Anticoagulation Management Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. Case 1

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1 2011 MFMER slide-1 Anticoagulation Management Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results Fadi Elias Shamoun, MD Mayo Clinic in Arizona Albert Einstein Anticoagulation Management Learning Objectives Appreciate the pharmacokinetic differences between novel anticoagulants Tailoring anticoagulation therapy to patient needs Recent updates on the treatment of VTE Case 1 89 year old retired physician May 2009 Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation CHADS-2 score: 3 (C, H, A) Tachybrady syndrome June 2009: AV sequential PPM May 2010: AV node ablation Mild cognitive impairment Risk Assessment for Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation CHADS-2 Score Points CHF (90 days) 1 Hypertension 1 Age >75 years 1 Diabetes 1 Stroke/TIA 2 Stroke Prediction in AF CHADS 2 Annual Adjusted Score Stroke Rate 95% CI JAMA 2001:285:2864 JAMA 2001:285:2864

2 Atrial Fibrillation Background 5-fold increased risk of stroke Hematuria Vitamin K held held Hematuria Tongue bleeding held held reduces this risk ~70% Aspirin reduces this risk ~20% INR Restarted Restarted Restarted stopped started Restarted 0 11/21 11/23 12/7 12/9 12/13 Date Why Search for New Anticoagulants? Frequent monitoring with dose alteration Coexisting medications Coexisting illnesses Dietary variability Compliance Why Search for New Anticoagulants? Often not prescribed when indicated 35% of ideal candidates with atrial fibrillation not offered warfarin Especially true for Blacks and Hispanics Stroke. 2006;37: Rates of discontinuation are high At 1 year, >25% of patients will stop warfarin despite an ongoing indication Circulation. 2007;115: Manucci PM. Lancet 98;688 Quality Measures for Management Meaningful Outcomes Efficacy Safety Surrogate Time in therapeutic range (TTR) Often averages 50% or less TTR = Time in range (INR ) Total time on warfarin Novel Oral Anticoagulants Oral DTI Renal clearance Twice daily Direct factor Xa inhibitor Renal clearance Once daily Direct factor Xa inhibitor Hepatic clearance Twice daily Edoxaban Direct factor Xa inhibitor Hepatic clearance Once daily Circulation 2010; 121:

3 Targets of New Inhibitors X IX IXa VIIIa Xa Va Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin Why Target Thrombin Prothrombin X Xa Va VIIIa Fibrinogen Thrombin Fibrin Self-amplification Factor XIII Platelet In contrast to heparin, DTIs have access to clot bound thrombin No local inhibitor of DTIs -Etexilate Oral direct thrombin inhibitor MW: 684 Prodrug with rapid in vivo activation 6% bioavailability Rapid onset: 2 hours post ingestion T1/2: ~17 hours Renal excretion (80%) Twice daily dosing 150 mg tablet strength Creatinine clearance >30 ml/min 75 mg tablet strength Creatinine clearance ml/min Based entirely on pharmacokinetic profiling Hematol. 2008;37: Hematol. 2008;37: FDA approval October 19, 2010 First oral anticoagulant approved >50 years Approved indication Non-valvular atrial fibrillation No dosing information CrCl <15 ml/mi Pregnancy, nursing mothers Pediatric patients Are There Drug Interactions? P-Glycoproteins (PgP) Efflux transporters Promote drug excretion PgP Hematol. 2008;37:259

4 Are There Drug Interactions? P-Glycoproteins (PgP) PgP Inducers Reduce circulating drug levels ie, Rifampin Inhibitors Increase circulating levels In patients with atrial fibrillation, dabigatran given at a dose of 110 mg was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of major hemorrhage. administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. ie, Quinidine, Amiodarone in AF RE-LY Study Outcomes Event rates/year, % TTR: RELY: 64% Other RCTs: 66% AC Clinics: 66% Community: 57% P<0.001 P<0.001 Stroke/ embolism P<0.001 ICH P=0.003 Major bleed 110 bid 150 bid P=0.031 P=0.10 P=0.04 Composite* Peri-Procedural Recommendations for Based on Renal Function Renal Function, CrCl, ml/min > Half-Life, Hours (Range) 15 (12-34) 18 (13-23) 27 (22-35) Timing of Discontinuation Prior to Surgery Standard Risk of Bleeding 24 hours At least 48 hours 2-5 days High Risk of Bleeding 4 days 4 days >5 days *CVE, TE, PE, MI, death, MB for 1 net clinical benefit Connolly SJ et al. NEJM 2009; 361: Van Rynn Thromb Haem. 2010; 103:1116 Surgical Procedures at High Risk for Bleeding Open heart surgery Abdominal vascular surgery Neurosurgery Major cancer surgery Urologic procedures Problem: Many procedures with low bleeding risk use neuraxial anesthesia Peak and Trough Plasma Concentration of Dose C max (ng/ml) C trough (ng/ml) 150 mg bid 184 (64-443) 90 (31-225) *Both Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD over estimate creatinine clearance Van Rynn Thromb Haemst 2010;103:1116

5 Pre-Procedural Recommendations How do we do it? Define the surgical date Define the creatinine clearance If 50, stop 5 days prior If <50, stop 7 days prior If high risk of hemorrhage, check pre-operative thrombin time to ensure complete elimination Follow-Up Once is Initiated Initial consultation Clinical assessment Patient education Insurance analysis and prior authorization Individualized treatment recommendations Follow-up with referring provider Initiation of therapy if appropriate Follow-up phone call in 7-14 days to evaluate drug tolerance and adverse effects Follow-up phone call 1 month later, Rx, and refills Quarterly phone follow-up Compliance Education SCr and CrCl annually or more frequently if needed Clinical assessment Patient education Peri-procedural management Targets of New Inhibitors X IX IXa VIIIa Xa Edoxaban Va Prothrombin Thrombin In patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. There was no significant betweengroup difference in the risk of major bleeding, although intracranial and fatal bleeding occurred less frequently in the rivaroxaban group. Fibrinogen Fibrin Cumulative Rates of the Primary End Point (Stroke or Systemic Embolism) in the Per-Protocol Population and in the Intention-to-Treat Population AVERROES Trial Events in Per-Protocol Population Events in Intention-to-Treat Population Cumulative event rate (%) Cumulative event rate (%) Days since randomization No. at risk Days since continuation No. at risk Patel et al: N Engl J Med 2011;365:883-91

6 Novel Factor Xa Inhibitors Edoxaban Mol Wt In patients with atrial fibrillation, apixaban was superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, caused less bleeding, and resulted in lower mortality. Prodrug No No No Time to peak, hrs T1/2, hrs Antidote None None None Thromb Res 2011;S2:S5 Drug Interactions P-glycoprotein inhibitors CYP3A4 inhibitors Protease inhibitors Macrolide antibiotics Azole antifungals Laboratory Monitoring Generally not indicated Not suitable for efficacy May be useful in bleeding patients Thrombin Ecarin PT-INR aptt Time Time aptt 2 x control after 1-2 hours 1.5 x control at 12 hours J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(Suppl. 1): Effect on Hemoclot Thrombin Time Drug Trial NNT to prevent 1 ischemic event over warfarin per year NNT to prevent 1 major bleeding episode over warfarin per year 110 mg BID 150 mg BID RE-LY ROCKET-AF Trough concentration range ARISTOTLE

7 Magnitude of Benefit (CHADS score ignored)) 110 mg 150 mg Sub Group Analysis (Adapted Subgroup Wt < 60 Kg Wt > 60 Kg Age < 65 () Age > 65 () CHADS 2 Score Stroke or TIA () Yes No Creatinine Clearance <50 >50 for Presentation) Newer agents better better Proposed Use of Anticoagulants in AF Needs based on CHADS 2 Score Avoid in patient's with High dose PPI may inhibit CAD absorption of 7 out 10 INR>2 < 7 out 10 INR>2 Renal failure patients warfarin may be safer Continue Age<75 CHADS Age>75 CHADS 2 >3 Non compliant patients are better off with warfarin as it is longer acting Case 60 yr-old with diabetes, HTN and atrial fibrillation Home meds includes: Lisinopril 10mg daily Metoprolol 50mg Bid, 20mg daily, Atrovastatin 10mg daily Admitted for chest pain Coronary angiogram showed 80% stenosis in the LAD What would be your recommendations for anticoagulation? What if he had no diabetes or HTN? Case 85 yr-old with mild dementia, HTN and atrial fibrillation She had few falls over the past year What would be your choice for anticoagulation? What if her Cr 2.0 What if she has used warfarin for 7 years? Managing Bleeding Complications No suitable antidote Time is not the antidote Hours T½ 17 T½ 10 Apixoban T½ 12 Edoxaban T½ 10 J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(Suppl. 1):

8 Managing Bleeding Complications Not plasma (FFP) Focused identification and correction of bleeding site(s) Endoscopy Surgery Interventional radiology (coiling) Red cell transfusion, pressors, mechanical ventilation J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(Suppl. 1): Hemodialysis? Small molecule, ~60% dialyzable Problems Volume distribution ~50 liters Requires central venous catheter If reasonable renal function, dialysis may not greatly augment clearance Requires >2 hours Plasmapheresis and hemofiltration do not work J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(Suppl. 1): Bridging Therapy Goals of Bridging Therapy Minimize: Thromboembolism during anticoagulation interruption Bleeding Inconvenience Economic burden What is the Peri-Procedural Risk of Thromboembolism? Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation Bridging Atrial Fibrillation Peri-Procedural Event Rates: Author No. Clot, % Bleed, % Douketis Pengo Kovacs Dunn Wysokinski Total 1,

9 is Fighting to Stay Alive Excellent efficacy Low cost of $.75 per day Long track record (1954) Centralized anticoagulation clinics that maintain TTRs >60% Rapid turnaround genetic testing Point-of-care testing $ Cost of AC Billion 2400 LMWH US Dollars 2014 Heparin DTI Other Factor Xa inhibition Billion Dollars

10 VTE Prevention Ortho: THR, TKR, Hip Fracture VTE Prevention Non-Ortho Surgery, Medical Edoxaban Where Approved EU, Canada EU, Canada, US EU Japan Not Approved Edoxaban DVT and/or PE Treatment (recently approved in UK for DVT treatment only) (approved in EU and US) Take Home Points Novel oral anticoagulants, though expensive, will provide more choices and convenience for clinicians and patients to prevent and treat VTE s low price, efficacy, and long track record will prolong its life Look for 2016 updated guidelines for changes in the management of VTE Edoxaban Questions and Discussion

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