriculture Energy X. «AUSTRALIAN CONSERVATION FOUNDATION» partnerships XI. «ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS AUSTRALIA / SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS AUSTRALIA» Contact details Legion House, Level 2, 161 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 Tel: Focus Areas Corporate responsibility is moving from the "why" to "how" of addressing global sustainability challenges. This shift requires a focus on solutions that are practical, business- relevant, and built upon both sustainability and industry expertise. Through the identified focus areas, SBA explores crucial aspects for achieving sustainable development. Focus: Carbon Action SBA is focusing with its member companies and affiliate networks to support the implementation of GHG management and reporting practices across companies and throughout the Australian economy, and position member companies at the forefront of business in reducing its climate impact. This focus area works with businesses, governments, NGOs and other stakeholders throughout Australia to develop credible and effective tools for companies and organizations to tackle climate change - mitigation and adaptation. Focus: Sustaining Growth There is a "new economy movement" that is pushing for a fundamental shift away from the historical policies that have dominated our economy and society for decades. This new economic model is based on redefining economic progress towards a broader notion of social and environmental prosperity, economic democracy, and more effective government regulation. This focus area will explore what is needed to build a new economy as the first step in something much more transformative, one that can directly engage with and build local resilient economies with marginalized communities; one that can begin with ways that create immediate and tangible benefits rather than advancing abstract and distant theories. Focus: Sustainability Counts The integration of sustainability into business strategy requires new business models and new ways of thinking about how businesses contribute to society. To advance this, new ways to measure. value creation and "good corporate performance", the valuation of externalities, and new reporting standards to accelerate this transition to long- term sustainability, will need to be established. This focus area seeks to bring together leading business experts and other stakeholders to deepen our understanding of what the concept of shared value means in practice, to catalyze efforts to re- define what "good corporate performance" should mean in practice, and advance discussions on the most effective ways to report and reward companies across the globe. Focus: Natural Capital Ecosystem change presents both opportunities and risks to companies (as well as to their suppliers, customers and investors), such as operational (e.g. increased scarcity and cost of raw materials), regulatory and legal (e.g. public policies such as taxes and moratoria on extractive activities), reputational (e.g. relationships and image from media and NGOs), market and product (e.g. consumer preferences) and financial (e.g. availability of capital). This focus area seeks to build consensus, collaboration and capacity, and develop tools to assess risks and opportunities related to 9

10 business impacts and dependencies on ecosystems; and also engages in the global biodiversity and ecosystem policy debate. Focus: Resource Solutions Effective use and management of our natural resources are a critical sustainable development challenge. Its constraints pose important risks for businesses. They also represent a big opportunity to contribute sustainable management solutions at the required scale. This focus area generates business leadership in expanding sustainable solutions to meet the needs of people now and in the future by driving a broad spectrum of sustainability initiatives at all stages and in all elements of the resource spectrum (e.g. minerals, forestry, food, water). Focus: People Do Matter Business leaders increasingly recognize the crucial role employees play in driving and delivering sustainable business strategy. Companies are integrating sustainability into corporate culture and fostering "sustainable development capabilities." This focus area investigates what does this mean in practice - how can companies inform, train, equip, direct, motivate and incentivize employees in a way that is aligned with sustainability principles and creating business value? XII. «ENVIRONMENT VICTORIA» (independent & non- profit organization) affiliate#.u105el4xhfi (environment watch matrix: detroy/help the environment) Address: Level 2, 60 Leicester Street, Carlton VIC 3053 Tel: Β. ΔΙΕΘΝΕΙΣ ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΙ WTO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT & ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION APEC/ASIA- PACIFIC ECONOMIC COOPERATION List of Environmental Goods (Tariffs removal): Papers/Leaders- Declarations/2012/2012_aelm/2012_aelm_annexC.aspx Γ. ΑΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΗ ΚΟΙΝΟΤΗΤΑ UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL, EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 10

11 General Enquiries: Tel: Fax: Institute of Environmental Studies Offices: Rooms Level 4 Electrical Engineering Building (G17 on the Campus Map) Phone: (02) Fax: (02) Associated Research Centres: Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA) Centre for Ecosystem Science Centre of Marine Bio- Innovation (CMB) Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC) Connected Waters Evolution & Ecology Research Centre (E&ERC) Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) UNSW Research Studies: research UNSW Faculty Directory: ANU/AUSTRALIA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CLIMATE CHANGE INSTITUTE Research Programs Δ. ΕΠΙΧΕΙΡΗΣΕΙΣ ΣΤΟΝ ΤΟΜΕΑ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΙΚΗΣ ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΗΣ Παρατίθενται κατάλογοι της παραμετροποιημένης βάσης δεδομένων Yellow Pages όσον αφορά εξειδικεμένες κατηγορίες επιχειρήσεων στον τομέα του περιβάλλοντος στην πολιτεία της Νέας Νοτίου Ουαλίας: ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS =New+South+Wales&lat=&lon= ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟΣ ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING COMPANIES =New+South+Wales&lat=&lon= 11

12 Π Α Ρ Α Ρ Τ Η Μ Α Κύριες Μορφές Περιβαλλοντικών Προκλήσεων στον 21 ο αιώνα (Η Αυστραλία εμπλέκεται στην πλειονότητα εξ αυτών) Ø Climate change Global warming Global dimming Fossil fuels Sea level rise Greenhouse gas Ocean acidification Shutdown of thermohaline circulation Environmental impact of the coal industry Urban Heat Islands Flooding Ø C o n s e r v a t i o n Ø Ecosystems Anoxic waters Biodiversity Biosecurity Coral bleaching Edge effect Habitat destruction Habitat fragmentation Illegal dumping In- situ leach Ø Fishing Blast fishing Bottom trawling By- catch Cetacean bycatch Gillnetting Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing Environmental effects of fishing Overfishing Marine pollution Whaling Ø Forests Clearcutting Deforestation Illegal logging Ø Species Endangered species Genetic diversity Habitat destruction Holocene extinction Invasive species Poaching Pollinator decline Species extinction Threshold host density Wildlife trade Wildlife disease Ø Energy Energy conservation Efficient energy use Environmental impact of the coal industry Environmental impact of the energy industry Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Renewable energy Renewable energy commercialization Ø Environmental degradation Eutrophication Habitat destruction Invasive species Soda lake Ø Environmental health Air quality Asthma Birth defect Developmental disability endocrine disruptors Environmental impact of the coal industry Electromagnetic fields Electromagnetic radiation and health Indoor air quality Lead poisoning Leukemia One Health Sick Building Syndrome Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Ø Environmental law Environmental crime Environmental justice Polluter pays principle Precautionary Principle Ø Genetic engineering Genetic pollution Genetically modified food controversies Ø Hydrology Environmental impacts of reservoirs Tile drainage Hydrology (agriculture) Flooding Landslide Ø Intensive farming Environmental effects of meat production Irrigation Monoculture Nutrient pollution Overgrazing Pesticide drift Plasticulture Slash and burn Tile drainage Ø Land use Built environment Desertification Habitat fragmentation Habitat destruction Land degradation Land pollution Urban sprawl Ø Soil Alkali soil Brownfield Superfund sites Residual Sodium Carbonate Index Soil conservation Soil erosion Soil contamination Soil salination Superfund Ø Nanotechnology Nanotoxicology Nanopollution Ø Nuclear issues Nuclear fallout Nuclear meltdown Nuclear power Nuclear weapons Nuclear and radiation 12

13 accidents Nuclear safety High- level radioactive waste management Ø Overpopulation Burial Overpopulation in companion animals Tragedy of the commons Gender Imbalance in Developing Countries Sub- replacement fertility levels in developed countries Water crisis Ø Ozone depletion CFC Biological effects of UV exposure Ø Pollution Nonpoint source pollution Point source pollution Light pollution Noise pollution Visual pollution Interplanetary contamination Ø Water pollution Acid rain Environmental impact of the coal industry Eutrophication Groundwater recharge Marine pollution Ocean dumping Oil spills Thermal pollution Urban runoff Water crisis Marine debris Microplastics Ocean acidification Ship pollution Wastewater Fish kill Algal bloom Mercury in fish Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Ø Air pollution Atmospheric particulate matter Environmental impact of the coal industry Smog Tropospheric ozone Indoor air quality Volatile organic compound Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Ø Resources depletion Exploitation of natural resources Overdrafting Overexploitation Ø Consumerism Consumer capitalism Planned obsolescence Over- consumption Ø Fishing Blast fishing Bottom trawling Cyanide fishing Ghost nets Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing Overfishing Shark finning Whaling Ø Logging Clearcutting Deforestation Illegal logging Ø Mining Acid mine drainage Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Mountaintop removal mining Slurry impoundments Ø Water Anoxic waters Aral Sea California Water Wars Dead Sea Lake Chad Water pollution Water crisis Wastewater Ø Toxicants Agent Orange Asbestos Beryllium Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Cyanide DDT Endocrine disruptors Explosives Dioxin Toxic heavy metals Environmental impact of the coal industry Herbicides Hydrocarbons Perchlorate Pesticides PBDE Persistent organic pollutant PCB Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Radioactive contamination Volatile organic compounds Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing Ø Waste Electronic waste Great Pacific Garbage Patch Incineration Litter Waste disposal incidents Marine debris Medical waste Landfill Leachate Toxic waste Environmental impact of the coal industry Exporting of hazardous waste Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing What are the top five climate challenges for Australia? ENVIRONMENT VICTORIA Nicholas Aberle is the Safe Climate Campaign Manager at Environment Victoria This guest blog by Environment Victoria's safe climate campaign manager Nicholas Aberle looks at the top climate change challenges facing Australia. Hazelwood Power station in the Latrobe Valley, which produces around 2.8% of Australia's total CO2 emissions Photograph: David Crosling/AAP 13

14 Environment Victoria is one of the most innovative and active environmental organisations in Australia. Especially on climate change, fossil fuels and coal, Environment Victoria is leading the way on community activism and action. Earlier this year, I invited the new Safe Climate Campaign Manager, Nicholas Aberle, to summarise what he saw as the main climate change challenges facing Australia. I think he's done a great job in summing up the key issues. Australia more than almost any other nation, is uniquely vulnerable to extreme climate change. In my home state of Victoria, we've experienced yet another round of extreme heat and a new wave of bush- fires. Victoria is also home to one of the most polluting coal fired power stations in the world, Hazelwood, which in the past few days was threatened by those bushfires. The question of coal and electricity generation is one that Australia must face up to, as Nicholas discusses below. The top five climate challenges for Australia It has been a busy time for those at the, ahem, coal face of action on climate change. Backward steps being taken at almost every turn. While dealing with spot- fires, it can be hard to keep one's eyes on the prize: what we as Australians need to make happen as our contribution to a safe climate. 1. Getting off coal Australia's emissions come predominantly from burning coal for electricity. The likely soon- to- be- dismantled carbon price was designed to send a clear price signal to coal- fired power stations by charging them for each tonne of CO2 emitted. This signal was partly masked by unnecessary compensation arrangements with the most polluting plants, but recent figures show the carbon price is having some success at reducing emissions. As a replacement climate policy, the Government's proposed Emissions Reduction Fund will, at best, tinker around the edges of an electricity generation system that needs wholesale change to achieve credible emissions reductions. At prices likely to be available under the fund, old coal- fired power stations will have few opportunities, let alone the incentive, to reduce their emissions. While we continue to burn coal, power station efficiency and technical advances will only get us so far. The importance of maintaining a price on carbon can't be overstated. 2. Getting on to renewables Where, then, does our energy come from? Three studies have now demonstrated the technical viability of a 100% renewable electricity grid. In the scenarios from the grid operator AEMO, it appears that 100% renewables wouldn't even cost that much more than business- as- usual (since many existing generators would need to be replaced anyway). So what is standing in the way? Threats to break an election promise and weaken the Renewable Energy Target are damaging investor confidence in renewables projects. Plans by the Abbott government to conduct its own review of the RET (hot on the heels of the Climate Change Authority's legislated review) are compounding the problem. The survival of a strong RET is essential for continued investment in non- polluting energy. Barriers to uptake of renewables are also found in state planning policies first implemented in Victoria (and now being adopted or considered in other states). By allowing a single local resident to veto a wind project and otherwise restricting where wind turbines can be located, these policies are actively inhibiting the roll- out of wind farms, at the cost of higher emissions and lost regional investment. In these states, it is now easier to dig a new coal mine than to build a wind farm. 3. Ending fossil fuel subsidies Discouraging the production and consumption of fossil fuels, in all their forms and applications, goes hand in hand with other efforts to reduce domestic emissions. Currently, the Federal Government provides around $10 billion each year encouraging more fossil fuel use: including rebates to make fuel cheaper for large industries and tax loopholes for mining, oil and petroleum companies, amongst a host of others. The International Energy Agency has calculated that removing fossil fuel subsidies, globally, would create enough disincentive to their continued use to provide around half the necessary cuts to emissions to stay under two degrees of warming. Australia, through the G20 (of which we are the current president), committed in 2009 to removing fossil fuel subsidies, but little action has been taken. Now that 14

15 we're in a phase of ending corporate welfare, it seems like a good time to unwind these most perverse of handouts. A win- win for the climate and the budget. 4. Stop facilitating the emissions of others When you take into account the coal we export, our contribution to global climate change becomes very significant around 5%, and that's from about 0.3% of the global population. Plans to massively expand existing export markets in both Queensland and NSW are leading to local health problems and damage to the soon- to- be- less- Great Barrier Reef. There are also massive global consequences, in the form of guaranteed emissions. Not wanting to miss out, the Victorian Government (in a previously non- coal- exporting state) is considering export proposals with the state's particularly emissions- intensive brown coal. This all comes at a critical juncture in international energy markets. The cost of solar and wind energy is getting sufficiently low in many countries that it can compete on price alone with new coal plants (without even considering externalities of pollution). Windows of opportunity for new coal investments are closing, but if these projects go ahead, our exports could be locking other countries into a polluting energy trajectory for decades to come. Unless we acknowledge this issue and take action, climate change will come to us as the ghost of coal exports past. 5. Get ready Even if all emissions are stopped tomorrow, there is likely to be enough greenhouse gases in the atmosphere already to push the limits of the internationally agreed "guard rail" of two degrees of warming considered the difference between dangerous climate change and extremely dangerous climate change. With that kind of change effectively locked in as a result of our past actions, strategies to adapt to future climate will be essential. The IPCC says that 3-5 degrees of warming is possible, if not likely, and there are big question marks over how well human civilization can adapt to a 4+ degree earth. It s important to understand that the impacts of climate change will be society- and economy- wide: health, insurance, construction, banking, transport Even the Australian Open tennis isn't immune. Critically, its also not clear what we're adapting to. How does one make good decisions under such uncertainty? We need to start figuring that out, and we need to start acting on the answers. Some solutions are simple: energy efficient homes keep us cool during heatwaves while also saving money and reducing strain on electricity infrastructure. Other solutions will be much more complicated, like how to deal with sea level rise in communities where people want to live on the coast but don't want to know about risk to property. Getting on with it Its worth pointing out that, despite my top 5 list here focusing on electricity generation, there are other challenges: reducing our demand for electricity, and broader influences such as population and economic activity, for starters. These ought to be part of the debate. For the most part, the solutions to reducing our emissions already exist. It's whether we choose to act. Either way, it is important to acknowledge that there is no more status quo. Change is inevitable. It's how much change, and how we respond to that change, that will define all our futures. 1. Water ABC TV TOP 10 Environmental Problems in Australia It's hardly surprising that on the world's driest inhabited continent, experts are concerned about how Australia looks after its water. "We need to get smarter about how we manage water that means everything from replacing our ageing infrastructure to ensuring we capture rain water when it does fall," urges Kim McKay, author of True Green Life. "Most rivers in southern Australia are suffering from decades of over- extraction for irrigation," says Dr Linda Selvey, Greenpeace Australia Pacific CEO. "This is being exacerbated by drought, and the pressure will continue as climate change takes hold." Selvey and former Australian of the Year, Tim Flannery, are some of the many voices calling for urgent action in the Murray- Darling Basin, while the Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) continues to remind the public 15

16 of the far- reaching effects of unhealthy river systems in general. "Blue- green algal outbreaks kill fish and make water unsafe for drinking or swimming, while salty water isn't useful for anything," ACF spokesperson Josh Meadows said. 2. Climate change It may be a global issue, but when scientists across the world are asked what the effects of climate change will look like, they quickly point to Australia. "Of all the wealthy countries, we're probably the most vulnerable," says Professor Will Steffen, executive director of ANU's Climate Change Institute. "We're locked in to another 0.5 C temperature rise due to past emissions, but what we do between now and 2050 is crucial for the magnitude and rate of climate change later this century and beyond," he says. While government assessments predict over 250,000 Australian homes may be at risk from rising sea levels, Greenpeace's Selvey notes climate change will affect us well beyond our front doors. "Climate change also concerns security, the economy and justice. As a doctor, I've also seen the way it affects people's health," she says. The response, urges Professor Kurt Lambeck, president of the Australian Academy of Science, must be urgent and adaptable: "Reducing greenhouse gas emissions must be high priority, even if the full consequences of this are not yet understood," he says. 3. Energy "We should be replacing fossil fuels with renewable power," says Selvey. "It's critical that the Rudd government act to help us with the transition. It can be done; all that is required is political will," she says. Fiona Wain, CEO of Environment Business Australia, sees an opportunity in the coming energy crisis. "We have capacity to be world leaders in solar, wind, marine and geothermal energies. We have these resources on tap, but we've become lazy thinkers. Why don't we do minerals processing and manufacturing in Australia using these energy- efficient resources?" Like Flannery, who believes a lack of triple- bottom- line accounting in government and industry is costing the environment, Wain says those in manufacturing need to shift their thinking, and fast. "It's time to be thinking very big picture, so we need boards of directors that can think further than their three- year term of office," she says. 4. Coal Tim Flannery is not the only expert surveyed who expressed serious concern over Australia's 20- odd conventional coal- fired power plants. "We're the biggest coal exporter in the world," says McKay. "We may think our global carbon contribution is small (almost two per cent of global emissions), but it's much, much greater than that due to our bulk coal exports to countries like Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands and China." "It's unbelievable we haven't developed alternative, renewable energy sources on a large scale. We're dragging the chain presumably due to short- term, next election- cycle thinking," she says. While brown coal is responsible for much of our carbon dioxide (CO2), Wain believes we should be further investigating sequestration of the climate- changing gas. "Regardless of what else we do we're still going to need to draw down CO2 from the atmosphere to get it to 350 parts per million." Wain points to a commercial trial aiming to turn CO2 captured from coal- fired plants into algal oil (to produce plastics or biodiesel); and another trialling brown coal deposits as the base for soil fertilisers as two potential solutions. "There are consortiums of developers just getting on with it," she says. 5. Biodiversity With 1500 land- based species threatened, what Flannery terms "the extinction crisis" is agreed upon as a serious environmental challenge. "We have already seen a fairly disturbing loss of our biodiversity, but the problem tends to get overshadowed by climate change, land degradation and water issues," says the ANU's Will Steffen. "There's a whole suite of services we enjoy thanks to a biodiverse- rich ecosystem, from provisioning services like food or water, through to nutrient flow and pollination," reminds Steffan. He believes our highly urbanised society only compounds the problem. "We are quite disconnected from the services our ecosystem provides. Aside from products like food or timber, we don't see a value or price for these services in an economically focussed system. But Australia has an extinction debt building up, and the trend is not improving," he says. 16

17 6. Oceans Despite knowing the problems faced by one of our best- loved tourist attractions, we're still not doing enough to protect the Great Barrier Reef. "Rising sea levels and the impact of fertiliser run- off are damaging the reef. It needs more attention, because once it's gone, it's gone for good," reminds McKay. As the ACF calls for a national network of large marine sanctuaries, and an Australian Oceans Act to regulate sustainable harvesting and production of seafood, Greenpeace's Selvey highlights the current situation. "Seventy- six per cent of the world's fisheries are in dire straits, and overfishing by commercial and illegal fleets is threatening to fish some of our favourite seafoods to extinction. If we continue on this trajectory all fish stocks will collapse within 50 years. Scientists say eventually we will be left with only jellyfish and plankton," she says. 7. Population With Australia's population projected to reach 35 million by 2049, commentators continue to express concern about the pressure this growth will place on resources. "It means more consumption, and greater challenges for providing infrastructure to manage our country in a sustainable way," says McKay. While the ACF is calling for long- term strategies to meet and increase humanitarian obligations while reducing overall migration to more sustainable levels, the debate over ideal population continues. Experts may not see eye to eye on a figure, but most agree decisions need to be made. "We need to determine what our carrying capacity is" says Lambeck, "and how can we achieve a sustainable population." 8. Sustainable cities With Australians using more water and energy per person than almost any other country in the world, rethinking how we live in and develop our cities is vital, says the ACF's Josh Meadows. "We should invest in energy- efficient houses and buildings, and then export our ideas and the smart technologies behind them." Lambeck says smarter infrastructure would go along way to addressing the issue: "We need sustainable infrastructures for transport, power generation and distribution that minimise the impact on energy, water and biodiversity." According to Wain, there is huge scope for greater efficiency in our built environment. "I'm an eternal optimist, but we need to think at scale not house to house, but street to street and suburb to suburb. We need solutions that are scalable, so they become more investable and bankable." 9. Transport The perennial debate about lack of investment in public transport continues to frustrate many experts. "People complain about the per capita cost of investment in public transport, but it's far cheaper than the cost of putting cars on the road. We're not very logical in the way we think about these things," says Wain. While the ACF points out that removing the "nonsensical fringe benefit tax concession" for company car use would shift many away from relying on their cars, Wain is excited by the planned roll- out of a national electric car network, beginning in Canberra within the next two years. "Programs like this could conceivably take all tailpipes off the road in our cities," she says. 10. Ourselves While the majority of surveyed experts highlighted the need for government action, and fast, it seems the buck doesn't stop there. "We elect our leaders and we have the right to hold them to account," reminds Selvey. "We can pick up the phone to call our MP, write a letter, or visit them in their constituency office. Companies are doing it to protect their interests, we need to do it to protect ours." Lambeck says educating ourselves is key. "We need a population that understands the issues, and can make constructive contributions to the debate to force politicians to develop longer than three- year 'solutions'," he says. What stands in the way, McKay believes, is apathy. "It manifests in the politician who would prefer to do the minimum rather than risk not being re- elected; or in business leaders who adopt a 'business as usual' approach to ensure their annual bonus. "It's also in you and I ignoring the issues and hoping they'll go away. I've seen people come together and change things, and I really believe 17

18 we can learn to live in a more harmonious and sustainable way." GREENPEACE: What we do in the Australia and the Pacific (click the titles) Australia and the Pacific are unique and precious environments. We re (bloody) lucky to call them home. We ve got a beautiful climate, rich oceans, vast forests and healthy food. Yet all of this is under threat. Greenpeace takes action to protect our natural home, now and for the future. Climate Climate change threatens everything we hold dear our homes, our health, our planet. Our addiction to burning coal for energy is pushing us into an urgent crisis. But safe, renewable- energy can power our future it will be cheaper and healthier for our families and our planet. Join Greenpeace s energy [r]evolution! Forests Forests are the lungs of the earth. The air we breathe, the stability of our climate and the rich variety of life depends on forests. Yet an area of forest the size of a football field is destroyed every two seconds. Greenpeace is working to save the last remaining healthy forests from illegal and destructive logging. Oceans We live on Planet Ocean. Oceans cover around 70% of the planet, yet only 1% is protected from human activity. The Pacific Ocean, one of the last relatively healthy ocean ecosystems, is being plundered at an alarming rate. We re working to transform industrial fishing practices, establish marine reserves and end all forms of whaling. Food Australia grows some of the best food in the world. But genetically modified (GM) crops are threatening our environment, our health and our food supply. We have a choice Australia can become a GM testing ground, or we can grow the safe, healthy food we know. Greenpeace is taking action to stop the invasion of GM. We deserve food we can trust. Reef Australia is about to rapidly increase our coal exports and export it via the Great Barrier Reef, while the Arctic sea ice reaches its lowest point on record. The pending coal boom spells disaster for our unique and ecologically sensitive reef and for our climate. Arctic There are some places on this Earth that are so important and fragile they should be protected at all costs. The Arctic is one of those places. Without a government to protect it, the Arctic is vulnerable to exploitation. Together we will call on governments and the United Nations to turn the Arctic into a global sanctuary. Nuclear Greenpeace has always fought and will continue to fight vigorously against nuclear power because it is an unacceptable risk to the environment and to humanity. The only solution is to halt the expansion of all nuclear power, and for the shutdown of existing plants. Whales For over thirty years Greenpeace has taken action to protect the gentle giants of the sea. Our work has helped end whaling in nearly every country and revived decimated whale populations. Yet whales are still not safe. Today we re campaigning to protect whales from the many dangers they face, from scientific whaling to climate change. Βαϊανός Ωραιόπουλος- Κελένης Προϊστάμενος Γρφ. ΟΕΥ Σύδνεϋ 18

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