Continuing Higher Education Review

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1 Continuing Higher Education Review University Professional & Continuing Education Association University Professional & Continuing Education Association VOLUME 76, FALL 2012

2 CONTENTS Contents Editor s Note... 1 ESSAYS AND ADDRESSES ON ISSUES OF HIGHER EDUCATION What Is College For? Andrew Delbanco Demographics and Lifelong Learning Institutes in the 21st Century Michael Shinagel A Systems Approach to the Future of Distance Education in Colleges and Universities: Research, Development, and Implementation Farhad Saba Reinventing Continuing Higher Education Mary Walshok ARTICLES ON ASPECTS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION Pascal s Wager: Betting On The Future David Schejbal Online Learning 2.0: Strategies for a Mature Market Sean Gallagher and John LaBrie California Dreaming: The Past, Present, and Future of Continuing and Higher Education in California Gary W. Matkin High-Impact Educational Practices: What We Can Learn from the Traditional Undergraduate Setting Cathy Sandeen Emerging Open Online Distance Education Environment Raymond Schroeder ii CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

3 CONTENTS The Knowledge Product Lifecycle and the Strategic Dashboard Linda L. Glessner and Denise Gillis Thriving in Partnership: Models for Continuing Education Peter Moroney and Deena Boeck From Resistance to Resolution: The Journey Towards a Sustainable Vision of Continuing Education in Japan Bern Mulvey PROGRAMS OF NOTE University of Massachusetts Boston: Reconstituting a Continuing Education Division to a Degree-Granting Academic Unit Phillip DiSalvio Framingham State University: Faculty and Program Development Jon Huibregtse, Lorretta M. Holloway, and Scott Greenberg California State University, Northridge: Innovative Curriculum Design for Midcareer Professionals Henrik P. Minassians Rice University: Innovation to Increase Student College Readiness Jennifer Gigliotti Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education Angela Seaworth University of Missouri-St. Louis: Data-driven Online Course Design and Effective Practices Mary Rose Grant University of Houston: Engagement, Workforce, and Economic Development Marshall E. Schott CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

4 CONTENTS Thomas Edison State College and Colorado State University: Using Cutting-edge Technology to Enhance CE Unit Success Henry van Zyl and Albert Powell, Jr. BOOK REVIEWS Unlocking the Gates (Taylor Walsh) Reviewed by Stephen Carson College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be (Andrew Delbanco) Reviewed by Robert Wiltenberg Education for Employment: Realizing Arab Youth Potential Reviewed by Jennifer K. Stine iv CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

5 Editor s Note With this year s issue of the Continuing Higher Education Review (CHER), volume 76 (fall 2012), we have reached a milestone of sorts, as this marks the 15 th consecutive year that we have been editing and publishing CHER, the official journal of the University Professional and Continuing Education Association (UPCEA), at Harvard University. The origins of UPCEA date from 1915, when the National University Extension Association (NUEA) was founded, and the recently created Extension Division of Harvard University was solicited in June of 1915 to become a member of the National University Extension Association. President Lowell brought up before the Corporation... the question of joining the National University Extension Association. The members of the Corporation all felt that it would be most helpful to the extension work we are trying to do here if we joined, and as of October 12, 1915 Harvard University became one of the original 22 institutional charter members of NUEA. It is gratifying to us at Harvard that our membership with the national organization, from NUEA to UPCEA, has been maintained without interruption for almost a century now. And we are pleased to continue to serve our professional organization and our professional colleagues, nationally and internationally, in this editorial fashion. Our format follows the pattern set in recent issues, with the opening section devoted to Essays and Addresses on Issues of Higher Education. The lead essay, titled What Is College For, is excerpted from Andrew Delbanco s College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be (Princeton University Press, 2012). Professor Delbanco discusses three basic reasons why a college education is important: economic competitiveness, both individual and national, political for democratic citizenship, and liberal learning for personal fulfillment. In the Book Review section, Robert Wiltenberg offers an informative and insightful review of the book for our continuing higher education readers. Demographics and Lifelong Learning Institutes in the 21st Century by Michael Shinagel explores the implications of aging societies, both in the US and globally, in light of the recent growth of lifelong learning institutes nationally and universities of the third age (U3A) internationally. He uses CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

6 EDITOR S NOTE the 35th anniversary of the Harvard Institute for Learning in Retirement (HILR), which he founded in 1977, as one model for such an institute at a major American university. In response to the tremendous increase in the popularity of distance education among higher education administrators, Farhad Saba, Professor Emeritus at San Diego State University, has written A Systems Approach to the Future of Distance Education in Colleges and Universities: Research, Development, and Implementation. He argues that the use of the Internet limits the evolution and economies of distance education. He favors a dynamic systems approach to promote learning among students and facilitate teaching among faculty to achieve three goals: decrease the cost of education, increase educational relevancy for learners, and increase the synchronization among faculty, students, and administrators. The final essay in this section is by Mary Lindenstein Walshok, Associate Vice Chancellor, UC San Diego, on Reinventing Continuing Higher Education, a call to action for continuing higher educators to provide leadership,... to embrace new concepts, employ new tools, and form partnerships more appropriate for 21st century economics and societies. She outlines the rapidly changing world in which we operate, especially our global interdependence, and offers three imperatives : to innovate locally, to advocate nationally, and to network globally. In sum, re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in our region s civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. The following section, Articles on Aspects of Continuing Education, opens with Pascal s Wager: Betting on the Future, a question-and-answer session with David Schejbal, chair of the 2012 UPCEA Annual Conference, on environmentalism and the role of continuing education, a theme he chose for the conference. Although the topic failed to attract large numbers of attendees, the issue remains critical, and universities are offering graduate degrees in sustainability and environmental management. As Schejbal notes: The consequences of human population growth are becoming painfully clear: global warming, deforestation, desertification, ocean acidification, resource depletion, pollution, and the list goes on.... We must develop strategies to adapt. Sean Gallagher and John LaBrie of Northeastern University present Online Learning 2.0: Strategies for a Mature Market, a case study of how the university, through the pervasive use of market and program data, 2 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

7 EDITOR S NOTE is crafting strategies that drive approaches as diverse as geographically tailored marketing, new processes for online course development, and hybrid teaching and learning models that build on the strategic positioning of physical university assets in a nationwide network. Gary Matkin, Dean at UC-Irvine, has spent 43 years as an undergraduate, graduate, and administrator in the University of California system. His California Dreaming: The Past, Present, and Future of Continuing Higher Education in California draws upon this privileged perspective on the evolution of California higher education. He describes the golden age of the sixties and seventies in California, and the opportunities and crises that followed. The current decline in state support for higher education has resulted in a tendency to protect flagship campuses at the expense of other state institutions; pressure to raise tuition and attract non-resident students at public institutions; emphasis on entrepreneurial initiatives; and seeking technological solutions to reduce cost and increase revenues. Despite the problems in California, Matkin remains optimistic about continuing education in this the most exciting time in [his] career. In the article on High-Impact Educational Practices: What We Can Learn from the Traditional Undergraduate Setting, Cathy Sandeen, Dean of UCLA Extension, sets forth three goals: to draw attention to some excellent work focuses on the liberal arts enhancing high-impact educational practices within the traditional residential undergraduate setting; to explore the extent to which these practices are currently employed in the professional continuing education environment; and to suggest how such practices might be further implemented. The dizzying pace of change in the distance education sector is captured in Emerging Open Online Distance Education Environment, by Raymond Schroeder, Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at the University of Illinois Springfield and UCPEA s first Innovation Fellow. After summarizing some of the more noteworthy recent developments, he predicts that continuing education departments have the opportunity to lead change by offering just-in-time and career-oriented learning opportunities.... Linda L. Glessner and Denise Gillis of the University of Texas-Austin present The Knowledge Product Lifecycles and the Strategic Dashboard, an effort to define a new paradigm for continuing education from the Continuing and Innovative Education (CIE) leadership team on campus. The authors describe the The Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS), which looks at the market space and competition, and Product Lifecycle Management CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

8 EDITOR S NOTE (PLM), which looks at the product lifecycle development in an organization. These two concepts helped the organization to redefine the valueadd role of CIE as a division of the parent university. A presentation at the UPCEA Annual Conference in March by Peter Moroney and Deena Boeck of the University of British Columbia eventuated in the form of an article titled Thriving in Partnership: Models for Continuing Education. The authors discuss the rationale and motivations for partnership, partnerships as relationships, translating the partnership vision into action, and various financial models ( licensing model, shared risk/reward model, and scaled risk/reward model ). Successful partnerships contributed significantly to growth in enrollment and revenue at UPC-CS. Finally, Bern Mulvey, a faculty member at Iwate National University in Japan, presents From Resistance to Resolution: The Journey Towards a Sustainable Vision of Continuing Education in Japan. He explains Japanese cultural perceptions, demographic challenges, and the current situation and future trends. He identifies three keys to success in continuing education in Japan: offering classes based on estimated adult-student needs, including general English classes; sponsoring classes at night; and investing in a lot of advertising. Under the rubric of Programs of Note we open with a case study by Phillip DiSalvio of the University of Massachusetts-Boston titled University of Massachusetts Boston: Reconstituting a Continuing Education Division to a Degree-Granting Academic Unit. DiSalvio details the transformation as a seven-year process, from an entrepreneurial revenue generator to an academic unit, with insights on the leadership challenges and strategic opportunities associated with overcoming the institutional inertia of the status quo. Jon Huibregtse, Lorretta Holloway, and Scott Greenberg of Framingham State University focus on Faculty and Program Development at their institution. Prompted by institutional budget cuts and faculty layoffs, including a deanship from the Division of Graduate and Continuing Education, Scott Greenberg as associate VP received permission to hire faculty fellows from among the tenured faculty to assist in filling the responsibilities of the former dean, and the two faculty fellows describe their experiences and why this program proved so successful. California State University, Northridge: Innovative Curriculum Design for Midcareer Professionals by Henrik P. Minassians describes how 4 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

9 EDITOR S NOTE Public Sector Programs (PSP) at California State University, Northridge (CSUN) developed extensive graduate degree and certificate programs in keeping with the needs of local public agencies by using the cohort model, innovative programming, increased options and flexibility for students, a strong academic presence, and a revenue-enhanced model to serve the community. According to the author, the success of this model was contingent upon self-support and taking the program off campus. Rice University: Innovation to Increase Student College Readiness by Jennifer Gigliotti discusses the crucial importance of college-readiness initiatives and how the Rice model, establishing K-12 strategic partnerships, serves to promote community ties, builds a pipeline of college-ready students for Rice, and functions as a recruitment arm of the university. Continuing education units across the country can implement this model to mitigate the problem of unprepared students enrolling in higher education. A second entry from Rice University, by Angela Seaworth of the Glasscock School of Continuing Studies, describes Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education. The author is candid about lessons learned, such as researching characteristics of nonprofit academic centers, involving the community in planning, limiting the scope of what the center should do, and reflecting on philanthropic principles throughout the planning process. She is equally candid about challenges to overcome, such as misperceptions about the center s aims, fear from other nonprofit service providers, the challenge of academic credibility as a new field, and long-term sustainability. After two years, the center remains an exciting work in progress. Mary Rose Grant presents University of Missouri-St. Louis: Data- Driven Online Course Design and Effective Practices, a case study of how data analytics can be transformative in altering existing pedagogical processes, research, data management, and policy-making. The author provides specific recommendations for implementing teaching and learning analytics related to offering and delivering online education. University of Houston: Engagement, Workforce, and Economic Development by Marshall E. Schott attempts to address basic questions by the public about the current role and efficacy of the university: If lengthy periods of study, increasing tuition costs, and high student loan debt produce degreed individuals with no jobs, where is the public good? Exactly what are universities doing about economic and workforce development to justify continued public moral and financial support? He answers how CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

10 EDITOR S NOTE his university has engaged political and corporate leaders, regional community colleges, and the local energy industry, and invested in physical infrastructure to support education, research, technology, development, and commercialization. By pursuing such strategies, universities can demonstrate value to the community, strengthen public and private support..., and regain their central position... in modern American society. Henry van Zyl of Thomas Edison State College and Albert Powell, Jr. of Colorado State University combine to present Using Cutting-Edge Technology to Enhance CE Unit Success, case studies showing that widely disparate program design and delivery approaches can be successful for both the student and the institution in distance-education formats. The Book Reviews section features three major reviews, beginning with the review of this year s winner of the UPCEA Phillip E. Frandson Award for Literature, Taylor Walsh s Unlocking the Gates, reviewed by Stephen Carson of MIT. As Carson attests in his review, I was interviewed extensively for the book in my capacity as the External Relations Director for MIT Open Courseware. His review, accordingly, benefits from his first-hand knowledge of the subject matter treated by Taylor Walsh, and Walsh s insights and observations are invaluable to continuing educators contemplating the future of online learning. Robert Wiltenberg s review of Andrew Delbanco s College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be fleshes out the excerpted chapter appearing as the lead essay in this issue of CHER. While he writes admiringly of Delbanco s treatment of the past, he questions his assessment of the present, especially from the perspective of continuing educators, who see poor parenting, poor schools, poor teaching and advising as the major obstacles to access and achievement. But the core value of a truly liberal education, the harmony of heart and mind, remains a classic ideal of college valued by the author and the reviewer. The last review, by Jennifer K. Stine of Harvard University, is of an 80- page document, Education for Employment: Realizing Arab Youth Potential, issued by the World Bank Group and the Islamic Development Bank and based on a study by McKinsey & Co. The report examines youth unemployment in terms of education and how the acquisition of critical skills can match job-market needs. Among the recommendations to educators are understanding sectors and sub-sectors facing skills gaps, developing a business model consistent with needs of youth and industry, designing programs in close collaboration with industry partners, providing mobile 6 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

11 EDITOR S NOTE classrooms for enhanced access, diversifying models..., cultivating publicprivate partnerships, systematically gathering data from students, and using the market to monitor and improve quality levels. I close with my editorial note of thanks to the many contributors to this issue of CHER. The range and variety of addresses, essays, articles, case studies, and reviews represent higher education in general and continuing higher education in particular at its best. A salute to the Editorial Advisory Committee for their informed support, to Past-President James Shaeffer and current President Thomas Gibbons for their innovative leadership, and to my Harvard colleagues, especially Associate Editor Wayne Ishikawa, for their professionalism in assembling this 15th issue. A final good wish for continued success to Robert J. Hansen, CEO of UPCEA. Michael Shinagel Editor, CHER CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

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13 Essays and Addresses on Issues of Higher Education

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15 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? What Is College For? Andrew Delbanco COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY What... are today s prevailing answers to the question, what is college for? There are basically three. The most common answer is an economic one, though it is really two linked answers: first, that providing more people with a college education is good for the economic health of the nation; and second, that going to college is good for the economic competitiveness of the individuals who constitute the nation. Politicians tend to emphasize the first point, as when Richard Riley, secretary of education under President Clinton, said in a much-quoted comment that we must educate our workers for an increasingly predictable future: We are currently preparing students for jobs that don t exist using technologies that haven t been invented in order to solve problems that we don t even know are problems yet. President Obama makes the same point more briefly: countries that out-teach us today will out-compete us tomorrow. 1 As for the second economic rationale the competitiveness of individuals it s clear that a college degree long ago supplanted the high school diploma as the minimum qualification for entry into the skilled labor market, and there is abundant evidence that people with a college degree earn more money over the course of their lives than people without one. One authority claims that those who hold a BA degree earn roughly 60 percent more, on average, over their lifetime than those who do not. Some estimates put the worth of a BA degree at about a million dollars in incremental lifetime earnings. More conservative analysts, taking account of the cost of obtaining the degree, arrive at a more modest number, but there is little dispute that one reason to go to college is to increase one s earning power. 2 From College: What It Was, Is, and Should Be by Andrew Delbanco, the Mendelson Family Chair of American Studies and the Julian Clarence Levi Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University, New York, NY by Princeton University Press. Excerpted by permission. CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

16 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? For such economic reasons alone, it is alarming that the United States has been slipping relative to other developed nations as measured by the percentage of its younger population with at least some postsecondary education. There are differences of opinion about how much we have slipped, but there is general agreement that American leadership in higher education is in jeopardy and can no longer be taken for granted. For the first time in our history, we face the prospect that the coming generation of adult Americans will be less educated than their elders. 3 Within this gloomy general picture are some especially disturbing particulars. For one thing, flat or declining college attainment rates (relative to other nations) apply disproportionately to minorities, who are a growing portion of the American population. And financial means has a shockingly large bearing on educational opportunity, which, according to one authority, looks like this in today s America: if you are the child of a family making more than $90,000 per year, your odds of getting a BA by age twenty-four are roughly one in two; if your family s income is between $60,000 and $90,000, your odds are roughly one in four; if your parents make less than $35,000, your odds are one in seventeen. 4 Moreover, among those who do get to college, high-achieving students from affluent families are four times more likely to attend a selective college than students from poor families with comparable grades and test scores. 5 And since prestigious colleges (prestige correlates almost exactly with selectivity) serve as funnels into leadership positions in business, law, and government, this means that our best colleges are doing more to sustain than to retard the growth of inequality in our society. Yet colleges are still looked to as engines of social mobility in American life, and it would be shameful if they became, even more than they are already, a system for replicating inherited wealth. Not surprisingly, as in any discussion of economic matters, one finds dissenters from the predominant view. Some on the right say that pouring more public investment into higher education, in the form of enhanced subsidies for individuals or institutions, is a bad idea. They say that the easy availability of government funds is one reason for inflation in the price of tuition. They argue against the goal of universal college education as a fond fantasy and, instead, for a sorting system such as one finds in European countries, where children are directed according to test results early in life toward the kind of schooling deemed suitable for them: vocational training for the low-scorers, who will be the semiskilled laborers and functionaries; 12 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

17 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? advanced education for the high-scorers, who will be the diplomats and doctors, and so on. 6 Others, on the left, question whether the aspiration to go to college really makes sense for low-income students who can least afford to spend money and years on such a risky venture, given their low graduation rates and high debt. Such skeptics point out, too, that most new jobs likely to be created over the next decade will probably not require a college degree. From this point of view, the education gospel seems a cruel distraction from what really provides security to families and children: good jobs at fair wages, robust unions, affordable access to health care and transportation. 7 One can be on either side of these questions, or somewhere in the middle, and still believe in the goal of achieving universal college education. Consider an analogy from another sphere of public debate: health care. One sometimes hears that eliminating smoking would save untold billions because of the immense cost of caring for patients who develop lung cancer, emphysema, heart disease, or diabetes among the many diseases caused or exacerbated by smoking. It turns out, however, that reducing the incidence of disease by curtailing smoking (one of the major public-health successes of recent decades) may actually end up costing us more, since people who don t smoke live longer, and eventually require expensive therapies for chronic diseases and the inevitable infirmities of old age. Yet who does not think it a good thing when a person stops smoking and thereby improves his or her chances of living a longer and healthier life? In other words, measuring the benefit as a social cost or social gain does not quite get the point or at least not the whole point. The best reason to end smoking is that people who don t smoke have a better chance to lead better lives. 8 The best reason to care about college who goes, and what happens to them when they get there is not what it does for society in economic terms but what it can do for individuals, in both calculable and incalculable ways. The second argument for the importance of college is a political one, though one rarely hears it from politicians. The basis of our government, as Thomas Jefferson put the matter near the end of the eighteenth century, is the opinion of the people. And so if the new republic was to flourish and endure, it required above all, an educated citizenry a conviction in which Jefferson was joined by John Adams, who disagreed with him on just about everything else, but who concurred that the whole people must take upon themselves the education of the whole people, and must be willing to bear the expense of it. 9 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

18 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? This is more true than ever. All of us are bombarded every day with pleadings and persuasions, of which many are distortions and deceptions advertisements, political appeals, punditry of all sorts designed to capture our loyalty, money, or, more narrowly, our vote. Some say health-care reform will bankrupt the country, others that it is an overdue act of justice; some believe that abortion is the work of Satan, others think that to deny a woman the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy is a form of abuse; some regard nuclear energy as our best chance to break free from fossil fuels others describe it, especially in the wake of the tsunami in Japan, as Armageddon waiting to happen. Any such list could be extended indefinitely with conflicting claims between which citizens must choose or somehow mediate, so it should be obvious that the best chance we have to maintain a functioning democracy is a citizenry that can tell the difference between demagoguery and responsible arguments. About a hundred years ago, a professor of moral philosophy at Oxford, John Alexander Smith, got to the nub of the matter: Gentlemen, he said to the incoming class (the students were all men in those days, Nothing that you will learn in the course of your studies will be of the slightest possible use to you in after life save only this that if you work hard and intelligently, you should be able to detect when a man is talking rot, and that, in my view, is the main, if not the sole purpose of education. 10 Americans tend to prefer a two-syllable synonym, bullshit, for the one-syllable Anglicism, rot and so we might say that the most important thing one can acquire in college is a well-functioning bullshit meter. 11 It s a technology that will never become obsolete. Putting it this way may sound flippant, but a serious point is at stake: education for democracy not only requires extending educational opportunity but also implies something about what kind of education democratic citizens need. A very good case for college in this sense has been made recently by former Yale Law School dean Anthony Kronman, who now teaches in a Great Books program for Yale undergraduates. In a book with the double-entendre title, Education s End: Why Our Colleges and Universities Have Given Up on the Meaning of Life, Kronman argues for a course of study (at Yale it is voluntary; at my college, Columbia, it is compulsory) that introduces students to the constitutive ideas of Western culture. At Yale, relatively few students, about 10 percent of the entering class, are admitted 14 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

19 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? to this program, which is called Directed Studies. At Columbia, the Core Curriculum is required of all students, which has the advantage, since they are randomly assigned to sections (currently capped at twenty-two), of countering their tendency to associate mainly with classmates from the same socioeconomic or ethnic background, or in their own major or club or fraternity house. The Core also counters the provincialism of the faculty. Senior and junior professors, along with graduate student instructors, gather weekly to discuss the assigned texts a rare opportunity for faculty from different fields, and at different stages in their careers, to consider substantive questions. And, not least among its benefits, it links all students in the college to one another through a body of common knowledge: once they have gone through the Core, no student is a complete stranger to any other. Whether such a curriculum is an option or an obligation, its value is vividly evident in Kronman s enumeration of the ideas it raises for discussion and debate: The ideals of individual freedom and toleration; of democratic government; of respect for the rights of minorities and for human rights generally; a reliance on markets as a mechanism for the organization of economic life and a recognition of the need for markets to be regulated by a supervenient political authority; a reliance, in the political realm, on the methods of bureaucratic administration, with its formal division of functions and legal separation of office from officeholder; an acceptance of the truths of modern science and the ubiquitous employment of its technological products: all these provide, in many parts of the world, the existing foundations of political, social, and economic life, and where they do not, they are viewed as aspirational goals toward which everyone has the strongest moral and material reasons to strive. 12 Anyone who earns a BA from a reputable college ought to understand something about the genealogy of these ideas and practices, about the historical processes from which they have emerged, the tragic cost when societies fail to defend them, and about alternative ideas both within the Western tradition and outside it. That s a tall order for anyone to satisfy on his or her own and one of the marks of an educated person is the recognition that it can never be adequately done and is therefore all the more worth doing. CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76,

20 WHAT IS COLLEGE FOR? Both of these cases for college the argument for national and individual competitiveness, and the argument for inclusive democratic citizenship are serious and compelling. But there is a third case, more rarely heard, perhaps because it is harder to articulate without sounding platitudinous and vague. I first heard it stated in a plain and passionate way after I had spoken to an alumni group from the college in which I teach. I had been commending Columbia s core curriculum which, in addition to two yearlong courses in literary and philosophical classics, also requires the study of art and music for one semester each. Recently, a new course called Frontiers of Science, designed to ensure that students leave college with some basic understanding of contemporary scientific developments, has been added. The emphasis in my talk was on the Jeffersonian argument education for citizenship. When I had finished, an elderly alumnus stood up and said more or less the following: That s all very nice, professor, but you ve missed the main point. With some trepidation, I asked him what that point might be. Columbia, he said, taught me how to enjoy life. What he meant was that college had opened his senses as well as his mind to experiences that would otherwise be foreclosed for him. Not only his capacity to read demanding works of literature and to grasp fundamental political ideas, but also his alertness to color and form, melody and harmony, had been heightened and deepened and now, in the late years of his life, he was grateful. Such an education is a hedge against utilitarian values. It has no room for dogma only for debate about the meaning, or meanings, of truth. It slakes the human craving for contact with works of art that somehow register one s own longings and yet exceed what one has been able to articulate by and for oneself. As the gentleman reminded me, it is among the invaluable experiences of the fulfilled life, and surely our colleges have an obligation to coax and prod students toward it. If all that seems too pious and earnest, I think of a comparably personal comment I once heard my colleague Judith Shapiro, former provost of Bryn Mawr and then president of Barnard, make to a group of young people about what they should expect from college: You want the inside of your head to be an interesting place to spend the rest of your life. What both Judith and the Columbia alum were talking about is sometimes called liberal education a hazardous term today since it has nothing necessarily to do with liberal politics in the modern sense of the word. (Former Beloit College president Victor Ferrall suggests scrapping that troublesome adjective and replacing it with something bland like broad, open, inclusive or simply 16 CONTINUING HIGHER EDUCATION REVIEW, Vol. 76, 2012

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