Automatic Detection of Grammar Errors in Primary School Children s Texts A Finite State Approach

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Automatic Detection of Grammar Errors in Primary School Children s Texts A Finite State Approach"

Transcription

1 GOTHENBURG MONOGRAPHS IN LINGUISTICS 24 Automatic Detection of Grammar Errors in Primary School Children s Texts A Finite State Approach Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi Doctoral Dissertation Publicly defended in Lilla Hörsalen, Humanisten, Göteborg University, on June 7, 2003, at for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Sweden

2 ISBN c 2003 Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi Typeset by the author using LATEX Printed by Intellecta Docusys, Göteborg, Sweden, 2003

3 i Abstract This thesis concerns the analysis of grammar errors in Swedish texts written by primary school children and the development of a finite state system for finding such errors. Grammar errors are more frequent for this group of writers than for adults and the distribution of the error types is different in children s texts. In addition, other writing errors above word-level are discussed here, including punctuation and spelling errors resulting in existing words. The method used in the implemented tool FiniteCheck involves subtraction of finite state automata that represent grammars with varying degrees of detail, creating a machine that classifies phrases in a text containing certain kinds of errors. The current version of the system handles errors concerning agreement in noun phrases, and verb selection of finite and non-finite forms. At the lexical level, we attach all lexical tags to words and do not use a tagger which could eliminate information in incorrect text that might be needed later to find the error. At higher levels, structural ambiguity is treated by parsing order, grammar extension and some other heuristics. The simple finite state technique of subtraction has the advantage that the grammars one needs to write to find errors are always positive, describing the valid rules of Swedish rather than grammars describing the structure of errors. The rule sets remain quite small and practically no prediction of errors is necessary. The linguistic performance of the system is promising and shows comparable results for the error types implemented to other Swedish grammar checking tools, when tested on a small adult text not previously analyzed by the system. The performance of the other Swedish tools was also tested on the children s data collected for this study, revealing quite low recall rates. This fact motivates the need for adaptation of grammar checking techniques to children, whose errors are different from those found in adult writers and pose more challenge to current grammar checkers, that are oriented towards texts written by adult writers. The robustness and modularity of FiniteCheck makes it possible to perform both error detection and diagnostics. Moreover, the grammars can in principle be reused for other applications that do not necessarily have anything to do with error detection, such as extracting information in a given text or even parsing. KEY WORDS: grammar errors, spelling errors, punctuation, children s writing, Swedish, language checking, light parsing, finite state technology

4 ii

5 iii Acknowledgements Work on this thesis would not have been possible without contributions, support and encouragement from many people. The idea of developing a writing tool for supporting children in their text production and grammar emerged from a study on how primary school children write by hand in comparison to when they use a computer. Special thanks to my colleague Torbjörn Lager, who inspired me to do this study and whose children attended the school where I gathered my data. My main supervisor Robin Cooper awakened the idea of using finite state methods for grammar checking and launched the collaboration with the Xerox research group. I want to express my greatest gratitude to him for inspiring discussions during project meetings and supervision sessions, and his patience with my writing, struggling to understand every bit of it, always raising questions and always full of new exciting ideas. I really enjoyed our discussions and look forward to more. I would also like to thank my assistant supervisor Elisabet Engdahl who carefully read my writing and made sure that I expressed myself more clearly. Many thanks to all my colleagues at the Department of Linguistics for creating an inspiring research environment with interesting projects, seminars and conferences. I especially want to mention Leif Grönqvist for being the helping hand next door whenever, Robert Andersson for being my project colleague, Stina Ericsson for loan of LATEX-manual and for always being helpful, Ulla Veres for help with recruitment of new victims for writing experiments, Jens Allwood and Elisabeth Ahlsén for introducing me to the world of transcription and coding, Sally Boyd, Nataliya Berbyuk, Ulrika Ferm for support and encouragement, Shirley Nicholson for always available with books and also milk for coffee, Pia Cromberger always ready for a chat. A special thanks to Ylva Hård af Segerstad for fruitful discussions leading to future collaboration that I am looking forward to, and for being a friend. I also want to thank the children in my study and their teachers for providing me with their text creations, and Sven Strömqvist and Victoria Johansson for sharing their data collection. A special thanks to Genie Perdin who carefully proofread this thesis and gave me some encouraging last minute kicks. I also want to thank all my friends, who reminded me now and then about life outside the university. My deepest gratitude to my family for being there for me and for always believing in me. My husband Ali - I know the way was long and there were times I could be distant, but I am back. My daughter Sarah for being the sunshine of my life, my inspiration, my everything. My mother, father, sister and my big little brother... Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi Göteborg, May 2003

6 iv

7 v Table of Contents 1 Introduction Written Language in a Computer Literate Society Aim and Scope of the Study Outline of the Thesis I Writing 7 2 Writing and Grammar Introduction Research on Writing in General Written Language and Computers Learning to Write The Influence of Computers on Writing Studies of Grammar Errors Introduction Primary and Secondary Level Writers Adult Writers Conclusion Data Collection and Analysis Introduction Data Collection Introduction The Sub-Corpora Error Categories Introduction Spelling Errors Grammar Errors Spelling or Grammar Error? Punctuation Types of Analysis Error Coding and Tools Corpus Formats CHAT-format and CLAN-software

8 vi 4 Error Profile of the Data Introduction General Overview Grammar Errors Agreement in Noun Phrases Agreement in Predicative Complement Definiteness in Single Nouns Pronoun Case Verb Form Sentence Structure Word Choice Reference Other Grammar Errors Distribution of Grammar Errors Summary Child Data vs. Other Data Primary and Secondary Level Writers Evaluation Texts of Proof Reading Tools Scarrie s Error Database Summary Real Word Spelling Errors Introduction Spelling in Swedish Segmentation Errors Misspelled Words Distribution of Real Word Spelling Errors Summary Punctuation Introduction General Overview of Sentence Delimitation The Orthographic Sentence Punctuation Errors Summary Conclusions

9 vii II Grammar Checking Error Detection and Previous Systems Introduction What Is a Grammar Checker? Spelling vs. Grammar Checking Functionality Performance Measures and Their Interpretation Possibilities for Error Detection Introduction The Means for Detection Summary and Conclusion Grammar Checking Systems Introduction Methods and Techniques in Some Previous Systems Current Swedish Systems Overview of The Swedish Systems Summary Performance on Child Data Introduction Evaluation Procedure The Systems Detection Procedures The Systems Detection Results Overall Detection Results Summary and Conclusion FiniteCheck: A Grammar Error Detector Introduction Finite State Methods and Tools Finite State Methods in NLP Regular Grammars and Automata Xerox Finite State Tool Finite State Parsing System Architecture Introduction The System Flow Types of Automata The Lexicon Composition of The Lexicon The Tagset

10 viii Categories and Features Broad Grammar Parsing Parsing Procedure The Heuristics of Parsing Order Further Ambiguity Resolution Parsing Expansion and Adjustment Narrow Grammar Noun Phrase Grammar Verb Grammar Error Detection and Diagnosis Introduction Detection of Errors in Noun Phrases Detection of Errors in the Verbal Head Summary Performance Results Introduction Initial Performance on Child Data Performance Results: Phase I Grammatical Coverage Flagging Accuracy Current Performance on Child Data Introduction Improving Flagging Accuracy Performance Results: Phase II Overview of Performance on Child Data Performance on Other Text Performance Results of FiniteCheck Performance Results of Other Tools Overview of Performance on Other Text Summary and Conclusion Summary and Conclusion Introduction Summary Introduction Children s Writing Errors Diagnosis and Possibilities for Detection Detection of Grammar Errors

11 ix 8.3 Conclusion Future Plans Introduction Improving the System Expanding Detection Generic Tool? Learning to Write in the Information Society Bibliography 260 Appendices 276 A Grammatical Feature Categories 279 B Error Corpora 281 B.1 Grammar Errors B.2 Misspelled Words B.3 Segmentation Errors C SUC Tagset 313 D Implementation 315 D.1 Broad Grammar D.2 Narrow Grammar: Noun Phrases D.3 Narrow Grammar: Verb Phrases D.4 Parser D.5 Filtering D.6 Error Finder

12 x

13 LIST OF TABLES xi List of Tables 3.1 Child Data Overview General Overview of Sub-Corpora General Overview by Age General Overview of Spelling Errors in Sub-Corpora General Overview of Spelling Errors by Age Number Agreement in Swedish Gender Agreement in Swedish Definiteness Agreement in Swedish Noun Phrases with Proper Nouns as Head Noun Phrases with Pronouns as Head Noun Phrases without (Nominal) Head Agreement in Partitive Noun Phrase in Swedish Gender and Number Agreement in Predicative Complement Personal Pronouns in Swedish Finite and Non-finite Verb Forms Tense Structure Fa-sentence Word Order Af-sentence Word Order Distribution of Grammar Errors in Sub-Corpora Distribution of Grammar Errors by Age Examples of Grammar Errors in Teleman s Study Examples of Grammar Errors from the Skrivsyntax Project Grammar Errors in the Evaluation Texts of Grammatifix Grammar Errors in Granska s Evaluation Corpus General Error Ratio in Grammatifix, Granska and Child Data Three Error Types in Grammatifix, Granska and Child Data Grammar Errors in Scarrie s ECD and Child Data Examples of Spelling Error Categories Spelling Variants Distribution of Real Word Segmentation Errors Distribution of Real Word Spelling Errors in Sub-Corpora Distribution of Real Word Spelling Errors by Age Sentence Delimitation in the Sub-Corpora Sentence Delimitation by Age Major Delimiter Errors in Sub-Corpora Major Delimiter Errors by Age Comma Errors in Sub-Corpora

14 xii LIST OF TABLES 4.37 Comma Errors by Age Summary of Detection Possibilities in Child Data Overview of the Grammar Error Types in Grammatifix (GF), Granska (GR) and Scarrie (SC) Overview of the Performance of Grammatifix, Granska and Scarrie Performance Results of Grammatifix on Child Data Performance Results of Granska on Child Data Performance Results of Scarrie on Child Data Performance Results of Targeted Errors Some Expressions and Operators in XFST Types of Directed Replacement Noun Phrase Types Performance Results on Child Data: Phase I False Alarms in Noun Phrases: Phase I False Alarms in Finite Verbs: Phase I False Alarms in Verb Clusters: Phase I False Alarms in Noun Phrases: Phase II False Alarms in Finite Verbs: Phase II False Alarms in Verb Clusters: Phase II Performance Results on Child Data: Phase II Performance Results of FiniteCheck on Other Text Performance Results of Grammatifix on Other Text Performance Results of Granska on Other Text Performance Results of Scarrie on Other Text

15 LIST OF FIGURES xiii List of Figures 3.1 Principles for Error Categorization Grammar Error Distribution Error Density in Sub-Corpora Error Density in Age Groups Three Error Types in Grammatifix (black line), Granska (gray line) and Child Data (white line) Error Distribution of Selected Error Types in Scarrie Error Distribution of Selected Error Types in Child Data The System Architecture of FiniteCheck False Alarms: Phase I vs. Phase II Overview of Recall in Child Data Overview of Precision in Child Data Overview of Overall Performance in Child Data Overview of Recall in Other Text Overview of Precision in Other Text Overview of Overall Performance in Other Text

16 xiv

17 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Written Language in a Computer Literate Society Written language plays an important role in our society. A great deal of our communication occurs by means of writing, which besides the traditional paper and pen, is facilitated by the computer, the Internet and other applications such as for instance the mobile phone. Word processing and sending messages via are among the most usual activities on computers. Other communicated media that enable written communication are also becoming popular such as webchat or instant messaging on the Internet or text messaging (Short-Message-Service, SMS) via the mobile phone. 1 The present doctoral dissertation concerns word processing on computers, in particular the linguistic tools integrated in such authoring aids. The use of word processors for writing both in educational and professional settings modifies the process, practice and acquisition of writing. With a word processor, it is not only easy to produce a text with a neat layout, but it supports the writer throughout the whole writing process. Text may be restructured and revised at any time during text production without leaving any trace of the changes that have been made. Text may be reused and a new text composed by cutting and pasting passages. Iconic material such as pictures 2 (or even sounds) can be inserted, linguistic aids can be used for proofreading a text. Writing acquisition can be enhanced by use of a word processor. For instance, focus on somewhat more technical aspects such as physically shaping letters with a pen shifts toward the more cognitive processes of text 1 Studies of computer-mediated communication are provided by e.g. Severinson Eklundh (1994); Crystal (2001); Herring (2001). A recent dissertation by Hård af Segerstad (2002) explores especially how written Swedish is used in , webchat and SMS. 2 Smileys or emoticons (e.g. :-) happy face ) are more used in computer-mediated communication.

18 2 Chapter 1. production enabling the writer to apply the whole language register. Writing on a computer enhances in general both the motivation to write, revise or completely change a text (cf. Wresch, 1984; Daiute, 1985; Severinson Eklundh, 1993; Pontecorvo, 1997). The status of written language in our modern information society has developed. In contrast to ancient times, writing is no longer reserved for just a small minority of professional groups (e.g. priests and monks, bankers, important merchants). In particular, the emergence of computers in writing has led to the involvement of new user groups besides today s writing professionals like journalists, novelists and scientists. We write more nowadays in general, and the freedom of and control over one s own writing has increased. Texts are produced rapidly and are more seldom proofread by a careful secretary with knowledge of language. This is sometimes reflected in the quality and correctness of the resulting text (cf. Severinson Eklundh, 1995). Linguistic tools that check mechanics, grammar and style have taken over the secretarial function to some degree and are usually integrated in word processing software. Spelling checkers and hyphenators that check writing mechanics and identify violations on individual words have existed for some time now. Grammar checkers that recognize syntactic errors and often also violations of punctuation, word capitalization conventions, number and date formatting and other style-related issues, thus working above the word level, are a rather new technology, especially for such minor small languages like Swedish. Grammar checking tools for languages such as English, French, Dutch, Spanish, and Greek were being developed in the 1980 s, whereas research on Swedish writing aids aimed at grammatical deviance started quite recently. In addition to the present work, there are three research groups working in this area. The Department of Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA) at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), with a long tradition of research in writing and authoring aids, is responsible for Granska. Development of this tool has occurred over a series of projects starting in 1994 (Domeij et al., 1996, 1998; Carlberger et al., 2002). The Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University was involved in an EU-sponsored project, Scarrie, between 1996 and The goal of this project was development of language tools for Danish, Norwegian and Swedish (Sågvall Hein, 1998a; Sågvall Hein et al., 1999). Finally, a Finnish language engineering company Lingsoft Inc. developed Grammatifix. Initiated in 1997, and completed in 1999, this tool was released on the market in November 1998, and has been part of the Swedish Microsoft Office Package since 2000 (Arppe, 2000; Birn, 2000). The three Swedish systems mainly use parsing techniques with some degree of feature relaxation and/or explicit error rules for detection of errors. Grammatifix and Granska are developed as generic tools and are tested on adult (mostly pro-

19 Introduction 3 fessional) texts. Scarrie s end-users are professional writers from newspapers and publishing firms. 1.2 Aim and Scope of the Study The primary purpose of the present work is to detect grammar errors by means of linguistic descriptions of correct language use rather than describing the structure of errors. The ideal would be to develop a generic method for detection of grammar errors in unrestricted text that could be applied to different writing populations displaying different error types without the need for rewriting the grammars of the system. That is, instead of describing the errors made by different groups of writers resulting in distinct sets of error rules, use the same grammar set for detection. This approach of identifying errors in text without explicit description of them contrasts with the other three Swedish grammar checkers. Using this method, we will hopefully cover many different cases of errors and minimize the possibility of overlooking some errors. We chose primary school children as the targeted population as a new group of users not covered by the previous Swedish projects. Children as beginning writers, are in the process of acquiring written language, unlike adult writers, and will probably produce relatively more errors and errors of a different kind than adult writers. Their writing errors have probably more to do with competence than performance. Grammar checkers for this group have to have different coverage and concentrate on different kinds of errors. Further, the positive impact of computers on children s writing opens new opportunities for the application of language technology. The role of proofreading tools for educational purposes is a rather new application area and this work can be considered a first step in that direction. Against this background, the main goal of the present thesis is handling children s errors and experimenting with positive grammatical descriptions using finite state techniques. The work is divided into three subtasks, including first, an overall error analysis of the collected children s texts, then exploring the nature and possibilities for detection of errors and finally, implementation of detection of (some) grammatical error types. Here is a brief characterization of these three tasks: I. Investigation of children s writing errors: The targeted data for a grammar checker can be selected either by intuitions about errors that will probably occur, or by directly looking at errors that actually occur. In the present work, the second approach of empirical analysis will be applied. Texts from pupils at three primary schools were collected and analyzed for errors, focusing on errors above word-level including grammar errors, spelling errors resulting in existent words, and punctuation. The main focus lies on grammar errors

20 4 Chapter 1. as the basis for implementation. The questions that arise are: What grammar errors occur? How should the errors be categorized? What spelling errors result in lexicalized strings and are not captured by a spelling checker? What is the nature of these? How is punctuation used and what errors occur? II. Investigation of the possibilities for detection of these writing errors: The nature of errors will be explored along with available technology that can be applied in order to detect them. An interesting point is how the errors that are found are handled by the current systems. The questions that arise are: What is the nature of the error? What is the diagnosis of the error? What is needed to be able to detect the error? How are the grammar errors handled by the current Swedish grammar checkers, Grammatifix, Granska and Scarrie? III. Implementation of the detection of (some) grammar errors: A subset of errors will be chosen for implementation and will concern grammar checking to the level of detecting errors. Errors will obtain a description of the type of error detected. Implementation will not include any additional diagnosis or any suggestion of how to correct the error. The analysis will be shallow, using finite state techniques. The grammars will describe real syntactic relations rather than the structure of erroneous patterns. The difference between grammars of distinct accuracy will reveal the errors, that as finite state automata can be subtracted from each other. Karttunen et al. (1997a) use this technique to find instances of invalid dates and this is an attempt to apply their approach to a larger language domain. The work on this grammar error detector started at the Department of Linguistics at Göteborg University in 1998, in the project Finite State Grammar for Finding Grammatical Errors in Swedish Text and was a collaboration with the NADA group at KTH in the project Integrated Language Tools for Writing and Document Handling. 3 The present thesis describes both the initial development within this project and the continuation of it. The main contributions of this thesis concern understanding of incorrect language use in primary school children s writing and computational analysis of such incorrect text by means of correct language use, in particular: Collection of texts written by primary school children, written both by hand and on a computer. 3 This project was sponsored by HSFR/NUTEK Language Technology Programme and has its site at:

21 Introduction 5 Analysis of grammar errors, spelling errors and punctuation in the texts of primary school writers. Comparison of errors found in the present data with errors found in other studies on grammar errors. Comparison of error types covered by the three Swedish grammar checkers. Performance analysis of the three Swedish grammar checkers on the present data. Implementation of a grammar error detector that derives/compiles error patterns rather than writing the error grammar by hand. Performance analysis of the detector on the collected data and some portion of other data. 1.3 Outline of the Thesis The remaining chapters of the thesis fall into two parts. Part I: The first part is devoted to a discussion of writing and an analysis of the collected data and consists of three chapters. Chapter 2 provides a brief introduction to research on writing in general, writing acquisition, how computers influence writing and descriptions of previous findings on grammar errors, concluding with what grammar errors are to be expected in written Swedish. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the data collected and a discussion of error classification. Chapter 4 presents the error profile of the data. The chapter concludes with discussion of the requirements for a grammar error detector for the particular subjects of this study. Part II: The second part of the thesis concerns grammar checking and includes three chapters. Chapter 5 starts with a general overview of the requirements and functionalities of a grammar checker and what is required for the errors in the present data. Swedish grammar checkers are described and their performance is checked on the present data. Chapter 6 presents the implementation of a grammar error detector that handles these errors, including description of finite state formalism. The techniques of finite state parsing are explained. Chapter 7 presents the performance of this tool. The thesis ends with a concluding summary (Chapter 8). In addition, the thesis contains four appendices. Appendix A presents the grammatical feature categories

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

More information

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5 Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken

More information

ICAME Journal No. 24. Reviews

ICAME Journal No. 24. Reviews ICAME Journal No. 24 Reviews Collins COBUILD Grammar Patterns 2: Nouns and Adjectives, edited by Gill Francis, Susan Hunston, andelizabeth Manning, withjohn Sinclair as the founding editor-in-chief of

More information

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words Standard 3: Writing Process 3.1: Prewrite 58-69% 10.LA.3.1.2 Generate a main idea or thesis appropriate to a type of writing. (753.02.b) Items may include a specified purpose, audience, and writing outline.

More information

THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH

THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH Academic regulations for THE BACHELOR S DEGREE IN SPANISH THE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS 2007 1 Framework conditions Heading Title Prepared by Effective date Prescribed points Text

More information

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline August 2011 V2 Pearson Education Ltd 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Pearson Education Ltd. Introduction The

More information

Disposition: Transformation Big Ideas: Setting goals Anchor Text: ACT binder Possible Linking Texts:

Disposition: Transformation Big Ideas: Setting goals Anchor Text: ACT binder Possible Linking Texts: Disposition: Transformation Big Ideas: Setting goals Anchor Text: ACT binder Possible Linking Texts: 11 th Grade Possible Media Resources: Assorted YouTube videos that support the informational articles

More information

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL Year 6 English Medium Term Plans Reading Word Objectives apply their growing knowledge of root words prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed under the spelling

More information

Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5

Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5 Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5 English Fever, Fire and Fashion Unit Summary In this historical Unit pupils learn about everyday life in London during the 17 th Century. Frost fairs,

More information

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 6

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 6 Language Arts Literacy : Grade 6 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their

More information

Editing and Proofreading. University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca

Editing and Proofreading. University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca Editing and Proofreading University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca 3-stage writing process (conventional view) 1. Pre-writing Literature review Data

More information

Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc.

Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc. Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc. Quality Assurance Policy NEMT prides itself on the excellence of quality within every level of the company. We strongly believe in the benefits of continued education and

More information

TESOL / NCATE Program Standards STANDARDS FOR THE ACCREDIATION OF INITIAL PROGRAMS IN P 12 ESL TEACHER EDUCATION

TESOL / NCATE Program Standards STANDARDS FOR THE ACCREDIATION OF INITIAL PROGRAMS IN P 12 ESL TEACHER EDUCATION TESOL / NCATE Program Standards STANDARDS FOR THE ACCREDIATION OF INITIAL PROGRAMS IN P 12 ESL TEACHER EDUCATION Prepared and Developed by the TESOL Task Force on ESL Standards for P 12 Teacher Education

More information

Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics

Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) upon the fulfillment

More information

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS Writing Common Core KEY WORDS An educator's guide to words frequently used in the Common Core State Standards, organized by grade level in order to show the progression of writing Common Core vocabulary

More information

Students will know Vocabulary: purpose details reasons phrases conclusion point of view persuasive evaluate

Students will know Vocabulary: purpose details reasons phrases conclusion point of view persuasive evaluate Fourth Grade Writing : Text Types and Purposes Essential Questions: 1. How do writers select the genre of writing for a specific purpose and audience? 2. How do essential components of the writing process

More information

Common Core Progress English Language Arts

Common Core Progress English Language Arts [ SADLIER Common Core Progress English Language Arts Aligned to the [ Florida Next Generation GRADE 6 Sunshine State (Common Core) Standards for English Language Arts Contents 2 Strand: Reading Standards

More information

Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc.

Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc. Quality Assurance at NEMT, Inc. Quality Assurance Policy NEMT prides itself on the excellence of quality within every level of the company. We strongly believe in the benefits of continued education and

More information

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Division: Course Number: Course Title: World Languages SPA401 / SPA402 Spanish 4 (College Prep) Course Description: Reading, writing, speaking and listening

More information

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 5

Language Arts Literacy Areas of Focus: Grade 5 Language Arts Literacy : Grade 5 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their

More information

I. Title of Lesson: Learning from Artifacts and What Artifacts Tell Us

I. Title of Lesson: Learning from Artifacts and What Artifacts Tell Us Lesson Plan Class: Seventh Grade Subject: World History Ancient Civilizations Topic: Unit One Investigating the Past: How are social scientists like detectives? I. Title of Lesson: Learning from Artifacts

More information

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature Reading: Literature Writing: Narrative RL.6.1 RL.6.2 RL.6.3 RL.6.4 RL.6.5 RL.6.6 RL.6.7 W.6.3 SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1 Key Ideas and Details Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

More information

Key words related to the foci of the paper: master s degree, essay, admission exam, graders

Key words related to the foci of the paper: master s degree, essay, admission exam, graders Assessment on the basis of essay writing in the admission to the master s degree in the Republic of Azerbaijan Natig Aliyev Mahabbat Akbarli Javanshir Orujov The State Students Admission Commission (SSAC),

More information

KSE Comp. support for the writing process 2 1

KSE Comp. support for the writing process 2 1 KSE Comp. support for the writing process 2 1 Flower & Hayes cognitive model of writing A reaction against stage models of the writing process E.g.: Prewriting - Writing - Rewriting They model the growth

More information

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar

More information

A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT

A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT A + dvancer College Readiness Online Alignment to Florida PERT Area Objective ID Topic Subject Activity Mathematics Math MPRC1 Equations: Solve linear in one variable College Readiness-Arithmetic Solving

More information

No Evidence. 8.9 f X

No Evidence. 8.9 f X Section I. Correlation with the 2010 English Standards of Learning and Curriculum Framework- Grade 8 Writing Summary Adequate Rating Limited No Evidence Section I. Correlation with the 2010 English Standards

More information

Testing Data-Driven Learning Algorithms for PoS Tagging of Icelandic

Testing Data-Driven Learning Algorithms for PoS Tagging of Icelandic Testing Data-Driven Learning Algorithms for PoS Tagging of Icelandic by Sigrún Helgadóttir Abstract This paper gives the results of an experiment concerned with training three different taggers on tagged

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

More information

Grade 4 Writing Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Grade 4 Writing Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Grade 4 Writing Assessment Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills STAAR Grade 4 Writing Assessment Reporting Category 1: Composition The student will demonstrate an ability to compose a variety

More information

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8 A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation

More information

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks W.4.2.1 Contribute to a writer s notebook (i.e., interesting words or phrases, books or experiences that spark an interest, etc.) Northwest Arkansas Instructional Alignment English Language Arts Grade

More information

Modern foreign languages

Modern foreign languages Modern foreign languages Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007

More information

Grade 5 Second Prompt

Grade 5 Second Prompt Grade 5 Second Prompt Expository Writing an Essay Answer English/Language Arts Content Standards: 1.0 Writing Strategies 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) 2.3 Write research reports

More information

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge

More information

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment Interpreting Your Score 1 Congratulations on taking the TSI Assessment! The TSI Assessment measures your strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and statistics,

More information

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD.

How the Computer Translates. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.

More information

READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS

READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS READING SPECIALIST STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Components of Reading: The Reading Specialist applies knowledge of the interrelated components of reading across all developmental

More information

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the READING 1.) Reads at grade level. 1 st Student has achieved reading success at Level 14-H or above. Student has achieved reading success at Level 10-F or 12-G. Student has achieved reading success at Level

More information

Syntactic Theory on Swedish

Syntactic Theory on Swedish Syntactic Theory on Swedish Mats Uddenfeldt Pernilla Näsfors June 13, 2003 Report for Introductory course in NLP Department of Linguistics Uppsala University Sweden Abstract Using the grammar presented

More information

Bilingual Education Assessment Urdu (034) NY-SG-FLD034-01

Bilingual Education Assessment Urdu (034) NY-SG-FLD034-01 Bilingual Education Assessment Urdu (034) NY-SG-FLD034-01 The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when

More information

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX

COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j North-Holland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova - Zva Nebeska - Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy

More information

Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance. Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu 3

Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance. Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu 3 Yıl/Year: 2012 Cilt/Volume: 1 Sayı/Issue:2 Sayfalar/Pages: 40-47 Differences in linguistic and discourse features of narrative writing performance Abstract Dr. Bilal Genç 1 Dr. Kağan Büyükkarcı 2 Ali Göksu

More information

Level 4 Certificate in English for Business

Level 4 Certificate in English for Business Level 4 Certificate in English for Business LCCI International Qualifications Syllabus Effective from January 2006 For further information contact us: Tel. +44 (0) 8707 202909 Email. enquiries@ediplc.com

More information

Language Meaning and Use

Language Meaning and Use Language Meaning and Use Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics Website: www.uni-due.de/ele Types of meaning There are four recognisable types of meaning: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, sentence meaning

More information

English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014

English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014 English Language Proficiency Standards: At A Glance February 19, 2014 These English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards were collaboratively developed with CCSSO, West Ed, Stanford University Understanding

More information

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Spoken language -structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings ng, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas to comments the interest

More information

Grade 4 Writing Curriculum Map

Grade 4 Writing Curriculum Map Curriculum Map BOE Approval November 2013 CURRICULUM MAP WRITING GRADE 4 SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY Creating a Buzz About : It s All About Me! Tell Me A Story Realistic Fiction Tell Me

More information

Reading Competencies

Reading Competencies Reading Competencies The Third Grade Reading Guarantee legislation within Senate Bill 21 requires reading competencies to be adopted by the State Board no later than January 31, 2014. Reading competencies

More information

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum)

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 reading expectations Year 1 writing expectations Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative

More information

Grade Genre Skills Lessons Mentor Texts and Resources 6 Grammar To Be Covered

Grade Genre Skills Lessons Mentor Texts and Resources 6 Grammar To Be Covered Grade Genre Skills Lessons Mentor Texts and Resources 6 Grammar To Be Covered 6 Personal Narrative Parts of speech (noun, adj, verb, adv) Complete sentence (subj. and verb) Capitalization Tense (identify)

More information

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards for the Sunshine State Standards FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION www.myfloridaeducation.com The fourth grade student: Reading uses text features to predict content and monitor comprehension (for example,

More information

Grade 6 Third Prompt

Grade 6 Third Prompt Grade 6 Third Prompt Response to Literature Writing a Character Analysis English/Language Arts Content Standards: 1.0 Writing Strategies 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) 2.4

More information

Integrating the Common Core Standards into the Music Curriculum

Integrating the Common Core Standards into the Music Curriculum Place Photo Here, Otherwise Delete Box Integrating the Common Core Standards into the Music Curriculum Tom L. Foust January 24 th, 2013 Illinois Music Educators Conference Peoria, Illinois What is the

More information

parent ROADMAP SUPPORTING YOUR CHILD IN GRADE FIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

parent ROADMAP SUPPORTING YOUR CHILD IN GRADE FIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS TM parent ROADMAP SUPPORTING YOUR CHILD IN GRADE FIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS 5 America s schools are working to provide higher quality instruction than ever before. The way we taught students in the past

More information

CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP)

CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) CHARACTERISTICS FOR STUDENTS WITH: LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (LEP) Research has shown that students acquire a second language in the same way that they acquire the first language. It is an exploratory

More information

EDITING AND PROOFREADING. Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F).

EDITING AND PROOFREADING. Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F). EDITING AND PROOFREADING Use this sheet to help you: recognise what is involved in editing and proofreading develop effective editing and proofreading techniques 5 minute self test Read the following statements

More information

How to become a successful language learner

How to become a successful language learner How to become a successful language learner By Alison Fenner English and German Co-ordinator, Institution Wide Language Programme Introduction Your success in learning a language depends on you! You may

More information

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers What s new on the companion Web site? hackerhandbooks.com/writersref The companion Web site for A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition, now

More information

Oxford Learning Institute University of Oxford

Oxford Learning Institute University of Oxford Guide to Editing and Proofreading Editing and proofreading are often neglected, but they are the crucial final stages of the writing process. Even the smallest error can result in embarrassing or even

More information

Reading Assessment Checklist Behaviors to Notice, Teach and Support

Reading Assessment Checklist Behaviors to Notice, Teach and Support Behaviors to Notice Teach Level A/B (Fountas and Pinnell) - DRA 1/2 - NYC ECLAS 2 Solving Words - Locates known word(s) in. Analyzes words from left to right, using knowledge of sound/letter relationships

More information

LANG 557 Capstone Paper . Purpose: Format: Content: introduction view of language

LANG 557 Capstone Paper . Purpose: Format: Content: introduction view of language Masters of Science in Curriculum & Instruction Special Education Emphasis Alignment of Summative Assessments to InTASC Standards The Courses in the TESL Emphasis are aligned to MN Board of Teaching Standards

More information

Students will know Vocabulary: claims evidence reasons relevant accurate phrases/clauses credible source (inc. oral) formal style clarify

Students will know Vocabulary: claims evidence reasons relevant accurate phrases/clauses credible source (inc. oral) formal style clarify Sixth Grade Writing : Text Types and Purposes Essential Questions: 1. How do writers select the genre of writing for a specific purpose and audience? 2. How do essential components of the writing process

More information

CORRECTING AND GIVING FEEDBACK TO WRITING

CORRECTING AND GIVING FEEDBACK TO WRITING CORRECTING AND GIVING FEEDBACK TO WRITING We have all written papers for some courses to be checked and graded by our instructors. We know very well that a paper that is returned with red markings and

More information

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings,

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings, Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture

More information

Grade 5. Ontario Provincial Curriculum-based Expectations Guideline Walking with Miskwaadesi and Walking with A`nó:wara By Subject/Strand

Grade 5. Ontario Provincial Curriculum-based Expectations Guideline Walking with Miskwaadesi and Walking with A`nó:wara By Subject/Strand Ontario Provincial Curriculum-based Expectations Guideline Walking with Miskwaadesi and Walking with A`nó:wara By Subject/Strand Turtle Island Conservation Ontario Teachers Resource Bundle 1 The Arts 1.1

More information

Processing: current projects and research at the IXA Group

Processing: current projects and research at the IXA Group Natural Language Processing: current projects and research at the IXA Group IXA Research Group on NLP University of the Basque Country Xabier Artola Zubillaga Motivation A language that seeks to survive

More information

Interpretation of Test Scores for the ACCUPLACER Tests

Interpretation of Test Scores for the ACCUPLACER Tests Interpretation of Test Scores for the ACCUPLACER Tests ACCUPLACER is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. Visit The College Board on the Web at: www.collegeboard.com/accuplacer

More information

AK + ASD Writing Grade Level Expectations For Grades 3-6

AK + ASD Writing Grade Level Expectations For Grades 3-6 Revised ASD June 2004 AK + ASD Writing For Grades 3-6 The first row of each table includes a heading that summarizes the performance standards, and the second row includes the complete performance standards.

More information

Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists

Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists Straightforward Advanced CEF Checklists Choose from 0 5 for each statement to express how well you can carry out the following skills practised in Straightforward Advanced. 0 = I can t do this at all.

More information

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment

Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment Annotation Guidelines for Dutch-English Word Alignment version 1.0 LT3 Technical Report LT3 10-01 Lieve Macken LT3 Language and Translation Technology Team Faculty of Translation Studies University College

More information

Language and Literacy

Language and Literacy Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state

More information

Grade 7 Reading/Language

Grade 7 Reading/Language Grade 7 Reading/Language Month Content Skills August Procedures and Expectations Demonstrate an understanding of the organization of materials Demonstrate appropriate behavior September Diagnostic Reading

More information

Any Town Public Schools Specific School Address, City State ZIP

Any Town Public Schools Specific School Address, City State ZIP Any Town Public Schools Specific School Address, City State ZIP XXXXXXXX Supertindent XXXXXXXX Principal Speech and Language Evaluation Name: School: Evaluator: D.O.B. Age: D.O.E. Reason for Referral:

More information

Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing

Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing * As a teacher, I have high expectations for my students and believe that they need to be encouraged, nurtured, and rewarded for their efforts.

More information

Guidelines for Seminar Papers and Final Papers (BA / MA Theses) at the Chair of Public Finance

Guidelines for Seminar Papers and Final Papers (BA / MA Theses) at the Chair of Public Finance Guidelines for Seminar Papers and Final Papers (BA / MA Theses) at the Chair of Public Finance Version: 18 August 2015 1 General Requirements 1.1 Finding a Topic (Final Papers Only) 1.1.1 Come Up With

More information

Level 3 Shirley English

Level 3 Shirley English Level 3 Shirley English SEPTEMBER: Chapter 1 Pages 1-9 Lesson 1 Long- term goals and short- term goals Lesson 2 Beginning setup plan for homeschool, WRITING (journal) Lesson 3 SKILLS (synonyms, antonyms,

More information

What the National Curriculum requires in reading at Y5 and Y6

What the National Curriculum requires in reading at Y5 and Y6 What the National Curriculum requires in reading at Y5 and Y6 Word reading apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in Appendix 1 of the

More information

Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies

Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies 3 rd Grade Reading and Writing TEKS 3 rd Nine Weeks Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies Figure 19: Reading/Comprehension Skills.

More information

Grade: 9 (1) Students will build a framework for high school level academic writing by understanding the what of language, including:

Grade: 9 (1) Students will build a framework for high school level academic writing by understanding the what of language, including: Introduction: The following document is a draft of standards-designed, comprehensive Pacing Guide for high school English Grade 9. This document will evolve as feedback is accumulated. The Pacing Guide

More information

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment Interpreting Your Score 1 Congratulations on taking the TSI Assessment! The TSI Assessment measures your strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and statistics,

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

More information

RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT

RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT When a text is too hard, students begin to struggle and use less appropriate learning strategies. They learn much more from reading a text that is instructional or easy. Running

More information

National Masters School in Language Technology

National Masters School in Language Technology National Masters School in Language Technology GSLT May 19, 2009 Introduction Sweden is a relatively small country and competence in language technology is spread over a number of academic institutions

More information

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. CCSS English/Language Arts Standards Reading: Foundational Skills Fifth Grade Retaught Reviewed Assessed Phonics and Word Recognition CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word

More information

the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers

the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers the treasure of lemon brown by walter dean myers item analysis for all grade 7 standards: vocabulary, reading, writing, conventions item analysis for all grade 8 standards: vocabulary, reading, writing,

More information

Get the most value from your surveys with text analysis

Get the most value from your surveys with text analysis PASW Text Analytics for Surveys 3.0 Specifications Get the most value from your surveys with text analysis The words people use to answer a question tell you a lot about what they think and feel. That

More information

Published on www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies

Published on www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies Published on www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies 16-Dec-2010 Year 3 Narrative Unit 3 Adventure and mystery Adventure and mystery (4 weeks) This is the third in a block of four narrative units

More information

CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE)

CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE) CALIFORNIA S TEACHING PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS (TPE) The Teaching Performance Expectations describe the set of knowledge, skills, and abilities that California expects of each candidate for a Multiple

More information

GRADE 8 English Language Arts Proofreading: Lesson 6

GRADE 8 English Language Arts Proofreading: Lesson 6 GRADE 8 English Language Arts Proofreading: Lesson 6 Read aloud to the students the material that is printed in boldface type inside the boxes. Information in regular type inside the boxes and all information

More information

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

An Overview of Applied Linguistics

An Overview of Applied Linguistics An Overview of Applied Linguistics Edited by: Norbert Schmitt Abeer Alharbi What is Linguistics? It is a scientific study of a language It s goal is To describe the varieties of languages and explain the

More information

Translators Handbook

Translators Handbook Translators Handbook I. Getting Started with MotaWord What is a cloud-based system? Translator Registration Process Translator Compensation III. Lead Translators Duties IV. Proofreaders V. Translating

More information

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description

Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Division: World Languages Course Number: SPA201, SPA202 Course Title: Spanish 2 Course Description: Students continue to develop listening, speaking, reading,

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

Writing Rubrics. Eighth Grade. Based on the California State Writing Standards. Created by Miller seventh grade team 4/05..

Writing Rubrics. Eighth Grade. Based on the California State Writing Standards. Created by Miller seventh grade team 4/05.. Writing Rubrics Eighth Grade Based on the California State Writing Standards Created by Miller seventh grade team 4/05 1 Table of Contents Section 1: Student Rubrics Six Plus One Traits: Eighth Grade Writing

More information

Overview of MT techniques. Malek Boualem (FT)

Overview of MT techniques. Malek Boualem (FT) Overview of MT techniques Malek Boualem (FT) This section presents an standard overview of general aspects related to machine translation with a description of different techniques: bilingual, transfer,

More information

Meeting the Standard in North Carolina

Meeting the Standard in North Carolina KINDERGARTEN 1.02 Demonstrate understanding of the sounds of letters and understanding that words begin and end alike (onsets and rhymes). 1.03 Recognize and name upper and lower case letters of the alphabet.

More information