PLEA FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK FARMING

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1 PLEA FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK FARMING An End to Organized Irresponsibility TheDutchprovinceofNorth Brabanthasimposedatemporaryrestrictionontheconstructionofnew megaanimalstables.thethreatsofdiseases, flats forpigsandlargeindustrialcomplexeswithtensof thousandsofanimals,andtheirimpactonthelandscape:enoughisenough,theprovincialcouncil agreedinresponsetoapublicinitiativeof33,000citizens.althoughthisdecisionmayhavehistorical significance,itisnomorethanahesitantstart.ministerofagricultureofthedutchgovernment, GerdaVerburg,quicklysquashedanyoptimismbystatingthatinotherpartsofthecountry,theremay stillbesufficientroomformega stables. 1 Moreover,provincialpoliticiansandstakeholdersarealready pleadingforexemptions,exceptionsandtemporaryarrangements.theseresponsesillustratethe persistenceofproblemsinthedutchintensivelivestockindustry. 2 ButtheNorth Brabantdecisionalso showstheneedforchangeandthebeginningofaturnaround.thatishopeful,inviewofthe remarkablestagnationinthepastdecade. Intensiveanimalfarmingshouldbechangedradically.Animalsshouldgetmoreroomfortheirnatural behaviours,suchasscratchingaroundoutside.transportofliveanimalsshouldbelimitedand breedingoflivestockshouldnotfocussolelyonincreasingproductivity. 3 Acommissionchairedby HermanWijffelsrecommendedthistotheDutchMinisterofAgriculturein2001. Currentanimal farmingnolongerfitsintotheurbansocietythatwelivein,wijffelscommentedwhenhepresented theadvice. Thekeepingofanimalsdoesnottakeplaceinthewaywewanttoandtheenvironmentis burdenedtoomuch.theanimalshavelittleresistancetodiseases,foodsafetyisthreatened,andthe expensesofcrisesareescalating. Brinkhorst,theMinisterofAgricultureatthetime,calledtheplans clear,toughandinescapable and plannedtointroducetheproposedreformsrapidly.by2010,theindustrial,anddegrading forboth humansandanimals meatanddairyproductionwouldbeamatterofthepast.intheparliamentary notes KeepingAnimals (2001)and AnimalWelfare (2002) 4 bybrinkhorst,theseintentionswere realizedbyplacinganimalwelfarecentrestage,aspartof atransitiontosustainablefarming : Inan internationalcontext,thedutchgovernmentchoosestopositionitselfasaleaderintheshapingof humaneandsociallyacceptableanimalfarming. TheWijffelscommission 5,whichwascomposedquitebroadly,hadprovidedallthereasonsforthe needforthistransitioninitsreport:thelarge scaleproductionmethods,minimallivingspacefor animals,animalsrarelygoingoutside,stench,environmentaldegradation,reductionofthegenepool, damagetosurroundingnaturalareas,long distancetransportationofanimals,dioxinandhormone scandals,swinefever,madcowdisease,footandmouthdisease,andsubsidizedoverproduction;a farmingsystem thattreatsanimalsimmorallyandhasraisedtheexploitationofanimalstosucha levelthatanymalfunctionwillhavedisastrousconsequences. TheWijffelscommissionwasnotaloneinnoticingthatthe developmentswithinthelivestock industry...haveexceededthelimitsofwhatisacceptableandpermissible. SiccoMansholt,oneof thearchitectsofmodernagriculture,describedintensiveanimalfarmingas asystemoforganized 1 verbindt geen gevolgen aan Brabants besluit.htm 2 Intheremainder,thetermsintensive animal farming,livestock industry,andfactory farmingareusedinterchangeably. 3 DeVolkskrant May30,2001:http://www.volkskrant.nl/archief_gratis/article ece/Einde_intensieve_veehouderij PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 1

2 irresponsibility inhislastinterviewin AgricultureMinisterCeesVeermanconcludedin2003: Weimportfodder,exportpigs,andkeepthemesshere.Thesystemisstuck. Today,in2010,wemustconcludethatthedoomsdayscenariooftheWijffelscommissionhasalmost entirelycometrue,andevenworse.wehavebeenfacedwithq fever,livestock relatedmrsa,esbl, 7 thethreatofanh5n1pandemic,andtheimpactoftheintensiveanimalfeedindustryandanimal farmingongreenhousegasemissionshavebecomeevenmoreevident.intheyearbywhichthe proposedmeasuresshouldallhavebeenexecuted,itappearsthathardlyanythinghasbeendonewith therecommendations. 8 Onthecontrary,thelivestockindustryhasintensifiedevenfurther,thereare stilllarge scalecullingoperationsofhealthyanimals,animaldiseasecrisesremainamajorpublic healththreat,andweshouldstillbeashamedofthelivingandslaughteringconditionsofhundredsof millionsofanimalsinour civilized society. OveronehundredfullprofessorsatvariousDutchuniversitiesfromavarietyofdisciplineshavenow unitedtousetheircollectiveexpertiseandeffort,topromotethestructuralreformofintensive farmingthatwasalreadyconsiderednecessarytenyearsago. Neverbeforeinhistoryhavewespentsuchasmallfraction(lessthan10% 9 )ofourfamilyincomeon food.andneverbeforehastheproductionoffoodhadsuchanenormousimpactonourenvironment. Thecostoffoodhasdecreased.Thepriceisbeingpaidbyanimals,nature,andtheenvironment and thus,intime,byusandfuturegenerations.thelivestockindustryleavessevere,andinpart irreversible,damageinourenvironment,inbiodiversity,globalfoodsupply,balanceofminerals, freshwaterresources,publichealth,andespeciallyanimalwelfare. Animal welfare IntherecommendationsoftheWijffelscommissionandtheplansofBrinkhorst,theaimofnatural treatmentofanimalswaslaiddown.itwasnotedthatthisrequiresadjustmentofthefarmingsystem totheanimal,ratherthanviceversa.factoryfarminghasdevelopedintoanindustrialenterprise technically,asophisticatedandhighlyefficientproductionsystem inwhichanimalsareadaptedto theneedsoftheindustry,eventotheextentthattheyaremutilated.animalsarebredtoproduce everhigheroutputs:inthepast25years,25%moreeggsperhen,40%moregrowthperanimal,and 40%moremilkpercow. 10 Theincreasinglylargerscaleoftheindustryappearstoresultinastrong thing ification oftheanimal:theanimalistreatedasanobject,aproduct.therearecattlebreeds thatcannotgivenaturalbirthtoacalfanylonger;pigswithcongenitalheartandlegproblemsbecause ofourpreferenceforleanmeat,sufferingfromanxietyandstressleadingtobreak downoftheir muscletissues 11 ;calvesthatareseparatedfromtheirmothersimmediatelyafterbirthandsuffering fromanaemiaduetoalow irondiet 12 becausetheymustproducewhitemeatonbehalfofexport preferences;hensdestinedsolelytoproduceeggs,sothatinthenetherlandsalone,50milliononeday oldmalechicksayeararegassedorshreddedalivebecausetheyservenousefulproduction d1 8 vleesbeleid is deel van de grote crisis/ 9 NL/menu/themas/prijzen/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2008/ wm.htm 10 LeodenHartog(DirectorofNutreco),lectureinJune2006,SymposiumAnimalDiseases,LNV,CastleGroeneveldBaarn html 12 scientificopinionon:therisksofpoorwelfareinintensivecalffarmingsystems,may2006,efsa(scientificcommittee EuropeanCommission),p.10 11: PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 2

3 purpose 13 ;andotherchickensarebredtogrowfromafewgramsatbirthto2kgsin40days: The broilerhasnotbeenarealchickenforquiteawhilenow...thisjuvenilebundleofmusclesis admittedlyatechnologicalmarvel,butfromawelfarepointofviewitisadisaster...withsuchan explosivegrowthinaperiodofsixweeks,theirhearts,lungsandlegscanbarelycope.someanimals literallygrowtodeath...otheranimalsaresoheavythattheirlegscannolongersupportthem.their legscollapseandtheycanhardlymove. 14 Basedexclusivelyonfinancialconsiderations,animalsareliterallyreconstructedtomeetproduction requirements,bymeansofinvasiveinterventions(oftenwithoutanaesthetics),suchasthecuttingof beaksandtails,filingofteeth,castrationanddehorning.hiddenfrompublicview,eachyearhundreds ofmillionsofanimalsareslaughteredinourcountry,afterunnaturallyshortliveswithhardlyany opportunityfornaturalbehavioursuchasexploring,scratching/pecking,running,nesting,playing,and othersocialbehaviour.duetothecurrentslaughtersurveillancesystemsandlimitedsupervision, thereisnoguaranteethattheanimalshavebeeneffectivelystunnedbeforekilling,orthattheyareall trulydeadbythetimetheyarehangingfromthehooks. 15 Bothfarmersandconsumersfeeluncomfortablewhentheissueofanimalwellbeinginthelivestock industryisraised. 16 Mostpeople,includingfarmersthemselves,frownuponthisstateofaffairs,but tacitlyacceptitbymeansofapsychologicalmechanismcalled pluralisticignorance, 17 whichcanbe describedbytheidea: Ifnobodyisconcerned,thenapparentlyit snotsobad and Ifitwasreally thatbad,thegovernmentwoulddosomethingaboutit. Moreover,consumersoftenfeelthattheir foodchoiceshavelittleimpact:the drop in the bucket feeling.whentheresultingconformityis interpreted,bygovernment,farmers,andsuppliers,asasignthatconsumersapproveofthemethods ofproduction,thenthecycleisclosed:allpartiesassumethereisnothingwrongbecausetheother partydoesn tseemtothinkanythingiswrong.ourgovernment stolerantattitudealsosubtlycreates anewgeneralsocialnorm:apparently,thewayinwhichwetreatfarmanimalsisperfectlynormal. Evenifconsumerstryhardtobuymoreanimal friendlyfood,itrequiresalotofworktofindouthow foodhasactuallybeenproduced.thetraceabilityofourfoodisfocusedonpreventingcontamination andpollution,butthereishardlyanyethicaltraceability,onthebasisofwhichconsumersmayexpress theirmoralchoices 18.Forinstance,40%ofDutchconsumersthinktheybuyeggsproducedbychickens freetoroamoutside.inreality,thisappliesonlytofree rangeandorganicchickens,thatsupply13% and3%oftheeggs,respectively. Nature and environment Dutchlivestockcurrentlyproduces70billionkilogramsofmanureperyear 19 (morethan4,000kgper inhabitant).thesehugeamountsresultinsevereenvironmentalstress,acidificationand cf.jonathansafranfoer(2010).eatinganimals(2010),andhttp://www.agd.nl/ /nieuws/varkenshouderij/meernieuws varkenshouderij/varkens Duitse slachterijen half levend aan de haak.htm. 16 Velde,H.M.,te,M.N.C.Aarts&C.M.J.vanWoerkum(2002).Dealingwithambivalence:farmers andconsumers perceptionsofanimalwelfareinlivestockbreeding.journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 15 (2): ;Velde, H.M.,te,M.N.C.Aarts&C.M.J.vanWoerkum(2001).Eten,maarnietwillenweten[Eating,butdon twanttoknow].in:h.m. tevelde&c.hanningetal(2001).hoeoordelenweoverdeveehouderij?[howdowejudgelivestockmanagement?]the Hague:RathenauInstitute Katz,D.,&Allport,F.H.(1931).Students Attitudes.Syracuse,N.Y.:CraftsmanPress;Darley,J.M.&Latané,B.(1968). Bystanderinterventioninemergencies:Diffusionofresponsibility.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, Korthals,M.(2007).Voedingenlandbouw:chaos,ellendeentegenstrijdigheden.[Foodandagriculture:Chaos,miseryand contradictions.]nrc Handelsblad,Dec.15, Mestproductie door de veestapel.html?i=3 17 PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 3

4 eutrophicationofsoilsandsurfacewaters,andcontaminationofgroundwater. 20 Heathfieldsand dunesturnintograsslandsduetonitrogencontaminationfromtheair,andlow lying,species rich, grasslandsandswampforestsdeteriorateduetoexposuretolargeamountsofnitrateandsulphate viapollutedgroundwater. 21 Theexcessivefertilizationbythelivestockindustryrepresentsoneofthe mostseriousthreatstotheflorainournaturalenvironments 22.Asaconsequence,theNetherlands mostprobablycannotmeeteuropeanobligationstoattainspecificeuobjectivesfornature(habitats Directive,Natura 2000).Moreover,insomeregionsthehighratesoffertilizationthreatendrinking watersupplies. 23 ItisstrikingthatEUnitratestandardsfordrinkingwateringroundwaterunder agriculturalsitesareexceededalmosteverywhereinthenetherlands. 24 Thehighfertilizerapplication ratescanalsoleadtoelevatedconcentrationsofhazardoussubstancessuchassulphateandarsenic compounds. 25 Faunainournaturalareasalsosuffers.Forinstance,heavyfertilizationpracticeshaveledtoasharp decreaseinthenumberoflargeinsectsinthevastareaofdutchgrasslands, 26 withmajornegative implicationstoalllivingorganismsdependingontheseinsects(meadowbirds,swallows,amphibians, dragonflies). Inadditiontonitrogen,manurealsocontainssubstantialamountsofphosphate:viaanimalfodder,it isimportedherefromoverseascountries,andisemittedintoourenvironmentviaanimalexcrements. Theenvironmentalimpactofphosphorusperkgofmeatproteinproductionis,roughly,seventimes thephosphorusloadperkgofplantprotein. 27 Whilephosphateproducesseriousenvironmental pollutionhere,itisrapidlybecomingascarceresourceinotherpartsoftheworld. 28 Thephosphate thatispresentintheworldasamineralisexpectedtorunoutthiscentury,whichwillmake traditionalagricultureimpossiblebecausephosphateisanessentialnutrient.atthesametime,inour country,weflushawayhugeamountsofphosphate,withourexcessmanure,thatcannotbe 20 Roelofs,J.G.M.,J.A.A.R.Schuurkes&A.J.M.Smits(1983).ImpactofacidificationandeutrophicationonMacrophyte communitiesinsoftwaters,aquatic Botany 17: ;Roelofs,J.G.M.,A.J.Kempers,A.L.F.Houdijk&J.Jansen(1985).The effectorair borneammoniumsulphateonpinus nigravar.maritimainthenetherlands,plant and Soil 84, Witte,J.P.M.,C.J.S.Aggenbach&Runhaar,J.(2007).GrondwatervoorNatuur.In:R.Liesteetal.,Beoordelingvande grondwatertoestandopbasisvandekaderrichtlijnwater,[groundwaterfornature.in:r.liesteetal,assessmentofthe groundwatersituationonthebasisofthedirective WaterGuidelines,]p RIVM,Bilthoven. 22 AggenbachC.J.S.(Ed.),2005.KnelpuntenenkansenanalyseNatura2000gebieden.[Constraintsandopportunityanalysis Natura2000sites.]Kiwa/EGG consult,nieuwegein. 23 VanBeek,C.G.E.M.,D.vanderKooij,P.C.NoordamandJ.G.Schippers(1984).Nitraatendrinkwatervoorziening.[Nitrate anddrinkingwatersupply.]kiwamededeling[communication]84,144p.,nieuwegein. 24 RIVM,2008.Waterkwaliteitoplandbouwbedrijven.EvaluatieMeststoffenwet2007.[Waterqualityonfarms.Evaluation ManureAct2007.]RIVMreport /2007,Willems,W.J.,B.Fraters,C.R.Meinardi,Reijnders,H.F.R&C.G.E.M.van Beek(2002).Nutriënteninbodemengrondwater:kwaliteitsdoelstellingenenkwaliteit [Nutrientsinsoiland groundwater:qualityobjectivesandquality ]RIVMreport ,Bilthoven. 25 VanBeek,C.G.E.M.(1999).Herkomstvansporenelemmenteningrond enoppervlaktewater,onvermoedebronnenen bekendeprocessen.[originoftraceelementsingroundwaterandsurfacewater,unexpectedsourcesandwell known processes.]h2o 32 (9):23 26;VanBeek,C.G.E.M.,M.H.Jalink&A.F.M.Meuleman(2001).Deverzwavelingvangrondwater inzandgronden.[sulphurisationofgroundwaterinsandysoils.]landschap18 (4): ;VanBeek,C.G.E.M.,G.vanden Berg&P.Hesen(2005)Geohydrochemischetypologiealshulpmiddelbijgrondwaterkwaliteitsbeheer.[Geohydrochemical typologyasatoolformanaginggroundwaterquality.]bodem5: Schekkerman,H&Beintema,A.J.(2007).Abundanceofinvertebratesandforagingsuccessofblack tailedgodwitlimosa limosachicksinrelationtoagricuturalgrasslandmanagement.ardea 95: Reijnders,L.&S.Soret(2003).Quantificationoftheenvironmentalimpactofdifferentdietaryproteinchoices.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78:664S 668S. 28 UdodeHaes,H.A.etal(2009).Fosfaat vanteveelnaartekort.beleidsnotitievandestuurgroeptechnologyassessment vanhetminsiterievanlnv.[phosphate fromsurplustodeficit.policynoteofthetechnologyassessmentsteeringgroupof theministryoflnv.]utrecht,september2009. PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 4

5 recovered. 29 Thesephosphatesaccumulateinsoilsandelsewhereinnature 30,forinstance,insurface watersorasprecipitatesdeepinseasandoceans.inshort,despiteanimminentshortageof phosphateintheworld,wetakeitawayfromothercountriesintheformofanimalfeed,thuscreating localsurplusesthatweflushaway.inthisway,wejeopardisethefutureworldfoodsupply. Worldwide,morethan80%ofagriculturallandnowservesthelivestockindustryinsomeway,and morethan40%oftheworldgrainharvestisswallowedupbylivestock,whereasasubstantialpartof thatgraincouldserveasfoodforhumans. 31 Ecological footprint, climate, and world food supply Intheconversionofplantproteintoanimalprotein,environmentaldamageoccursinalmostevery stage.ananimalisan inefficientproteinconverter roughly,1kgofmeat=5kgofgrain(corn, soybeans,ortapioca)(=6kgmanure) 32.Inordertogrowthisgrain,extensiveareasofarablelandare requiredelsewhereintheworld:onethirdoffarmlandintheworldisusedtoproduceanimalfeed. Thedisappearanceofnaturalareasandthecuttingdownofrainforeststocreatestillfurther agriculturalexpansion,continuesunabated. Whereasweknowthatthecurrentlyavailablearablelandcanproducesufficientplantfoodfortensof billionsofpeople,morethanonebillionpeoplesufferfrommalnutritioneveryday. 33 Thatnumberwill definitelynotdecreasewiththepredictedredoublingofmeatdemandintheworld,from228million tonstodayto463milliontonsin Inthatyear,itisexpectedthat9.5billionpeoplewillneedto befed.thiswillonlybepossibleifthearablelandisusedinasustainablefashion. TheseproblemsareinternationalandcannotbesolvedbytheNetherlandsalone.However,our responsibilityisveryhigh,giventherelativelydisproportionatesizeofourlivestockindustry.the Netherlandshasthehighestlivestockdensityintheworldandisthesecondbiggestexporterofanimal proteinsintheworld,aftertheusa.ourcows,pigs,andchickenlivemainlyonimportedfeed, especiallysoyfromsouthamerica. Theproductionofmeatnotonlyrequiresagriculturallandbutalsowater,whichisalreadyscarcein manypartsoftheworld,andwillbeinotherpartsinthefuture.allfoodproductionrequireswater, butdisproportionatelysoformeatproduction,thusleadingtoevengreaterfreshwaterscarcity.in 2017,70%oftheworldpopulationwillhaveproblemswithaccesstocleanfreshwater, 35 butwe continuewastinglargequantitiesofittoproduceanimalproteins 36 notonlyinthenetherlands,but especiallysoindevelopingcountrieswherethefodderisproduced phosphorus;wassen,m.j,oldeventerink,h.,lapshina,e.d.,& Tanneberger,F.(2005).Endangeredplantspersistunderphosphoruslimitation.Nature, 437, VanHuis,WUR,2008[PDF]http://edepot.wur.nl/ Kamervragenoverdevleesconsumptieinrelatietotdewereldvoedselcrisisendeuitstootvanbroeikasgassen [Parliamentaryquestionsonthemeatconsumptioninrelationtotheworldfoodcrisisandgreenhousegasemissions],May 29,2008.http://www.minlnv.nl/portal/page?_pageid=116, &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&p_file_id= FAOStateofFoodandAgriculture2009,LivestockintheBalance, Change 95: DOI /s blauwe%20goud%3f 36 PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 5

6 Livestockindustryalsocontributessignificantlytoclimatechange.Conservativecalculationsbythe FoodandAgricultureOrganization(FAO)oftheUNindicatethattheemissionofgreenhousegasesby livestockgloballyis40%higherthanofallcars,trucks,trains,shipsandaircraftscombined 37,while researchershavenowcalculatedthattheseemissionsmayevenbemuchhigherifallsideeffectsare takenintoaccountaswell. 38 Take,forexample,thetransportationofanimalfeedandofanimals themselves:ideally,theproductionoffeed,therearing,andtheslaughteringandprocessinglocation shouldallbeclosetogether,topreventanimalsufferingandgreenhousegasemissions.ifeverydutch personwouldrefrainfromeatingmeatonlyoneweekinayear,thiswouldalreadydecreasethese emissionsby3.5%. 39 Withjustonemeatlessdayaweek,allclimategoalsoftheDutchgovernmentfor itshouseholdsfor2012wouldberealized. 40 Public health Forthesakeoftheirhealth,Dutchconsumersshouldconsumeonethirdlessproteins,andreplaceone thirdoftheiranimalproteinintakebyvegetableprotein. 41 Nevertheless,bymeansofcampaigns sponsoredbytheeuropeantaxpayer,theconsumptionofchicken 42 andmilkproducts 43 ispromotedin ordertoabsorboverproductionbyincreasingconsumption,insteadofreducingproduction.this continuesinspiteofthemajorhealthdisadvantagesofanimalfatintake, 44 andthewarningbythe WorldHealthOrganisation(WHO)thatthedairypromotionstrategyoftheEUhasharmfuleffectson publichealth. 45 Consumptionofmeatanddairyproductscontributestotheintakeofsaturatedfat,whichincreases theriskofcardiovasculardiseases. 46 Furthermore,theconsumptionofredmeatandprocessedmeats isassociatedwithanincreasedriskofcoloncancer. 47 Consideringtheincreaseinobesityandtype2 diabetesmellitus,theconsumptionofmoreplant basedfoods witharelativelyhighdietaryfibre contentandlowenergydensity isdesirableaswell:onaverage,vegetariansweighlessthanmeat eaters,andpeoplewhoswitchtoaplant baseddiet,gainlessweightinsubsequentyearsthanmeat eaters. 48 Undercurrentpolicies,aimedatever higherproductionofanimalproteinsatlowercosts, thereappearstobenootheroptionthanpromotingproductsthatshouldreallybeconsumedlessfor thesakeofpublichealth Aikingetal(2006):SustainableProteinProductionandConsumption:PigsorPeas? driepinter komt terug.html 44 en kranten/nrc columns/312 hoe melkvet gezond wordt.html /en/index.html 46 MozaffarianD,MichaR,WallaceS,2010EffectsonCoronaryHeartDiseaseofIncreasingPolyunsaturatedFatinPlaceof SaturatedFat:ASystematicReviewandMeta AnalysisofRandomizedControlledTrials.PLoS Med7(3):e doi: /journal.pmed nl.org/onderzoek/rapportkankerpreventie/index.php 48 RosellM,ApplebyP,SpencerE,KeyT(2006).Weightgainover5yearsin21,966meat eating,fish eating,vegetarian,and veganmenandwomeninepic Oxford.Intern J Obesity (Lond). 30 (9): ; PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 6

7 Apartfromunhealthyfoodintake,thereareadditionalhealtheffectsassociatedwiththekeepingof animalsonthislargeandintensivescale. 49 Forexample,theemissionofvolatilecompoundsand particulatematterisharmfultopublichealth. 50 Recently,attentionhasincreasedforthedangersof intensiveuseofantibiotics,whichwereknownlongbefore.animalslivingunderunnaturalconditions, crowdedinlargenumbers,asinthecurrentlivestockindustry,losetheirresistanceandeasily contaminateeachother,sotheirconditioncanonlybecontrolledbylargequantitiesofantibiotics. Moreover,lowdosagesofantibioticsandchemotherapeuticsarecontinuouslymixedintothefeedto promotegrowth.pathogenicbacteriathatcanseriouslythreatenpublichealth,maybecomeresistant totheantibioticsthattheycomeintouchwithsoextensivelyinfactoryfarms.suspicionisgrowing thatthesebacteria,throughfoodandthroughcontactswithanimals(mostlybytheanimalfarmers themselves),caninfecthumans,whosubsequentlyinfecteachother. 51 Forthisreason,forexample pigfarmerswhoareadmittedtohospital,arequarantinedbecausetheyareoftencarriersofthese bacteria.itmaynotbelongbeforeallanimalfarmerswillbedeniedaccesstopublichospitalsbecause theycarrybacteriathatcanbelife threateningtoweakenedpatients. PathogenicagentssuchasQ fever,mrsa,esbl bacteriaandpathogensinlivestockproductsare alreadymakingmanyhumanvictims.80%ofdutchgoatfarmersandtheirfamilymembersare infectedwithq fever,andsois2.4%oftheentiredutchpopulationnow. 52 Thereductionofthegene poolresultingfromtheexclusivefocusonproductionandvolumeinthelivestockindustryincreases theriskofamassiveandfast spreadinginfection,aswellasmutationsofpathogensassociatedwith riskstohumans.theministerofagriculturehasannouncedthattheuseofantibioticswillhavetobe reducedto50%by2013.apartfromthequestionwhetherthisreductionissufficientandwhetheritis realizedintimetoavoidlarge scaleinfectionsofantibiotic resistantbacteriainhumans,itisalso unclearhowtheoutbreakofdiseasesinanimalscanbeavoidedifnothingchangesintheirliving conditions. Finally,wenotethatintheNetherlands,itisvirtuallyimpossibletobuyanychickenmeatthatisnot contaminatedwithsalmonellaorcampylobacterbacteria,inspiteoftheagreementbetweenthe MinistryofAgricultureandthechickenindustrytosolvethisproblem.Inanyotherfoodsector,the presenceofsuchcontaminatedproductsinstoreswouldprobablyleadtoconfiscationandfactory closures. Financial and economic considerations Inspiteofaccumulatingscientificevidencethatwecannotcontinuethewaywearegoing,thepolicy oftheministryofagricultureinthepastdecadehashadtheeffectofstillfurtherintensificationand expansion.theideabehindthispolicyisthatthelivestockindustrybenefitsoureconomy,export,and farmers incomes.consideringtheproblemsdiscussedinthisessay,whichareinherentinthis productionsystem,thequestioniswhethersuchfinancialconsiderationsarerelevantatall.justaswe haveacceptedourresponsibilityinabolishingslaveryandchildlabour,somustwedolikewiseinour handlingoffarmanimals.today,nobodywoulddaretoclaimthatthereissomethingtobesaidin favourofchildlabourorslaverybecauseoftheeconomicbenefits.whenanethicalboundaryis crossed,financialconsiderationsbecomeirrelevant Howard,C.J.etal(2010).Directmeasurementsoftheozoneformationpotentialfromlivestockandpoultrywaste emissions.environmental Science and Technology 44: :Howard,Ko,G.etal(inpress).Endotoxinlevelsatswine farmsusingdifferentwastetreatmentandmanagementtechnologies.environmental Science and Technology koorts.aspx PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 7

8 Ifonedoesinsistonconsideringthefinancialaspectsofthelivestockindustry,thisshouldbedone properly.factoryfarminggenerateslargecostsforsociety 53 intheformofenvironmentalproblems suchasacidification,eutrophication,emissionofparticulatematter,pollutionthroughexcessiveuse ofpesticidesand,lastbutnotleast,climatechange.dutchcitizenspayhundredsofeurosonsewage taxes,whereasthesocietalcostsofmanuresurplusesfromlivestockfarmingarenot,oronlyfora smallpart,incorporatedintothepriceofanimalproducts.instead,thecostsofpollutionarepartially sharedbyallcitizensthroughgeneraltaxes,andtoalargerextentpassedontofuturegenerations. Inrecentresearch 54,theenvironmentalimpactofporkproductionhasbeenquantifiedintothe categories:climatechange,animalwelfare,biodiversity,andanimaldiseases.thetotalsocietalcostof conventionalporkproductionwasestimatedat 2.32perkgatleast.Thetotalannualsocietalcostof allpigsslaughteredinthenetherlandsin2008amountstoatleast 1.5billion,oralmost 100, per Dutchcitizen. Inaddition,farmersintheNetherlandsreceiveanannualincomesubsidyofalmostonebillioneuros. Dairyfarmersandgrowers(whoproducefodder)receivemoneyfromtheEU.Thismoneyoftenends upinregionswhereeutrophicationanddesiccationaremostserious.inthisway,thegovernment subsidizespollutionoftheenvironment.dutchagriculturecanonlysurvivewiththehelpofmassive statesupport.ifthissupportisphasedout,andfixedpricesareabolishedasisnowbeingproposedfor milk,thentheproblemswehavedescribedwillbefarfromresolved:inthepresentsystem,farmers canonlysurvivebyintensifyingevenfurther. Aparadigmshift,directedbythegovernment,cannolongerbedeferred.Inourview,thesolutionto theproblemsarisingfromlowfoodpricescanonlybefoundinathoroughrestructuringoftheentire industry.thiswillleadtoincreasedpricesofanimalproducts,sothattraditionalfarming(land based, withtheproductionofforage,breedingandrearingofanimals,fatteningandslaughteringalltaking placeinthesameregion)canbecomeprofitableagainwithoutanygovernmentsubsidies.pricesof animalproductsaretoolow;anegginthestoretodaycostsasmuchas60yearsago.inthepresent livestockindustry,anacceptableincomecanonlybeearnedbymeansofbulkproduction.eachweek, 50farmersintheNetherlandsstopfarming,mostlybecausetheycannolongerkeepupwiththerace toever greaterproduction 55.TheCommonAgriculturalPolicy(CAP),asystemofEuropeanUnion agriculturalsubsidiesandprogrammes,takesupmorethan40%ofthetotaleubudget.formany yearsnow,ithasfocusedonintensifyingandenlarginglivestockfarms,oftenattheexpenseofanimal welfare 56,animalhealth,theenvironment,andpublichealth. TheNetherlandshasdevelopedintothebutcherandthemilkmanofEurope,byexporting75%ofits animalproteinatrock bottompricesinwhichthesocietalcostsarenotincorporated.dutch consumershaveonlylimitedimpactonthisstateofaffairs,becausetheirpurchasingbehaviouronly affectsasmallpartofthetotalproduction. Brinkhorst spolicynote AnimalWelfare (seefootnote4)from2002alreadystated: Givenour currentandfuturepositioninthemarket,itishighlylikelythatthefutureofdutchlivestockfarming willbeinmarketsegmentswithhighsurplusvalue.ademonstrablyhighlevelofanimalwelfarewillbe thefeaturewithwhichdutchlivestockfarmingcanacquireasustainablepositioninthedemanding marketsofnorth westerneuropeinparticular. However,Brinkhorstwassucceededbyministers 53 Seee.g,Sengers&Hoste,2004: 54 InstituteforEnvironmentalStudiesattheVrije[Free]University,commissionedbytheNicolaasG.PiersonFoundation,see 55 NL/menu/themas/landbouw/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2008/ wk.htm 56 TheEuropeanrequirement,containedinArticle13oftheTreatyontheFunctioningoftheEuropeanUnion(TFEU),to pay fullregardtothewelfarerequirementsofanimals since animalsaresentientbeings,isnotexactlypracticedhere. PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 8

9 PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 9 VeermanandVerburg,respectively,infourconsecutivegovernmentsunderBalkenende.Inthis period,thesegoodintentionswerenevercarriedout. Conclusion ThefutureprospectofmoreresponsibleanimalfarmingsketchedbytheWijffelscommissionin2001 withanexpirationdateof2010,hasnotbeenrealisedinanyway. 57 Warningsarestillbeingignored andthenecessarypolicychangeshavenotbeenmade. TheDutchlivestocksectorcanonlyhaveafutureifthesteadyincreaseinscaleandproductionforthe worldmarketisended,andproductionfordomesticusebecomesthecorebusiness.thesocietal rejectionofanimalcrueltywillhavetobetranslatedintoatransformedfarmingsectorthatoperates accordingtoethicalstandardsthatcharacterizeatrulycivilizedsociety.insuchasociety,itis inappropriatetocloseoureyestotheanimalsufferingthatisassociatedwiththeproductionofour food,ortofoolourchildrenwhentheyaskquestionsabouttheoriginsoftheirfood( Milkcomesin packetsfromthefactory ; Nodear,thosepigletsdon tmindbecausetheyhavebeenspeciallymade forthatpurpose ). Itistimeforustoreflectontheprinciplesofourlivestockindustry,sothatpoliticiansandcitizenscan arriveatchoicestochangethe systemoforganizedirresponsibility (Mansholt)andgetaclearview onthe limitsofsocialacceptabilityandtolerance (Wijffels).Ourthinkingshouldnotbedominatedby impediments,butinsteadbypossibilitiesofachievingrapidanddramaticimprovement.theeventual lossinafinancial economicsensewillbelimitedinthelongrun;theeconomyisdynamicandwill adjust asitdidaftertheabolitionofslaveryandofchildlabour,inspiteofstrongoppositionatthe time. Nothinglessthanaparadigmshiftisneeded:achangefromanintensive,large scalelivestockindustry dominatedbyeconomicsandtechnology,toafarmingsysteminwhichtheeconomyandtechnology areattheserviceofanimalwelfare,humanhealth,andsocietyatlarge.thisprovidestheprospectof realsustainability.thistypeoffarmingrespondstotheneedsofnatureandofalllivingbeings.with thisturnaround,thefarmingbusinesswillagainbesociallyacceptableandtolerable,andwenolonger havetofoolourselvesandeachother. Recommendations We,scientistsfromvariousdisciplines,workingatDutchuniversitiesasfullprofessors(oremeritus professors),believethatfactoryfarmingshouldbereorganizedandtransformedintoasystemthatis friendlytowardsanimals,humans,andtheenvironment,andthatmeetstheneedsofnatureandall livingbeings.throughthisappeal,weaimtostimulateapublicdebateandtoinspirefarmers, producers,consumers,voters,andpoliticianstomakechoicesintheinterestofanimals,nature,our landscapeandtheenvironment,thepeopleinthenetherlandsandinotherpartsoftheworld,aswell asfuturegenerations.toaccomplishthis,wearguethatfirstofall,theplansputforwardbywijffels andbrinkhorsttenyearsago,shouldberealized.itisunacceptablethattheserecommendationsand policyproposalshavestillnothadanynotableeffect(eventhoughthetargetdatewas2010,andfor somemeasureseven2005).therefore,wepleadforacriticalevaluationofwhathasbeendone specificallywiththerecommendationsofthewijffelscommission,andmoresowhathasnotbeen done Chavannes,M.2010:http://weblogs.nrc.nl/opklaringen/2010/01/02/ongezond vleesbeleid is deel van de grote crisis/

10 Inaddition,wehaveformulatedthefollowinggeneralprinciplesthat,inouropinion,shouldguidethe transformationofthelivestocksector: 1)The government and not the market should direct change. Theagriculturalpolicyinthepastdecade hasdemonstratedredundantlythatthenecessarychangesarenotrealizedwhentheylefttothe marketortheconsumers.inreformingthelivestockindustry,thegovernmentexplicitlyhastotakeon adirectingrole.throughlegislation,thegovernmentshouldenforcethatmeatanddairyproduction becomesustainable.moreover,independentgovernanceisnecessary 58,bothwithregardstoanimal welfareandenvironmentalimpact,andtozoonoses(diseasestransmittedfromhumanstoanimals andviceversa)andfoodsafety.thetimeforrhetoricsandconsultationswithoutcommitmentisover, giventhelargeandurgentglobalchallengeswearefacingandtheimportantrolethatthe consumptionofanimalproteinplaysintheseissues. 2)The consumption of animal proteins should be reduced by at least 33% by 2020.Thisshouldbean objectiveofgovernmentpolicy.inpart,thegovernmentcanachievethisobjective,whichrequiresa changeinconsumerbehaviour,byinformingconsumersabouttheconsequencesoftheproduction andconsumptionofmeatanddairyproductsonhealth,environment,climate,thirdworldcountries andanimalwelfare,andaboutthebenefitsofplant basedproducts.thegovernmentmustendany formofsponsorshipofmeatanddairyproducts(suchasthechickenmeat campaignsponsoredbythe EuropeanUnion)orpromotionofthelivestocksector(suchasthepubliclyfundedglossymagazine Gerda,whichwasreleasedbytheMinistryofAgriculturetoenhancetheimageoftheDutchfarming industry).thegovernmentshouldpromotetransparencyabouttheoriginsofproducts,e.g.,by regulatingfoodlabellingandcontainingtheproliferationof approvedbrands.ifthegovernmentalso setsagoodexamplebyprovidingadviceandindependentinformationonanimalwelfare, environmental,ecologicalfootprintandhealth,thiswillgenerateachangeinsocialawarenessamong consumers.asaresult,commercialcompanieswillalsotailortheiradvertisementstothis(justasthey didwith energysaving campaigns),insteadofadvertisingproductsthatcauseanimalsufferingand societaldamage,astheydonow. 3)All societal costs of meat and dairy production should be incorporated into the price.areductionin theconsumptionofanimalproteinmayfurtherbeachievedbyincorporatingtherealcostsofmeat anddairyproductionentirelyintothepriceoftheproduct(i.e.,thecostsofoverproduction,overconsumption,environmentaldamage,safeguardinganimalhealthandpublichealth),accordingtothe principle thepolluterpays.thestartingpointisafairpricethatreflectsallexpenses 59 (withpossibly evenanadditionaltax:inthecaseofpetrol,wefinditquitenormalthatahighertaxrateisappliedto discourageuse).thiswillalsoleadtolowerconsumption,sothatsupplyanddemandarebalanced. Keytermsfortheconsumptionofmeatanddairyproductsshouldbe:lessandbetter.Farmerswho achieveimprovementsinqualityandsustainabilityoftheirproduction,andinanimalwelfare,will generateahigherincomebecausethesocietalcostsoftheirproductsarelower.asaresult,the implementationofsuchimprovementsbecomesmoreattractivethanmereproductionincrease. 4)The Netherlands should take the lead in Europe.Whereverpossible,measuresshouldbetakenina Europeancontext,butgiventhesizeofitslivestockindustry,theNetherlandsshouldtakethelead. TheDutchgovernmentmusttaketheinitiativeininternationalforumstostimulatesustainable productionofmeatanddairyproducts,toprohibitanimal unfriendlyandenvironmentallydamaging production,andtoconvinceothercountriesthatthispathisinthepublicinterest. 58 Peters,P.(2009).IshetStaatstoezichtnogwelonafhankelijk?[IstheStateInspectoratestillindependent?]Journaal Warenwet 8, Thismakesthecostoflivingmoreexpensive,whichisespeciallydetrimentalforthepoorerconsumer.Butif wealldoittogether,thedifferencemayonlybesmallbecausethecostsareapportionedovermanypersons.quite separately,ageneralpriceincreaseoffoodstuffsmaybecounteredbylowertaxesandbyfinancialbenefitsonthefoodsand produce,producedinasustainablemannerbyland boundfarmers. PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 10

11 5)Animal welfare should receive a central position in the livestock sector.thegovernmentmust guaranteeanimalwelfarebyprohibitingwelfare unfriendlypractices.aclearguaranteeforthe welfareofanimalsshouldbelaiddowninthedutchconstitution(seealsotherecommendationsfrom thedutchraadvoordieraangelegenheden [CouncilforAnimalConcerns] 60 ),forinstance,the guidelinesbythebrambellcommission(1965) 61.Suchguidelinesshouldformthebasisofpolicyand legalframeworkintherealmofanimalwelfare.notethatthismeans,amongotherthings,that animalsarenolongerkeptinsideallyear,thathealthyanimalsarenot clearedaway incaseof threateningdiseasecrises,thatchicksarenolongershreddedalive,calvesarenottakenawayfrom theirmothersimmediatelyafterbirth,teetharenotfiled,cowsarenolongerearmarked,freezebrandedordehorned,un stunnedritualslaughteringisbanned,long distancetransportationends,the breedingofcowsthatcannotdelivercalvesthroughnaturalmeansisterminated,andtheuseof hormonesisprohibited. 6)The use of antibiotics and hormones in livestock farming must be banned.itshouldonlybeallowed afterspecific,clearlydefinedveterinaryindicationsforindividualanimalsthatareill.thecontrolon usageshouldnotbelefttothesectoritself,buttotheministryofpublichealth. 7)Land bound agriculture and closed cycles in the production of animal proteins should be the starting point.thegovernmentcanencouragethisbyactivelypromotingtheregionalproductionofprotein cropssuchaslupinsandpeas,andtheregionalutilisationofmanure.therearing,fattening,and slaughteringoffarmanimals,aswellastheproductionofrawmaterialsforfoddershouldpreferably occurwithinthesameregion,sothatthehighenvironmentalandclimatecostscausedbytransporting fodderandliveanimalsnolongerapply. 8)The establishment and expansion of large scale factory farms should be restricted. Lawsand regulationsshouldbeintroducedtocounterfurtherharmtothecountryside.alimitshouldbesetto thenumberofanimalsthatcanbekeptperhectare,perregion,oracrossthecountry. 9)Farmers should get a chance to adapt.intheenforcedrestructuringwepropose,itisclearthatthe sectorwillfacedifficultiesinthetransitionphase.supportingmeasuresareneededinthisperiod, duringwhichthegovernmentshouldhelpfarmerswhogetintofinancialtrouble,byfacilitatingtheir switchtomoresustainableproductionmethodsortoanotherlineofbusiness.weconsiderpoliticians anddecisionmakers(inthenetherlandsandtheeu)asprimarilyresponsibleformanyofthecurrent problems.investmentsinatotalreorganisationshould,thus,comefromthatdirection.giventhehigh societalcostsofthecurrentmodeofoperation,thisinvestmentwillbepaidbackinduecourse.asan aside,thegenerallyheldprinciplethatcompaniesoperateonlyundera licensetoproduce whichis grantedordeniedbythecommunity,alsoappliestotheagriculturalsector,asitdoestoanyother business.obviously,therewillbenocompensationforbeingunabletocontinuepracticesthathave alreadybeenundesirableorillegalformanyyears. 10)The development of nutritious and tasty plant based foods should be promoted. Thegovernment shouldinvestmoreinresearchintotheefficientproductionofplant basedproductsthatcanreplace animalproducts,andinvestinprovidinginformationaboutproductsthathelpconsumersswitchto morevegetariandiets.anattractivealternativenaturallyleadstoalowermeatanddairy consumption,andhence,willhelpresolvealloftheproblemswehavenoted,whilealsobenefiting consumers health. April27, PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 11

12 Aarts,Prof.dr.Noelle Wageningen,UvA Communicationscience Aerts,Prof.dr.Rien VU Systemecology Ankersmit,em.Prof.dr.Frank Groningen,KNAW Intellectualandtheoreticalhistory Arntz,Prof.dr.Arnoud Maastricht Clinicalpsychologyandpsychopathology Baalen,Prof.dr.Carlavan Radboud ParliamentaryhistoryoftheNetherlands Baars,Prof.dr.Jan Tilburg Gerontology Barendregt,Prof.dr.Henk Radboud Mathematicsandinformatics Bakker,Prof.dr.Paul Radboud Philosophy Beckers,em.Prof.dr.Theo Tilburg Sustainabledevelopment Berendse,Prof.dr.Frank Wageningen Environmentalmanagementandplantecology Boer,em.Prof.dr.Frits UvA Childandadolescentpsychiatry Boersema,Prof.dr.Jan VU Environmentalscience Bögels,Susan UvA Developmentalpsychopathology Bongers,Prof.dr.Frans Wageningen Tropicalforestecology Boom,Prof.dr.ir.Remko Wageningen Foodstufftechnology Bos,Prof.dr.Renéten Radboud Philosophyandorganisationaltheory BrandtCorstius,em.Prof.dr.Hugo Mathematics,linguistics Bressers,Prof.dr.Hans Twente Environmentalmanagement Brug,Prof.dr.Johannes VU Epidemiology Bruggen,Prof.dr.ir.Arienavan Wageningen Biologicalfarmingsystems Chavannes,Prof.mr.Marc Groningen Journalism Cliteur,Prof.dr.Paul Leiden Encyclopaediaofjurisprudence Dam,Prof.dr.ir.Nicolevan Radboud Ecogenomics Dietz,Prof.dr.Ton UvA,Leiden Socialgeography Donk,Prof.dr.Ellenvan Utrecht,KNAW Aquaticecology Dorelijers,Prof.dr.Theo VU,Leiden Forensic,childandadolescentpsychiatry Driessen,Prof.dr.Peter Utrecht Environmentalmanagement Dijk,Prof.dr.Ericvan Leiden Economic,socialpsychology Dyck,em.Prof.dr.R.van Psychiatry Egmond,Prof.ir.Klaasvan Utrecht Foodtechnology/Environment Eijndhoven,Prof.dr.Joseevan Erasmus Sustainabilitymanagement Frankenhuis,em.Prof.dr.Maarten Poultrymedicalscience Gerlagh,Prof.dr.Reyer Tilburg Environmentaleconomics Grootjans,Prof.dr.Ab Groningen,Radboud Eco hydrology Haan,Prof.dr.Elsede UvA Childandadolescentpsychiatry Haring,Prof.dr.Michel UvA Plantbiotechnology Heertje,em.Prof.dr.Arnold Economics Hoek,em.Prof.dr.Leo VU Frenchliterature Horn,oud Prof.dr.Sineketen Caremanagement Horst,Prof.dr.Henriettevander VU GeneralPracticemedicine Huibers,Prof.dr.Marcus Maastricht Clinicalpsychology Jacobs,Prof.dr.Bart Radboud Computerprotection Jetten,Prof.dr.ir.Mike Radboud Ecologicalmicrobiology Jongh,Prof.dr.Adde UvA,VU Dentistry Jochemsen,Prof.dr.Henk Wageningen Christianphilosophy Kindt,Prof.dr.Merel UvA Experimentalclinicalpsychology Koedijk,Prof.dr.Kees Tilburg Financialmanagement Kok,Prof.dr.Gerjo Maastricht Appliedpsychology Komdeur,Prof.dr.Jan Groningen Evolutionaryecology Kooreman,Prof.dr.Peter Tilburg Healtheconomics Korthals,Prof.dr.Michiel Wageningen Appliedphilosophy Krol,Prof.dr.Maarten Wageningen Airqualityandatmosphericchemistry Lankveld,Prof.dr.Jacquesvan Maastricht Sexology Lecq,Prof.dr.Fiekevander Erasmus Economics Leeuwis,Prof.dr.ir.Cees Wageningen Communicationscience Leroy,Prof.dr.Pieter Radboud Environmentandmanagement Lettinga,Prof.dr.Gatze Wageningen Environmentaltechnology Maassen,em.Prof.dr.Ton Leiden,VU Moleculardiabetology PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 12

13 Martens,Prof.dr.Pim Maastricht Sustainabledevelopment Moll,Prof.dr.Henk Groningen Sustainableproductionandconsumption Mols,Prof.dr.Gerard Maastricht Criminallawandprocedure Musschenga,Prof.dr.Bert VU Philosophicalethics Olff,Prof.dr.Han Groningen Ecology Oosterlaan,Prof.dr.Jaap VU Paediatricneuropsychology Pessers,Prof.dr.Dorien VU,UvA Theoryoflaw Peters,Prof.dr.Madelon Maastricht Healthpsychology Peters,em.Prof.dr.Paul Teratologyanddevelopmentaltoxicology Pieters,Prof.dr.Rik Tilburg Marketing Piersma,Prof.dr.Theunis Groningen,NIOZ Animalecology Ploeg,Prof.dr.ir.JanDouwev/d Wageningen Ruralsociology Prast,Prof.dr.Henriëtte Tilburg,WRR Economics Prins,Prof.dr.Herbert Wageningen Ecology Prins,Prof.dr.Pier UvA Childandadolescentpsychology Reijnders,Prof.dr.Lucas OU,UvA Naturalenvironmentalscience Roelofs,Prof.dr.Jan Radboud Aquaticecology/environmentalbiology Rotmans,Prof.dr.ir.Jan Erasmus TransitionstoSustainability Ruiter,Prof.dr.Peterde Wageningen Environmentalsciences Schrijver,Prof.dr.Peter Utrecht Celticlanguagesandculture Schuengel,Prof.dr.Carlo VU Ortho pedagogy Schuurman,oud Prof.dr.ir.Egbert Christianphilosophy Seidell,Prof.dr.ir.Jaap VU Nutritionandhealth Sent,Prof.dr.Esther Mirjam Radboud Economics Seters,Prof.dr.Paulvan Tilburg Globalisationandsustainabledevelopment Smalhout,em.Prof.dr.Bob Anesthesiology Smaling,Prof.dr.Eric Twente Soilgeography/Sustainableagriculture Smits,Prof.dr.René UvA Lawofeconomicandmonetaryunion Smits,Prof.dr.Toine Radboud Watermanagement Spek,Prof.dr.Bertvander VU Oldhistory Stapel,Prof.dr.Diederik Tilburg Consumerscience Stegeman,Prof.dr.ir.Dick Radboud Neurophysiology,clinicalphysics Straalen,Prof.dr.Nicovan VU Animalecology Struik,Prof.dr.ir.Paul Wageningen Cropphysiology Verhaar,em.Prof.dr.Boudewijn Eindhoven Theoreticalphysics Vet,Prof.dr.Louise Wageningen,KNAW Evolutionaryecology Vet,Prof.dr.ir.Riekiede VU Clinimetrics Vonk,Prof.dr.Roos Radboud Socialpsychology Vries,Prof.dr.Nannede Maastricht Healthpromotion Wassen,Prof.dr.Martin Utrecht Environmentalsciences Wigboldus,Prof.dr.Daniel Radboud Socialpsychology Wit,Prof.dr.Theode Tilburg Systematictheologyandphilosophy Witte,Prof.dr.Flip VU Hydrologyandecology Wijnen,Prof.dr.Frank Utrecht Psycholinguistics Zeelenberg,Prof.dr.Marcel Tilburg Economicpsychology Zeeuw,Prof.dr.Aartde Tilburg Environmentaleconomics PleaforSustainableLivestockFarming 13

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