Power quality analysis of a 110 MW wind farm in a 130 kv switchyard. Elforsk rapport 13:13

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Power quality analysis of a 110 MW wind farm in a 130 kv switchyard. Elforsk rapport 13:13"

Transcription

1 Power quality analysis of a 110 MW wind farm in a 130 kv switchyard Elforsk rapport 13:13 My Näslund, Elisabeth Lindberg, Anette Larsson, Urban Axelsson Jqnuary 2013

2 Power quality analysis of a 110 MW wind farm in a 130 kv switchyard Elforsk rapport 13:13 My Näslund, Elisabeth Lindberg, Anette Larsson, Urban Axelsson, January 2012

3 Preface The background for this project was that wind power manufacturers and owners meet differences in the grid connection requirements for power quality stated by different sub-transmission network owners. The different used Swedish power quality recommendations only states requirements up to 2 or 2.5 khz while the corresponding German guidelines require measurement of power quality up to 9 khz. This project was therefore carried out in order to review used recommendations and to gain experience by measurements of voltage and currents at frequencies up to 150 khz. The purpose with the project was to: Investigate whether Lillgrund fulfils measureable parts of power quality emission limit requirements and grid code stated by E.ON Elnät Sverige AB and Svenska Kraftnät. Compile the sub-transmission network owner s power quality requirements. Investigate if power quality distortion in the frequency range khz also exists in the sub-transmission grid at system voltage 130 kv. Investigate if it is possible to reach a more harmonized and common platform for the power quality requirements stated by the Swedish DSOs. Draw conclusions on measurement system requirements. Vattenfall Research and Development in Stockholm, Sweden with Urban Axelsson as project manager has carried out the project. The project was carried out as V-354 within the Swedish wind energy research programme Vindforsk III. Vindforsk III is funded by ABB, Arise windpower, AQSystem, E.ON Elnät, E.ON Vind Sverige, EBL-kompetanse, Falkenberg Energi, Fortum, Fred. Olsen Renwables, Gothia wind, Göteborg Energi, HS Kraft, Jämtkraft, Karlstads Energi, Luleå Energi, Mälarenergi, o2 Vindkompaniet, Rabbalshede Kraft, Skellefteå Kraft, Statkraft, Stena Renewable, Svenska Kraftnät, Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Triventus, Wallenstam, Varberg Energi, Vattenfall Vindkraft, Vestas Northern Europe, Öresundskraft and the Swedish Energy Agency.

4 A reference group has given comments on the work and the final report with the following members: Victor Bagge E.ON Elnät Sverige AB Heinz Hauser Jon Jensen Mats Wahlberg Christer Flood Staffan Mared Christer Kauma Siemens Wind Power A/S Siemens Wind Power A/S Skellefteå Kraft Elnät AB Fortum Distribution AB Vattenfall Vindkraft AB Vattenfall Eldistribution AB Stockholm January 2013 Anders Björck Program manager Vindforsk-III Electricity and heat production, Elforsk AB

5 Sammanfattning Den första svenska offshore vindkraftparken Lillgrund med installerad effekt 110 MW ansluts med 130 kv sjö- och landkablar till ställverket Bunkeflo som ägs av E.ON Elnät. Lillgrund i likhet med alla anslutna kunder ska uppfylla ett antal uppställda krav av elkvalitetskaraktär från nätägaren och av systemstabilitetskaraktär från Svenska Kraftnät. Avsikten med projektet var att: genom mätningar klarlägga om Lillgrund uppfyller ställda mätbara krav från E.ON Elnät och Svenska Kraftnät sammanställa hur elkvalitetskrav formuleras av olika regionnätsägare i Sverige tillsammans med en utsedd referensgrupp diskutera möjligheten att formulera mer harmoniserade anslutningskrav undersöka hypotesen om regionnät, i likhet med lågspänningsnät, har övertonsinnehåll i frekvensområdet khz dra slutsatser angående vilka krav mätsystem för elkvalitetmätning bör uppfylla Mätningar och mätsystem: Mätningarna av ström och spänning i Bunkeflo har pågått i drygt 1.5 år med dels s.k. konventionella mätgivare med begränsad bandbredd av några khz och dels mätgivare med hög bandbredd av 400 khz. Följande resultat och slutsatser kan dras från dessa mätningar och analyser. Analys: Projektet har verifierat att interaktionen mellan anläggningen och anslutande nät medför att även strömmätning innehåller bidrag från såväl anläggningen som från nätet. Mätning och analys av spänning ger systemets totala distorsion. Krav som ställts i spänning har mätts som strömvärden och därefter omräknats till spänning. För situationen i Bunkeflo har det visat sig att de ställda elkvalitetskraven på anläggningen, som mätts som strömvärden, är uppfyllda trots att även bidragen från nätet ingår i dessa strömvärden. De parametrar som analyserats är övertoner och mellantoner, obalans, flimmer (eng. flicker) och reaktiv effekt. Dessutom har transienta händelser utvärderats. Slutsatser från denna del av projektet är: Övertoner och mellantoner upp till 2.5 khz ligger under de av E.ON Elnät uppställda gränsvärdena. För toner vid högre frekvenser finns inga gränsvärden men de har mycket låga värden. En PSCAD studie för Lillgrund har visat att strömvärden vid 1 khz, 2.8 khz och 7.2 khz från vindkraftparken förstärks ca 10 gånger i Bunkeflo. De strömtoner som kan mätas i det frekvensintervallet kan alltså dels ha emitterats från Lillgrunds turbiner och dels ha sammanfallit med resonanser. De uppmätta nivåerna är dock väldigt låga. Detta har redovisats i en artikel som skrivits tillsammans med Luleå Tekniska Universitet. De dominerande övertonerna 5, 7 och 11 är oberoende av Lillgrunds produktionsnivå och har ungefär samma nivåer med som utan Lillgrund

6 ansluten. Bidraget från Lillgrund till störnivån i Bunkeflo är således lågt i hela frekvensområdet som mätningarna omfattat. Obalans och flimmer har också lägre värden än gränsvärdena. Transienta händelser har förekommit men inga som på allvar kunnat utvärdera om Lillgrunds Fault Ride Through funktion fungerar. Inte heller har frekvensavvikelser förekommit som Lillgrund skulle ha reagerat på. I frekvensområdet upp till 3 khz uppvisar mätningar med de tre olika mätsystemen mycket likartade resultat dvs även de konventionella induktiva mättransformatorerna med lämpliga mätkärnor klarar detta frekvensområde. Baserat på studier och mätningar i projektet ges följande rekommendationer: Övertoner bör mätas så högt i frekvens som det förekommer resonanser. En studie som beräknar resonansfrekvenserna bör därför ingå, åtminstone i större projekt. Spänningsmättransformatorerna bör placeras på nätägarsidan av brytaren, när så är möjligt, för att möjliggöra referensmätning när vindkraftparken inte är inkopplad och för bestämning av spänningsdip vid inkoppling. Harmonisering av krav: Projektet rekommenderar att metoden beskriven i Elforsk rapport 10:06 (Fördelning av störutrymme) används och att man utgår från planeringsnivåer i spänning för att beräkna gränsvärden, helst i ström, för de olika elkvalitetsparametrarna. Vid projektets referensgruppsmöten har flera regionnätsägare informerat att de använder denna metodik. Vidare har de informerat att de använder långtidsmätning av spänning, oberoende av eventuella framtida anslutningar av vindkraftparker, i olika platser i sina nät för att löpande ha kännedom om nätens spänningsgodhet. I samband med nya vindkraftsinstallationer används dessa mätningar som referens för att bedöma hur mycket spänningsgodheten förändras. Om spänningsgodheten förväntas att förändras påtagligt eller om den förändrats efter en anslutning - kan det vara avgörande för om distorsionsbidragen från en installation behöver mätas mer detaljerat. Vid mötena med projektets referensgrupp har det konstaterats att det ändå föreligger stora skillnader mellan de gränsvärden för olika elkvalitetsparametrar som nätägarna använder i sina tekniska krav för anslutning. Regionnätsägarna anser att kunskapen om hur större anläggningar påverkar spänningsgodheten är i ett uppbyggnadsskede. Metodik för bestämning av och nivåer för gränsvärden utvecklas löpande i takt med att de får erfarenheter via egna och externa mätningar. Ett fortsatt samarbete genom en grupp med liknande representation som i projektets referensgrupp skulle kunna effektivisera detta arbete genom t.ex. utbyte av erfarenheter och resultat från mätningar. Projektet rekommenderar därför att en sådan grupp skapas, t.ex. via Svensk Energi. Slutsatser och rekommendationer från projektet: Lillgrund uppfyller ställda elkvalitetskrav. Anslutningspunkten Bunkeflo 130 kv har ett högt kortslutningsförhållande av ca 24 vilket är en viktig faktor för att upprätthålla hög spänningsgodhet.

7 De ställda elkvalitetskraven innebär att mätdata, rådata, måste behandlas med matematiska metoder (Fourieranalys, omräkning från ström till spänning, beräkning med MatLab rutiner). Denna processning av rådata är normalt inte definierad i de tekniska kraven från nätägarna eller i standarder. Det innebär att de framräknade värdena i värsta fall kan bli olika trots att samma rådata använts. Projektet rekommenderar att den ovan föreslagna gruppen via t.ex. Svensk Energi även tittar på denna fråga med mål att ta fram riktlinjer för definition och val av beräkningsmetodik. Projektet har visat att regionnätet i Bunkeflo har mycket låga störnivåer i frekvensintervallet khz. En allmän diskussion har funnits kring oro för att modern utrustning med kraftelektronik, t.ex. omriktare, ska kunna skapa störningar i det frekvensområdet. Mätningarna i projektet visar att dessa inte, om de funnits för lägre spänningsnivåer i nätet, transporterats upp till högre spänningsnivåer där mätningarna i projektet skett. Även konventionella induktiva mättransformatorer med bra mätkärnor kan användas för mätning av elkvalitet upp till 3 khz. Regionnätsägare använder denna typ av mättransformatorer för elkvalitetsmätningar men frekvenskarakteristiken är okänd. Projektet rekommenderar att branschen efterfrågar typprov av dessa mättransformatorer så att frekvenskarakteristiken, amplitud och fasvinkel, är uppmätt och fastställd i frekvensintervallet 0 Hz till 3 khz före installation. Därmed fastställs med säkerhet vilket mätområde som kan omfattas av mätningen liksom möjligheten att vid behov korrigera amplitud eller fas mot det uppmätta mätfelet. Mätinstrument som erbjuder ett urval av färdiga analyser kan i vissa fall vara enkla och behändiga att använda. Men oftast följer inte mäteller analysmetodiken de krav som uppställts av nätägaren, åtminstone inte för samtliga parametrar som ska analyseras. Slutsatsen är att analysen kräver tillgång till rådata från mätinstrumentet. Projektets rekommendation är därför att åtminstone välja ett mätinstrument som levererar rådata utan någon som helst föregående bearbetning trots att detta utan undantag medför hantering av mycket stora datamängder.

8

9 Summary The first Swedish offshore wind farm with installed power of 110 MW is connected to the 130 kv switch-yard Bunkeflo, owned by the Swedish DSO (Distribution System Operator) E.ON Elnät AB, with 130 kv sea and land cables. The wind farm, like all other grid connected customers, shall fulfil a number of power quality requirements stated by E.ON Elnät and System Stability requirements stated by the Swedish TSO (Transmission System Operator) Svenska Kraftnät. The purpose with the project V-354 was to: Investigate whether Lillgrund fulfils measureable parts of power quality requirements and grid code stated by E.ON Elnät Sverige AB and Svenska Kraftnät. Compile the sub-transmission network owners power quality requirements. Together with an appointed reference group discuss the possibility to reach a more harmonized and common platform for the power quality requirements stated by the Swedish DSOs. Investigate if power quality distortion in the frequency range khz, observed to be quickly filled up in low voltage networks, also exists in the sub-transmission grid at system voltage 130 kv. Draw conclusions on measurement system requirements. Measurements and measurement systems: The measurement of current and voltage has been running for more than 1.5 years with both conventional equipment (assumed limited frequency bandwidth) and high frequency bandwidth equipment suitable for measurements up to 150 khz. The following results and conclusions can be drawn from these measurements: Analysis: Preferably measurements shall distinguish between emission from the wind farm and background emission already existing in the grid. The measurement of voltage in Bunkeflo gives the distortion of the whole system so current measurement is used to find the wind farm contribution. The project has though verified that also current measurement has contributions from the grid due to the electrical interaction between the two parts. For the harmonics analysis the current data has been used nevertheless and the situation in Bunkeflo has shown an emission lower than the limit values. Other analysed parameters are inter-harmonics, flicker, unbalance, reactive power and transient events. The conclusions from this part of the project are: Harmonics and inter-harmonics up to 2.5 khz have values below the emission limits set by E.ON Elnät. High frequency emission has no limit values but this emission has very low values. A PSCAD study performed for Lillgrund has shown that current emission at 1 khz, 2.8 khz och 7.2 khz from the wind farm are amplified around 10 times (pu values) in Bunkeflo. Current emission in this frequency range

10 may both have originated from the turbines and coincided with resonances in the network. These frequencies are visible in the harmonics spectrum but the levels are very low. These results are presented in an article written together with Luleå University of Technology. The dominant harmonics 5, 7 and 11, measured in Bunkeflo, are independent of the Lillgrund level of production. They have about the same levels with and without Lillgrund connected. The contribution from Lillgrund to the distortion level in Bunkeflo is therefore concluded to be small in the whole frequency range that was included by the measurements. Unbalance and flicker also have lower values than the limit values. Transient events have occurred but they have not been severe enough to be able to evaluate if the Lillgrund Fault Ride Through function works in an appropriate way. No big enough frequency deviations have occurred that Lillgrund should have reacted on. In the frequency range up to 3 khz, the three different measurement systems show very similar results. This means that also conventional inductive measurement transformers, with suitable metering cores, can be used for this whole frequency range. Based on studies and measurements in the project the following recommendations are given: Harmonics shall be measured as high in frequency as there are resonances. At least for larger wind farms a resonance study should be included. The voltage measurement transformers should preferably be placed on the DSO side of the wind farm breaker when possible. That way it is possible to perform reference measurement when the wind farm is disconnected and to measure the voltage dip at energizations of the wind farm. Requirement harmonisation: The project recommends that the method described in the Elforsk report 10:06 (Distribution of disturbance space) is used and that one starts from the planning levels in voltage to calculate limit values, preferably in current, for the different power quality parameters. At the project reference group meetings several Swedish DSOs have informed that they use this method. Furthermore they have informed that they use long-term voltage measurement in different grid positions, independently of possible future wind farm connections, for continuous knowledge on distortion levels. When a new wind farm is connected the voltage measurements are used as reference to judge on distortion changes. If the distortion level is expected to be changed in an obvious way or if it has been changed after a wind farm connection it may be decisive for if the distortion contributions from the new connection needs to be measured more in detail. At the project reference group meetings it was noted that there are still quite large differences between the limit levels that the DSOs use for different power quality parameters in their respective technical specifications for wind farm connection. The DSO representatives express the opinion that the knowledge about how larger installations impact on the power quality is building up. Methodology for determination of levels and limit values is gradually

11 developed as they gain experience through own and external measurement information. A continued work through a group of similar representation as in the project reference group would make this progress more efficient through exchange of experiences and measurement methods and results. The project therefore recommends that such a group is formed, through for example Svensk Energi. Conclusions and recommendations from the project: Lillgrund fulfils stated power quality requirements. The connection point Bunkeflo 130 kv has a high short circuit ratio, SCR, of 24 which is an important factor for good power quality. All requirements demand that measured raw data (voltage and current) need to be treated in different ways (Fourier analysis, recalculation from current to voltage, calculations with MatLab routines). This processing of raw data is normally not defined, at least not in detail, in the technical requirements from the DSOs or in standards. This open the possibility that the calculated values may not be same, code dependent, even though the same measured raw data has been used. The project therefore recommends that the above proposed group through for example Svensk Energi also considers this question with the aim to create a guide line for the definition and choice of calculation algorithm. The 130 kv sub-transmission grid in Bunkeflo still has very low distortion levels in the frequency range khz. There has been a general discussion concerning an apprehension that modern equipment including power electronics, for example converters, may increase the distortion in this frequency interval. The measurements in the project show that this emission, if existing in the low voltage system, has not propagated to the sub-transmission system where the measurements have been conducted. Also conventional inductive measurement transformers with good metering cores can be used for power quality measurements up to 3 khz. The DSOs use this kind of transformers for power quality measurements but the frequency characteristics is not known. The project therefore recommends that the industry requests a type test of the transformers so that the frequency characteristics, amplitude and phase angle, is measured and established in the interval 0 Hz to 3 khz before installation of the transformers. Thereby the possible transformer measurement frequency interval is securely established as well as the possibility to, if needed, correct amplitude and phase against the known measurement error. Measurement systems that offer an assortment of fixed power quality analyses can in some cases be simple and handy to use. But often it is not possible to comply with the requirement or analysis method that has been defined by the DSO, at least not for all parameters that shall be analysed. The conclusion is that the analysis requires access to raw data from the measurement instrument. The project therefore recommends choosing at least one instrument that delivers raw data without any kind of prior treatment. The drawback of such systems is that very large amount of data need to be handled.

12 Abbreviations and definitions DSO EMC FFT Flicker FRT Harmonics HF transducers IEC IGBT PCC P lt PWM PQ P st RMS SVK TDD THD Tripping TSO VSC Distribution System Operator Electromagnetic compatibility Fast Fourier Transform Flicker is rapid visible changes of light level in lighting equipment Fault Ride Through Variations in the wave shape High frequency measurement transducers International Electrotechnical Commission Insulated-gate bipolar transistor Point of Common Coupling Long-term flicker disturbance factor Pulse Width Modulation Power Quality Short-term flicker disturbance factor Root Mean Square Svenska Kraftnät, TSO in Sweden The total Demand Distortion factor is the R.M.S value of current harmonics expressed as a percentage of the rated or maximum load current Total Harmonic Distortion Energy flow from unit to the grid is interrupted immediately Transmission System Operator Voltage source converter

13 Innehåll 1 Introduction Background Objectives Limitations Report content Project Team The power system Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)... 5 Network strength Planning levels Description of power quality parameters General Flicker Harmonics Inter-harmonics HF distortion > 2 khz Unbalance Transients Relevant directorial documents Sweden Technical specifications International Lillgrund and the connecting power system General Information Electrical system Measurement systems Conventional Transducer HF Transducers Measurement Instruments Measurement Results One-week measurement campaign Transients and FRT Reference measurements during 10 minutes Measurement system comparison Summary and Discussion Power quality measurements Harmonics, Inter-harmonics and HF emission Unbalance Flicker Requirement fulfilment Measurement system comparison Harmonisation of power quality requirements References 80

14 Appendix A - E.ON Elnät's restrictions 83 Appendix B - SVK's restrictions 84 Appendix C - Measurement methods 86 Appendix D - Flicker 88

15 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Our society has a growing need for electricity, it is used in almost every apparatus available and all of our fundamental infrastructure functions need power supply. As the apparatus used are becoming more technically advanced and are required for everyday life, the need for interference free electricity supply is increasing. To meet the higher electricity demand, renewable energy sources, foremost wind power, are installed. The electricity however does not only need to be supplied but also to compass a certain quality regarding frequency and voltage in order to keep up the network function and not to harm the equipment it is intended for [2]. The power quality parameters are defined with different accuracies in recommendations, standards, local grid owner s technical specifications and transmission system owner s grid codes. The power quality parameters of interest are: harmonics, inter-harmonics, resonances, flicker, voltage sags, transients and unbalance [3]. Already in 2004 German Technical Reports from BDEW and VDE stated emission limits for harmonics and inter-harmonics up to 9 khz. The reason for writing these documents was primarily that poor power quality was observed also at sub-transmission system voltage level and to be sure that emission from the quickly increasing installations of wind power were reduced as much as possible. The German emission limits follow intentions from planning levels were short circuit capacity and part of total capacity is considered for each connection point. It is shown in different PhD projects at Luleå Technical University that the distortion levels in low voltage networks are quickly increasing in the frequency range khz. One reason is that there are no standards in this frequency region. Measurement systems installed in new plants normally use conventional transducers with assumed limited useful frequency range. No measures are so far taken to be able to fulfil wind power measurement recommendations stating a minimum sampling frequency of 20 khz. The Swedish power quality standards for harmonics, on the other hand, have so far not considered increasing the emission limits frequency range above 2 khz. Wind farm developers and turbine manufacturers should appreciate more harmonized and measurable grid connection requirements and more clear definitions of the same. 1.2 Objectives The project aimed to investigate the hypothesis that harmonics in the frequency range khz can occur in the sub-transmission system. 1 (90)

16 Another ambition with the project was to investigate if a harmonization of the connection requirements between the Swedish DSOs is needed and obtainable. The project should compile the DSO methods used today and propose how the first step towards common requirements and definitions can be obtained. A third objective is to determine if the 110 MW wind power farm Lillgrund fulfils stated power quality requirements in the 130 kv connection point. In addition to this, compile experiences from used measurement systems and give recommendations on the same. 1.3 Limitations Within Vindforsk a compiling and survey report was written covering a number of Vindforsk projects addressing questions in the R&D field of power quality and system stability. [42] In the chapter trends and developments a good overview is given of parameters that could be part of a power quality investigation. The focus in this report is limited to measurable parameters as harmonics, inter-harmonics, flicker, unbalance and transients. 1.4 Report content Descriptions and presentations are given of: The power system and some important power quality related definitions The power quality parameters that have been addressed and related possible problems The Lillgrund wind farm and the Bunkeflo switch yard The measurement systems including transducers and instruments Standards and regulations, DSO requirement comparison Measurement results Short term measurements Weekly measurements Comparison of measurement systems Harmonization of requirements, first step Discussion, conclusions and recommendations 1.5 Project Team Anette Larsson, Elisabeth Lindberg and Urban Axelsson at Vattenfall Research and Development AB executed the project. My Näslund conducted her Master Thesis project as part of the main project. This project final report incorporates large parts of the Master Thesis report, thereby also including information about the different power quality 2 (90)

17 parameters and how they influence on connected equipment and the importance of controlling the levels in the power system. Two very constructive and open meetings were conducted with the reference group, which has also given information and good comments on written texts. Victor Bagge, E.ON Elnät, has given continuous support and information on short circuit data and disturbances in the 130 kv grid. Personnel from Vattenfall Wind Power in Klagshamn och Fredericia have given assistance during installation and maintenance of the measurements systems. Torbjörn Thiringer and Reinhard Kaisinger has assisted with calculation of flicker and unbalance. Math Bollen and his team at Luleå University of Technology have assisted with meetings and discussions on harmonics propagation and measurement issues. 3 (90)

18 2 The power system The power producing units, e.g. hydropower plants, nuclear power plants and wind farms, are connected to the consumers via the electrical grid. The grid in Sweden compasses three different voltage levels, the transmission network 220 kv, subtransmission network between 30 kv and 130 kv and the distribution network is < 30kV. The high voltage transmission network is used for long distance transmission of electricity in order to minimize losses. Whereas the distribution network is used for short distance transmission, close to the customers. The three network levels are constrained by various regulations and comprise different level of robustness. The Transmission System Operator (TSO), Svenska Kraftnät, is responsible for the function of the transmission network and for keeping the balance between consumption and production of electricity in Sweden, i.e. for maintaining the frequency at 50 Hz. Figure 1 Schematic outline of the Swedish power system including Lillgrund Ensuring a reliable interaction between all installations to the electrical system in Sweden is included in the responsibility. In order to keep a good function of the transmission network connected installations must fulfil specifications regarding functionality. The Distribution System Operators (DSO) must fulfil the given restrictions but may set additionally constraints on installations to their networks [4]. 4 (90)

19 2.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Interoperation between the electrical grid and the equipment connected is necessary to keep the network function. This is defined by IEC International Electrotechnical Commission as electromagnetic compatibility, EMC, the ability of equipment or a system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetical environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. On the other hand, power quality is defined in IEC as characteristics of the electricity at a given point in an electrical system, evaluated against a set of reference technical parameters, including interruptions, i.e. loss of continuous supply. The power quality is consequently determined by the supply quota (number of interruptions), the frequency and the voltage quality. In large systems the frequency is normally very stable. Variations in the Nordic grid shall be kept within 50 ± 0.1 Hz during normal operation. The ideal voltage is a sinusoidal waveform with 120 phase difference, constant amplitude and frequency. The voltage quality parameters are all affecting the system s voltage and its waveform in different ways and in different frequency ranges. The aim of the voltage quality is to achieve electromagnetic compatibility [5], [6]. Figure 2 Power Quality definition The function of a transmission grid is accordingly not only to transfer electromagnetic energy but also to provide adequate voltage quality at all connection points. All the parties connected to the power system affect the voltage quality and when the quality is not satisfactory the key question is whether the disturbance into the power system is too big or if the power system (network impedance) at the point of connection is too weak [4]. 2.2 Network strength A grid s ability to counter voltage deviations is described as the network s strength. In terms of power quality the network s strength is of great importance, since it influences the magnitude of the power quality parameters. By increasing the network s strength, all the power quality issues deriving from the customers can be reduced. This can be illustrated with Ohm s law and fluctuating current output: 5 (90)

20 Formula 1: Ohm s law This implies theoretically that the voltage would be perfect if the network impedance was zero (Z=0). Therefore, an infinitely strong network would be unaffected by large current outputs (i.e. no voltage variations, U). It is physically impossible to build an infinitely strong grid but very strong networks can be constructed, it is just an economical matter [7]. The short circuit power in the PCC, Point of Common Coupling, is also a measure of the networks strength and it generally increases with increased voltage level. It can be determined either by the operation voltage (U) and the short circuit current (I k ) or by using the short circuit impedance (Z k ). Formula 2: S k The short circuit ratio (SCR) is the ratio between the wind farm apparent power Sn and the network apparent power Sk. It determines the necessary short circuit power of the network in relation to the installed wind power in the PCC; more power needs a higher short circuit power [8]. Formula 3: SCR S k = short circuit power in the PCC S n = Wind farm apparent power 2.3 Planning levels In order to achieve good PQ, Power Quality, and EMC, tools such as compatibility levels and planning levels for PQ parameters have been introduced for the network operators. The electrical grid is not an inference free environment, thus the equipment 1 connected has to hold resilience against disturbances to be compatible with and able to operate. The method uses the resistance of the equipment against voltage deviations together with the emissions produced by the equipment and the network s impact, to provide accurate limits for power quality parameters. The immunity level is the magnitude of emission the equipment can handle without being affected. The level of emission describes the magnitude of emission created by the equipment. The background level includes all emissions from the grid, i.e. all unknown emission sources total emissions. The site disturbance level is the emission level plus the background level at 1 The term equipment is used in its broadest sense here, including both apparatus and fixed installations 6 (90)

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19 Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms

More information

Power Quality Centre VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM. Technical Note No. 7 August 2003

Power Quality Centre VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM. Technical Note No. 7 August 2003 Technical Note No. 7 August 2003 Power Quality Centre VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM This Technical Note discusses voltage fluctuations, their causes and adverse effects, what levels

More information

POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS. A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS

POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS. A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS By: Robert G. Ellis, P. Eng., Rockwell Automation Medium Voltage Business CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...

More information

Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

More information

Control Development and Modeling for Flexible DC Grids in Modelica

Control Development and Modeling for Flexible DC Grids in Modelica Control Development and Modeling for Flexible DC Grids in Modelica Andreas Olenmark 1 Jens Sloth 2 Anna Johnsson 3 Carl Wilhelmsson 3 Jörgen Svensson 4 1 One Nordic AB, Sweden, andreas.olenmark@one-nordic.se.

More information

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Effective June 1, 2008 A transition period will exist from June 1 through December 31, 2008 in which installations may be approved and connected as long as

More information

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers By Kevin Olikara, Power and Energy Management Products Rockwell Automation, Inc. Now, more than ever, electronic equipment and computing

More information

Power Quality & Custom Power

Power Quality & Custom Power Day-3 Power Quality & Custom Power Arindam Ghosh Dept. of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,, India E-mail: aghosh@iitk iitk.ac.in Power Quality (PQ) The term electric power

More information

Limits for Voltage Unbalance in the Electricity Supply System

Limits for Voltage Unbalance in the Electricity Supply System Engineering Recommendation No.10 of the Electricity Distribution Code Limits for Voltage Unbalance in the Electricity Supply System Version 1.0 30th November 2005 Prepared by: Abu Dhabi Distribution Company,

More information

CO-ORDINATION OF PARALLEL AC-DC SYSTEMS FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE

CO-ORDINATION OF PARALLEL AC-DC SYSTEMS FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE CO-ORDINATION OF PARALLEL AC-DC SYSTEMS FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE Ana Diez Castro & Rickard Ellström Ying Jiang Häfner Christer Liljegren Vattenfall Utveckling AB ABB Power Systems Gotlands Energiverk AB

More information

Power quality and system stability

Power quality and system stability Power quality and system stability Vindforsk projects, a survey of the development and research needs Elforsk report 12:39 Morten Hemmingsson and Daniel Karlsson, Gothia Power AB, April 2012 Power quality

More information

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Leon M. Tolbert, Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 28, Bldg Oak Ridge, TN 3783-6334 Alexandria, VA 2235-3862 Phone:

More information

Simulation and Analysis of PWM Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Simulation and Analysis of PWM Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive Simulation and Analysis of PWM Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive C.S.Sharma, Tali Nagwani Abstract Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation variable speed drives are increasingly applied in many new industrial

More information

COMPARISON OF THE FACTS EQUIPMENT OPERATION IN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

COMPARISON OF THE FACTS EQUIPMENT OPERATION IN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS COMPARISON OF THE FACTS EQUIPMENT OPERATION IN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Afshin LASHKAR ARA Azad University of Dezfoul - Iran A_lashkarara@hotmail.com Seyed Ali NABAVI NIAKI University of Mazandaran

More information

Dually Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Condition Monitoring Using Stator Current

Dually Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Condition Monitoring Using Stator Current Summary Dually Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Condition Monitoring Using Stator Current Joachim Härsjö, Massimo Bongiorno and Ola Carlson Chalmers University of Technology Energi och Miljö,

More information

General Validation Test Program for Wind Power Plants Connected to the Hydro-Québec Transmission System

General Validation Test Program for Wind Power Plants Connected to the Hydro-Québec Transmission System General Validation Test Program for Wind Power Plants Connected to the Hydro-Québec Transmission System Direction Planification des actifs et expertise de transport February 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. CONDUCTING

More information

Session 10: General Overview of Interconnection Standards & Grid Codes for High Penetration PV October 21, 2015 Santiago, Chile

Session 10: General Overview of Interconnection Standards & Grid Codes for High Penetration PV October 21, 2015 Santiago, Chile Session 10: General Overview of Interconnection Standards & Grid Codes for High Penetration PV October 21, 2015 Santiago, Chile Michael Coddington National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado,

More information

Variable Frequency Drives - a Comparison of VSI versus LCI Systems

Variable Frequency Drives - a Comparison of VSI versus LCI Systems Variable Frequency Drives - a Comparison of VSI versus LCI Systems Introduction TMEIC is a leader in the innovative design and manufacture of large ac variable f requency drive systems. TMEIC has been

More information

English version. Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution systems

English version. Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution systems EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM TC8X_WG1/Sec0026/INF/rev.2 EN 50160 Draft May 2005 ICS 29.020 Supersedes EN 50160:1999 English version Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied

More information

Cable Solutions for Servo and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD)

Cable Solutions for Servo and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Cable Solutions for Servo and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Electric drive systems with continuous torque and speed control are widespread today. They allow an optimal adjustment of the drive with respect

More information

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES WHITE PAPER: TW0062 36 Newburgh Road Hackettstown, NJ 07840 Feb 2009 Alan Gobbi About the Author Alan Gobbi Alan Gobbi

More information

Offshore Platform Powered With New Electrical Motor Drive System

Offshore Platform Powered With New Electrical Motor Drive System Offshore Platform Powered With New Electrical Motor Drive System Authors: Jan O. Lamell, M.Sc E.E. ABB Automation Technologies Presenters: Thomas Johansson, M.Sc E.E. ABB Automation Technologies Timothy

More information

Scholars Research Library

Scholars Research Library Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research, 2010, 2 (2):380-387 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN 0975-508X

More information

Calculating voltage dips in power systems using probability distributions of dip durations and implementation of the Moving Fault Node method

Calculating voltage dips in power systems using probability distributions of dip durations and implementation of the Moving Fault Node method Calculating voltage dips in power systems using probability distributions of dip durations and implementation of the Moving Fault Node method Master of Science Thesis MIKAEL WÄMUNDSON Department of Energy

More information

Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Grid Integration. Jian Sun, Professor and Director Department of ECSE & Center for Future Energy Systems

Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Grid Integration. Jian Sun, Professor and Director Department of ECSE & Center for Future Energy Systems Smart Grid and Renewable Energy Grid Integration Jian Sun, Professor and Director Department of ECSE & Center for Future Energy Systems 1 How Smart Can We Make This Grid? 2 Smart Grid Drivers Need to Use

More information

Readme10_054.doc page 1 of 7

Readme10_054.doc page 1 of 7 Readme10_054.doc page 1 of 7 Date of production: 2007-12-03 News in 10_054 Hardware 1) New thyristor module DASD 145, 600 V - 500 A 2) Improved speed control with incremental encoder at very low speed

More information

Laboratory and field measurements of the power factor and the harmonic emission from energy-efficient lamps

Laboratory and field measurements of the power factor and the harmonic emission from energy-efficient lamps Laboratory and field measurements of the power factor and the harmonic emission from energy-efficient lamps Sarah K. Rönnberg (1), Math H.J. Bollen (1,2), Mats Wahlberg (1,3) (1) Luleå University of Technology,

More information

Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2171489/ Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering Description: A forward

More information

DC TRANSMISSION BASED ON VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTERS

DC TRANSMISSION BASED ON VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTERS DC TRANSMISSION BASED ON VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTERS by Gunnar Asplund, Kjell Eriksson, Hongbo Jiang, Johan Lindberg, Rolf Pålsson, Kjell Svensson ABB Power Systems AB Sweden SUMMARY Voltage Source Converters

More information

Requirements for Offshore Grid Connections. in the. Grid of TenneT TSO GmbH

Requirements for Offshore Grid Connections. in the. Grid of TenneT TSO GmbH Requirements for Offshore Grid Connections in the Grid of TenneT TSO GmbH Bernecker Straße 70, 95448 Bayreuth Updated: 21 December 2012 1/10 Requirements for Offshore Grid Connections in the Grid of TenneT

More information

Functions, variations and application areas of magnetic components

Functions, variations and application areas of magnetic components Westring 18 3314 Büren Germany T +49 951 60 01 0 F +49 951 60 01 3 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliability 1.1 Transformers The transformer is one of the traditional components of electrical

More information

Sajith Shaik *, I.Raghavendar **

Sajith Shaik *, I.Raghavendar ** Power Quality Improvement Of Three Phase Four Wire Distribution System Using VSC With A Zig-Zag Transformer Sajith Shaik *, I.Raghavendar ** *(Department of Electrical Engineering, Teegala Krishna Reddy

More information

Product Data Bulletin

Product Data Bulletin Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system

More information

Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1

Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1 Experiment no 1 Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits Let v = m cos(ωt) = cos(ωt) is the voltage applied to a R-L circuit and i =

More information

Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

More information

Ingegneria Elettrotecnica. Development of Human Visual System Analysis Methods for the Implementation of a New Instrument for Flicker Measurements

Ingegneria Elettrotecnica. Development of Human Visual System Analysis Methods for the Implementation of a New Instrument for Flicker Measurements Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN Ingegneria Elettrotecnica Ciclo XXIII Settore/i scientifico-disciplinare/i di afferenza: ing-inf/07 Misure Elettriche e Elettroniche Development

More information

Test & Data Management Software

Test & Data Management Software Test & Data Management Software TDMS protective relays energy meters transducers power quality CT-VT-PT transformers ground grid circuit breakers batteries surge arresters The Integrated Testing Solution

More information

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka S S B Udugampala, V Vijayarajah, N T L W Vithanawasam, W M S C Weerasinghe, Supervised by: Eng J Karunanayake, Dr. K T M U Hemapala

More information

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

More information

Supply Standards: Electricity Supply Standard July 2011 4 JULY 2011 ISSUE 6 UNCLASSIFIED UNCONTROLLED COPY IF PRINTED

Supply Standards: Electricity Supply Standard July 2011 4 JULY 2011 ISSUE 6 UNCLASSIFIED UNCONTROLLED COPY IF PRINTED s: Electricity Supply Standard July 2011 4 JULY 2011 ISSUE 6 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE - s: Electricity PREPARED BY: Power Quality Manager AUTHORISED BY: General Manager Network Support DOCUMENT NUMBER: -

More information

TRACTION NETWORK MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM SMTN-3 CITY ELECTRIC TRANSPORT RAILWAYS METRO INDUSTRY

TRACTION NETWORK MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM SMTN-3 CITY ELECTRIC TRANSPORT RAILWAYS METRO INDUSTRY TRACTION NETWORK MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM SMTN-3 CITY ELECTRIC TRANSPORT RAILWAYS METRO INDUSTRY 2 TRACTION NETWORK MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM Traction network monitoring and protection system,

More information

ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit Transmission Line

ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit Transmission Line International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume-4, Special Issue-2, April 2016 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit

More information

Power Quality For The Digital Age INVERTING SOLAR POWER A N E N V IRONME N TA L P OT E N T I A L S W HI T E PA PER. www.ep2000.com 800.500.

Power Quality For The Digital Age INVERTING SOLAR POWER A N E N V IRONME N TA L P OT E N T I A L S W HI T E PA PER. www.ep2000.com 800.500. Power Quality For The Digital Age INVERTING SOLAR POWER A N E N V IRONME N TA L P OT E N T I A L S W HI T E PA PER Introduction Heat in the System The modern facility has been revolutionized by advancements

More information

Power System Harmonics

Power System Harmonics Pacific Gas and Electric Company Power System Harmonics What are power system harmonics? Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of electronic

More information

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Low-Frequency Standards. Standards on Low-Frequency Emission: IEC 61000-3-2

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Low-Frequency Standards. Standards on Low-Frequency Emission: IEC 61000-3-2 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Low-Frequency Standards Summary IEC 61000-3-2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current 16A per phase) IEC 61000-3-4: Limitation of emission of

More information

APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS

APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers The purpose of this application note is to aid the user in the selection and application of the Ultrasonic

More information

II. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARC FURNACES

II. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ARC FURNACES Electric Arc Furnace Flicker Mitigation in a Steel Plant Using a Statcom P.M.Sarma, Dr.S.V.Jayaram Kumar Professor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering

More information

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM Technical Note No.3 March 2000 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM This Technical Note discusses harmonic distortion, its causes and adverse effects, what levels are unacceptable and how

More information

TDMS Test & Data Management Software

TDMS Test & Data Management Software Test & Data Management Software TDMS protective relays energy meters transducers power quality CT-VT-PT transformers ground grid circuit breakers batteries surge arresters The Integrated Testing Solution

More information

The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies

The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies DATE: November 17, 1999 REVISION: AUTHOR: John Merrell Introduction In some short circuit studies, the X/R ratio is ignored when comparing

More information

TEST REPORT EN 55014-2 (1997) +A1 (2001)

TEST REPORT EN 55014-2 (1997) +A1 (2001) Page 1 of 23 TEST REPORT EN 55014-2 (1997) +A1 (2001) Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus Part 2: Immunity Report Reference No....

More information

Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Power Supply System Requirements

Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Power Supply System Requirements 1 Nuclear Power Plant Electrical Power Supply System Requirements Željko Jurković, Krško NPP, zeljko.jurkovic@nek.si Abstract Various regulations and standards require from electrical power system of the

More information

The Power Quality of Wind Turbines

The Power Quality of Wind Turbines THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY The Power Quality of Wind Turbines ÅKE LARSSON Department of Electric Power Engineering CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden 2000 The Power Quality

More information

INDUCTION MOTOR PERFORMANCE TESTING WITH AN INVERTER POWER SUPPLY, PART 2

INDUCTION MOTOR PERFORMANCE TESTING WITH AN INVERTER POWER SUPPLY, PART 2 INDUCTION MOTOR PERFORMANCE TESTING WITH AN INVERTER POWER SUPPLY, PART 2 By: R.C. Zowarka T.J. Hotz J.R. Uglum H.E. Jordan 13th Electromagnetic Launch Technology Symposium, Potsdam (Berlin), Germany,

More information

2012 San Francisco Colloquium

2012 San Francisco Colloquium 2012 San Francisco Colloquium http : //www.cigre.org HVDC and Power Electronic Systems for Overhead Line and Insulated Cable Applications B4-8 Trans Bay Cable A Breakthrough of VSC Multilevel Converters

More information

USE OF ARNO CONVERTER AND MOTOR-GENERATOR SET TO CONVERT A SINGLE-PHASE AC SUPPLY TO A THREE-PHASE AC FOR CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF A THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY USING A THREE-PHASE TO THREE-PHASE CYCLOCONVERTER

USE OF ARNO CONVERTER AND MOTOR-GENERATOR SET TO CONVERT A SINGLE-PHASE AC SUPPLY TO A THREE-PHASE AC FOR CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF A THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY USING A THREE-PHASE TO THREE-PHASE CYCLOCONVERTER International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April, 2016, pp.19-28, Article ID: IJEET_07_02_003 Available online at http:// http://www.iaeme.com/ijeet/issues.asp?jtype=ijeet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency. FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

More information

Make your electric distribution network safe

Make your electric distribution network safe Make your electric distribution network safe Increase security and quality of electric distribution system Think energy From your problems... Why do you pay too much for bad power quality, insecurity and

More information

CERN Accelerator School. Electrical Network and Power Converters. Hans Ulrich Boksberger Paul Scherrer Institute 5232 Villigen PSI Switzerland

CERN Accelerator School. Electrical Network and Power Converters. Hans Ulrich Boksberger Paul Scherrer Institute 5232 Villigen PSI Switzerland CERN Accelerator School Electrical Network and Power Converters Hans Ulrich Boksberger Paul Scherrer Institute 5232 Villigen PSI Switzerland 1/ 21 / 17.5.2004 / HU Boksberger Outline Utility Standards

More information

VOLTAGE CONTROL IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AS A LIMITATION OF THE HOSTING CAPACITY FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES

VOLTAGE CONTROL IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AS A LIMITATION OF THE HOSTING CAPACITY FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES VOLTAGE CONTROL IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AS A LIMITATION OF THE HOSTING CAPACITY FOR DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES C. Schwaegerl*, M.H.J. Bollen, K. Karoui #, A. Yagmur + *Siemens AG, # Tractebel STRI AB

More information

System Standard For the Installation of New Loads

System Standard For the Installation of New Loads System Standard For the Installation of New Loads Preface The purpose of this standard is to ensure the successful installation and connection of new loads to the ATCO Electric Distribution 1 system. For

More information

Power Quality. Uninterruptible Power Supply

Power Quality. Uninterruptible Power Supply Quality Uninterruptible Supply In the electrical system environment, power disturbances will occur. These can be caused by faults on the distribution system, the operation of nearby equipment, lightning

More information

Power System review W I L L I A M V. T O R R E A P R I L 1 0, 2 0 1 3

Power System review W I L L I A M V. T O R R E A P R I L 1 0, 2 0 1 3 Power System review W I L L I A M V. T O R R E A P R I L 1 0, 2 0 1 3 Basics of Power systems Network topology Transmission and Distribution Load and Resource Balance Economic Dispatch Steady State System

More information

Brochure Introducing HVDC

Brochure Introducing HVDC Brochure Introducing HVDC ABB and HVDC The world s first commercial high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link, situated between the Swedish mainland and the island Gotland, was delivered by ABB already in

More information

Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control Of Induction Motor

Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control Of Induction Motor International Journal of Engineering Inventions e-issn: 78-7461, p-issn: 319-6491 Volume 3, Issue 5 (December 013) PP: 36-41 Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive

More information

POWER TRANSMISSION FROM OFFSHORE WIND FARMS

POWER TRANSMISSION FROM OFFSHORE WIND FARMS POWER TRNSMISSION FROM OFFSHORE WIND FRMS Thorsten Völker University of pplied Sciences Bremerhaven Germany BSTRCT The future for wind power generation in Germany is offshore wind energy. The preferred

More information

EMI in Electric Vehicles

EMI in Electric Vehicles EMI in Electric Vehicles S. Guttowski, S. Weber, E. Hoene, W. John, H. Reichl Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, Germany Phone: ++49(0)3046403144,

More information

Electricity Service Standards

Electricity Service Standards CODE OF PRACTICE Electricity Service Standards Revised August 2015 Contents 1. Preface... 1 Format... 1 2. Application and Objectives... 2 3. Service Standards... 3 3.1 General... 3 3.2 Particular... 3

More information

Principles of Adjustable Frequency Drives

Principles of Adjustable Frequency Drives What is an Adjustable Frequency Drive? An adjustable frequency drive is a system for controlling the speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. A basic adjustable

More information

Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

More information

IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY (PQ) BY UPQC (UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER) IN POWER SYSTEM USING ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY (ANFIS) TECHNIQUE

IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY (PQ) BY UPQC (UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER) IN POWER SYSTEM USING ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY (ANFIS) TECHNIQUE International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April, 2016, pp.59 68, Article ID: IJEET_07_02_007 Available online at http:// http://www.iaeme.com/ijeet/issues.asp?jtype=ijeet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been

More information

Modeling and Simulation of a Large Chipper Drive

Modeling and Simulation of a Large Chipper Drive The Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal, 009, 3, 1-8 1 Modeling and Simulation of a Large Chipper Drive Open Access Christian Kral, Anton Haumer, Hansjörg Kapeller and Gert Pascoli Austrian

More information

Specification guide no. 9 Active harmonic conditioner from 20 to 480 A

Specification guide no. 9 Active harmonic conditioner from 20 to 480 A Active harmonic conditioner from 20 to 480 A Contents 1 - Installations concerned... 2 1.1 - New installations... 2 1.2 - Existing installations... 2 2 - General... 2 2.1 - Scope... 2 2.2 - Applicable

More information

Study of RF Spectrum Emissions in High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide Lamps. Lawrence P. Glaister VE7IT, Automation Engineer.

Study of RF Spectrum Emissions in High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide Lamps. Lawrence P. Glaister VE7IT, Automation Engineer. Study of RF Spectrum Emissions in High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide Lamps Lawrence P. Glaister VE7IT, Automation Engineer May 2010 Abstract: This research was performed in collaboration with the City

More information

NZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians

NZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians NZQA registered unit standard 0431 version Page 1 of 7 Title Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians Level 3 Credits 7 Purpose This unit standard covers

More information

Knowing the FACTS. FACTS that enhance power quality in rail feeder systems

Knowing the FACTS. FACTS that enhance power quality in rail feeder systems Knowing the FACTS FACTS that enhance power quality in rail feeder systems ROLF GRÜNBAUM, PER HALVARSSON, BJÖRN THORVALDSSON The increase in traffic on existing tracks combined with new high-speed rail

More information

Equipment Performance Due to Voltage Sags Test Results for Contactor and Induction Motor

Equipment Performance Due to Voltage Sags Test Results for Contactor and Induction Motor DOI 10.7603/s40707-013-0008-5 Equipment Performance Due to Voltage Sags Test Results for Contactor and Induction Motor Surya Hardi, Muhd. Hafizi, Muzamir Isa, Rohana Ismail Abstract This paper presents

More information

HVDC-VSC: transmission technology of the future

HVDC-VSC: transmission technology of the future A bi-pole ± 285 kv HVDC line sandwiched between 3-phase 400 kv HVAC lines. HVDC-VSC: transmission technology of the future A new hybrid HVDC circuit technology using voltage source converters is only half

More information

Harmonic Reduction and Load Balancing of Three Phase Four Wire DSTATCOM using Three Leg VSC and a Zig Zag Transformer

Harmonic Reduction and Load Balancing of Three Phase Four Wire DSTATCOM using Three Leg VSC and a Zig Zag Transformer IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development Vol. 3, Issue 05, 2015 ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Harmonic Reduction and Load Balancing of Three Phase Four Wire DSTATCOM using Three Leg

More information

Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant

Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 8 (2014) 1802-1810 D DAVID PUBLISHING Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant Dipesh Shrestha, Ankit Babu Rajbanshi, Kushal Shrestha and Indraman

More information

SVC LIGHT: A POWERFUL MEANS FOR DYNAMIC VOLTAGE AND POWER QUALITY CONTROL IN INDUSTRY AND DISTRIBUTION.

SVC LIGHT: A POWERFUL MEANS FOR DYNAMIC VOLTAGE AND POWER QUALITY CONTROL IN INDUSTRY AND DISTRIBUTION. SVC LIGHT: A POWERFUL MEANS FOR DYNAMIC VOLTAGE AND POWER QUALITY CONTROL IN INDUSTRY AND DISTRIBUTION. R. Grünbaum ABB Power Systems AB, AC Systems Division, Sweden. INTRODUCTION Modern society relies

More information

300 MW Variable Speed Drives for Pump-Storage Plant Application Goldisthal

300 MW Variable Speed Drives for Pump-Storage Plant Application Goldisthal May 24 MW Variable Speed Drives for Aurélie Bocquel APCG / 4BOC4 (MW-Goldisthal 1-5-24).PPT MW Variable Speed Drives for Content Major benefits of the cyclo-converter driven doubly-fed induction machines

More information

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder 1 1.1. Introduction to power processing 1.2. Some applications of power electronics 1.3. Elements of power electronics Summary of the course 2 1.1 Introduction

More information

The effect of inrush transients on PV inverter s grid impedance measurement based on inter-harmonic injection

The effect of inrush transients on PV inverter s grid impedance measurement based on inter-harmonic injection European Association for the Development of Renewable Energies, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ) International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 10) Granada (Spain), 23rd

More information

Power Quality A guide to voltage fluctuation and light flicker

Power Quality A guide to voltage fluctuation and light flicker Power Quality A guide to voltage fluctuation and light flicker Scope This guide provides a simple introduction to the theory of how light flicker is produced and how it is perceived. It includes a description

More information

Troubleshooting accelerometer installations

Troubleshooting accelerometer installations Troubleshooting accelerometer installations Accelerometer based monitoring systems can be tested to verify proper installation and operation. Testing ensures data integrity and can identify most problems.

More information

REPORT ON CANDIDATES WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2008 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY (TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO)

REPORT ON CANDIDATES WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2008 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY (TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO) CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL REPORT ON CANDIDATES WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2008 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY (TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO) Copyright 2008 Caribbean

More information

FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE

FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE 1.0 Features of Standard AC Motors The squirrel cage induction motor is the electrical motor motor type most widely used in industry. This leading position results mainly

More information

Midroc SWPTC. Big Glenn and Göteborg Wind Lab Ola Carlson. Stockholm 20130820

Midroc SWPTC. Big Glenn and Göteborg Wind Lab Ola Carlson. Stockholm 20130820 Midroc SWPTC Big Glenn and Göteborg Wind Lab Ola Carlson Stockholm 20130820 Torque measurements with constant and variabel speed Measurements from Chalmers test wind turbine 1986 Constant speed Variabel

More information

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Leon M. Tolbert, Member, EEE Oak Ridge ational Laboratory* P.O. Box 8, Bldg Oak Ridge, T 3783-6334 Alexandria, VA 35-386 Phone: (43)

More information

Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors. Kazuya SHIRAHATA

Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors. Kazuya SHIRAHATA Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors Kazuya SHIRAHATA Oriental Motor Co., Ltd. offers a wide variety of speed control motors. Our speed control motor packages include the motor,

More information

The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor. Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction

The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor. Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction 1 Agenda I. Harmonic Basics II. Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Active Harmonic Filters IV. Applications V.

More information

International ejournals

International ejournals ISSN 2249 5460 Available online at www.internationalejournals.com International ejournals International Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Technology and Humanities 113 (2014) 1221 1227 NEUTRAL CURRENT

More information

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD VERY LOW FREQUENCY (VLF) - PARTIAL DISCHARGES AND TANGENT DELTA HV/EHV POWER CABLES DIAGNOSTIC AND ON-SITE FIELD TESTING WITH

More information

Three-phase monitoring relay CM-PFE

Three-phase monitoring relay CM-PFE Data sheet Three-phase monitoring relay CM-PFE The CM-PFE is a three-phase monitoring relay that monitors the phase parameter phase sequence and phase failure in three-phase mains. 2CDC 251 005 S0012 Characteristics

More information

CEMEP UPS. The high environmental performance solution for power supply to high-availability data centers

CEMEP UPS. The high environmental performance solution for power supply to high-availability data centers CEMEP UPS The high environmental performance solution for power supply to high-availability data centers Exchanges of information and communication needs are growing at an exponential rate. That growth

More information

The utilization of synthetic inertia from wind farms and its impact on existing speed governors and system performance

The utilization of synthetic inertia from wind farms and its impact on existing speed governors and system performance The utilization of synthetic inertia from wind farms and its impact on existing speed governors and system performance (Part 2 Report of Vindforsk Project V-369) Elforsk rapport 3:02 Mohammad Seyedi, Math

More information

HVDC Technology for Large Scale Offshore Wind Connections

HVDC Technology for Large Scale Offshore Wind Connections HVDC Technology for Large Scale Offshore Wind Connections Nandan Mahimkar, Gunnar Persson,Claes Westerlind, ABB AB, SE-771 80, Ludvika, Sweden, nandan.mahimkar@in.abb.com, gunnar.persson@se.abb.com,claes.westerlind@se.abb.com,

More information

High Frequency Power Quality

High Frequency Power Quality High Frequency Power Quality Dr. Ing. Jos Knockaert, MSc jos.knockaert@ugent.be CE-ABLE Seminar 21st June 2016-1 Project: TETRA HFPQ funded by Dec 2014 Nov 2016 Main goals: - How to measure? - What are

More information