PARTY. Sweden I: Party membership,

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1 PARTY Sweden I: Party membership, Year Left SD Green Ce CD Li New Dem Co Total

2 Sources: Data through 1990 and data for New Democracy are from Demker, Maria & Svåsand, Lars (2005) Partiernas århundrade Fempartimodellens uppgång och fall i Norge och Sverige, Stockholm: Santérus förlag, page For the period, data are from Petersson, Olof (2005). De politiska partiernas medlemsutveckling. Rapport till SNS Demokratiråd. (accessed 27 October 2005). From 2005, the data for the Center Party (Ce) are from a party fact sheet, Historiskt medlemstal , per den 31/12. From 2005, the data for the Left Party (Left) are from a party fact sheet, Medlemsantal VPK/Vänsterpartiet From 2005, for the other parties the data are from yearly reports: Data for 2005 are from Dagens Samhälle (2006) Stort medlemsras för s moderaterna ökar, 30 March, accessed 16 March Data for 2006 are from Dagens Samhälle (2007) S tappade nära medlemmar, 19 March, accessed 16 March Data for 2007 are from Dagens Samhälle (2008) S har tappat medlemmar, 20 February, accessed 16 March Data for 2008 are from Dagens Samhälle (2009) Medlemsras för Moderaterna, 20 February, accessed 16 March These numbers have been confirmed via E- mail correspondence with Magnus Wrede, Dagens Samhälle April 22, Parties Left SD Green Ce CD Li New Dem Co Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) Social Democrats (Arbetarepartiet Socialdemokraterna) Green Party (Miljöpartiet de gröna) Center Party (Centern) Christian Democratic Party (Kristdemokraterna) Liberal Party (Folkpartiet liberalerna) New Democracy (Ny Demokrati) Conservative Party (Moderata samlingspartiet)

3 PARLIAMENT Sweden II: Left-right placement, party strength (in seats) and cabinet composition, Cabinet number Prime Based on election year Com SD Green Ce CD Li New Dem Co Effective number of legislative parties Cabinet strength 1 Hansson * Erlander I * Erlander II * Erlander III * Erlander IV * 26* Erlander V * Erlander VI * Erlander VII * Erlander VIII * Erlander IX * Erlander X * Palme I * Palme II * Palme III * 90* Fälldin I * Ullsten * Fälldin II * Fälldin III * Palme IV * Palme V * Carlsson I * Carlsson II * Bildt * Carlsson III * Total number of seats

4 25 Persson I * Persson II * Persson III * Reinfeldt * Sources Bergman, Torbjörn (2003). Sweden: When minority cabinets are the rule and majority coalitions the exception, in Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm, eds., 2nd edition. Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Valmyndigheten (2005), Val 2002, accessed August 16, 2005 from Valmyndigheten (2006) Val 2006, accessed October 10, 2006 from Notes 1. See Table Sweden I for party labels. 2. Effective number of legislative parties: This index was developed by Markku Laakso and Rein Taagepera and is a measure of party system size. Both the number of parties and their relative size is taken into account. For an accessible introduction, see Lijphart, Arend (1984). Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press. 3. Parties in bold formed cabinets. 4. The number of seats refers to the Second Chamber until 1969 and thereafter to the one-chamber Riksdag. * Party with median legislator (under the assumed left-right party alignment).

5 Sweden III: Motions of confidence and no confidence directed at the cabinet, Error! Filename not specified. Cabinet number Cabinet Tenure Number of motions of no confidence Resigned after vote of no confidence Number of motions of confidence 1 Hansson Erlander I Erlander II Erlander III Erlander IV Erlander V Erlander VI Erlander VII Erlander VIII Erlander IX Erlander X Palme I Palme II Palme III Fälldin I Ullsten Fälldin II No 0 18 Fälldin III Palme IV Palme V Carlsson I Carlsson II Bildt Carlsson III Persson I No 0 26 Persson II No 0 27 Persson III No 0

6 Sources Bergman, Torbjörn (2003). Sweden: From Separation of Power to Parliamentary Supremacy and Back Again?, in Kaare Strøm; Wolfgang C. Müller, and Torbjörn Bergman, eds. (2003). Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pages Update from aspx (accessed November 29, 2005). General notes As votes of No Confidence we have recorded only those votes that have been directed at the PM and the cabinet as a whole, not those directed at an individual only. In previous work, D&A 2003, we applied a very strict crow-national counting rule. However, in this table the definition of a motion of confidence is based on a country specific counting rule.

7 CABINETS Cabinet number Prime Sweden IV: Cabinet formation, Cabinet composition Number of parties in parliament Number of failed formation attempts Parties involved in incomplete bargaining rounds Number of days required for cabinet formation 1 Hansson SD Erlander I Erlander II Erlander III Erlander IV Erlander V Erlander VI SD SD SD, Ce 0 SD, Ce SD, Ce SD, Ce SD (1) Li, Co, Ce, SD (2) Li, Co, Ce 8 Erlander VII SD Erlander VIII SD Erlander IX SD Erlander X SD Palme I SD Palme II SD Palme III SD Fälldin I Ce, Li, Co Ullsten Li Co, Li 8 17 Fälldin II Ce, Li, Co Fälldin III Ce, Li Palme IV SD Palme V SD Carlsson I SD Carlsson II SD Bildt Co, Ce, CD, Li Carlsson III SD Li, SD Persson SD I Persson II Persson III 28 Reinfeldt SD SD Co, Ce, Li, CD 2006 (1) Green, COM, SD (2) Li, Green, CD, Ce

8 Sources Statistisk Årsbok för Sverige 1970, 395 and 1999, 424. Erlander, Tage (1974) Stockholm: Tidens föralg. Allmänna valen 1994, 27; Allmänna valen 2002: 20-21, Sveriges officiella statistik, Statistiska centralbyrån, Stockholm Bergman, Torbjörn (2003). Sweden: When minority cabinets are the rule and majority coalitions the exception, in Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm, eds., 2nd edition. Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Updated from 1999 by Torbjörn Bergman. General notes The party listed first under each incomplete bargaining round has been designated as the driving force at each occasion. This often involves a difficult judgement call, but we have to the best of our ability designated this role on the basis of available sources. Party Labels: See table Sweden I. Specific notes 1) Informal bargaining between SD and Centre. Estimated number of days (Erlander 1974:264-84) 2) The first cabinet formation under the constitution which went into effect The 1975 constitution requires a vote to be held before a new cabinet can assume power. However, after a general election, if a cabinet does not resign, or is not forced to resign, it simply continues in power. No vote is held in the Riksdag. Because of the constitutional rule that a cabinet does not have to resign until the PM resigns or it is defeated in parliament, the incumbent party composition and the same PM continue in power even though there can be parallel (but ultimately incomplete) bargaining rounds attempting at forming an alternative coalition. This occurred both in 1948 and in 2002.

9 Sweden V: Number of ministries and cabinet members, Cabinet number Prime Number of ministries Number of cabinet s 1 Hansson Erlander I Erlander II Erlander III Erlander IV Erlander V Erlander VI Erlander VII Erlander VIII Erlander IX Erlander X Palme I Palme II Palme III Fälldin I Ullsten Fälldin II Fälldin III Palme IV Palme V Carlsson I Carlsson II Bildt Carlsson III Persson I Persson II Persson III Reinfeldt Sources Departementshistoriekommittén (1990), Att styra riket: Regeringskansliet , Stockholm: Allmänna förlaget. Larsson, Ulf (2003), Sveriges regeringar , Stockholm: Regeringskansliet. Regeringskansliet (2006) Sveriges regering accessed October 9, 2006, from General notes PM office is counted as ministry. Prime is counted as cabinet member. Specific notes Under Fälldin II the ministries of budget and economy were separate. With respect to Fälldin III, they are counted as one ministry headed by one (Rolf Wirtén).

10 Age Male 0 / Female 1 Party Prior cabinet position Parliamentary experience (years) Prior party high rank position Prior youth party high rank position Major prior appointment within parliament Major prior elected offices at local/regional level Formal education level Any prior employment within the public sector Any prior employment within the private sector Any prior salary employment in party Member of parliament at the time of appointment Sweden VI: Cabinet member background, Cabinet number Portfolio within cabinet Name Prior employment before MP or , 20 15,17, , 22, , 26, Prime Prime Prime Prime Prime Prime Prime Prime Prime Hansson 60 0 SD Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes No 3 No Yes Yes Yes Erlander 45 0 SD Yes 11 Yes No Yes Yes 4 Yes No No Yes Palme 42 0 SD Yes 5 Yes Yes Yes No 4 Yes No Yes Yes Fälldin 50 0 Ce No 12 Yes No Yes Yes 3 No No Yes Yes Ullsten 47 0 Li Yes 11 Yes Yes Yes No 4 Yes No Yes Yes Carlsson 52 0 SD Yes 10 Yes Yes Yes No 4 Yes No No Yes Bildt 42 0 Co No 12 Yes No No Yes 3 No No Yes Yes Persson 47 0 SD Yes 9 Yes No Yes Yes 3 Yes No Yes Yes Reinfeldt 41 0 Co No 15 Yes Yes Yes Yes 4 Yes No No Yes Journalist (Huvudredaktör) Journalist (Redaktionssek) Office secretery (Kanslisek) Farmer (lantbrukare) Journalist (ledarskribent) Secretary in PM office Expert in department of econ municipal commissioner kom.råd Municipal secretary Finance Finance Finance Finance Finance Wigforss 64 0 SD Yes 11 Yes No Yes Yes 5 Yes Yes No Yes Senior lecturer (lektor) Sköld 60 0 SD Yes 10 Yes No No No 4 No Yes No Yes Journalist Sträng SD Yes 0 Yes No Yes No 3 Yes Yes No Yes Ombudsman Mundebo 46 0 Li No 11 Yes Yes No No 5 Yes Yes No Yes Wirtén 50 0 Li Yes 12 Yes Yes No Yes 3 Yes No No Yes Senior administrative officer Deputy director of education (bitr

11 , , , 25 26, Finance Finance Finance Finance Finance Finance Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Foreign Justice Justice Justice Feldt 51 0 SD Yes 6 Yes No Yes No 5 Yes No Yes No Wibble 48 1 Li No 12 Yes No Yes Yes 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Persson 45 0 SD Yes 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 Yes No Yes No Åsbrink 47 0 SD No 0 No No Yes No 4 Yes No Yes No Ringholm 60 0 SD Yes 0 Yes Yes No Yes 3 Yes No Yes No sk.di Junior (Statssekreterare) Administrative director fp parl.gr. Municipal commissioner (kommunalråd) Junior (Statssekreterare) Director-general (generaldirektör) Borg 38 0 Co No 0 No No No No 4 Yes Yes Yes No Economist Undén 59 0 SD Yes 11 No No No No 5 Yes No No Yes Professor Uppsala university Nilsson 58 0 SD Yes 4 Yes Yes Yes No 3 No Yes Yes Yes Party secretary Sven Andersson 63 0 SD Yes 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 No Yes Yes Yes Ombudsman Söder 48 1 Ce No 5 Yes Yes No Yes 3 Yes No Yes Yes Blix 50 0 Li No 0 No No No No 5 Yes No No No Ullsten 48 0 Li Yes 11 Yes Yes No No 4 Yes No Yes Yes L. Bodström Sten Andersson 54 0 SD No 0 No No Yes No 5 No Yes No No Information secretary Junior (statssekreterare) Journalist (ledarskribent) Chairman of trade union (fackordförande) 62 0 SD Yes 16 Yes Yes No Yes 3 Yes No Yes Yes Party secretary af Ugglas 52 1 Co No 17 Yes No No Yes 4 No Yes No Yes Hjelm- Wallén Journalist (ledarskribent) 51 1 SD Yes 14 Yes Yes No No 4 Yes No No Yes Lecturer (adjunkt) Lindh 41 1 SD Yes 3 Yes Yes No Yes 4 Yes No No No Municipal commissioner (borgarråd) Bildt 57 0 Co Yes 18 Yes Yes Yes No 3 Yes Yes Yes No Private consultant Zetterberg 41 0 SD No 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Lawyer (jurist) Lindell 53 0 SD Yes 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Junior Kling 47 0 SD Yes 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Director-genera

12 , , Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Justice Geijer 60 0 SD Yes 7 No No No No 5 Yes Yes No Yes Lawyer (jurist) Romanus 70 0 N No 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Chairman suprem Winberg 48 0 Co No 7 Yes Yes No Yes 4 Yes No No Yes President adm c Petri 52 0 N Yes 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No President adm c Rainer 47 0 SD No 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Director-genera Wickbom 54 0 SD Yes 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Director-genera Freivalds 46 1 SD No 0 No No No No 4 Yes No No No Director-genera Hellsvik 49 1 Co No 0 Yes No No Yes 5 Yes No No No T. Bodström Municipal commissioner 40 0 SD No 0 No No No No 4 No Yes No No Lawyer (jurist) Ask 50 1 Co Yes 12 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 Yes No No Yes Municipal commissioner (borgarråd) Sources Fakta om folkvalda, , , , , , Stockholm: Riksdagens förvaltningskontor Anders Norberg (1992) Tvåkammarriksdagen Ledamöter och valkretsar, band 1-5, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International Asker, Björn (1996) Enkammarriksdagen /94 Ledamöter och valkretsar, band 1-2, Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag Larsson, Ulf (2003) Sveriges regeringar , Stockholm: Regeringskansliet Riksdag & Departement. 2006b. Sveriges nya regering. Riksdag & Departement. October 09 General notes All of the calculations presented in this section are based on a dataset which contains data on s that get their portfolios at the beginning of a new cabinet only. A new cabinet is here defined as a cabinet that fulfill at least one of three conditions; any change in the set of parties holding cabinet membership, any change in the identity of the prime or any general election (see Müller and Strøm 2003:12). With this definition twelve intra cabinet reshuffles, six Swedish finance s, three s of foreign affairs and three justice s, are left out of the sample. The table shows the number of cabinets in which the served in that position. Prior parliamentary experience (in full years) does not include the years that a person has been in cabinet. That is, for systems that allow for the holding of simultaneous cabinet and parliamentary positions, we only count parliamentary experience for the years that the MP does not also has a cabinet position. (The latter is coded as prior cabinet experience: Yes or No). If the total parliamentary experience (service as MP) sums to less than six months, we count that as zero (0) years of experience. Prior party high rank position = Any of the following: party leader, party secretary, member of the party national board or head of local or regional board. Prior youth party high rank position = The corresponding merits as in Prior party high rank position (youth organization).

13 Major prior appointment within parliament = Any of the following: Speaker (President of Parliament or chamber/sub-division), group leader, vice group leader, committee chairman or vice committee chairman. Major prior elected offices at local/regional level = Any of the following: head of municipality, head of region, member of local or regional elected assembly. Formal education level: 1 = Primary (or less), 2 = Secondary (high school, Swedish gymnasium), 3 = any enrollment in post-secondary education (such as technical college, nurse school, college, university) but no degree, 4 = Any undergraduate degree at technical college, nurse school, college or university (2-4 years in length) that is post-high school or gymnasium, 5 = Post graduate degree (licensiat, huvudfag, Ph.D) Prior employment refers to the employer, that is to say the one paying the salary. Salary by the party does not include elected offices, only jobs (such as a party ombudsman). The three categories (public, private, party) are not mutually excluding categories (as they in combination speak to a 's general career pattern). Private employment includes people employed in trade-unions and other non-governmental organizations. The coding, "Member of Parliament at the time of appointment" only has one possible answer (yes or no). The category (column): "Prior employment before Member of Parliament (MP) or " is an open coding. It describes the job that the had when he/she first became a or an MP (whichever came first), in English. Finance is defined as the heading the ministry in control of the state budget. Justice is defined as the heading the ministry in control of the police force. Party labels: See table Sweden I. Specific notes 1) The Social Democrats has traditionally had tight bounds with the blue-collar trade union LO. Despite this only one of the Social Democratic s in this analysis has had a top position within LO or one of its member organizations. Finance Gunnar Sträng was chairman of the farm workers trade union (Svenska Lantarbetarförbundet)

14 Sweden VII: Cabinet background, summary for first appointment, four core portfolios, N (unique number of s) Age, mean Female s, % Prior cabinet position, % Parliamentary experience (years) Prior party high rank position, % Prior youth party high rank position, % Major prior appointment within parliament, % Major prior elected offices at local/regional level, % Formal education level, mean Any prior employment within the public sector, % Any prior employment within the private sector, % Any prior salaried employment in party, % Member of parliament at the time of appointment, % Sources Asker, Björn Enkammarriksdagen /94. Ledamöter och valkretsar, band 1-2. Stockholm: Sveriges riksdag. Fakta om folkvalda , , , , Stockholm: Riksdagens förvaltningskontor. Larsson, Ulf Sveriges regeringar Stockholm: Regeringskansliet. Norberg, Anders Tvåkammarriksdagen Ledamöter och valkretsar, band 1-5. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. Riksdag & Departement. 2006b. Sveriges nya regering. Riksdag & Departement. October 09.

15 Sweden VIII: Budget accommodations Year 2 Governing parties Support parties 1979 Ce, Li, Co 1980 Ce, Li, Co 1981 Ce, Li SD Ce, Li SD 1983 SD 1984 SD 1985 SD Com SD Ce, Com 1987 SD Com 1988 SD 1989 SD Ce 1990 SD Li 1991 Co, Ce, Li, CD 1992 Co, Ce, Li, CD 1993 Co, Ce, Li, CD SD 1994 Co, Ce, Li, CD 1995 SD Ce 1996 SD Ce 1997 SD Ce 1998 SD Com, Green 1999 SD Com, Green 2000 SD Com, Green 2001 SD Com, Green 2002 SD Com, Green 2003 SD Com, Green 2004 SD Com, Green 2005 SD Com, Green 2006 Co, Ce, Li, CD Source Riksdagens årsbok, 1984/ /06, Stockholm: Riksdagen General notes This table only includes explicit cooperation between the cabinet and the opposition. On a number of occasions, one or more parties in the parliament have passively supported the budget of the cabinet. Hence, these occasions are not included in this table. By explicit cooperation, we mean regular negotiations between representatives of the parties, not smaller agreements in the parliamentary committees resulting in abstained votes or suchlike. Some of the negotiations have also resulted in written agreements, e.g. the agreement between the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left party after the election 2002 (121 point programme). Year: Until January 1995, the Swedish budget period lasted from June till July the next coming year. Thus the figures for the year up to 1996 represents the second half of that year and the first half of the subsequent year. E.g., the cooperation between the Social Democrats and the Communists in 1985, refers to their accommodation for the budget 1985/86. Starting in 1996, the budget follows the calendar year. A accommodation in 1996 refers to the budget of 1997, and so on. Party labels: See table Sweden I Specific notes 1) The cabinet originally included the Conservatives. However, during the spring 1981, the two other coalition parties joined an agreement over fiscal policy with the Social Democrats. Since the Conservatives could not accept this deal, they in protest left the cabinet the 4 th of May ) Communist: Former name of present Left party

16 Cabinet Number Prime Year of Termination 1. Regular parliamentary election 2. Other constitutional reason 3. Death of Prime Minister 4. Early parliamentary election 5. Voluntary enlargement 6. Cabinet defeat in parliament Policy Personal 8. Intra-party conflict 9. Elections (nonparliamentary) 10. Popular opinion shock 11. International or national security event 12. Economic event 13. Personal event Policy areas Sweden IX a: Cabinet termination, Cabinet Technical Mechanisms of cabinet termination Discretionary Terminal events 7. Conflict between coalition parties Comments 1 Hansson 1946 X X Death of PM Hansson 2 Erlander I 1948 X 3 Erlander II 1951 X 4 Erlander III 1952 X 5 Erlander IV 1956 X 6 Erlander V 1957 SD, Ce 5 7 Erlander VI 1958 X 5 8 Erlander VII 1960 X 9 Erlander VIIII 1964 X 10 Erlander IX 1968 X 11 Erlander X 1969 X X 12 Palme I 1970 X 13 Palme II 1973 X 14 Palme III 1976 X 9 15 Fälldin I Ullsten 1979 X Ce, Li, Co 9 Center Party joins Social Democrats in cabinet in times of concern for national economy Coalition breaks up, the issue of mandatory public pension funds (ATP) is the deciding one Extra elections held, the pension fund issue is dominant PM Erlander resigns after 23 years as party leader Social Democratic cabinet resigns after election defeat. The Swedish nuclear power program had been the most salient issue in the election campaign The three party cabinet splits over the nuclear power issue.

17 17 Fälldin II Fälldin III 1982 X 19 Palme IV 1985 X Ce, Li, Co 3a, 3b Conservative Party leaves coalition because of disagreement over the taxsystem. 20 Palme V 1986 X X Death of PM Palme 21 Carlsson I 1988 X 22 Carlsson II 1991 X 23 Bildt 1994 X 24 Carlsson III 1996 X X 25 Persson I 1998 X 26 Persson II 2002 X Voluntary resignation of PM Carlsson Source Bergman, Torbjörn (2003) Sweden: When Minority Cabinets Are the Rule and Majority Coalitions the Exception, in Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm,eds., 2 nd edition, Coalition governments in Western Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press Updated from 1999 by Torbjörn Bergman Specific notes Cabinet 23: The leader of the Center Party resigns in the spring, but his party stays in cabinet until the September election. Disagreements over environment and procedure are behind his resignation.

18 Sweden IX b: Cabinet termination, Cabinet number Prime and year of termination Regular parliamentary election Conflict in cabinet, parliament or party Other reason Comments 1 Hansson 1946 X Death of PM Hansson 2 Erlander I 1948 X 3 Erlander II 1951 X Center Party joins Social Democrats in cabinet in times of concern for national economy 4 Erlander III 1952 X 5 Erlander IV 1956 X 6 Erlander V 1957 X Coalition breaks up, the issue of mandatory public pension funds (ATP) is the deciding one 7 Erlander VI 1958 X Extra elections held, the pension fund issue is dominant 8 Erlander VII 1960 X 9 Erlander VIIII 1964 X 10 Erlander IX 1968 X 11 Erlander X 1969 X PM Erlander resigns after 23 years as party leader 12 Palme I 1970 X 13 Palme II 1973 X 14 Palme III 1976 X Social Democratic cabinet resigns after election defeat. The Swedish nuclear power program had been the most salient issue in the election campaign 15 Fälldin I 1978 X The three party cabinet splits over the nuclear power issue. 16 Ullsten 1979 X 17 Fälldin II 1981 X Conservative Party leaves coalition because of disagreement over the tax-system. 18 Fälldin III 1982 X 19 Palme IV 1985 X 20 Palme V 1986 X Death of PM Palme 21 Carlsson I 1988 X 22 Carlsson II 1991 X 23 Bildt 1994 X 24 Carlsson III 1996 X Voluntary resignation of PM Carlsson 25 Personen I 1998 X 26 Persson II 2002 X (The leader of the Center Party resigns in the spring, but his party stays in cabinet until the September election. Disagreements over environment and procedure are behind his resignation). Source Strøm, Kaare and Bergman, Torbjörn (2005), Partierna och regeringsmakten in Demker, Marie and Svåsand, Lars (eds), Partiernas århundrade, Stockholm: Santérus förlag.

19 Sweden X: Duration of Cabinets, Cabinet number Prime Date in Duration in days Maximum possible duration in days Relative duration, per cent 1 Hansson ,7 2 Erlander I ,0 3 Erlander II ,7 4 Erlander III ,0 5 Erlander IV ,0 6 Erlander V ,2 7 Erlander VI ,2 8 Erlander VII ,0 9 Erlander VIII ,0 10 Erlander IX ,0 11 Erlander X ,6 12 Palme I ,0 13 Palme II ,0 14 Palme III ,0 15 Fälldin I ,8 16 Ullsten ,0 17 Fälldin II ,5 18 Fälldin III ,0 19 Palme IV ,0 20 Palme V ,2 21 Carlsson I ,0 22 Carlsson II ,0 23 Bildt ,0 24 Carlsson III ,6 25 Persson I ,0 26 Persson II ,0 27 Persson III ,0 28 Reinfeldt N/D , mean , , mean ,3 Sources Bergman, Torbjörn (2003). Sweden: When minority cabinets are the rule and majority coalitions the exception, in Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm, eds., 2nd edition. Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Widfeldt, Anders (2007) Sweden i Political Data Yearbook, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 46 Issue 7-8, p Cabinet Persson III and cabinet Reinfeldt, own calculations.

20 Coalition agreement Agreement public Election rule Conflict management mechanism The most common conflict management mechanism The conflict management mechanism used for the most serious conflicts Coalition discipline in legislation Coalition discipline in other parliamentary behaviour Freedom of appointment Policy agreement Junior s Non-cabinet positions COALITION CABINETS Sweden XI: Coalition governance, Cabinet number Coalition 4 SD, Ce 1951 IE Y N IC IC IC 2 2 Y 2 Y Y 5 SD, Ce PRE Y N IC IC IC 2 2 Y 2 Y Y 6 SD, Ce 1956 POST Y N IC IC IC 2 2 Y 2 Y Y 15 Ce, Li, Co 1976 POST Y N IC, CaC CaC IC 2 2 Y 3 Y Y 17 Ce, Li, Co 1979 POST Y N IC, CaC CaC IC 2 2 Y 3 Y Y 18 Ce, Li 1981 IE Y N IC, CaC CaC IC 2 2 Y 3 Y Y 23 Co, Ce, Li, CD 1991 POST Y 3 N IC, CaC CaC IC 2 2 Y 3 Y Y 28 Co, Ce, Li, CD 2006 POST Y N n/d n/d n/d n/d n/d Y 3 N Y Sources Bergman, Torbjörn (2003). Sweden: When minority cabinets are the rule and majority coalitions the exception, in Wolfgang C. Müller and Kaare Strøm, eds., 2nd edition. Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Regeringskansliet (2006) Regeringsförklaringen 6 oktober 2006 accessed October 9, 2006, from Interview with Helena Dyrssen, state secretary (Liberal party), October 17, General notes Freedom of appointment: This is the general principle. As explained in the text, occasionally there are exceptions to this principle. PRE POST IE IC CaC PCa N Pre electoral written coalition agreement Post electoral written coalition agreement Written coalition agreement in the case of coalitions formed during the parliamentary term (not immediately following elections) Inner cabinet: a subset of cabinet s which is not issue-specific and which is stable over time Cabinet committee(s): typically issue-specific; they may include cabinet s, junior s, and/or civil servants Combination of cabinet members and parliamentarians No

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