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1 Soybean Marketing & Production College, Minneapolis, MN Peter Kyveryga, Ph.D. Operations Manager of Analytics On-Farm Network, Iowa Soybean Association Technical Editor-Precision Agriculture of the Agronomy Journal July 30, 2013 isafarmnet.com

2 Outline 1. ISA On-Farm Network programs: strategies, tools, and communication venues. 2. Improving Soybean Disease Management: On-line fungicide economic decision tool. 3. Raising awareness of the weed herbicide resistance in Iowa. 4. Precision technologies to manage risk in soybean production.

3 ISA On-Farm Network Using Precision Agriculture Technologies and Tools to evaluate management practices in crop production ~ work with farmers in Iowa every year

4 Adaptive Management/Participatory Learning Organizing farmers to evaluate practices by using a specified methodology to address various production topics Adjust Plan Implement Farmers should be included as colleagues in evaluations Evaluate Analyze

5 Anonymous On-Line Reports for Soybean Replicated Strip Trials Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3 Rep 4 Fungicide Untreated Fungicide Untreated Fungicide Untreated Fungicide Untreated

6 Organizing Groups of Farmers Farmer groups 1. Local groups of farmers with similar evaluation objectives, soil, rainfall conditions, management or equipment. 2. Group leaders are local agronomists, consultants or company representives.

7 Communication Venues All data are posted on the web Grower meetings and conferences Magazine and special publications Scientific papers

8

9 Headlands Yield Response is Yield Change/Difference Allows to estimate the return ($/acre) from a given practice/input above the break-even cost. To measure YR, at least, 2 treatments are needed in replicated strip trials. Low Population High Population Low Population High Population Low Population High Population Low Population High Population Headlands

10 Advantages of Using Yield Response over Yield Data Product X Untreated Check Yield Difference Uncalibrated Yield Data Calibrated Yield Data bu. A Errors in Yield Monitor Calibration are less critical when using yield response (YR). The absolute errors are greater for yield data than for YR.

11 Average Production Cost in Soybean in 2012 Soybean, 50 bu/acre Cost ($) Cash rent equivalent 276??? Fertilizer 66 Seeds 50 Machinery 80 Labor 28 Herbicides (without insecticides and fungicides) 16 (+30) Crop insurance 15 Total cost: per acre 548 (+30) per bushel 11 (+1) Duffy, M Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa.

12 Disease Management and Plant Health Frogeye Leaf Spot Septoria Brown Spot Cercospora leaf blight Planthealth.info Planthealth.info Ipm.iastate.edu

13 Headline Fungicide Trials 282 on-farm replicated strip trials from 2005 trough 2009

14 Headline on Soybean Trials Year # of trials Average Yield Response (bu/acre) Pooled average % of trials with above break-even YR

15 Yield Response to Fungicide 95% 75% 25% 5% (March through May Rainfall)

16 Fungicide Greening Effect of Soybean Canopy Color Infrared Imagery of the Soybean Canopy

17 Color and Color Infrared Imagery Color: Blue Green Red Color Infrared: Green Red NIR

18 Fungicide Greening Effect of Soybean canopy Color Infrared Imagery of the Soybean Canopy

19 Probability of Above Break-Even YR for Visible and Non-Visible Strips 65% 30%

20 Yield Response by Spring Rain and Visible Strips

21 When and Where does Pyraclostrobin Pay on Soybean? 1. Greater probability of economic YR in fields with visual the greening effect and above-normal (>12 inches) spring rainfall. 2. Spring rainfall or soil/ plant canopy moisture can help avoid blanket fungicide applications and avoid developing fungicide resistance problems.

22 On-Line Fungicide Calculator Probability of exceeding the direct application costs of : net.com/calc/index.php using you market price and direct cost.

23 Glyphosate Resistant Weed Species in Iowa Common Waterhemp Giant Ragweed Horseweed (Marestail)

24 Evaluating Alternative Weed Management Systems to Glyphosate in Soybean What is the expected yield loss from using a residual herbicide program (R+G) compared with 2 Glyphosate applications (G2)?

25 Extreme Residual Herbicide in Soybean 8 trials in 2008 and 20 trials in 2009

26 Application Timing

27 Estimating Yield Differences within Fields

28 Early Season Visual Differences R+G G2 G2 R+G

29 Yield Response for Trials With and Without Visual Differences -1.5 bu/acre -0.2 bu/acre

30 Early Season Rainfall Effect On Yield Loss from Residual System 50% 15% 20 in 20 in Break-even YR (bu/acre)

31 Residual Herbicide System Performed the Same as Glyphosate! 1. Substituting one Glyphosate application for Residual herbicide did not change much soybean yields, even in fields that had early season visual differences. 2. In trials with excessive March through June rainfall, the probability of economic yield loss from R+G system was about 3 times more likely than from G2.

32 Spring Rainfall in

33 Spring Rainfall in

34 Precision Ag Tools to Manage Various Risks 1. Farmers have good understanding of the risk when marketing grain (e.g., future prices, hedging, etc). 2. But in crop management the major focus is on Rates or Products without considering the uncertainty and risk in weather, data, and recommendations.

35 Quantifying Risk in Soybean Management RISK MANAGEMENT Estimating odds when and where we can expect a payoff or economic loss from a given management practice, product or technology.

36 Acknowledgement

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