An Exploration of the Effects of Performance Appraisal in Municipal Health Services

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1 Til Doktorgradskollokvium i tilknytning til FIBE januar 2010 Mitt navn er Frǿydis Vasset. Jeg er en PhD student som er tilknyttet universitetet i Stavanger, samfumfunnsfaglig fakultet, avdeling ledelse. Jeg er ogsaa hǿgskolelektor ved hǿgskolen i Aalesund, avdeling helsefag. Dette semesteret oppholder jeg meg ved Robert Gordon University / Joanna Briggs research centre i Aberdeen, Skottland. Jeg har faatt et doktorgradslop over fire aar med 25% undervisningtid ved hǿgskolen i Aalesund. Jeg har allerede brukt tre aar og har dermed ett aar igjen. Jeg arbeider med ulike effekter av medarbeidersamtalen i kommunehelsetjenesten. Har tittil skrevet tre artikler som er sendt inn til ulike journaler og venter paa tilbakemelding fra dem. Arbeider naa med den fjerde artikkelen. Det er den artikkelen jeg ǿnsker aa fokusere ved doktorgradskollokvium den 6 januar Den siste artikkelen om medarbeidersamtaler i gruppe bygger paa de tre fǿrste artiklene 1 An Exploration of the Effects of Performance Appraisal in Municipal Health Services The aim of this study is to review and evaluate performance appraisals, and to reflect on the different effects that may occur through the use of this tool. Goal setting, feedback, participation and training in performance appraisal are the independent factors, and self-assessment, learning and job motivation are the dependent factors. Data were collected from 25 municipal health services in Norway. The results suggest that respondents learn a great deal from performance appraisals. For example nurses experienced higher job motivation than auxiliary nurses as a result of performance appraisal. All subordinates perceived higher job motivation than leaders resulting from performance appraisals. The study indicates that useful feedback, participation and education are fundamental elements in performance appraisals and help to increase job motivation. 2 Fair Performance Appraisal in the Municipal Health Service. The aim of this study is to illuminate issues surrounding justice factors in performance appraisal. The types of justice considered were mainly distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice. Data were collected from 25 municipal health services in Norway. Three-hundred and seventy-one of 600 respondents answered the survey, of which 93 % were women. Most of the respondents were nurses and auxiliary nurses. The study indicates that there is discrimination in performance appraisals. The description in groups and out groups is used, and there are differences and often unfair treatments of the out groups. 3 Leader- Member Exchanges in Performance Appraisal with Healthcares The aim of this study is to illuminate issues surrounding LMX (leader member exchanges) in performance appraisal (PA) in the municipal health service. Data was collected from 25 municipal health services (371 respondents), most nurses and auxiliary nurses from home nursing and nursing homes. The paper focus on high LMX, low LMX, and communication in LMX related to PA. The survey indicated that LMX in PA can perceived different for employees in municipal health services. Auxiliary nurses are more satisfied with

2 feedback in PA, and then higher LMX than nurses. Employees who work in nursing homes experienced higher LMX in PA than employees who works in home nursing. Leaders and subordinates experienced also different LMX in PA. Subordinate experienced higher LMX than leaders. Performance Appraisal in Groups The possible effects of the performance appraisal in groups. (A part of ) Introduction Early research on performance appraisal (PA) examined technical measurement issues and problems, and was followed by an onslaught on research related to the impact of cognitive processes of performance appraisals. Contemporary research focuses on some of the social, emotional, learning and motivational factors related to PA (DeNisi, 1996; Schraeder & Simpson, 2006). The scholars point out that the current PA is being carried out as individual conversations. The success indicates that group building efforts are such an important element in participative management style in this decade (DeNisi, 1996; English, Griffith, & Steelamn, 2007; Lanza, 1985). The present study focuses on PA in municipal health service in Norway, and how agreement between participation, satisfaction, exchange and achievement in PA can get more learning in groups than in individual PA conversations. Groups can simply be defined as two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each any of the other person (Guzzo. 1986; Shaw, 1981). Small groups have a number of advantages. It is easier in practical terms to come together. Each release to the discussions and process loss will be lower. The fewer one is in a group the less expertise in the team (Hjertǿ). ( Part of) Home nursing Nursing home Most municipal health services use nursing homes to help the needy elderly. About 10 % of the places are used for short-term stay, after hospital or injury, or for terminal care and respite for family members (Abrahamsen, 2002; White paper nr 25, ). Home nursing an alternative to institutions, and often serves younger clients. The employees in this situation must take a greater degree of responsibility for their work on their own, compared to workers in institutional settings. The supervisors in a home nursing situation has no ability to continuously oversee a nurse in her daily work (Blix, 1999)

3 ( Part of) Nurses and Auxiliary Nurses Occupational groups have different educational levels. Auxiliary nurses receive their education in secondary school, and nurses are educated at university college/university. An analysis of auxiliary nurses` career development shows little growth because auxiliary nurses have few opportunities for upward mobility within the profession. Theories and Hypothesis Occupational Groups Working Condition and Effort in Municipal Health Service. Groups with different people (age, education etc) are more innovative than those whose member is similar. They will bring usefully different perspectives into the group. Both relations oriented and task oriented domains associated with group innovation (Hjertø, 2009; West & Hirst, 2003). The scholars point out that the average performing nurse will be motivated and effort more if she or he will get into a group where all other nurses and auxiliary nurses were average employees` (Cardy & Korodi, 1991). Other researchers indicate that constantly changing work environment is a fundamental difference, meaning that the home care worker develops adaptive processes to accommodate different travel routes and different home conditions (O`Connor & Lee, 2007). However, Wangs (2006) research indicated that there is more enthusiasm with PA in group, exhibited by the younger employees. Seniors tented to give more detailed responses (Wang, 2006) Hypothesis 1 The working conditions and efforts to the project groups will increase from the pre survey to the survey after the second round with performance appraisals. Satisfaction with the Work Situation TEORI Hypothesis 2 Employees in process groups are more satisfied with the performance appraisal and learn more of the conversation than employees in control groups

4 Participation in Performance Appraisal. TEORI Hypothesis 3 Employees in process groups are more participant in performance appraisal and learn more of the conversation than employees in control groups Leader member exchanges in performance appraisal. TEORI Hypothesis 4 The higher the leader member exchange relationship quality are within the team, the higher the level of within-group climate agreement among the team members. Learning of Performance Appraisal (TEORI) Performance Appraisal in Groups (TEORI) Plan of field Work Time 74 items T1. Before the conversation T 2: After the conversation T 3: After the second conversation Program groups Questionnaire to respondents who should have performance appraisal as a group. performance appraisal as a group. performance appraisal as a group second time. Control groups respondents who should have the performance appraisal as individual conversations. performance appraisal as individual conversations. performance appraisal as individual conversations second time.

5 Model of the study Independent variable Dependent variable Conversation. 1) In small group. 2) Individual conversation. Effect of the conversation. 1) Subordinates. 2) With bachelor degree / undergraduate degree education. Education Effort Satisfaction. Participation. Leader member exchange. Process. Learning of performance appraisal in group. Sample The program groups in this study consisted of health personnel in a municipal health service in Norway. The control groups comprised from northern area in same municipal health service. These two subgroups were regarded as sufficiency similar with regard to important variables (age, education) to function as a control group. The program group and the control group were at the same working area. The program group and the control group were given the same survey. T1 one week before the PA started, T2 1-2 weak after the first PA, and T3 1-2 weak after the second PA (one year later). The questionnaire was sent home to 30 X 2 respondents, and about 28 respondents of each group answered each time. Most of the respondents worked in home nursing and nursing homes, and were educated nurses (24%) and auxiliary nurses (52%), while the remaining 24% represented other professions, such as janitors, social workers etc. Some of the respondents had no formal education in health work. In group, have about 13% of the respondent full-time job, 31% have % jobs and 49% have % job. In individual conversation, have about 15% of the respondent full-time job, 45% have 70-90% jobs, and 30% have 50-70% job. The sample has predominantly female respondents (93% 7%).

6 Jeg faar tilbake de siste sporreskjemaene fra respondentene dette semesteret ( hǿst 2009). Derfor har jeg ikke noe endelig resultat ennaa, men jeg ser en dendens. Jeg har arbeidet en del med statestikkskjemet i SPSS og bestemt at fokuset blir paa lǽring av medarbeidersamtalene i grupper. Er likevel litt usikker paa hypotesene. Jeg antar at denne usikkerheten er der fordi dette feltarbeidet indikerer mange problemstillinger og gir mange opplysninger. Her er trolig materiale til flere artikler. I doktorgradsarbeidet mangler jeg en artikkel. Derfor maa jeg fokusere paa en artikkel paa dette tidspunktet. Avgrensing er trolig det jeg trenger mest hjelp til. Froydis Vasset PhD candidate Hogskolen i Aalesund /Universitetet i Stavanger tlf

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