Almere, October 2011 Proceedings

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1 crrescendo conferrence Step by step towards a carbon neutral built environment Almere, October 2011 Proceedings

2 Getting there Visiting address Municipality Almere Stadhuisplein HR Almere Stad For more information on the municipality Almere: Directions from Amsterdam Airport (socalled: Schiphol) and train The easiest way to get in Almere is to fly to Amsterdam Airport (also called Schiphol; airport code AMS). When you arrive, go to the station below the airport. Don t take the train to Amsterdam, but take one of the four hourly direct connections to Almere Centrum (Almere has 5 train stations!). You will be in less than 40 minutes in Almere. You can buy a one-way (unless you go back same day) ticket in machines in the baggage claim area of the airport or in the train station hall. You can see when and where your train is leaving by entering Schiphol (from) and Almere Centrum (to) in the Journey Planner: Directions from Almere Centrum train station Train station Almere Centrum: take the Stationsplein exit and walk straight ahead through the Stationsstraat until you get to the Stadhuisplein. The main entrance of city hall is on your left. The executive wing, the Burgerzaal and the city hall wedding venue can be accessed through the back entrance (Landdroststraat). Directions by car Get to the A6. Take exit 5: Almere Stad / S103, follow the Veluwedreef. After 2 km, turn left at the crossing, follow the signs to Centrum (Cinemadreef); turn left at the third traffic light (Landdroststraat, just after the red building), turn right after 50 meters (parking lot city hall). Hotels Van der Valk Hotel Address: Veluwezoom 45, 1327 AK Almere, Apollo Hotel Almere City Center Address: Koetsierbaan 2, 1315 SE Almere, Organization Chairman: Emil ter Horst, Gemeente Almere, coordinator crrescendo Vice-chairman: Caspar Noach, Ecofys, Utrecht NL With contributions from Ecofys, HCA (Milton Keynes), Municipaility Ajaccio, Municipality Viladecans and NMFF. Organization Linda Prins and Emil ter Horst, gemeente Almere NL Vera Haaksma and Caspar Noach, Ecofys, Utrecht NL Henriette Elfrink and Elmer van Krimpen, F&B bv, Hilversum NL Hub Smulders (website), Smulders & Slagboom, Utrecht, NL 1

3 Contents Page Program crrescendo conferrence 3 Summaries crrescendo conferrence 4 Towards energy-neutral housing 7 Op weg naar energieneutrale woningen (Dutch translation) 12 Presentations crrescendo conferrence Thursday 13th October Official welcome 18 Annemarie Jorritsma, Mayor of the Municipality of Almere NL Emil ter Horst, coordinator crrescendo, Municipality of Almere NL Almere 2.0 and the Almere Principles 22 Vera Dam, coordinator sustainability, Almere NL How to Boil an Egg 27 Ad van Wijk, sustainable energy entrepreneur, professor future energy systems, Delft NL Diversity of solutions for different regions of Europe 32 Valerie Bahr (Concerto-Premium), Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum, Stuttgart DE Serial Passive Housing and future innovation towards energy neutral area 38 development - Pieter Hameetman, director of AM Duurzaam, Nieuwegein NL Use of old mines for sustainable energy supply of former mining areas 41 Jean Weyers, project manager Remining-Lowex (Concerto-II), Heerlen NL Columbuskwartier and the pioneering Almere mentality 45 Alex van Oost, program manager sustainable development, Urgenda, Amsterdam NL Masterplan towards climate neutral Almere in Flevoland 48 Jan Schouw, project manager DE-on, Province Flevoland, Lelystad NL Sustainable refurbishment in Ajaccio 51 Adeline Doridant, Office de l Habitat, Ajaccio FR WWF s groundbreaking Energy Report - 100% renewable energy globally is possible! 57 Kees van der Leun, COO/managing director Ecofys, Utrecht NL Sustainable Energy Action Plan Viladecans 62 Carmen Perez Figueras, Viladecans ES 4 crrescendo cities: cases of change in practice 65 Gavin Killip, Un. Oxford UK HCA: Delivering Low Carbon Cities - 67 Emyr Poole, HCA, London UK The power of building concepts 71 Antonin van de Bree, Ecofys, Utrecht NL Annex 1 Excursion in pictures (including dinner at World Heritage Site Schokland) 75 Annex 2 Flyer crrescendo conferrence 78 Annex 3 Participants crrescendo conferrence 83 2

4 Program crrescendo conferrence Thursday 13 th October :00 Coffee/tea (and registration from 08:30) 09:15 Official welcome - Annemarie Jorritsma, Mayor of the Municipality of Almere NL 09:25 Almere 2.0 and the Almere Principles - Vera Dam, coordinator sustainability, Almere NL 09:45 Key note speech How to Boil an Egg Ad van Wijk, sustainable energy entrepreneur, professor future energy systems, Un.Delft NL Principle 1: Cherish diversity Diversity as a defining important characteristic for sustainable cities and regions in Europe 10:15 Diversity of solutions for different regions of Europe Valerie Bahr (Concerto-Premium), Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum, Stuttgart DE Serial Passive Housing and future innovation towards energy neutral area development - Pieter Hameetman, director of AM Duurzaam, Nieuwegein NL 11:00 Coffee/tea Principle 2: Connect Place and Context Strengthened and enhanced identity for sustainable building in old and new Europe 11:20 Use of old mines for sustainable energy supply of former mining areas Jean Weyers, project manager Remining-Lowex (Concerto-II), Heerlen NL Columbuskwartier and the pioneering Almere mentality Alex van Oost, program manager sustainable area development, Urgenda, Amsterdam NL Principle 3: Combine City and Nature Unique and lasting combinations in green cities and urban nature 12:05 Masterplan towards climate neutral Almere in Flevoland Jan Schouw, project manager DE-on, Province Flevoland, Lelystad NL Sustainable refurbishment in Ajaccio - Adeline Doridant, Office de l Habitat, Ajaccio FR 12:50 Lunch in BURGERZAAL 14:00 Key note speech WWF s groundbreaking Energy Report - 100% renewable energy globally is possible! Kees van der Leun, COO/managing director Ecofys, Utrecht NL Principle 4: Anticipate Change Flexibility and adaptability to facilitate opportunities for future generations 14:30 Sustainable Energy Action Plan Viladecans - Carmen Perez Figueras, Viladecans ES 4 crrescendo cities: cases of change in practice - Gavin Killip, Un. Oxford UK Principle 5: Continue Innovation Better processes, infrastructures and exchange of knowledge for sustainable innovations 15:15 HCA: Delivering Low Carbon Cities - Emyr Poole, HCA, London UK The power of building concepts - Antonin van de Bree, Ecofys, Utrecht NL Principle 6: Design Healthy Systems (Site Visits Almere) 16:00 Gathering at the east entrance of the Town Hall (Drinks on the bus!) 16:10 Site visits for Peer Review Almere Site Visits crrescendo districts: - Almere Sun Island - Noorderplassen-west - Columbuskwartier: Passive and Solar housing, E0-house and ISA Principle 7: Empower people to make the City (Discussion Table) Coffee/tea for parallel session Co-makership on sustainability chaired by Vera Dam, Almere. Introduction on sustainable attitude & behaviour by stakeholders and communities from: - Gavin Killip, Un.Oxford - Robert Atkins, NMFF 18:00 End of crrescendo conferrence & optional drive to UNESCO World Heritage Schokland 19:00 crrescendo conferrence Dinner on Schokland (till 22:00) 3

5 Sessions crrescendo conferrence Thursday 13 th October :25 Almere 2.0 and the Almere Principles - Vera Dam, Municipality Almere NL Newtown Almere has attracted in just a few decades over residents and businesses. Now, the central government has asked Almere to further expand. This will entail building new houses and creating new jobs and related facilities. The joint desire is to turn Almere into an icon of sustainability following the so-called Almere Principles. The intended growth of Almere will take place in an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable fashion (Almere 2.0). Vera Dam will guide you through Almere s sustainability agenda. 09:45 How to Boil an Egg - Ad van Wijk, University Delft NL There is no energy crisis, we only have to think in another way about energy and the energy services we want. At the moment we waste 98% of all our energy. The sun gives as in one hour more energy than we consume in the world in one year. And this renewable energy is everywhere around us. So what is the problem? At present we have an energy system that is very much supply driven. However, nobody wants energy. No we want energy services, like a comfortable house, bringing our kids to school, watching television, clean clothes and a delicious soft boiled egg for breakfast. It is not difficult, we can change rapidly, I show you the examples, but we need another way of looking and thinking. 10:15 Diversity of solutions for different regions of Europe - Valerie Bahr, Steinbeis-Europa- Zentrum, Stuttgart DE The CONCERTO initiative, launched by the European Commission in 2003, is a Europe wide initiative proactively addressing the challenges of creating a more sustainable future for Europe s energy needs. Today, there are a total of 58 communities in 22 projects, each working to deliver the highest possible level of self-supply of energy. Over the past 5 years the first 9 projects covering 28 project sites have been evaluated. The summaries show a broad diversity of technical, social and political interventions and impacts for all CONCERTO communities within the projects. When the CONCERTO initiative was prepared in 2003, the vision behind CONCERTO was based on a more harmonised ideal of paving the way towards an energy-neutral Europe. The practise of CONCERTO has on the contrary given us an extremely important large cookbook with a palette of colourful recipes and solutions for every corner of the EU. 10:35 Serial Passive Housing and future innovation towards energy neutral area development - Pieter Hameetman, AM Duurzaam, Nieuwegein NL The developer AM, BAM Housing and Urban Housing Foundation Goede Stede have realized the project 103 passive houses Almere. The focus was on optimizing the technology. After the construction the concept is economically optimized. An integrated approach of total housing costs was the guiding principle. AM and BAM are working in a partnership of 14 companies with the further development of this knowledge into an optimized concept for energy neutral area development. The question asked is, to what extent is it economically justified to make the homes energy neutral. The remaining demand for renewable energy must be resolved at area level. The knowledge will be captured in a 3rd edition of the Toolkit for Sustainable Housing and a Sustainable Area Development Toolkit. The first area toolkit made this year is the Toolkit Sustainability Shopping Malls. The knowledge of this toolkit will be used in the city center of Almere Poort. 4

6 11:20 Use of old mines for sustainable energy supply of former mining areas - Jean Weyers, Remining-Lowex, Heerlen NL Remining-Lowex is a FP6 CONCERTO project concerning the redevelopment of European mining areas into sustainable communities. The participating communities are Heerlen, the Netherlands and Zagorje ob Savi, Slovenia. They will realize 2 sustainable mining communities (Heerlen and Zagorje) with 50 to 100% CO 2 reduction and 60% increase in energy supply from RES compared with standard national practices. Heerlen will demonstrate the use of locally available low valued renewable energy sources, specifically water from abandoned mines for the heating and cooling of buildings. The system is based on low energy principles, and is facilitated by an integrated design of buildings and energy concepts. The demonstration contains 440 new houses, 57,000 m 2 of non-residential new buildings, 84,500 m 2 of non-residential existing buildings, and 3 existing prepared buildings in nearby former mining communities in Heerlen to connect with the mine water grid. 11:40 Columbuskwartier & the pioneering Almere mentality - Alex van Oost, Urgenda, Amsterdam NL Almere is a young municipality. Its first house was completed only in It is sited on the reclaimed territory of Flevoland. Columbuskwartier is the second district within the Almere crrescendo project. In line with the pioneering mentality of the city, names of explorers have been given to the streets. Also the urban plan is the first in its kind. Here the sun s energy plays a main role. Most houses will be fitted with photovoltaic solar panels, the so-called Solar homes. Other dwellings will also be extremely energy efficient. Besides the focus on solar energy, Columbuskwartier is child-friendly (car free) and unique in its abundant nature and water. Columbuskwartier is the first example of integral sustainable urban design and building following the Almere principles. 12:05 Masterplan towards climate neutral Almere in Flevoland - Jan Schouw, Province Flevoland, Lelystad NL Almere s ambition is to have a climate-neutral energy supply in 2025, 100% based on renewable sources. Therefore together with the province of Flevoland Almere is developing the Masterplan Energy Supply Almere 2.0. The provincial government is leading with regard to the energy-transition in Flevoland. Together with municipalities the province is studying the feasibility of a Sustainable Energy development company (DE-on) as a motor for Energy Transition. A business plan for DE-on will be shown, which is the foundation of the Masterplan Energy Supply. Interesting is that to fulfill the energy demand (about 9 PJ/yr) sustainably about 45% sustainable energy can produced locally in the Almere urban areas, while for the other half (55%) Almere is dependent on the surrounding province. 12:25 Sustainable refurbishment in Ajaccio - Adeline Doridant, Office de l Habitat, Ville d Ajaccio FR The process of refurbishment of apartment buildings by social owners willing to take sustainable measures, will be explained. Especially the combination of refurbishment and energy saving measures leads to problems, as social owners are not allowed to ask for a higher rent based on these energy measures. This implicates in general that there is no payback time for energy measures specifically in the social renting sector, a well known problem. The presentation will focus on the solutions found in the crrescendo project in Ajaccio. 5

7 14:00 WWF s groundbreaking Energy Report - Kees van der Leun, Ecofys, Utrecht NL A 100% renewable energy future is imperative and urgent! A 100% global renewable energy by 2050 is possible! By 2050, we could get all the energy we need from renewable sources. This would solve most of the problems of climate change and dwindling fossil fuel resources. The Ecofys scenario at the heart of The Energy Report demonstrates a pathway to a fully renewable global eneryg system, with in-depth analysis into key sectors industry, buildings, and transport. It helps to identify challenges and choices we would need to make, and gives a perspective for businesses to develop towards a sustainable economy. 14:30 Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) of Viladecans - Carmen Perez Figueras, Viladecans ES 2005 has been a very important year for Viladecans (as for other European cities), key with regard to local energy use. The crrescendo project was honoured within the Concerto program and started in that year, while 2005 is also the reference year for actions enfacing 2020 included in our SEAP. Even the actual financial difficulties, cannot reduce our planned objectives. Moreover, they must contribute to increase the efforts to boost particularly energy saving. Viladecans would like to transmit this optimistic vision in a very easy way, by sharing our experience and our future commitments. 14:50 4 crrescendo cities: cases of change in practice - Gavin Killip, University Oxford UK What have been done in the 4 cities and in what ways has crrescendo fostered innovation, with regard to scale, social and technical change and professional practices? Gavin will highlight interesting narratives that arise from the crrescendo project. This will illustrate how crrescendo has not only brought about changes to buildings on the ground, but also raise important other issues, for example to do with education, architectural conservation, technical inflexibility of design (so-called technological lock in ). These narratives also exemplify many of the complexities that we, as socio-technical researchers, are familiar with from other studies elsewhere. 15:15 HCA: Delivering Low Carbon Cities - Emyr Poole, HCA, London UK HCA is the housing and regeneration agency for England. The crrescendo project has helped deliver a neighbourhood combined heat and power system, building fabric performance improvements in new build and now beginning construction of one of the largest solar PV arrays in the uk. It has also had an impact on other recent HCA programmes influencing a wider district heating package, and other building related initiatives. The latter stages of the project have been challenging due to external factors such as market conditions, and the wider financial situation affecting build out. However one of the most positive findings has been that many elements of this exemplar project are now more mainstream in other standard development. 15:35 The power of building concepts - Antonin van de Bree, Ecofys, Utrecht NL Many building-concepts for dwellings exist and are promoted. The Solarhouse-concept (Zonnewoning) is one of them. What makes a building-concept successful, as well for consumers as for professionals? To deliver what has been promised is key to this. So: Did the Solarhouses in the area Columbuskwartier lived up to its expectations based on monitored results or not? 6

8 Report of the crrescendo conferrence Almere, October 13th, 2011 By Norbert Cuiper Lessons from the European crrescendo project Towards energy-neutral housing Almere is on its way to be one of the first energy-neutral cities of the Netherlands. The young city is expanding significantly by building sustainable homes. This was highlighted in the final conference of crrescendo, the European project for energy conservation and sustainable energy in new construction and renovation districts. Also partner cities Ajaccio, Milton Keynes and Viladecans are making progress. What lessons can be drawn from the experiences in these four European cities? crrescendo coordinator Emil ter Horst opened the conference on behalf of Mayor Annemarie Jorritsma of Almere with a letter in which Jorritsma expresses the importance of sustainable construction. The mayor has built her own "dream house" in Almere, a spacious and comfortable home with low energy use. She wants to set an example for all inhabitants of Almere. Yet there were some teething problems to be solved, as she admits in her letter. The Mayor underlines the importance of learning in pilot experiments, one of the characteristic features of the European project crrescendo. This project focuses on the widespread use of sustainable energy and energy efficiency in new construction and renovation districts. The project is co-funded by the European Union through the Concerto program. Besides the project in Almere, crrescendo also realizes energy efficient and sustainable neighbourhoods in Milton Keynes (UK), in the Spanish Viladecans and in Ajaccio on the French island of Corsica. Progress In the last decade Almere has shown significant progress in the development of energy efficient and sustainable neighbourhoods, says Ter Horst. Over two thousand energyefficient homes have been built in new residential areas Noorderplassen West and the Columbus district. Four hundred of these houses were commissioned according to the certificate label Solar House : homes that meet several ambitious requirements in terms of sustainable energy, sustainable materials and comfort. Over one hundred homes are of the so-called Passive House type. With special insulation and glazing extremely low energy consumption is ensured. Apart from renewable district heating the houses in the Columbus district are also using green electricity including electricity generated from their own solar panels. A special part in the Noorderplassen West district is the Solar Island, a field with solar collectors that produces sustainable heat for the city heat network. Interestingly, the neighbourhoods are designed in such way that each home is built slightly different than the other. This diversity is especially visible in the Columbus district, says Vera Dam coordinator of DuurzaamAlmere.nl (the sustainability center of Almere). She recommends the book The Almere Principles that describes the seven guiding principles for the municipality to become a sustainable city. Energy conservation requires a completely different way of thinking. So says Ad van Wijk, professor at the Delft University of Technology and former director of the sustainable energy 7

9 company Econcern. In his presentation "How to boil an egg" he shows us that most of the energy for boiling eggs for example is wasted with throwing away the hot water. "There is no energy crisis. Solar energy is abundant; we only need to use it much more efficiently", says Van Wijk. Another example is the doorbell, which is continuously fed with electricity from the grid while the doorbell is used less than one hour per year. The energy can be produced by a very small solar cell. Also, driving is actually very inefficient, transporting a person of 80 kg in a thousand kg heavy car. And heating a house can be done without gas, simply with summer heat stored in the ground. Thus, Van Wijk continues for a while. His theory is nice, but the practice is stubborn. Let's think differently! Van Wijk lately sees a revolution occurring in greenhouses and in lighting with LEDs. He also expects an ongoing electrification, given the advent of electric cars and electric scooters, with an important role for smart grids, argues Van Wijk. Opportunities enough There are many opportunities to save energy, explains Van Wijk. A remarkable idea shown by the Delft professor, is the replacement of alternating current (AC) by direct current (DC). When designing a power grid AC has traditionally been opted, because that is suitable for transport over longer distances. The disadvantage of this technique is that for many modern power generators (such as solar cells), the generated (DC) power must first be converted into alternating current, while for the use of electricity by many modern devices this AC power again is to be transformed into direct current. In these conversions, part of the electricity is lost. If we choose for a DC grid energy savings of 10 to 42 percent are possible, says Van Wijk enthusiastically. But are you not oversimplifying? Substantial innovations are not just about technology?, asks Gavin Killip from Oxford University. Indeed, but it starts with thinking differently!, replies Van Wijk. Achieving energy efficient homes is not a matter of a single standard, says Valerie Bahr of the German Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum. She is playfully announced by Ter Horst as 'spy' of the EU but, fully justified, she denies any such role. Bahr evaluates the European Concerto program especially for the last 13 of the 22 Concerto projects (Concerto-premium). In total 23 countries are involved in the Concerto program. These 13 projects are still ongoing, so the results are not yet available, says Bahr. She also presents some of the results of 9 earlier projects launched in These projects have been evaluated by the Austrian Institute of Technology (Concerto-plus). These results show that different technologies are used, ranging from solar panels to wind turbines and combustion of biomass. Particularly wind and biomass are widely used, but "there are many combinations possible", says Bahr. In these 9 8

10 projects annually 530 ktonnes of CO2 emissions are avoided. Also, 20% less electricity and 30% less heat is used, says Bahr. Cheaper Energy efficient homes not only save energy, they are sometimes cheaper in construction. Energy neutral homes are even cheaper to build than 'normal' modern houses. That concludes Pieter Hameetman director of AM Duurzaam, part of the BAM Group. He has calculated how profitable the 103 Passive Houses, built in Almere, are. Here he has learned from past experience with energy efficient homes. According to Hameetman it is a matter of focus: first on optimizing the technology and then on optimizing the economy. The aim is to build houses with the world's lowest energy bill, says Hameetman ambitious. He compares a house, gas fired with an energy performance coefficient (EPC) of 0.6 and a balanced ventilation, with an energy-neutral house, which is extremely well insulated and equipped with solar panels. His calculations indicate that the latter house is 135 euro s cheaper per year in terms of total housing costs. In 20 years the cost savings will be just over 2000 euro s. Hameetman can simply make such calculations for the customers with the so-called e-calculator. For the use of sustainable energy it is sometimes possible to make use of specific local opportunities. The municipality of Heerlen wants to use old mines as heat and cold storage by filling approximately 30% of the empty mines with water for the cooling and heating of buildings. Research conducted since 2005 has shown that the use of minewater is feasible, says Jean Weijers, Project Manager of Remining-Lowex (also a Concerto project). Thanks to the existence of detailed maps of the old mines, the drilling of the holes for the pipes is a piece of cake. Weijers has also assessed potential customers, including a swimming pool, the CBS office and a school. An energy service company EOP has been founded to sell and distribute the heat and cold. Heerlen is planning to invest 50 million euro s in EOP, but she has not taken a final decision yet as another investor has dropped. Two problems arise according to Weijers. First the investments are high to build the new infrastructure and to drill additional wells. Also, new buildings are energy efficient, so less heat is needed. This would make the project less profitable, says Weijers. He hopes that the project continues. "It would be good for employment in South Limburg." Quality It is nice to be back in Almere, the 'city of growth, says Alex van Oost of the Urgenda Foundation. As an employee of Almere, Van Oost was strongly involved in the development of the Columbus district. "This development was not only durable, but also socioeconomically beneficial." Van Oost explained that Almere has built 'quantity-driven' for a long time; the Netherlands main new-town needed large numbers of homes for new residents each year. "Now there is more attention to quality and sustainability", says Van Oost. He mentioned several other trends, such as from component to concept, and from small to large scale. We are talking about one thousand households. In this way the 'Solar Houses' were designed, among others with solar panels on the roof or integrated into a structure connected to the house. In the neighbourhood itself some space is left open "to give freedom to the market." The energy-neutral house at the entrance of the Columbus district, developed by Koopmans Bouwgroep, stands out for the typical urban wind turbines on the roof and the red-coloured panels in the facade of the building. Van Oost says that the red solar panels produce equal to standard solar panels, but according to Ter Horst there will be some loss in yield. 9

11 The province of Flevoland is involved in the development of Almere. "The ambition for Almere is to be climate neutral in 2025", says Jan Schouw, project manager DE-on, who works for the province. To this goal a masterplan is under development. There is an intermediate goal, which is 60% renewable energy by Almere is well on track to achieve this goal; this appears clearly from the monitored actual share of 57% renewables in In 2010 though, the growth of the share of renewables has stopped. "Due to the economic downturn only profitable projects are realized," says Schouw. As a solution he proposes to invest the profits from successful projects in less profitable projects. This can be done by the energy service company DE-on, yet to be established. Schouw expects an overall gain of approximately 5%. The total investments in DE-on amount to 200 million euro s, of which the province of Flevoland invests 20 million. DE-on is still looking for cofinanciers and wants to work with companies such as HVC and Alliander. The province will stimulate residents to participate as stakeholders in future projects, confirms Schouw. The German city of Hamburg also does this and is an inspiring example for the province of Flevoland, says Schouw. Perseverance Renewable energy is a matter of perseverance. This is evident from the presentation of Carmen Perez Figueras, crrescendo coordinator for the Spanish city of Viladecans near Barcelona. Viladecans is in favour of a more sustainable energy supply since Since 2003, the municipality has taken up this ambition in the crrescendo project, but only in late 2009 the City Council has approved the Action Plan for Sustainable Energy. The preservation plan concerns municipal buildings, accounting for 2% of the energy demand in Viladecans. In practice this is done, in addition to installing solar energy, mainly through lighting and smart power, says Perez Figueras. Striking is the precision with which she show exact numbers for reduction in energy use and emissions. Apparently a lot of effort is put into measuring these figures. Viladecans municipality wants its own CO2 emissions reduced by 33%, but how to get the other 98% of the emissions reduced? This requires a smart approach, said Perez Figueras. We need a vision for the long term. "In 2050 it will be possible to globally gain more than 95% of our energy from sustainable sources", says Kees van der Leun (Ecofys) in his presentation of The Energy Report, 100% Renewable Energy by Energy demand is rising, while oil and gas are running out. In a sustainable world it is necessary to reduce the CO2 emissions. Particularly energy plays an important role, says Van der Leun. "If we want to have a stable future energy supply despite the growth of the global economy, we must fully commit ourselves in industry, transportation and buildings to achieve energy conservation." For electricity a large number of sustainable sources are available, very often now already profitable based on energy costs. Ecofys even expects a fierce competition between different sustainable sources by Further electrification and energy conservation are needed to achieve the goals for 2050, says Van der Leun. Europe will make substantial use of sustainable sources such as hydro and wind. In other continents, solar energy may be more dominant, says Van der Leun. For him the project Desertec is promising, in which solar panels in North Africa generate electricity for Europe. But in the WWF/Ecofys scenario for 2050 Desertec plays no role because we do not want to depend on links between the continents, according to Van der Leun. Another factor is the current economic situation. The financial crisis has a strong influence on energy projects, says Emyr Poole of the British Homes and Communities Agency (HCA). 10

12 "Energy conservation is important. The relatively small investment is quickly recouped. That makes it particularly interesting for existing homes. "But for the new construction market it is more difficult due to the current economic situation. "Due to the financial crisis we need to be more creative," says Poole. England wants all new houses from 2016 onward to be energy neutral. At present, this national policy is being implemented locally. Other municipalities in the UK can now learn from the crrescendo project in Milton Keynes, which was designed in the sixties as a new city. According to Poole Almere and Milton- Keynes, both new-towns, have much in common. Milton Keynes is one of the few cities in the UK that has a co-generation plant, which produces heat for the houses, and a solar power plant for supply of electricity. Learning from doing "We must learn from our mistakes," says Gavin Killip from Oxford University. He shows a photograph of a house at Ajaccio on the sloping roof with a solar panel that lies in the shadow from a higher placed building. Experts know that a shadow on the panel means that solar power is drastically reduced. "This is the result of a compromise," explains Killip. The municipality of Ajaccio wants to keep solar panels out of sight because of 'cultural preservation', so they are not to be installed on the higher roof. "This creates a gap between the design and the eventual performance of a technological innovation," says Killip. The researcher also found that residents in Ajaccio were faced with three different systems for energy management, which they did not know how to use. According to Killip, these results from the project crrescendo are just the tip of the iceberg. More socio-economic research is needed to find out why technological innovations do not always work and how to improve the shortcomings. "We should not assume that everything is going well." According to the presentation of Antonin van de Bree (Ecofys) the results are sometimes better than expected. He shows the results of the Solar Homes and the so-called Ecohouses in Almere. "The energy efficient homes per square meter perform better than expected." The total CO2 emissions from the house is higher though than had been indicated. This is because the houses are larger than they were in the original calculations. "To further reduce CO2 emissions, we must built smaller houses or pursue a higher ambition," says Van de Bree. He also sees a large spread in energy performance versus surface. "This variation depends not only on the size and construction of the house, but also on its inhabitants." Van de Bree warns for the claimed energy efficiency and sustainability of several housing concepts on the market. The sellers use qualifications for the houses that are difficult to verify, such as beter than passive, more comfort, good floor space vs. building envelope ratio, etc. According to Van de Bree, there are different housing concepts for sustainable building, of which the best known is Passive House. For the houses in Almere, two of these concepts are used: the Solar House (WWF) and Passive House. "Customers should obtain all necessary information beforehand, and preferably contract an independent audit to be carried out to asses the real level of energy efficiency and sustainability." Photos of both the crrescendo conferrence and of Solar-, Passive- and other Eco-houses in Almere are made by, among others, Hub Smulders. A selection of these pictures is found on: You are allowed to use these pictures for non-commercial purposes, if you mention the origin: 11

13 (Dutch translation) Verslag crrescendo conferrence Almere, 13 oktober 2011 Door Norbert Cuiper Lessen uit het Europese project crrescendo Op weg naar energieneutrale woningen Almere is hard op weg om de eerste energieneutrale gemeente van Nederland te worden. De jonge stad breidt fors uit en bouwt daarvoor duurzame woningen. Dat bleek uit de slotconferentie van crrescendo, het Europese project voor energiebesparing en duurzame energie in nieuwbouw- en renovatiewijken. Ook Viladecans, Milton Keynes en Ajaccio boeken vooruitgang. Welke lessen zijn te trekken van de ervaringen in de vier Europese steden? crrescendo-coördinator Emil ter Horst van de gemeente Almere opende namens burgemeester Annemarie Jorritsma de conferentie en las een brief voor waarin Jorritsma het belang benadrukte van duurzaam bouwen. De burgemeester heeft zelf haar droomhuis laten bouwen in Almere, een royale woning die zuinig omspringt met energie. Hiermee wil ze een voorbeeld stellen voor alle inwoners in Almere. Toch moesten er enkele kinderziektes worden opgelost, zo geeft ze toe in haar brief. Daarmee onderstreept de burgemeester het belang van het leren van experimenten, één van de karakteristieke kenmerken van het Europese ontwikkelingsproject crrescendo. Dit project richt zich op de grootschalige toepassing van duurzame energie en energiebesparing in nieuwbouw- en renovatiewijken. Naast Almere worden ook in het Britse Milton Keynes, het Spaanse Viladecans en Ajaccio op het Franse eiland Corsica energiezuinige wijken gerealiseerd binnen het crrescendo-project, dat mede door de Europese Unie wordt gesubsidieerd via het Concerto-programma. Vooruitgang Almere heeft flink vooruitgang geboekt bij de bouw van energiezuinige wijken, meldt Ter Horst. Zo zijn er tweeduizend energiezuinige woningen gebouwd in de nieuwe wijken Noorderplassen- West en het Columbuskwartier. Vierhonderd huizen zijn uitgevoerd volgens het keurmerk Zonnewoning, huizen die voldoen aan verschillende eisen op het gebied van duurzame energie, duurzaam materiaalgebruik en comfort. Zij worden in Almere naast de duurzame stadswarmte ook voorzien van stroom die is opgewekt met zonnepanelen. Honderd woningen zijn van het zogeheten passiefhuis -type, waarbij isolatie en beglazing zorgen voor een extreem laag energiegebruik. Een bijzonder onderdeel is het zoneiland, een terrein met zonnecollectoren die duurzaam warmte opwekken voor het stadsnet. Opvallend is dat de wijken zeer divers zijn ontworpen, waardoor elke woning net even anders is gebouwd dan de andere huizen. Deze diversiteit is vooral goed te zien in het Columbuskwartier, zegt Vera Dam, projectleider duurzaamheidscentrum van de gemeente Almere. Ze raadt aan om het boek The Almere Principles te lezen, dat de zeven principes beschrijft die de gemeente wil toepassen om uit te groeien tot een duurzame stad. 12

14 Energiebesparing vergt een andere manier van denken. Dat betoogt Ad van Wijk, hoogleraar aan de TU Delft en voormalig directeur van het duurzame energiebedrijf Econcern. In zijn presentatie How to boil an egg laat hij zien dat we veel energie verspillen door bijvoorbeeld na het koken van eieren het hete water weg te gooien. Er is geen energiecrisis. Zonne-energie is in overvloed aanwezig, we moeten het alleen veel efficiënter benutten, zegt Van Wijk. Een ander voorbeeld is de deurbel, die continu wordt gevoed met elektriciteit uit het net terwijl je het maar minder dan een uur per jaar nodig hebt. Dit kan ook opgewekt worden met een heel klein zonnecelletje. Ook autorijden is eigenlijk heel inefficiënt, en verwarmen van een huis kan zonder gas, met warmte uit de bodem. Zo gaat Van Wijk nog even door. Zijn theorie is mooi, maar de praktijk is weerbarstig. Van Wijk ziet wel een revolutie optreden in de glastuinbouw en verlichting met leds. Daarnaast verwacht hij een doorgaande elektrificatie, gezien de opkomst van elektrische auto s en elektrische scooters. Dit houdt ook een belangrijke rol in voor smart grids, aldus Van Wijk. Mogelijkheden Er zijn nog veel mogelijkheden om energie te besparen, zo wil Van Wijk zeggen. Een opmerkelijk idee dat de Delftse hoogleraar toont is het vervangen van wisselstroom door gelijkstroom. Bij het ontwerpen van elektriciteitsnetten is van oudsher gekozen voor wisselstroom, omdat dat geschikt is voor transport over langere afstanden. Nadeel van deze techniek is echter dat voor veel moderne apparaten de opgewekte stroom eerst moet worden omgezet in wisselstroom en dat de wisselstroom voor gebruik weer moet worden omgezet in gelijkstroom. Bij de omzettingen gaat een deel van de elektriciteit verloren. Door voor het net te kiezen voor gelijkstroom is een energiebesparing van 10 tot 42 procent mogelijk, vertelt Van Wijk enthousiast. Maar stelt hij het niet te simpel voor? Innovaties gaan toch niet alleen om technologie? Dat vraagt Gavin Killip van de Universiteit van Oxford aan Van Wijk. Inderdaad, maar het begint bij anders denken, antwoordt Van Wijk. Het realiseren van energiezuinige woningen is geen kwestie van één enkele standaardoplossing. Dat zegt Valerie Bahr van het Duitse Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum. Ze wordt door Ter Horst ludiek aangekondigd als 'spion' van de EU, maar ze ontkent een dergelijke rol te spelen. Ze evalueert voor het overkoepelende Europese Concerto-programma de laatste 13 van de 22 projecten, die in 23 landen zijn gerealiseerd. De 13 projecten zijn nog niet afgerond, waardoor de meetresultaten nog niet beschikbaar zijn, zegt Bahr. Wel kan ze de resultaten presenteren van de eerste 9 projecten, die in 2005 van start gingen en door het Oostenrijkse Institute of Technology zijn geëvalueerd. Uit deze resultaten blijkt dat diverse technologieën zijn toegepast, variërend van zonnepanelen tot windturbines en bijstook van biomassa. Met name windenergie en biomassa zijn veel gebruikt, maar 'er zijn veel combinaties mogelijk,' zegt Bahr. Hierdoor wordt jaarlijks een CO 2 -uitstoot van 530 kton vermeden. Ook is 20% minder elektriciteit en 30% minder warmte gebruikt, vertelt Bahr. Goedkoper Energiezuinige woningen besparen niet alleen energie, ze zijn soms ook goedkoper in de bouw. Energieneutrale woningen zijn zelfs goedkoper te bouwen dan 'normale' moderne huizen. Dat concludeert directeur Pieter Hameetman van AM Duurzaam, onderdeel van de BAM Group. Hij heeft voor de 103 passiefhuizen zoals die in Almere zijn gebouwd berekend hoe ze rendabel zijn te maken. Hierbij heeft hij geleerd van eerdere ervaringen met energiezuinige woningen. 13

15 Het is volgens Hameetman een kwestie van focus, eerst op optimalisatie van de technologie en daarna op optimalisatie van de economie. Doel is 's werelds laagste energierekening, meldt Hameetman ambitieus. Hij vergelijkt een woning, gestookt op gas, met een EPC van 0,6 en een gebalanceerde ventilatie, met een compleet energieneutraal huis, dat zeer goed geïsoleerd is en is voorzien van zonnepanelen. Uit zijn berekeningen blijkt dat de laatste woning 135 euro per jaar goedkoper is qua woonlasten. Over 20 jaar bedraagt de kostenbesparing iets meer dan 2000 euro. Dit soort berekeningen kan Hameetman simpel vertalen naar de klant met een zogeheten e-calculator. Soms is voor de toepassing van duurzame energie gebruik te maken van bijzondere lokale mogelijkheden. Gemeente Heerlen wil oude mijnen gebruiken als warmte-koude-opslag, door circa 30% van de lege mijnen te vullen met water voor koeling en/of verwarming van gebouwen. Uit onderzoek dat sinds 2005 is uitgevoerd blijkt dit haalbaar te zijn. Dat meldt Jean Weijers, projectmanager van Remining-Lowex, een Concerto project. Dankzij gedetailleerde kaarten van de mijnen is het boren van de gaten voor de pijpen een koud kunstje. Ook heeft Weijers potentiële klanten in kaart gebracht, zoals een zwembad, het CBS-kantoor en een school. Voor het plan is het bedrijf EOP opgericht. Gemeente Heerlen wil hierin 50 miljoen euro investeren, maar ze heeft nog geen definitieve beslissing genomen omdat een andere cofinancier is afgehaakt. Twee problemen doen zich voor volgens Weijers: de investeringen zijn hoog om de nieuwe infrastructuur te bouwen en extra putten te boren. Ook hebben zijn nieuwe gebouwen energiezuinig, waardoor er minder warmte nodig is. Hierdoor zou het project minder rendabel uitvallen, aldus Weijers. Hij hoopt echter dat het project doorgaat. 'Het zou goed zijn voor de werkgelegenheid in Zuid-Limburg.' Kwaliteit Terug naar Almere, de 'stad van de groei', volgens Alex van Oost van stichting Urgenda. Hij begeleidde tot mei 2011 als medewerker van gemeente Almere de bouw in het Columbuskwartier. 'Dit bleek niet alleen duurzaam, maar ook socio-economisch voordelig uit te vallen.' Van Oost vertelde dat Almere lange tijd 'kwantiteitsgedreven' heeft gebouwd, waarbij het ging om grote aantallen huizen voor de nieuwe bewoners. 'Nu is er meer aandacht voor kwaliteit en duurzaamheid,' zei Van Oost. Hij noemde diverse andere trends, zoals van component naar concept, en van kleine naar grote schaal, van circa duizend huishoudens. Op deze manier werden de 'zonnewoningen' ontworpen, waarvan de zonnepanelen niet alleen op het dak liggen, maar divers geïntegreerd zijn bijvoorbeeld in een constructie boven het huis. Ook in de wijk zelf is ruimte open gelaten, 'om vrij te geven aan de markt.' De energieneutrale woning aan de rand van het Columbuskwartier, ontwikkeld door bouwer Jos Ensink, valt op door de windturbines op het dak en de roodkleurige zonnepanelen, in de gevel van het gebouw. Van Oost zegt dat de rode zonnepanelen evenveel zonnestroom produceren, maar volgens Ter Horst is sprake van een licht verlies in de opbrengst. Ook de Provincie Flevoland mengt zich in de ontwikkeling van Almere. 'De ambitie is om Almere in 2025 klimaatneutraal te laten zijn,' zegt Jan Schouw, projectmanager van DE-on en werkzaam bij de Provincie. Om dit doel te halen is een masterplan opgesteld. Ook is een tussendoel bepaald, dat ligt op 60% duurzame energie in Dat Almere goed op weg is om dit tussendoel te halen blijkt uit het gerealiseerde aandeel van 57% duurzaam in In 2010 is de groei van het aandeel duurzaam echter gestopt. 'Door de economische recessie worden 14

16 alleen nog winstgevende projecten gerealiseerd,' zegt Schouw. Als oplossing stelt hij voor om de winst uit de succesvolle projecten te investeren in verliesgevende projecten. Schouw verwacht een overall winst van circa 5%. De totale investeringen bedragen 200 miljoen euro, waarvan de Provincie Flevoland 20 miljoen bijdraagt. DE-on is nog op zoek naar medefinanciers en wil samenwerken met bedrijven als HVC en Alliander. De provincie is van plan om bewoners als stakeholders mee te laten doen in projecten, bevestigt Schouw. De Duitse stad Hamburg doet dat ook en heeft hiermee provincie Flevoland geïnspireerd tijdens een werkbezoek vorig jaar, aldus Schouw. Lange adem Duurzame energie is een kwestie van lange adem. Dat blijkt uit de presentatie van Carmen Perez Figueras, crrescendo-coördinator voor de Spaanse stad Viladecans bij Barcelona. Viladecans heeft vanaf 1996 steun betuigd voor verduurzaming van de energievoorziening. Sinds 2003 heeft de gemeente dit opgepakt als crrescendo-project, maar de gemeenteraad heeft het actieplan voor duurzame energie pas eind 2009 goedgekeurd. De verduurzaming betreft gemeentelijke gebouwen, die 2% van het energiegebruik voor hun rekening nemen. In de praktijk gaat het naast het plaatsen van zonnepanelen vooral om energiebesparing via verlichting en slim energiebeheer, vertelt Perez Figueras. Opvallend is de nauwkeurigheid waarmee ze exacte getallen toont voor reductie in energiegebruik en emissies. Kennelijk is er veel tijd en energie gestoken in het meten van deze cijfers. Gemeente Viladecans wil haar eigen CO 2 -uitstoot reduceren met 33%, maar hoe de overige 98% van de emissies moeten worden verlaagd? Dat vergt een slimme aanpak, aldus Perez Figueras. Ook is een visie voor de lange termijn nodig. 'Het is mogelijk om in 2050 wereldwijd 95% van de energie uit duurzame bronnen te halen,' meldt Kees van der Leun van Ecofys bij zijn presentatie van het Energy Report, 100% duurzaam in De vraag naar energie stijgt, terwijl de voorraden olie en gas opraken. Ook is het nodig om te verduurzamen om de CO 2 -uitstoot te reduceren. Met name energiebesparing speelt een belangrijke rol, zegt Van der Leun. Er moet in industrie, transport en gebouwen vol ingezet worden op energiebesparing om het energiegebruik stabiel te houden ondanks de groei van de wereldeconomie.' Voor elektriciteitsopwekking is een groot aantal duurzame bronnen voorhanden, vaak nu al rendabel op basis van energiekosten. Ecofys verwacht zelfs een felle concurrentie tussen de verschillende duurzame bronnen vanaf Verdergaande elektrificatie en energiebesparing zijn nodig om de doelen voor 2050 te halen, vertelt Van der Leun. Europa zal relatief veel gebruik maken van duurzame bronnen als waterkracht en windenergie. In andere continenten zal zonne-energie meer dominant zijn, meldt Van der Leun. Hij vindt het project Desertec, waarbij zonnepanelen in Noord-Afrika stroom leveren voor Europa, veelbelovend, maar in het scenario voor 2050 speelt Desertec geen rol omdat we dit niet afhankelijk hebben willen maken van koppelingen tussen de werelddelen, aldus Van der Leun. Een andere factor is de huidige economische situatie. De financiële crisis heeft een sterke invloed op energieprojecten, meldt Emyr Poole van het Britse Homes and Communities Agency. Energiebesparing wordt belangrijker. De relatief kleine investeringen zijn snel terugverdiend. Dat maakt het vooral interessant voor bestaande woningen. Maar voor nieuwbouw ligt het een stuk lastiger vanwege de huidige economische situatie. Door de financiële crisis moeten we 15

17 creatiever zijn, zegt Poole. Engeland wil alle nieuwe huizen vanaf 2016 energieneutraal maken. Op dit moment wordt het nationale beleid lokaal geïmplementeerd. Andere gemeenten in Groot Brittannië kunnen daarbij leren van het crrescendo-project in Milton Keynes, dat in de zestiger jaren is ontworpen als nieuwe stad. Volgens Poole lijkt de Britse stad op Almere, vanwege de moderne bouw. Milton Keynes beschikt als een van de weinige steden in Groot Brittannië over een warmtekrachtcentrale, die warmte produceert voor de woningen, en een zonne-energiecentrale, voor levering van stroom. Leren van fouten We moeten leren van onze fouten, meldt Gavin Killip van de Universiteit van Oxford. Hij toont een foto van een woning in Ajaccio met op het schuine dak een zonnepaneel waarop slagschaduw valt van een hoger liggend gebouw. Kenners weten dat schaduw op een zonnepaneel de opbrengst aan stroom drastisch verlaagt. Dit is het resultaat van een compromis, legt Killip uit. Gemeente Ajaccio wil zonnepanelen uit het zicht houden vanwege cultuurbehoud, waardoor ze niet op de hoger gelegen daken mochten worden geplaatst. Hierdoor ontstaat een gat tussen het ontwerp en de uiteindelijke prestatie van een technologische innovatie, meldt Killip. De onderzoeker ontdekte ook dat de bewoners in Ajaccio te maken kregen met drie verschillende systemen voor het energiebeheer, die ze niet wisten te gebruiken. Volgens Killip zijn deze resultaten uit het crrescendo-project slechts het topje van de ijsberg en is meer socio-economisch onderzoek nodig om te achterhalen waarom technologische innovaties niet altijd werken en hoe de tekortkomingen zijn te verbeteren. We moeten er niet van uitgaan dat alles goed gaat. Dat de resultaten ook wel eens meevallen blijkt uit de presentatie van Antonin van de Bree van Ecofys. Hij toont de resultaten van de Zonnewoningen, PassiefHuizen en de zogeheten ecowoningen in Almere. De energiezuinige huizen presteren per vierkante meter beter dan verwacht. De totale CO 2 -uitstoot van de woning ligt echter hoger dan vooraf was aangegeven. Dat komt doordat de woningen groter zijn gebouwd dan ze oorspronkelijk waren, de referentiewoningen. Om de CO 2 -uitstoot verder te verlagen zouden de huizen kleiner moeten worden uitgevoerd of een hogere ambitie moeten nastreven, zegt Van de Bree. Ook ziet hij een grote spreiding optreden in het energiegebruik versus oppervlak. Deze variatie hangt niet alleen af van de grootte en de bouw van het huis, maar ook van de bewoners. Van de Bree waarschuwt voor de aangeprezen energiezuinigheid of duurzaamheid van woningconcepten in de markt. De verkopende partijen gebruiken kwalificaties voor de woningen die moeilijk zijn hard te maken, zoals meer dan passief, extra wooncomfort, goede verhouding tussen vloeroppervlak en gebouwschil, etc.. Volgens Van de Bree bestaan er verschillende woningconcepten voor duurzaam bouwen, waarvan het passiefhuis de bekendste is. Voor de woningen in Almere zijn er twee van deze concepten gebruikt: de zonnewoning en het passiefhuis. Klanten moeten zich vooraf goed informeren en bij voorkeur een onafhankelijke controle laten uitvoeren voor de mate van energiezuinigheid en duurzaamheid. Foto s van zonnewoningen in Almere zijn gemaakt door o.a. Hub Smulders tijdens de excursie met de bus. Een selectie hiervan staat op 16

18 Presentations crrescendo conferrence Thursday 13th October

19 On behalf of our lady Mayor Annemarie Jorritsma I want to express her regrets that she can t be with us. She asked me to share with you the following:... Dear participants of the crrescendo conferrence: citizens of Almere and Holland, and other Europeans citizens. I am honored to welcome you, though I am sorry not to be physically present due to another urgent commitment. The European subsidized crrescendo project and the lessons learnt are close to my heart, and I will tell you why. I came to Almere only 8 years ago. Before that time I lived for a long time in Friesland, where I fell in love with the typical Dutch panoramic view of flat and wet pastures. Here in the province of Flevoland I experience the same feeling for this almost identical polder landscape. With views reaching to the horizon and of course the so called Dutch Light as painted by our famous Dutch masters from our Golden Age. This phenomenon is probably caused by the reflection of light against clouds in the sky and the water below. It is so nice to experience this Dutch Light with the wind through your hair, whilst strolling thoughtlessly along the dyke. The first time I realized I was living almost in the middle of nature, was when I noticed a young fox in our garden. In Almere en Flevoland one can have the best of two worlds. You can live in the countryside near the city or you can live in the city near the countryside. My family and I have built our own dream house, and that is where I feel connected to the crrescendo project. As a Mayor of this city I did not only want to live comfortably but I also wanted to be an example to our citizens. Therefore my dream house had to be a highly sustainable house. Not too high (and thus expensive) as I did not want to raise false expectations, but surely not too low as it should really challenge the citizens of Almere. So the connection I feel to the project, is that crrescendo also has high but realistic ambitions to be demonstrated in current building practices. Just as in my own experiences there were surprises and disappointments to deal with; often very practical, but sometimes even very fundamental, problems had to be solved. The Lessons Learnt in your project will pave the way for many after you, when or, better, IF you know HOW to disseminate the knowledge. This is often forgotten: to share the knowledge gained. I have understood that crrescendo is not going to forget this in this final project year, as is illustrated by the today s conference. I really regret I can t be with you today and I wish you good luck with the interesting presentations, the lively discussions and the excursion to Almere s Energy Rich districts and, not to forget, the striking Almere Sun Island, visited by many people and delegations already. And when you drive through the polder, I hope that the other Europeans among you will experience, just like us from Almere and Holland, a tiny little bit of that splendid so called polder feeling.... This was the message by our lady Mayor. I will continue with my own short introduction into the crrescendo project and the dissemination of our results: I will guide you through the project in just a view slides. Emil ter Horst Coordinator crrescendo and chairman of the conference Almere, 13 October

20 19

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