BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY of Mercantile Personalities of Penang

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1 the island quickly developed into a flourishing maritime port of exchange. By 1805 the population was so diversified as at this day to write in 13 distinct alphabets, & speak in 28 distinct dialects. The 200 concise biographies of early Penang mercantile personalities included in this volume offer the reader a rare and invaluable glimpse into their lives. The selection is a veritable cultural cross-section of those who pioneered the growth of Penang in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It highlights not only their contribution to the economic, social, political and cultural development of Penang, but also of Malaysia and Southeast Asia as a whole. At last an invaluable historical directory of merchants, traders and shopkeepers who contributed to the growth of all sectors of Penang s economic and social development CHEAH BOON KHENG (Retired) Professor of History, Universiti Sains Malaysia, author of Malaysia: The Making of a Nation, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, The merchant and business community has formed a major pillar in Penang since the late 18th century. This biographical dictionary offers a scholarly collection of data on the members of this community up to the mid-20th century and is useful not only as a ready reference but as a stimulus to further research on these personalities. DR LEONARD Y. ANDAYA, Professor of Southeast Asian History, University of Hawai i at Manoa, author with B.W. Andaya of The History of Malaysia, University of Hawaii Press, Penang was built on commerce, and without an understanding of the personalities who initiated and sustained this commerce, our knowledge of the history of the island will inevitably be partial. This volume thus does us a great service by detailing an extensive range of the merchants and business people from all communities who, over two centuries, built Penang into a major trading and commercial centre. DR. GEOFFREY WADE, author of Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY of Mercantile Personalities of Penang Following the settlement of Penang by the British East India Company in 1786 open access resource. Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, Loh Wei Leng, Badriyah Haji Salleh, Mahani Musa, Wong Yee Tuan and Marcus Langdon Editors


3 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY of Mercantile Personalities of Penang Loh Wei Leng, Badriyah Haji Salleh, Mahani Musa, Wong Yee Tuan and Marcus Langdon Editors Think City and MBRAS 2013

4 Copyright 2013 Think City & MBRAS Text copyright 2013 by individual contributors. Published by THINK CITY and MBRAS 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of THINK CITY and MBRAS. Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Biographical dictionary of mercantile personalities of Penang / Loh Wei Leng [et al.] Includes index Bibliography: p. 198 ISBN Penang Biography Dictionaries. I. Loh, Wei Leng Think City Sdn Bhd Level 14, EPF Building 38, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah George Town Penang, Malaysia Tel: (6) Fax: (6) Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 4B (2nd floor) Jalan Kemuja, off Jalan Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: (6) Fax: (6)

5 CONTENTS Foreword 2 Acknowledgements 3 Introduction 4 Explanatory Note on Entries 9 List of Entries 10 Entries 12 Brief Entries 179 Illustrations Glossary 192 Abbreviations 193 Contributors (biodata) 196 Bibliography 198 Author Index (entries) 214 Index of Names 218 1

6 FOREWORD The romance of empire building can lead us to forget that the modern empires came not from heroic and glorious deeds but out of long-distance commerce that ultimately made the empires global, pushing them to reach out to every corner of the world. The lives of those adventurers who saw opportunities to extend British, Dutch or French rule and fill their colonies with exotic peoples are, of course, attractive as historical yarns. And speculations about court and imperial intrigues have always added spice to those stories. But it is the down-to-earth records of successes and failures of people seeking to make a living and perchance build their fortunes that explain why some of the imperial ports succeed and others fail. The rise of the port of Penang highlights this contrast. Much has been written about the port in terms of the geopolitics of imperial rivalry and the ingenuity of English East India Company officials with feudal Malay rulers. It has thus been easy to forget the mundane efforts of the merchants, artisans and workers whose enterprise and courage made Penang the great trading port at the northern end of the Straits of Malacca.. The editors of this dictionary of biographies have set out to remind us what the real story was behind the port s success. Perhaps even more important is the way the dictionary shows the multiple identities of the mercantile personalities who enlivened the place. Penang did not create the diversity by itself. That was already there in the neighbourhood, in Kedah, Aceh, Deli, Junk Ceylon and beyond, the various polities that had, over the centuries, attracted merchants from India, the Arab world, the southern Chinese coasts, as well as peoples from various parts of the Malay Archipelago. But the British decision to make Penang a free port was the great innovation. It set the scene for high levels of activity that brought so many risk-taking entrepreneurs to its wharfs. Furthermore, those who came quickly saw the possibilities of opening up the peninsular mainland, especially the state of Perak, for its tin mines and subsequently the plantations that gave rise to large-scale industrial agriculture. Prior studies have selectively told some of the more dramatic stories. Thus some of the names in this volume are familiar and their exploits have become household legends. But the majority of those included here are little known except to a handful of local historians. And the editors have dug deeper into the surviving records and pursued new leads with local families. Through their efforts, they have uncovered accounts of lives that have been less dramatic but no less significant to the growth of Penang s economy from the late 18th to the 20th centuries. They make absorbing reading. Once started, I could not put the book down and I shall be dipping into it again and again for the intriguing glimpses of the past that each story gives us. I congratulate the editors for recovering the past for us by giving flesh and blood to people who otherwise would have been no more than names on a long list. In particular, the editors and their assiduous collaborators have clearly demonstrated, through the lives of the leaders of the mercantile communities, who really laid the foundations for this lovely historic city in Southeast Asia. WANG GUNGWU National University of Singapore 1st September

7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks must first of all go to Think City and to the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS) for consenting to be joint publishers of this volume. Grateful acknowledgement is due to the following persons and institutions for their permission granted to use photos and images: Arkib Negara Malaysia, National Archives, U.K., Penang State Museum, Penang State Library, Timothy Tye ( Ooi Bok Khim, David Ng, Major (Rtd), The Indian Chamber of Commerce, Al-Alam Al-Islam i magazine, Sim Jin Tang, House of Yeap Chor Ee, Tan Yeow Wooi, Tan Kim Hong, Pishu Murli Hassaram. The following have also to be thanked for their supply of photos and images, some of which form part of the collage on the front and back inside covers: Penang Islamic Museum, Abodd ben Hariz, Abdul Waheed bin Abdul Wahab, Ashiah binti Tajuddin, Habsah Abdul Rahman, Mohd. Mustakim Mohd. Mastan, Noor Jahan, Sabariah bt Haji Hussain Long, Shaikh Ismail, Sheikh Abu Bakar, S.M. Mohamed Idris, Syarifah Zaharah and Syed Idrus, Syed Mohamed bin Haji Mohamed Ali, Dato Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin. To Jeffery Seow, our thanks for the Index of Names. Thanks are also due to Professor Wang Gungwu who kindly agreed to write a foreword. 3

8 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY of Mercantile Personalities of Penang (BDMPP) In the Preface to the Biographical Dictionary of Republican China (1967), Howard L. Boorman referred to the writing of Arthur W. Hummel who had produced what he deemed to be still the single indispensable Western reference to modern Chinese history. While there are of course many later and more extensive biographical reference works on China, what remains of relevance is what Hummel spoke of, namely, the extraordinary amount of time expended to track down a single date [requiring] many hours of tedious searching, a process which the writers of biographical entries in this volume have undergone. This is not to say that a biographical study is so different from other forms of historical writing. It is only to highlight the requisite effort involved in the preparation of entries on selected individuals, no matter the length. The pursuit to collect acceptable evidence is directly related to the reliability and accuracy of the information presented here. It cannot be stressed enough that the end product is very much dependent on the sources consulted. The references for each entry include a wide assortment of material, primary and secondary, as the bibliography attests to. However, the likelihood of new data emerging with the completion of this volume is a very real possibility, necessitating amendments in the event of a subsequent revised edition. In keeping with the times, a variety of research aids spawned by the growth of the internet have also been used. The caveat here is that only data with accompanying references have been cited in our work; those without substantiation have nonetheless provided leads to further exploration with a view of attaining evidence to corroborate the information supplied. The coverage here is by no means comprehensive. It is but a small window to the prominent personalities in one segment of society, mercantile and business, and in one era, the pre-independent. This leaves other periods and other equally significant components of society social, cultural, political to mention but a few deserving their place in the history of Penang. The section on brief entries points to the need for further research to capture the many more personalities who have contributed to the economic life of Penang. Biographical Dictionaries are meant to serve as reference works to aid in an understanding of specific eras of history and to enable writers to move beyond generalisations. This effort is directed at providing detailed, and perhaps even essential, material for those seeking to undertake more in-depth histories of Penang as well as for those interested to write genealogical histories. 4

9 More specifically, information on the major mercantile personalities of Penang from the late eighteenth century will serve to amplify and augment the information contained in contemporary literature such as Historical Personalities of Penang (1986). The BDMPP will provide a solid knowledge base for the study of the roles of the mercantile community in Penang in social, economic, political and cultural developments, not only in Penang but also Malaysia and Southeast Asia as a whole. In addition, in the process of research, we have found it to be more meaningful to broaden our scope to include those involved in business in general, as merchants have a close symbiotic relationship with the broader business community. Hence, this project s inclusion of some Penang personalities, who, while not directly involved in commerce, will indirectly throw light on the general environment of the era during which mercantile activities were conducted. This personalities-based approach can unravel sufficient detail to illuminate the various dimensions of Penang s multicultural and rich history of its cosmopolitan beginnings. Turning now to the historical background of trade and commerce of Penang. During the 16th century, the Portuguese in Melaka used Penang as a rendezvous for their merchant ships that carried goods from India to be brought to the Singapore Strait and to offer protection to ships from further east against Malays from Kuala Kedah and Johor. 1 In 1592, when the Portuguese were still in power in Melaka, the first English voyage led by James Lancaster stopped in Penang for several months for shelter, describing the island as uninhabited. Although there is very little recorded information about Penang during these years, we can only assume that Penang s natural resources were sufficient to provide shelter, food and water to those who may have stopped over at the island. Amongst these might have been Malay, Acehnese, Bugis and other regional vessels, as well as the Portuguese, and later Dutch, ships that used the Strait of Malacca as their commercial highway for trade between India 1 D.K.Bassett (1960). European Influence in the Malay Peninsula in L.A. Mills (1960). British Malaya JMBRAS, Vol XXXIII, Pt 3: 12. and ports further east, as well as within the Malay archipelago. Malay traders from Kedah and Lingga in Sumatra were already familiar with Tanjung Penaga (where Fort Cornwallis was later located) in Penang which they called Pulau Kesatu. 2. Batu Uban in Penang island opposite Pulau Jerejak was a Malay settlement believed to be founded by Haji Mohammad Salleh from Minangkabau in the 1730 s. As noted in Norman Macalister s historical memoir to the EIC of 1803: When the island was first taken possession of, there were two or three individuals, natives of the island, who subsisted by fishing, and extracting from the trees dammer and wood-oil; one of these people, a very old man, gave an account of there having been, about sixty years ago, a great many inhabitants on the island, not less than 2,000; and that, at one place, it was well cultivated: which is indeed evinced by the number of burying places seen on that part of the island, which compacted a space of about two square miles; from it having no large trees, but many fruit trees; and, above all, from the appearance of enclosures and furrows. Those people who were settled upon the island, having given themselves up to piracy and plunder, which disturbed the commerce of Queda, the king fitted out an armament and expelled every soul from the island. Until the time however when it came into our hands, it continued to be the resort of piratical Malays, of whom there is still a great number in the Straits of Malacca. 3 British reports indicate that there had been Malay settlements around Sungai Pinang, Perak Road, Dato Kramat and around Muka Head where several Acehnese graves dated from the 16th century were found. 4 When Francis Light arrived in 1786 he noted that some of the Inhabitants of the Island who Dwell at the Foot of the Hills came to see what 2 Mahani Musa (2012). Early History: Penang before 1786 in Muhammad Haji Salleh (ed.). Early History of Penang. Penang, Penerbit USM: Norman Macalister (1803). Historical Memoir Relative to Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca. London: private publication. 4 Mokhtar Saidin (2012). Archeology: Early Settlements in Seberang Perai and Penang Island in Muhammad Haji Salleh (ed.). Early History of Penang. Penang, Penerbit USM: 13. 5

10 was happening. Light later employed several of them to assist in cutting down the jungles around Tanjung Penaga. These inhabitants were later enumerated at both 58 and 158 in returns to Bengal. It is undeniable though, that the British occupation of Penang spurred the growth of population on the island. Within the first two decades of their administration, the number of people jumped from an estimate of 1,000 in 1788 to 12,000 in By the 1810 census, Chinese were the most numerous, followed by Indians, Malays and a small number of Europeans. Many of the Malays which included the Bugis, Acehnese, Minangkabaus, Javanese and others from the Malay archipelago were traders. 5 Indeed, the arrival of Francis Light in July 1786 with verbal permission from the Sultan of Kedah for an East India Company settlement in Penang ushered in a new and accelerated period of mercantile activity on the island. In the first few formative decades that followed, the island had little to offer as far as exports went, but it would well serve the purpose for which it was settled a port of refreshment for naval, Company and country trade vessels. However, behind this simplistic anglo-centric function, a large regional exchange-based trade rapidly grew. Much of this was seasonal. Annually a large fleet of Bugis traders would bring gold, cloth, and cash in silver dollars, exchanging them for opium, imported iron and piece goods. This trade alone was estimated by Light to be worth a staggering 1.5 million dollars to other settlements in the Straits even before Penang was settled by the Company. Indian traders from Bengal and the Coromandel and Malabar coasts brought cloth, cotton, piece goods, salt, coir, sandalwood and tobacco, exchanging them for gold and miscellaneous goods. Acehnese traders brought pepper, gold and beetlenut, trading them for Indian piece goods, opium and iron. From Junk Ceylon (Phuket) came tin, bird s nest and beche-de-mer in exchange for opium and piece goods. Chinese brought exotic goods such as inlaid furniture, exquisite pottery, tea, silk, paper and a vast array of small goods, taking away opium, cotton goods, tin, pepper, beetlenut and a variety of small goods. Malay traders brought tin, rattans, resins and gold, purchasing Indian and European piece goods, opium, iron and steel. Vessels from Europe and America brought iron, steel, copper, lead, cloth, woollens, liquor and a vast variety of foodstuffs and household goods, taking away cloth, piece goods, cotton, pepper and opium for sale in China. Many an East India Company ship s captain made his fortune from the privilege of utilising spare tonnage for his own goods. It is clear then that the whole of these traders combined created a complete marketplace. Each relied on the produce of the other to fulfil their requirements. Tamil Indians had been trading in the Straits long before the Company settled Penang. Travelling east with the southwest monsoon from April onwards they would return with the onset of the northwest monsoon from October onwards. This pattern continued once Penang was settled, however many also put down roots, building or leasing warehouses or godowns. Francis Light, in a letter to Bengal dated 25 January 1794 observed that: The Second class of our Inhabitants [after the Chinese] consists of the Chooliars or People from the several Ports on the Coast of Coromandel the greater part of these have long been inhabitants of Queda and some of them born there they are all Shopkeepers and Coolies about one thousand are settled here some with Families the Vessels from the Coast bring over annually 1500 or 2000 Men who by traffic and various kinds of labor obtain a few Dollars with which they return to their homes and are succeeded by others. This is rather a drain upon the Stock of the Island but as they are Subjects of the Company it ultimately tends to the General good. 6 These additional workmen were primarily employed as coolies, boatmen, and makers of bricks and lime. By 1810, the number of Tamils (also known as Chulias or Klings and predominantly Muslim) and Bengalees, along with a smattering of Parsees, 5 L.A. Mills (1960). British Malaya JMBRAS, Vol XXXIII, Pt 3: SSFR, R4 V6 Bengal Consultations,1 August

11 was recorded as being 6,520 in a total population on the island, excluding Company and military employees, of 21,469. This represented some 30% of the populace. The Chinese constituted 36%, Malays and Arabs 25%, Eurasian Catholics 4%, Burmese and Siamese 2% and Europeans, Armenians and others rounding up the last 3%. A further 2,953 people were recorded at Prai on the mainland, of which 40 were Chulia and Bengalee, 212 Chinese and 2701 Malays. 7 Although the numbers would continue to fluctuate over the following decades with the mobile nature of the Indian trade, the percentage of permanent residents remained significant. Today the Indian population of Penang, including Seberang Prai, averages around 9.8%; the Chinese around 40%; the Malays around 42%; other around 0.4% and foreign nationals making up the balance of 7.8% of a total population in excess of 1.6 million. 8 The result of the multi-ethnic diasporas making Penang a destination is highlighted in a report by outgoing Lieutenant Governor Robert Townsend Farquhar in 1805 in which he stated that the population was so diversified as at this day to write in 13 distinct alphabets, & speak in 28 distinct dialects. 9 The Chinese who first came to Penang were mainly from the surrounding port-polities like Kedah, Melaka, and Ligor, long established as hubs for entrepôt trade between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Over time, Chinese from South China ports, trading in junks in the Malay archipelago, had settled and established themselves as merchant-trading communities. Moving from locations in the region to Penang with their business experience and networks, the Chinese merchants and traders formed one of the important business groups on the island. When the British introduced revenue farms to raise state income to cover the cost of maintaining the island, they sought to gain control of them. Two major revenue farms, opium and arrack, for example, were firmly in the hands of the Chinese from to SSR, A8, I10, 15 March 1810, Appendix. 8 Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 9 SSFR R5 V8, Farquhar s report of 18 September Wong Lin Ken ( ) The Revenue Farms of Prince Wales Island, , Journal of the South Seas Society, Vol.19, No.1&2: 122. In the early 19th century, the Chinese constituted one of the major population groups, alongside Malays and Indians. By the mid-19th century, in 1860, the Chinese again became the majority in Penang. 11 The unprecedented increase of Chinese settlers in Penang can be attributed to the expansion of entrepôt trade and commodity production in tin and cash-crops. Their dominant role in Penang s entrepôt trade continued till the early 20th century, when they encountered serious business challenges from Western enterprises equipped with larger sources of capital, new technology and modern management methods, eventually rising to commanding heights in the economy. Efforts to establish revenue from the produce of Penang never amounted to much. By the early 1800s, pepper had become the principal produce of the island, but low prices in Europe and competitive regional sales saw the vines all but replaced with coconut, beetlenut and spice plantations within the following two decades. The taking of the Moluccas by the British in 1796 saw Penang vaunted as a centre for growing the highly valued nutmeg and clove in order to break the tightly held Dutch monopoly. But with these trees taking from 10 to 20 years to produce well, speculators were few. By the late 1830 s, the development of suitable machinery saw the large-scale planting of sugarcane, particularly in Province Wellesley. Sugar soon became the most successful of the early exports before being eclipsed by mainland tin and rubber production. Today, palm oil production dominates Malaysian agriculture. With little else to offer, Penang s early significance therefore continued to be as an eastern emporium for the exchange of goods. Naturally the persons who benefited most on the island, and who soon became the wealthiest, were the merchants. This mercantile trade was centred on Beach Street Cf. P.P. Courtenay (1972) A Geography of Trade and Development in Malaya. London: G. Bell & Sons Ltd.: 107, drawn from T. Braddell (1861) Statistics of the British Straits Settlements in the Straits of Malacca. Penang. 12 It is relevant to mention that in Beach Street, where the majority of merchants operated, the street numbering was swapped from even numbers on the seaward side to odd numbers on that side following surveys in the 1890s. Consequently the street numbers attributed to early mercantile premises here are not those we see today. 7

12 Substantial warehouses and godowns were constructed on both sides of this street from an early date, but the prime position was the eastern side which fronted the tidal mudflats along the seafront, over which many merchants constructed jetties. The first reclamation of these mudflats occurred in 1801 when Lieutenant Governor Sir George Leith encouraged owners of godowns hugging the shoreline to build retaining walls, fill the ground and construct warehouses. After governance of the island passed to the British crown in 1867 a second wave of shorefront reclamation took place, with free grants being offered under certain conditions to the lucky Beach Street landholders in This was again repeated in 1889, resulting in long, narrow warehouses extending unbroken through to Weld Quay until Victoria Street was constructed in the late 1890s. In general, British merchants had the largest warehouses, where goods were stored, wholesaled and auctioned to shopkeepers and to the public. Chinese, Indian, Arab and Armenian merchants were also well represented in Beach Street and the immediate thoroughfares leading off it. When residents departed Penang these merchants also served as agents for the sale of their land and houses, furniture and household goods, buggies and carriages, horses and other livestock, as well as vast quantities of alcohol and miscellaneous foodstuffs. Many merchants owned their own trading vessels, which specialised in the country trade, i.e. anywhere from India to China and all places in between. The East India Company maintained a monopoly on trade between Britain and India until 1814 and between Britain and China until 1834 when their charters expired. Underpinning the Company s trade with China was opium. Undoubtedly a dark period in British history, trade of this drug, despite being declared illicit by the Emperor, was endorsed as the only product the Chinese wanted enough in exchange for the muchwanted tea for European tables. A great deal of opium passed through Penang. So much so that the privilege of the sale of opium on the island was sold off each year to the highest bidder. This licence alone brought in by far the greatest single revenue to the island s treasury. This trade continued to flourish, particularly after the second Opium War, when China was forced to accept its legal import by treaty. The mercantile personalities included in this volume are just some of those who pioneered the growth of George Town in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with their contribution to the economic and social development to all sectors of Penang society recorded here. It is by no means all-encompassing. Much opportunity remains to add to this biographical database. The ongoing Penang Story project since its beginnings in 2002 has served to stimulate research and writing on not only the history of Penang in general but also on the diverse mercantile trading activities which underpinned Penang s growth and regional importance, as a mercantile entrepôt as well as a stepping stone in the development of the culturally diverse Malaysia we see today. May the exploration continue. The Editors 8

13 EXPLANATORY NOTE ON ENTRIES An entry of a given personality begins with a headnote which provides the surname, given name, date of birth and death, profession, occupation, major role in society. The entry ends with references used in abbreviated form. For the full reference, please consult the bibliography. While much effort has been expended towards standardization of presentation in the headnote, we have encountered differences in contemporary usage which have been accommodated in the text. However, regarding the use of honorifics, with names which are commonly known, e.g. Tunku Abdul Rahman, this has been maintained, i.e., the name is presented as Tunku Abdul Rahman and not Abdul Rahman, Tunku. Where possible, alternative names and aliases as these have appeared in various forms in contemporaneous publications, have been noted. Chinese names have long posed a challenge to researchers where a person s name is different, depending on the dialect. As will become clear, the location in this volume, Penang has been an important determinant on the name adopted, i.e. the name in the Hokkien dialect. However, this does not necessarily indicate that the personality concerned belongs to that sub-ethnic category; rather the usage usually reflects the place of residence (See below, Table 1 of Selected Chinese Surnames). A related matter is the apparent inconsistency in the spelling of places. The difficulties encountered in maintaining the spelling for a given location can be seen from an example such as Aceh, Sumatra. While the volume employs the current spelling, Aceh, the usage from contemporaneous sources such as newspapers and records, in particular for roads, are Acheen Street, and the present Lebuh Acheh. As they have continued into later years, the entries will reflect what is in use currently. The use of this symbol, is to denote that a separate listing is available. See List of Entries for a complete list of entries. The Index of Names includes notables who do not have separate entries in this volume. Table 1: Phonetic Transcription of Selected Chinese Surnames in Different Sub-ethnic Groups Chinese character Pinyin Wade-Giles Cantonese Hakka Hokkien Teochew 陳 Chen Ch en Chan Chin Tan Tan 黃 Huang Huang Wong/Bong Wong Ng/Ooi Ng 林 Lin Lin Lam Lim Lim Lim 李 Li Li Lee Lee Lee Lee 張 Zhang Chang Cheong Chong Teoh Teoh/Thio 邱 Qiu Ch iu Yao Hew/Kiew Khoo Khoo 曾 Zeng Tseng Chen/Cheng Tsen Chan Chan 吳 Wu Wu Ng Ng Goh Goh 王 Wang Wang Wong Wong Ong Heng Source: Tan Ai Boay (2011) Phonetic Transcription -- The Challenge Encountered in Studying Chinese sub-ethnic Groups in Perak, British Malaya. Paper presented at 50th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Conference of the Association for Asian Studies (SEC/AAS), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA. 9

14 ENTRIES A. Balakrishnan 12 A. P. Sultan Mydin A. Rajagopal Abdul Karim, F. A. 14 Ahmad Ismail, Sheikh 14 Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi 180 Aidid, Syed Hassan bin Syed Mahthar Aidid Aidid, Tunku Sayyid Hussain Al-Attas, Syed Ahmad 180 Al-Attas, Syed Mohamed 17 Al-Ghadamshi, Syeikh Abdullah al-maghribi Alhabshee, Syed Abbas bin Syed Abdul Rahman Al-Hadi, Syed Sheikh bin Ahmad Al-Hasawi, Shaikh Mohamed bin Abdul Rahman bin Huzzaim Almashoor, Syed Omar 22 Almashoor, Syed Shaikh bin Ahmad Al-Mufathal, Syed Ali bin Syed Abdullah 23 Alyafhee, Sheikh Mohamed bin Omar Al-Zubaidi, Isa bin Abdul Hafiz Anderson, William Arackell, Carapiet Ariffin, Wan Chik bin Mohamed Ariff Bacon, Nathaniel Badjenid, Sheikh Hassan Badjenid bin Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid, Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid bin Sheikh Ahmad 30 Bahwirith, Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Sheikh Mansoor Balhetchet, William Bapu Alaudin bin Meerah Hussain Lebai 32 Basheer, Sheikh Omar Basheer, Sheikh Zachariah bin Sheikh Omar Basheer Ben Hariz, Abodd bin Salim Bhatt, Himatlat Harira Bone, Andrew Burchett Brown, David Brown, George Wilson Brown, John Capes, Edward Essex Carnegy, James Carnegy, James Fairlie Carnegy, Patrick Carroll, Daniel Carroll, Hugh 47 Cheah Chen Eok Cheah Choo Yew Cheah Choon Seng Cheah Chow Phan Cheah Lean Guan Cheah Tek Soon Cheah Tek Thye 54 Chedin Mohamed Hashim, Tan Sri 55 Chee Wor Lok 56 Chew Sin Yong Choong Cheng Kean Choong Lye Hin Choong Lye Hock Chua Yu Kay 181 Chung Keng Quee Chung Thye Phin Clark, Patrick 182 Court, Thomas Watkin Cox, William Dabab bin Haji Muhammad Salleh 69 Douglas, James Downes, Peregrine Butler 71 Dunbar, John Fazal Mohammed 72 Ferrao, Francisco Foo Choo Choon Foo Tye Sin Forbes-Mitchell, Duncan Fritz, John 182 Galastaun, Catchatoor Gan Ngoh Bee Goh Say Eng Habib Mohamed bin Abdul Latif Haja Mydin Hall, William Halyburton, Thomas Hassaram 183 Heah Swee Lee 82 Herriot, Stuart Hussain bin Long, Haji

15 Hussein Kanapatchee, Haji Hutton, Francis 84 Hutton, Thomas Ismail bin Haji Hashim 86 Jagat Singh, Dr Joshi, Dalpatram S K. A. N. Bahurdin K. A. Naina Mohamed 89 Kee Lye Huat 184 Kerr, William Boyd Khaw Boo Aun Khaw Joo Ghee Khaw Joo Tok Khaw Seng Lee Khaw Sim Bee Khoo Beng San 185 Khoo Cheow Teong Khoo Hun Yeang Khoo Sian Ewe Khoo Soo Hong Khoo Thean Poh Khoo Thean Teik Khoo Tiong Poh Koh Cheng Sian Koh Lay Huan Koh Seang Tat Law Seow Huck Lee Chin Ho Lee Pean Peh Lee Phee Eow Lee Toon Tock Leong Fee Leong Lok Hing Lim Boon Haw 113 Lim Cheng Kung 114 Lim Cheng Law Lim Cheng Teik Lim Eow Thoon Lim Hock Chuan Lim Hua Chiam Lim Kek Chuan Lim Leng Cheak Lim Seng Hooi Lim Soo Chee 186 Lim Sun Ho 186 Low Ah Chong M. A. Pitchay Gunny 123 Mahmud Abdul Manaf Mansor Sanusi 187 McCulloch, David McGee, Thomas 125 McHugo, Jonathan Burke McIntyre, Anthony McIntyre, Norman Macalister Merican, Cauder Moheedin Merican, Kader Saiboo Merican, Mohamed Noordin 130 Mohamad Ismail, Haji 131 Mohamed Ariff bin Mohd. Tajoodin 131 Mohamed Kassim R. E Mohammad Sultan Yusoff Mohammed Syed 188 Mohd Mastan bin Haji Abdul Rahman 133 Mohd Noh bin Shafie, Haji Naina Mohamed Nakhoda Kechil 134 Narcis, Johannes 135 Ng Ah Thye Ng Pak San 136 Noordin, Habib Merican 137 Noordin, M. M Noordin, Nina Merican 138 Noordin, O. M Noordin, Vapoo Merican 139 O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff Ogilvie, John 189 Padday, Jonathan Perkins, Thomas Phuah Hin Leong Pillai, N. T. S. Arumugam Porter, George Quah Beng Kee Rawther, P. K. Shakkarai Rawther, S. M. Mohamed Yusoff Rawther, Seene 150 Revely, John Revely, William S. Abdul Wahab, Haji 152 S. Mohamed Ismail, Haji S. M. Mohamad Hussain bin A. P. Sultan Mydin S. V. K. Patchee 154 Scott, James Shaik Dawood Sahib, M. M Shaikh Mohammad bin Teena Maidin Shaikh Sulaiman bin Bakar Rafee Sharma, T. N. 159 Snadden, Richard Soetan Mohd Issa bin Dato Hidjou Stuart, George Stuart, William Tan Kang Hock Tan Kim Keng 163 Tan Lo Heong Tanner, Edward 190 Thevar, M. Doraisamy Thio Tiauw Siat Tye Kee Yoon Tye Shook Yuen 168 Tyebkhan, H. E Vermont, James Montague Bent Wilson, John Grant 190 Wilson, William Muir 191 Yeap Chor Ee Yegappan, Dr. M. P. L Yeoh Cheng Tek Yeoh Guan Seok Yeoh Sew Beow Yusof Rawa bin Haji Abdullah, Haji

16 A. Balakrishnan ( ) Businessman, Politician, Municipal Councillor. Balakrishnan s grandfather was a very wealthy man in Cochin, Kerala, India. In Kerala for the Malayalees, matrilineality was the tradition, where all the property went to the daughter, and not to the son. So, when Balakrishnan s grandfather died, the key to the property was given to his aunt, as was the custom. His father, Achuthan Nair, unhappy with the custom and having been cut off from his father s property, took off to seek his fortune, and came to Penang before 1920 with his wife Ammani Nair. In Penang, a prominent solicitor, P.K. Nambyar was reputed to be very helpful to all the Indians who landed in Penang with nowhere to go. Achuthan Nair sought him out, and Nambyar helped him to acquire a job as a City Council Bus (Trolley Bus or Tram) driver. With his meager income he managed to slowly acquire land and built his own farm in Sungai Ara, rearing many cattle. Balakrishnan was born in 1920 in Penang. Balakrishnan was educated at the Methodist Boys School. Apart from being involved in the farming business, he ventured into the insurance business at the age of 20 and became a very successful insurance executive. Balakrishnan was an active member of the Indian Association and held the post of Joint Hon Secretary in He was a founder member of the Azad Tamil School, situated in Bagan Jermal on the premises of the Indian Association where the first classes were held. He was also a founder member of the Azad Hindi School, which taught Hindi as the main language. A sister school, was founded around the same time, and Balakrishnan was one of those who pioneered the setting up of the school. Becoming active in politics, he became a founder member of the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) in Penang. He held the post of Hon. Secretary of the MIC Penang in 1947, and from Later he climbed further up the political ladder to become the President of the Penang MIC in 1952, and from He was the prime mover responsible for MIC to align with UMNO and MCA to form the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance National Congress in When the Ramakrishna Orphanage in Scotland Road was facing financial problems, many wanted it to be closed down, and the boys and girls to be sent to two separate orphanages in Kuala Lumpur. Balakrishnan was instrumental in preventing the closure. He opposed the move and fought for it to be re-established. Thanks to his endeavours, the Ashram was rescued and re-established in He was elected Municipal Councillor, a post which he held from 1956 to Balakrishnan married at the age of 40 in 1960 to Malathi. Two children were born to them, Indran Nair and Kalyani Nair. He passed away in 1990 at the age of 70. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan TST ( ); SE (1950s); Personal Communication (Parvathi A. Nair, Janaki A. Nair, Devaki A. Nair); Indian Ass SM; Letter- TAR; Letter-MIC. A. P. Sultan Mydin (1866, India 1933) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. A.P. Sultan Mydin was a well-known merchant in Penang in the early 20th century. Born in Emaneswaram, Ramnad, South India, he came to Penang in 1881 in search of greener pastures for a better life in a country under the British Administration. With the help and guidance from friends, he secured a job in a textile shop. Then, with the experience gained, he started his own business in a small shop as a wholesaler of pelikat sarongs (a type of sarongs from Palikat, India). He sourced his sarongs from Madras. Most of his customers were merchants from Aceh, Sumatra, Thailand, Burma and the people in Penang. They practised barter 12

17 trade, exchanging with goods such as dried areca nuts, rattan, copra, spices and suchlike. His business improved immensely and he soon opened two more shops at 27 and 29 Chulia Street in As a successful merchant he was actively involved in discussions on matters of interest which affected the merchants in Penang. He also had a good relationship with friends in the Muslim Merchants Society in Singapore. In 1922, A.P. Sultan Mydin together with Muslim merchant friends and chettiars in Penang held a discussion and a resolution was passed supporting the actions of the Straits Settlements (Singapore) Associations in demanding the abolition of income tax. A.P. Sultan Mydin married when he was 22 years old with Kader Sultan s daughter, Meera Kamala a.k.a. Tangchi Ma. Kader Sultan was a well-known merchant and contractor in Penang. The marriage gave him six sons and three daughters, Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad Yusof, Mohamad Haniff, Zainul Abidin, Mohamad Hussain, Mohamad Ishak and Fatimah Bee, Zaitoon Bee and Shaharom Bee. His third son, S.M. Mohamad Haniff managed the business for a short period but his interest was in law resulting in the closure of the business. A.P. Sultan Mydin s contribution as a businessman received recognition from the Penang Muslim merchants community. This was evident when he was appointed as the President of the Muslim Merchants Society in Penang in Besides that, he was also the first President of the Mohammedan Football Association as well as a member of the Committee of Management of Kapitan Keling Mosque and the Mohammedan Advisory Board in His youngest daughter married the son of S.V. Shaik, a stevedore with an office in Bishop Street. A.P. Sultan Mydin died on 25 August, He was 67 years old. Mahani Musa SFP (5 May 1927); TST (20 Oct 1916, 29 Aug 1922, 12 Mar 1933, 28 Aug 1933); Zainul Aziz SM Zainul Abidin, p.5; Khoo Salma, 2012; Personal Communication (Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin); websites (Azrul Affandi Sobry) A. Rajagopal ( ) Businessman, Community Leader, Municipal Councillor. Rajagopal s parents migrated from Kerala India to seek their fortune in Penang. Through hard work and persistence, they managed to rise above their initial pecuniary circumstances. Eventually the family owned farmland in Sungai Ara, rearing cattle. Rajagopal was born on 29th June, 1922 and educated at the Methodist Boys School. Apart from being involved in the farming business, he worked as a teacher for a few years, after which he resigned from the job and followed his elder brother s footsteps in the insurance business. In 1951, Rajagopal married Goh Chit Neo. They had four children, three boys and a girl. Rajagopal was devoted to doing service for the community. He was one of the founders of the Parents Association School, a private school in Macalister Road established in May 1955 which catered mainly to students who failed in their Standard Six Government Examination in the 1950 s. By starting this school, these students were able to continue their education and thus were given a second chance to progress in life. Being actively involved in the St. John s Ambulance in Penang, Rajagopal eventually became its Commander; he also was the Deputy Chief Ambulance Officer of the Civil Defence; and a committee member of the Malayan Youth Council. During a visit on a Leader Grant of the State Department, USA, in the 1950 s, Rajagopal was presented with the Key to the City of Miami Beach by Mayor D. Lee Powell. He was elected Municipal Councillor from 1956 to From 1964 to1965, he was the President of the Indian Association, Penang. An active member of the Penang Indian Chamber of Commerce, he held the post of Hon. Secretary from , , and was its President from , and from

18 Jalan Raja Gopal in Pulau Tikus was named after him, in recognition of his service to the community. Rajagopal passed away in 1969 on the anniversary of his birthday. He was only 47. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Parvathi A. Nair, Janaki A. Nair, Devaki A. Nair); Website (Tyebkhan); President list of Indian Ass; Note by Parvathi A. Nair. Abdul Karim, F.A. ( ) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. F.A. Abdul Karim, a Punjabi, was the owner and operator of F.A. Karim Textiles. He was a sergeant in the police force in Bukit Mertajam, Penang before becoming a textile merchant. His younger brother, F.A. Abdul Jalil, often sailed to Indonesia, Singapore and other countries, bringing back merchandise, such as fabrics, prayer mats and other Islamic items for Muslimin and Muslimat (male and female Muslims) to be sold at his shop, F.A. Abdul Jalil Bros., in Chulia Street. F.A. Abdul Jalil was a wholesaler as well as a retailer of fabrics. As F.A. Abdul Jalil s business was thriving in the early 20th century, he needed his brother, F.A. Karim and his younger brother, F.A. Allahrakah to help him. Thus, F.A. Abdul Karim opted for an early retirement from the police force. By the mid-20th century, F.A. Karim opened a shop at 180 Campbell Street, while his brother, F.A. Allahrakah opened another at Chulia Street. F.A. Abdul Karim married Al-Rokiah binti Chanda, a Penang Punjabi girl. They had four sons, Abdul Rahim, Abdul Rafique, Aliff Carr and Ashroff; and four daughters, Juhura, Sahida, Rasheeda and Nasibah. After his demise, the F.A. Karim Textiles became a family business, managed by his daughter, Sahida, with the help of Ashroff, his youngest son. the Penang Muslim society in the building of mosques, donations for Muslim orphans, fulfilling the obligatory tithe (zakat) and giving alms in conjunction with the month of Ramadan. Omar Yusoff MPG, 1965, p.13; 1964, p.19; Personal Communication (Ashroff & Dato Abdul Rafique bin Abdul Karim). Ahmad Ismail, Sheikh (early 1900, Kedah 1980, Kedah) Haj Agent and Songkok Maker. Sheikh Ahmad Ismail was a well known haj agent, a job known in Malay as sheikh haji, in the mid-20th century. As a haj agent, he helped thousands of people to go to Mecca. In his business, his job started with scouting for would be pilgrims. Then, he helped them get ready for the journey. This involved obtaining passports, a transit in Penang with food and lodging, and any other matters that might arise. He worked closely with Mansfield Co. at 87 Acheen Street, to get the passports done. Most of the pilgrims under his care were from the northern part of the peninsula, such as Kedah. He would always be at the harbour until the last pilgrim under his care left. The transit house for the pilgrims under his charge was at 51 Acheen Street. In 1973, he rented the house at 81 Acheen Street. As a haj agent, he was also responsible to receive them on their return. Thus, he had to house them again before they went back to their villages. Ahmad Ismail also made songkoks (common Malay velvet cap) and skullcaps. His workplace was at 92 Pitt Street. His job as a haj agent ended when Lembaga Urusan Tabung Haji (Pilgrims Board) took over the management in Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah MPG, 1964, p.40; 1970, p.14; 1973, p.20; Peduman Bakal-bakal Haji, p. 20; Personal Communication (Haji Mohd. Adnan bin Boerhaddoeddin); Website (Penang Unesco Heritage Brochure) F.A. Abdul Karim s contributions were towards 14

19 Aidid, Syed Hassan bin Syed Mahthar Aidid (1916, Singapore 1982) Jeweller, Community Leader, Philanthropist. Syed Hassan Aidid bin Syed Mahthar Aidid was a prominent figure in Penang. He was born in Singapore on 20 September, His father, Syed Mahthar bin Syed Hassan Aidid, was from Hadramaut, Yemen. Syed Mahthar s first wife was Sharifah Fatimah bt. Syed Abdul Rahman Algadri with whom he had two children, a girl and a boy (Sharifah Alawiyah and Syed Murtadza). In Singapore he took a second wife. Sheikhah was of Arabic descent but she was not a Syed. The marriage produced two children, too, Syed Hassan and Sharifah Zainah. Syed Hassan came to Penang with his father. His early education was at Hutchings Primary School, Farquhar Street. From 16 January 1932 to 10 March 1936, he studied at the Penang Free School. Although he maintained exceptionally good results at the Junior and Senior Cambridge levels, he chose not to continue his studies, opting to start work instead. On his completing the school certificate, he was praised for having been a boy of excellent character and excellent ability. Throughout his school days he was active in sports, representing his class in soccer, and he was a member of various school societies. He was also a linguist of sorts, being proficient in Malay, English and Arabic as well as being able to communicate in the Hokkien Chinese dialect,. His Certificate of Naturalisation shows that he became a citizen of the Federation of Malaya on 2nd December, Syed Hassan married Sharifah Rahmah bt. Syed Alwi Aidid on 21 September 1940 in Kampung Melayu, Air Itam, Penang. They had 10 children; nine girls and a boy. The boy died in infancy. The eldest two daughters went to Arabic schools while the rest were educated in English medium schools. In the beginning, Syed Hassan was pedalling imitation jewellery, searching for customers. Then he added genuine jewellery, which he took from his elder brother, Syed Murtadza, also a jeweller. He continued this business on a small scale while at the same time, he was working for his brother at New Gold Company, 218, Penang Road. His hard work, patience, and integrity paid off when he could buy the business from his brother. New Gold Company prospered under Syed Hassan s ownership. Under his employment were Syed Mohamad Albar (his sister-in-law s husband), Syed Taha (his son-in-law), Syed Ismail and Sheikh Omar Zubaidi to assist him, and several Chinese craftsmen to make customized jewellery. However, New Gold Company came to an end after Syed Mohamad Albar died because only he knew the intricacies of the gold business. In his life time, Syed Hassan Aidid was director of several companies in Penang because of his integrity. He was also involved in politics. He was Kampong Baru Branch UMNO Chief (17 years), Penang Division Chief (12 years), Penang UMNO Liaison Chief (10 years), UMNO Supreme Council Member (10 years), and Senator (12 years). His services to the nation were many. He was a member of Penang North-East District Committee Goodwill Committee, Board of Rent Appeal, Board of Termination of Citizenship, Board of Hospital Visitors, Board of Prison Visitors, Social Liaison Committee, Committee Tun Sardon Foundation, Chairman Penang Water Authority, Advisory Board Youth Association 4B (Penang & Butterworth). He was also on the board of Air Itam Primary School, Sri Aman Primary School, Air Itam and St. Xaviers Institution. Apart from the above, he was patron for Malay Football Association, Penang, Sepak Raga Association, Penang Amateur Cycle Racing Association, Penang Amateur Swimming Association, and a vice-patron for Penang Amateur Athletic Association. Syed Hassan Aidid had been awarded several meritorious medals for his exemplary deeds and services to the community, state and country, such as JP (Justice of Peace), PJK (Pingat Jasa Kebaktian), DMPN (Darjah Mulia Pangku Negara) from the Penang Government with the honorofic title Datuk, JMN (Jasa Mangku Negara) from the Federal Government; and DYMSMN (Darjah Yang Mulia Setia Mahkota Negara) from the Federal Government and DYMM Yang di-pertuan Agong on 2 Jun 1982) with the honorific title Tan Sri. Yet, the highest appointment bestowed upon him was 15

20 the appointment to be Acting Governor of Penang (20 August 1979 and 19 November 1980, each time for 2-3 months), while Governor Tun Datuk Haji Sardon bin Haji Jubir was abroad on medical leave. Through diligence and hard work, Syed Hassan managed to own a shop house (New Gold Company premises), two bungalows (in Bukit Glugor and Air Itam), a semi-detached house (in Tanjung Bunga), two single storey terrace units in Air Itam, and some stocks and shares. With his wealth, he was charitable and sensitive towards the needy. He never turned anyone away who sought his help, from Penang or anywhere in the country. He gave financial help to orphanages, social welfare homes for women, the aged, and single mothers, suraus (small Muslim places of worship), mosques, schools, and suchlike. At home, he was able to give his family a good life and his children a good education. After his demise, his wife, Puan Sri Sharifah Rahmah continued his charitable work until she passed away on 31 May, Syed Hassan Aidid died on 28 February, 1983 from a heart attack. He was 67 years old. At the time of his death he left behind nine daughters (professionals and business women) and 15 grandchildren. For such a self-made man whose integrity was hard to match, his funeral was very well attended. He was buried in Dato Kramat Muslim cemetery. Noriah Abdullah between Aceh and Penang in the 18th century. Due to political rivalry, he and his family and the entire clan moved to Penang in As a prominent and successful merchant, he and his entourage were welcomed by Francis Light who provided a special area in Acheen Street for these settlers. His trade legacy continued in this new place, monopolizing the spice trade between Penang and Aceh. He became an agent for an English company, Palmer and Co., based in Madras, and he owned a few trading ships too. One of the trademarks of his successful business career was a godown known locally as Rumah Tinggi. Formerly a jail, this four storey building was later transformed into an office and a godown for spices. Light at one time assessed this building to be worth about Sp$6,000; this was the basis for Tunku Sayyid Hussain being considered as one of the richest persons in Penang at the time. As a wealthy trader, he led a life of luxury with extravagant parties and entertainment held at his premises, attended by high ranking government officials. He also established good relations with the local European community and official circles. His wealth strengthened his political influence. In July 1815, he gave a loan of Sp$50,000 and on another occasion a loan of Sp$30,000 to the Penang government when it was experiencing financial difficulties. He was appointed Kapitan (chief) of the Malay community and held various appointments in the government. He built a mosque in 1808 known to the locals as Masjid Melayu or Masjid Aceh on the land given by the government for religious purposes of the Muslim society in Penang. TST (21 Sep 1963, 13 Jul 1963, 23 Dec 1964, 9 Mar 1965, 14 Sep 1966, 10 Mar 1967); Certificate of Naturalisation, 1948; HPP, p.19; Letter-Award (28 Aug 1979, 19 Nov 1980); Cert- PFS; Personal Communication (Hjh. Sharifah Shipak bt. Syed Hassan Aidid). Aidid, Tunku Sayyid Hussain (b. unknown, Aceh-1840, Penang) Spice Trader, Ship Owner, Community Leader. Tunku Sayyid Hussain, also known as Tunku Syed Hussain, an Acehnese royalty of Arab descent was a wealthy trader who monopolized the spice trade Wealth and political influence strengthened Tunku Sayyid Hussain s role as a community leader. After the opening of the new settlement in Acheen Street, on 27 November 1791, he made a special request to Light to be given full authority over his own clan and slaves according to Mohamedan laws. Tunku Sayyid Hussain also requested for him and his people to be given full authority to trade with anyone in all kinds of goods, other than tin. However, if the tin was secured by them and then brought to Penang, he insisted on being given full authority to trade it with anyone of their choice. Light initially refused this request as he saw it as an effort by Tunku Sayyid Hussain to set up his own sphere of influence. To Light, the sayyids, who boasted of being the 16

21 descendants of the prophet, should not be given the power to judge all cases involving his clan as this would lead to injustice and conflict with English laws. As a grandson of the former sultan of Aceh, Tunku Sayyid Hussain was actively involved in the political turmoil for succession to the throne. At the invitation of Acehnese chieftains, he sent his sons to take over the throne in One of them, Saif Al-Alam was on the throne until 1820 when the old Sultan, Sultan Jauhar Al-Alam regained his throne with British backing. On 27 October 1816, Tunku Sayyid Hussain was imprisoned on charges for instigating a rebellion in Aceh. Although he was released soon afterwards, Sayyid Hussain s involvement in dethroning the ruler of Aceh left him with a tarnished image among government officials and trading circles in Penang. Sayyid Hussain died in 1840 at a ripe old age and was buried beside the mosque he built. Mahani Musa Anderson, p.52; Gallop, p.221; MHEB-HB, p.17; Abdul Kahar Yusoff, No. 2 Acheen Street Mosque, Acheen Street; Khoo Su Nin, 1990, p.24-27; 1993, pp.25-27; Izrin Muaz Md Adnan, pp.1-44; Logan, p.655; J. Low, 1850, pp ; Nordin Hussin, pp.77-78; Salina Zainol, pp ; MHEB-AR, 1953; ANM-SP 63/8; SOAS MS 40320, V11. Al-Attas, Syed Mohamed (b. and d. unknown) Penang-East Sumatra black pepper Trader, Leader of the Red Flag Society. Syed Mohamed Al-Attas was a merchant of Arab blood and traded black pepper with ports in Sumatra, in particular, Aceh. As a wealthy man, he was among the influential figures in Penang in the mid-19th century. His wealth was evident in his luxurious bungalow which exhibited Islamic and Western architectural influences, at 128 Armenian Street. It is now the Penang Islamic Museum. Syed Mohamed Al-Attas s success in the black pepper trade opened the door to co-operation with various other foreign traders in Penang. He married the daughter of Khoo Thean Poh ( 邱天保, Qiu Tianbao ) who was also an influential black pepper trader in Penang. Khoo Thean Poh gave him a big house on Carnarvon Street as a wedding present. The marriage did not just strengthen the bond between the two traders, but also elevated Syed Mohamed to become the leader of the Malay secret society called the Red Flag Society formed in the 1830s, while Khoo Thean Poh was an influential member of the Chinese secret society, the Toa Peh Kong. In the 1860s, the Toa Peh Kong and the Red Flag merged in a fight against the Ghee Hin and White Flag secret societies in the famous Penang Riots of When the Dutch attacked Aceh at the end of the 19th century, Syed Mohamed Al-Attas smuggled weapons for the Acehnese. After his death, his son, Syed Sheikh Al-Attas became the leader of the Red Flag secret society. Mahani Musa Khoo Su Nin, p. 35; Mahani Musa, Salina Zainol, p. 144; PRCR, p.142. Al-Ghadamshi, Syeikh Abdullah al-maghribi (1892, Ghadamis, Libya , Mecca) Publisher, Printer, Writer, Educationist. Syeikh Abdullah was an educationist as well as an influential businessman in Penang in the first decade of the 20th century. He owned a printing company called Al-Huda Press at 27 Chulia Street, Penang and produced his own works, entitled Kitab Munir al-ifham and Kitab Ilmu Balaghah. He also printed reading materials on religion, including a Turkish version of the Al-Quran entitled al-mushaf al- Sultani al-hamidi, a newspaper called Sahabat (15 February ) and a magazine called Siasat (15 Oktober 1939). Two other works were Kitab Pada Menyatakan Tafsir al-quran and Kitab Pada Menyatakan Perjalanan Nabi s.a.w. Syeikh Abdullah al-maghribi s actual name was 17

22 Syeikh Abu Jabir Abdullah b. Ahmad b. Muhammad al-baskuri al-qairawani al-ba Alawi al-makki al- Ghadamisi, but he was known only as Abdullah al-maghribi, a name which he attained in Mecca. He first studied the Quran at a Quran institute under the tutelage of Syeikh al-faqih Qasim b. Ahmad Dawi. Then he continued his studies at the Grand Mosque in Mecca (Masjid al-haram) and Masjid al-sawlatiyah. After that, he became a teacher at Madrasah al-aqiq in Ta if, Saudi Arabia, followed by a stint at Masjid al-haram in That year, too, he came back to Penang to teach at Madrasah al- Mashoor. In Penang, he married a Yemeni Arab girl. After the Second World War, he returned to Mecca, until his death in Syeikh Abdullah was an educationist, among many activities he was involved in, before he went into the business of printing and publishing. In 1916, Syeikh Abdullah taught the Arabic language at Madrasah al-mashoor when Syed Sheikh al-hadi was the school s headmaster. He also taught Arab literature, Fekah (knowledge concerning Islamic law) and Balaghah (art of oral delivery). In 1919, he was promoted to be the headmaster of the school. As its head, he introduced a new approach for students and Muslim society in Peninsula Malaya towards an understanding of the different mazhab (different schools of thoughts in Islam); to learn to evaluate a religious problem by looking at the arguments and evidence instead of being tied down to just a particular mazhab. His style was not well-received and he was sacked from Madrasah al-mashoor. In 1928, he moved to Madrasah Idrisiah in Perak where again, he was sacked. He returned to Penang in 1929, and reopened Madrasah al-amirah Mariah which had been closed for quite awhile. Next, in 1930, Syeikh Abdullah opened his own madrasah calling it Madrasah al-huda al-diniyyah. He had been active, printing and publishing his own works all along. He was also active in Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena-PASPAM (friendship through penpals) in 1934, and was its honorary advisor, with the hope of achieving his Islah ( peaceful as in settlement of dispute). Syeikh Abdullah, the businessman and educationist, was well known in Penang, as a printer and publisher of many books on Islam. He also had a column in the newspaper, Saudara, to introduce Madrasah Huda al-diniyyah. The madrasah for boys was at 538 Dato Kramat Road while the girls were housed at 101 Thean Teik Road. We can deduce that he must have voluntarily used a substantial amount of his own money to advertise the madrasah. He also worked hard with other religious institutes in Peninsula Malaya, particularly with Madrasah al- Mashoor, Madrasah Idrisiah and Madrasah al-huda al-diniyyah, in developing a good relationship with world-renowned educational institutes like al-azhar al-sharif, where Malayan students would go to further their studies. In 1919, he was able to send the first group of students to Egypt. His other contribution was to give lectures as well as being involved in various educational activities towards the understanding of religion. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah UH (24 Apr 2006); Alijah Gordon, p.99; Roff, pp , (trs), p.83; M. A. Fawzi, pp ; Md. Sidin Ahmad Ishak, (p. 128); Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Mohd bin Samsudin & Kamaruzaman, p. 130; Nor Adina & Mohd Roslan, pp ; Sohaimi Abdul Aziz, 2003, p. 14. Alhabshee, Syed Abbas bin Syed Abdul Rahman ( ) Merchant, Owner of Shipping Consortium, Politician, Philanthropist. Tan Sri Syed Abbas bin Syed Abdul Rahman Alhabshee was born on 28 May 1922 at 196 Burma Road (Kampung Syed), George Town. He was an influential businessman of Arab descent in Penang throughout the 20th century. Syed Abbas was the fourth child in the Alhabshee family. His father was Al-Syed Abdul Rahman Alhabshee bin Syed Ariffin Alhabshee who hailed from Hadramaut, and migrated to Surabaya where he went into the business of making batik tulisan tangan (hand decorated), on a small scale. Later, he came to Penang to sell his batik. The batik business was very profitable and soon he opened a shop at 18

23 Acheen Street. In Penang, Al-Syed Abdul Rahman married Syarifah Zainab binti Syed Ariffin, a local woman of Arab-Malay descent. He was also involved in the establishment of Madrasatul Al-Quran in 1916, which was later renamed, Sekolah Menengah Al-Mashoor. Syed Abbas Alhabshee married Sharifah Halimah. She bore him three children. In 1950, he married Sharifah Muznah binti Syed Abdullah of Arab descent from Surabaya. Syed Abbas spent four years at Kelawai Malay School, Kelawai Road for his early education. Then he continued his education at the Government English School (Special Malay Class) in Kelawai Road. However, he left when he was in standard five to go to Sekolah Agama Al Huda, a religious school. He stopped schooling when he was 18 to start a small scale business in Alor Star. He bought cloth and clothes in Penang, and sold them in Pekan Rabu, Alor Star. During the Japanese Occupation, Syed Abbas taught the Japanese language in the morning and the Malay language in the afternoon. After the war, Syed Abbas Alhabshee became an interpreter in a factory in Bukit Mertajam. Following that, he became a broker of goods from India, such as cigarettes and playing cards. He also imported batik from Indonesia and sold them in Thailand and Brunei. He formed a number of companies, Syarikat Rimaco (M) Sdn. Bhd., Bumi Wangsa Sdn. Bhd., and Rosemount, which was involved in the business of instrumentality and control. Later, he gave his three companies to his three sons to manage. In 1982, Syed Abbas formed a shipping consortium called Konsortium Perkapalan Berhad Group (KPB) holding the post of Chairman. KPB was in the industry of container shipping, giving the bumiputera (sons of the soil) the opportunity to run a business on an international level. As a businessman, Syed Abbas was actively involved in Malay business affairs. In 1956, he began his involvement in the Dewan Perniagaan Melayu (Malay Chambers of Commerce) and the Perusahaan Melayu Pulau Pinang (DPMPP, Penang Malay Chamber of Industry). He was appointed secretary of DPMPP, a post which he held from 1961 to In 1974, he was made the chairman of DPMPP. He held the post till At the central level, he was the vice-president of the Perniagaan dan Perusahaan Melayu Malaysia. Besides being involved with the establishment of DPMPP, his pride was in getting a piece of land to build a twelve storey building for DPMPP. The building was named Dewan Datuk Syed Abbas, in commemoration of his meritorious service. Syed Abbas was also a former president of Persatuan Melayu Pulau Pinang PEMENANG (Penang Malays Association) from 1964 to Other posts which he held in PEMENANG were Sports Secretary and Hon. Treasurer. He was also Chairman of Lembaga Perburuhan Pelabuhan Pulau Pinang (Penang Port Labour Board); and Member of the Suruhanjaya Pelabuhan Pulau Pinang (Penang Port Commission). As he had been involved with PEMENANG since before Independence, he was bestowed the title Tokoh Perniagaan. In the political arena, Tan Sri Syed Abbas was co-founder of UMNO (United Malay National Organisation) in Penang. Once, he was the Ketua UMNO cawangan Kelawai (leader of the Kelawai UMNO branch), but he could not be active as he was more involved in his business. Syed Abbas always fought for Malay rights in Penang. His contribution towards the community was evident when he stood up at a meeting with the DAP (Democratic Action Party) to oppose the party s claim on wakaf (charity trust) land of Kampung Syed in Kelawai, Burma Road, and on the issue of development at Taman Abidin, Perak Road. Besides that, he was also concerned about the shortage of housing among poorer Malays. He also helped to settle the problem of high rents which urban Malays were paying for their temporary housing while waiting for their flats to be completed. He helped to ensure that the flats, which were being built under the operasi Orang-Orang Melayu Pulau Pinang Berhad (KMPPBK) plan, were fairly priced so that Malays could still live in the city. He also served as a Committee Member of Persekutuan Kebajikan Anak-Anak Yatim Islam Pulau Pinang (Welfare League of Muslim Orphans, Penang) in In recognition of his good deeds, the government appointed him a Justice of Peace on 22 December

24 Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah BH (28 Jul 1989); NST (8 Nov 2002); TST (14 Apr 1964, 23 Jan 1965); DPMMPP, p.16; Suriyati binti Mohd Hussain; PEMENANG. Al-Hadi, Syed Sheikh bin Ahmad (1867, Melaka 1934) Publisher and Printer, Community Leader, Islamic Intellectual and Educationist. Although he is better remembered as a literary man, Syed Sheikh bin Ahmad Al-Hadi or better known as Syed Sheikh Al-Hadi was also an influential businessman in Penang in the first decade of the 20th century. Between , he wrote Hikayat Faridah Hanom, a novel which received an awesome response at that time. With capital from the sale of the book, he set up a printing company, Jelutong Printing Press at 555 Jalan Jelutong, Penang. This marked his first involvement in business. He worked diligently to produce more reading materials that were substantial, cheap and ample for people who needed them. The company also dealt in printers stationers, bookbinding and making rubber stamps. Among his prominent publications were a number of magazines, namely, Al-Ikhwan ( ), Al-Hikmah (1935), Cherita (1938), and Dewan Pergaulan (1940), and a newspaper called Saudara ( ). Jelutong Press was also active in publishing books. Among the well-known books was Cetera Rokambol which he wrote. Besides publishing translated works from Arabic to Malay, Jelutong Press also published Al-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah (1928), which contained the official history of Kedah. Jelutong Press does not exist now. The site where it once stood is a hardware shop. Syed Sheikh Al-Hadi was born in 1867 in Kampung Hulu, Melaka. His father, Syed Ahmad bin Hassan al-hadi, was an Arab from Hadramaut who married a Malay woman from Melaka in They had seven children and Syed Sheikh Al-Hadi was the fourth child. Syed Ahmad died on 9 June 1895 in Pulau Penyengat, Riau. Syed Sheikh s early education was at a religious school in Melaka before moving to Pulau Penyengat, Riau with his family. There, he was adopted by Yang dipertuan Besar Riau-Lingga. He had been sent to Trengganu to study Islam at a traditional religious school known as Sekolah Pondok but soon returned to Pulau Penyengat to continue his studies, also in Arabic language and culture. Syed Sheikh was among the early group of Malay students who was sent to the Middle East to further their education. He was married to Syarifah Syeikhun. They had four children, two boys and two girls; Syed Alwi, Syed Ahmad, Aisyah and Umhani. His second wife was a Malay from Singapore. The marriage produced a girl named Mariam. Before setting up his printing press, he worked in various jobs. He was once a general manager in a brick making company called Batam Bricks Works Ltd. in Pulau Batam, owned by his adopted father, Raja Haji Ali Kelana. Syed Sheikh was in charge of the main office at Prince Street, Singapore. In 1909, he was appointed a lawyer in the Syariah Court, Johor Bahru because of his progressive thinking. He was just nearing 42 years old. His interest in literature, education and Islamic intellectualism was evident by his involvement in the intellectual organisation known as the Rasyidiyyah Club. This club was formed by a group of Riau s noblemen in the 1890s for their love in spreading knowledge through reading and discussing Islam and Malay literature. In Penang, Syed Sheikh joined the Persekutuan Ikhwan Al-Masakeen, an association which was Islamic and nationalistic in nature. Syed Sheikh championed the thoughts of Kaum Muda through the Al-Ikhwan magazine, such as encouraging Muslims in Penang to be progressive within the limits of the laws of the state and always to seek knowledge. Hence, madrasahs and religious schools were built to promote this reformation. The formation of Madrasah Al-Mashoor in 1918/1919 in Penang (the madrasah was established in 1916, at first as a school teaching Quran and other basic knowledge) saw the direct involvement of Syed Sheikh with the help of the local Muslims in Penang, like Sheikh Tahir Jalaludin. As a prominent figure in Penang and a wealthy one, his contributions towards the Muslim community in Penang was enormous. This was evident from his donations which helped to build six classrooms 20

25 at the Madrasah Al-Mashoor. In the same year, he was made the headmaster of the madrasah. He continued with his publications such as al-ikhwan, a monthly magazine, and Saudara, a twice weekly newspaper. Al-Ikhwan which was first published on 16 September 1926 was actually the continuation of Al-Imam which was first published in 1906 in Singapore and terminated in saw the first publication of the Saudara newspaper. Syed Sheikh s novels were also very popular. Later generations gave him the honorific title Father of Malay Novels. His numerous contributions are still remembered today. Syed Sheikh died on 20 February 1934 at 410 Jalan Jelutong. He was 67 years old. He was buried at Masjid Jamek Jelutong. Siti Amirah binti Abdullah Besides dealing in commodities, Shaikh Mohamed acquired properties in Penang, Melaka and Sumatra. Having achieved these, he decided to travel back to Saudi Arabia in April Accompanied by his eldest son Abdullah, they departed for Mecca in June 1928 to perform the Haj. Although Shaikh Mohamed was much involved with trade, he was nonetheless actively involved in Malay social activities. He was a committee member for the Penang Malays coronation celebrations which was held on May 12, Before that, he was involved as committee member for the King s Silver Jubilee in Shaikh Mohamed was very concerned with the development of education in Penang. Together with other Arab community leaders, Madrasatul Qur an was set up in Acheen Street in Following this he supported the al-mashoor School throughout its early beginnings in Tek Soon Street and as the school developed. BH (11 Dec 2010); TST (15 Nov 1982); WM (10 Mar 1940); Alijah Gordon, pp ; Talib Samat, 1992, pp.13-28; 1997, pp.13-28; Jelani Harun, p.168; Khoo Su Nin, 1993, pp.25-95; Sohaimi Abdul Aziz, 2007, pp.73-88; Al-Mashoor. Al-Hasawi, Shaikh Mohamed bin Abdul Rahman bin Huzzaim (1873, Saudi Arabia ) Trader, Philanthropist. Financially, he also strongly supported the work of Mohamed Younus Abdul Hamid, a journalist that resulted in the publication of a weekly newspaper, Idaran Zaman in January Shaikh Mohamed was known amongst the business and Muslim communities of Penang and Kedah for his philanthropic activities which ceased when he became ill. After a very short stay in hospital, Shaik Mohamed succumbed to uraemia and died at 6.20pm, 30th November 1959, at the age of 87 at his house, 68 Cantonment Road, Penang. Shaikh Mohamed was born in 1873 in the town of Nejd, Saudi Arabia. At the age of 15, he left Nejd to travel to Pakistan where he lived for four years. Later, he shifted to the Netherlands and lived there for some years. His trips to Pakistan and the Netherlands were to conduct trade in spices. He also traded in spice with India, Indonesia, Malaya, and Singapore. He spoke Arabic as well as Urdu, Dutch, English and Malay. From the Netherlands, Shaikh Mohamed travelled to Malaya in He settled down in Penang and married a Penang girl of Arab descent. Here he established himself as a commodity merchant, trading in spices and coffee from the early 1920s with Sumatra, the Netherlands, India and Pakistan. Although Shaikh Mohamed had nine children, he outlived all of them because they all died at a very young age. Later, even his only surviving son Abdul Aziz died of peritonitis on 6th May Shaikh Mohamed was then left with Abdul Aziz s adopted sister, binti Shaikh Ahmad, Abdul Aziz s daughters Latifah, Hanifah and their brother Kamarulzaman. As the eldest grand-daughter, Latifah binti Abdul Aziz had to manage Shaikh Muhammad s estates when he died in Later the estate was managed by her eleven children. Habsah binti Abdul Rahman bin Isa al-zubaidi The author is the 3rd generation descendant of Shaikh Mohamed bin Abdul Rahman bin Huzzaim al-hasawi 21

26 SFP (8 Jan 1937); TST (10 Apr 1935); Al-Mashoor; Legal-Doc Shaik Mohamed; Mohd Sarim Haji Mustajab, 1977, p.161. Almashoor, Syed Omar ( ) Jeweller, Haj Agent, Politician, Philanthropist. of the mosque in Bukit Bendera in the 1960s. He was also one of the honorary advisers for the Lembaga Kebajikan Masyarakat Kampung Masjid Melayu Lebuh Acheh (Acheen Street Community Welfare Board) which was set up in He was also one of the directors of Warta Negara, the northern region s leading Malay daily in the midtwentieth century. Syed Omar was among the successful jewellers in Penang after the Second World War. He succeeded his father Syed Ahmad in his jewellery and haj business. He opened his first shop at 1E Buckingham Street, in Later in 1953, a branch was opened at 81 Pitt Street called Syarikat S.O. Almashoor. While managing two jewellery shops, he was also a haj agent under the flagship of Mansfield and Co. which operated from Singapore. He operated Juddah Pilgrimage from 87 Lebuh Acheh. He arranged for passports to be made for haj pilgrims. Problems arose when he fell ill, leading to the closure of the first shop in Buckingham Street. Now he could focus on his Pitt Street shop, currently Jalan Kapitan Keling. After his demise in 1980, the business was continued by his daughter, Sharifah Zaharah and his son-in-law, Syed Idrus. His interest in business actually began with his father, Syed Ahmad Almashoor who originated from Yemen. His mother was Azizah binti Sheikh Zacharia Basheer, a resident of Penang. His father came to Penang in the early 20th century to trade, as Penang was a well known trading centre then. His father had three wives. Syed Omar Almashoor was his son with his first wife. When he was young, Syed Omar Almashoor was sent to Tarim, Hadramaut to study Islam. He married Syarifah Sheikha, a Singaporean of his family s choice. She bore him a daughter, Syarifah Zaharah Almashoor. In his lifetime, Syed Omar often sponsored and gave financial help to Darul Aihsan Football Club. He was an active member of the political party UMNO (United Malays National Organisation). He was also interested in the education of Muslim children in Penang, and made various contributions towards the Almashoor School. He donated towards the building Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah TST (8 Jul 1964); Al-Mashoor; Jubilee DAFC; Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan, p.20; MPG, 1964; 1965, p.3; 1968, p.2; ANM-PLB; Personal Communication (Syarifah Zaharah & Syed Idrus). Almashoor, Syed Shaikh bin Ahmad (1911- late 1970s) Haj Agent, Merchant, Philanthropist. Syed Shaikh bin Ahmad Almashoor was a well known merchant of batik sarongs before the Second World War. His shoplot was at 255M Penang Road in the Penang bazaar. He named his business Syarikat Toko Batik Almashoor. He was a wholesaler as well as a retailer and sold various types of batik sarong and pulikat sarong (cotton sarongs). His father helped him in the business. The sarongs he sold were imported from Sumatra. His business thrived especially during the haj season as Penang was a free port at the time. He was also a haj agent, locally known as sheikh haji. As a sheikh haji, his job was to enrol prospective haj pilgrims, help them in the preparations before going for the haj, i.e. arrange for passports, provide food and lodging while in Penang and attend to all other related problems. He was also responsible for their welfare upon their return from the haj, before they finally left for their respective villages. Most of the pilgrims under his care were from Kedah and Penang. In order to facilitate his work, both his businesses were under the same roof, his batik sarong shop. Syed Shaikh bin Ahmad Almashoor was born in 1911 in Penang. He married Syarifah Fatun from Singapore and brought her back to Penang to stay at 198 Burma 22

27 Road. His father, Syed Ahmad Almashoor was from Yemen while his mother was Azizah bt. Sheikh Zakaria Basheer from Penang. His father came to Penang in the early 20th century to do business because at the time, Penang was a well known business hub. Before Syed Shaikh was involved in business, his father sent him to Yemen to study Islam. Syed Shaikh died in the late 1970s in Penang. Syed Shaikh was a charitable person. From the profits earned from his businesses, he helped many people, particularly in Penang. As a haj agent he did his job well just like the other haj agents. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah MT (24 Jan 1941); Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan, p. 40; MPG, 1967, p.12; 1968, p.28; 1969, p.24; Personal Communication (Syed Salim bin Syed Ali Al-Mufathal) Al-Mufathal, Syed Ali bin Syed Abdullah (early 1900s- 2001) Pilgrim Broker/Agent, Businessman, Ustaz, Teacher, Philanthropist. Syed Ali bin Syed Abdullah Al-Mufathal was a successful and well known pilgrim broker/agent in Penang. He was first involved in the business after the Second World War. He had worked in Syarikat Juddah Pilgrimage, a company which belonged to Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor. His job was to recruit people who wanted to go on pilgrimage. Then he would make all the necessary arrangements for their trips to Mecca, such as getting the passports, preparing their food and lodging in Penang, and helping to solve every problem which arose. Most of the pilgrims under his charge came from Kelantan and Southern Thailand. Everyday, he was always at hand in the harbour, until all the pilgrims under his care had sailed to Mecca. He was also responsible for them upon their return from Mecca. Syed Ali had his office at 6 Lumut Lane. In the beginning, as a pilgrim broker, he was in partnership with Haji Ismail. After a couple of years, he was ready to strike out on his own. Besides being a pilgrim broker, Syed Ali also managed a small business, making majun (a traditional health tonic), bedak sejuk (a traditional Malay face powder), and suchlike, at his house in Sungai Pinang. In 1930, before he went into business, Syed Ali was an ustaz (religious teacher) and a teacher of the Arabic language at the Al-Mashoor School. His business ended in the mid-1970s when pilgrim ships were not in use anymore. After that, his source of income came from a family-owned sawmill in Guar Cempedak, Kedah. Syed Ali was born in Sungai Pinang, Penang in early His father, Abdullah Al-Mufathal, was from Hadramaut, Yemen, who migrated to Southeast Asia, in particular, Malaya, to propagate Islam while trading in cloth. While Syed Ali was in his teens, his father sent him to Saudi Arabia for six years to study Islam. It was upon his return to Penang that he became a teacher at the Al-Mashoor School in Tek Soon Street. Syed Ali married Sharifah Fatmah binti Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor before the Second World War erupted. They had two children. Syed Ali died at 198K Burma Road, Penang in Syed Ali s good deeds were not just for the Muslim community in Penang, but also for people in other places such as Kelantan, Perak, and Patani. He rendered help to haj pilgrims, getting them ready for their trip to Mecca. He was also a village leader in Lebuh Acheh, and in the 1930s, he was a treasurer of a football club. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan, p.40; MPG, 1965, p.37; 1968, p.11; 1970, p.26; PJH, 1967, p.44; Peduman Bakal-Bakal Haji; Personal Communication (Syed Salim bin Syed Ali Al-Mufathal & Haji Abdul Aziz bin Haji Ismail). Alyafhee, Sheikh Mohamed bin Omar (1878, Yemen-1971) Jeweller, Merchant, Philanthropist, Community Leader. In the early 19th century, Sheikh Mohamed Omar 23

28 Alyafhee came to Penang in search of greener pastures. In accordance with the Registration of Aliens Ordinance, 1917, he was registered on 29 November, He came together with other equally adventurous friends from Hadramaut, Yemen. In Penang he sold products from Arabia such as, minyak atar (fragrant oil), honey and benzoin (an incense) on a small scale. He became good friends with the already established Almashoor jewellers and took his business to a higher level. He sourced gemstones, particularly diamonds, from Almashoor and engaged Chinese craftsmen to make jewellery pieces which he sold in Penang and Kedah. As he went to Kedah so often, he became wellknown there as a jeweller. Sheikh Mohamed never owned a shop. His business was home-based and he marketed the goods himself too. He also encouraged many of his friends in Hadramaut to migrate to Penang as the opportunity to do business was very attractive. Sheikh Mohamed Omar Alyafhee already had a wife and a son, Sheikh Salim, in Hadramaut. In Penang, he took a second wife and she bore him four girls and two boys; Siti Mariam, Siti Khadijah, Siti Aishah, Siti Zainab, Sheikh Ahmad and Sheikh Omar. When his second wife passed away, he married a third time and had two more girls; Siti Salmah and Siti Fatma. At the time of his demise, Siti Aishah was the secretary for Wanita UMNO, Penang. Siti Salmah is also well-known because she is Umi Sekha s mother, a popular food caterer in Penang. Apart from being a successful jeweller, he was able to own three bungalows, one in Jelutong and two others in Malacca Street. In his lifetime, he gave donations to orphanages and financially contributed towards activities of the Arab community, mainly at the Masjid Arab, Seang Tek Road. However, his most significant contribution was founding the Masjid Arab with his money and contributions from the Arab community. The mosque has stood the test of time and to this day, the mosque is still active and survives with contributions from its congregation only. Sheikh Mohamed bin Omar Alyafhee passed away at 124, Malacca Street, on 15 April, 1971 at the ripe old age of 93. Two mistakes were made in his death certificate. The first was his age written as 83, and the second, that his death was due to senile debility. However, his grandson, Sheikh Abu Bakar, said he was not senile. He left 43 grandchildren and five great grandchildren. Noriah Abdullah Personal Communications (Sheikh Abu Bakar, Siti Salmah); COR Sheik Mohamed. Al-Zubaidi, Isa bin Abdul Hafiz (1896, Yemen ) Diamond Trader. Isa bin Abdul Hafiz al-zubaidi or fondly known as Isa al-zubaidi is a name well known among merchants in Penang since the 1920 s. He had four other brothers who lived in Hadhramaut, Yemen. Known for his expertise in diamond trading, Isa started his life in Penang as a shop assistant with an Arab gold and diamond merchant in a shop along Penang Road. His years with Syed Mahadzar Aidid was well utilised in learning about gold and diamond trading. Lessons learned and practised was put into reality for his own jewellery outlet in Buckingham Street. Together with a partner he had established Al-Zubaidi and Al-Mashoor Jewellers which became a household name. This successful diamond merchant hailed from the district of Hakmah in Hadhramaut, Yemen. As the first of al-zubaidis to set foot in Penang around early 1900 s he first settled in the vicinity of Acheen Street. As a regular at the Masjid, he became acquainted with Abdul Rahman Bilal, the Muaazin of Masjid Aceh on Acheen Street who later became his father-in-law. Isa married Habsah binti Abdul Rahman and they were blessed with 10 children. However, three of their children died at a very young age. To maintain family ties, Isa sent his two elder sons Ismail and Abdul Rahman back to Hakmah at a young age. Ismail lived and died in Hakmah while Abdul Rahman returned when he was about eighteen years of age. 24

29 As a successful businessman, Isa purchased much land and property in Penang, and Pendang, Kedah as his investment. Isa was popular among friends and neighbours due to his generosity. An inquiry or mention of any goods or materials by his visitors will be concluded with the said item becoming a gift to the visitor. As a jeweller s wife, Habsah was known to be adorned by jewellery specially designed by Isa himself. Penang was not Isa s only base as he had business relations with Arabs in Medan, Indonesia. Among others was Syed Taha al-sagoff, a well-known newspaper reporter and publisher. As Syed Taha and his wife Sharifah Mahani al-sagoff were childless and being a close and trusted friend, Isa agreed to have his daughter Jameelah adopted by the couple. Not only were they close friends but they were also related as Isa s father-in-law and Syed Taha s mother were cousins. Later in 1937, Isa s chauffeur drove both him and his wife to Medan travelling on the ferry Straits of Malacca to visit Jameelah when she was still very young. Isa died in 1946 while his children were still young. What was left of Isa s jewellery outlet was immediately taken over by his business partner. To date Isa is survived by his daughter Jameelah, his son Muhamed Ali and many grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Habsah binti Abdul Rahman bin Isa al-zubaidi Family-doc Isa al-zubaidi; Izrin Muaz Md Adnan, p.35; Mohd Sarim Haji Mustajab, 1977, pp ; Personal Communication (Jameelah binti Isa bin Abdul Hafiz al-zubaidi, Zaharah binti Zein al-zubaidi, Muhamed Ali bin Isa bin Abdul Hafiz al-zubaidi, Mohammed Ali bin Ahmad bin Saeed bin Abdul Hafiz & Hussein Ali bin Ahmad bin Saeed bin Abdul Hafiz) Anderson, William (b. c ) Merchant, Planter, Public Figure. William Anderson was born about 1799, one of twelve children and the fourth son of Robert Anderson of Stroquhan, Scotland (d. 25 Dec 1828). His arrival at Penang is not known; however he was granted a licence to reside on the island on 28 August His elder brother John had arrived at the island six years earlier as a Writer in the East India Company s service and by the time William arrived he held the positions of Deputy Warehouse Keeper and Malay Translator. John would rise to become Secretary to Government in September William commenced a mercantile business next to or opposite the Customs House at the Fort end of Beach Street, placing his first advertisement in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 15 January 1821: For Sale at Mr. W. Anderson s godowns, a few Pipes of London Particular Madeira, warranted several years in India and from the first House in Madeira: Price 320 Dollars per Pipe. One or two months credit. William Balhetchet, formerly Secretary to the Naval Commander in Chief Sir Henry Blackwood, arrived at Penang just months later. Anderson offered him a partnership which commenced on 28 July 1821 as Balhetchet & Anderson. In April 1822 they relocated the business to the old Naval Store godown next to Brown & Co, who occupied James Scott s old premises a little further down Beach Street on the seaward side. On 1 February 1823 the firm joined forces with Armenian merchants Catchatoor Galastaun and Narcis Mackertich under the consolidated trading name of Balhetchet & Co, but the partnership did not last. William Anderson and the Armenian partners withdrew at the end of January 1826 and on 1 February the following year Anderson joined James Fairlie Carnegy as a partner in Carnegy & Co. He served as Sheriff in ; as a Magistrate and Justice of the Peace; and regularly served on the jury of the Court of Judicature. In early 1828 Captain 25

30 Peter Pender Hodge of the Madras Engineers challenged him to a duel and for his troubles was hauled up in court and fined 100 rupees; however decorum of the day prevented the newspaper from publishing further details of this confrontation. Anderson remained with Carnegy & Co until 1832 when the company became insolvent and its assets were sold off by trustees George and Hugh Scott, including the godowns in Beach Street, Carnegy s residence called Green Hall, and Anderson s residence on North Beach known as Northam Lodge. According to his obituary in the Straits Times of 13 December 1845, he returned to England in 1834, only to come back the following year to establish the firm of Anderson, Wardrop and Co; a partner firm to Alexander Wardrop and Company of Glasgow. This firm also failed and was dissolved in June Anderson was a key proponent of the establishment in February 1837 of Penang s first Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture, but again returned to England in A note in the Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle of 23 February 1839 states: Belle-Vue House, commonly known by the name of Government House, the property of Mr. Anderson, late Firm of Anderson, Wardrop and Co. was sold by Public Auction on Wednesday last and we are informed His Excellency the Governor S. G. Bonham was the purchaser for 3,500 Dollars. It is believed that this property was the old Government House built by Francis Light and still standing in the grounds of the Convent Light Street. Anderson travelled back to Calcutta in 1840, returning to Penang eighteen months later where he was admitted a partner in the mercantile firm William Hall & Co. on 1 January 1844 by the principal, Jonathan Padday. He also established a sugar plantation at Province Wellesley in 1844, but the day after returning from a visit to this estate he died on 2 Dec 1845 of a severe attack of congestive fever. by his brother merchants he was respected for his upright and liberal conduct in all his dealings, although he experienced several vicissitudes of fortune in his mercantile career yet he sustained a high character with those who were affected by his misfortunes The greatest respect was shown for his memory on the day of his funeral. Early in the morning every vessel and boat in the harbour hoisted their colours half mast high; a great number of natives of all classes attended the funeral procession, and nearly all the Chinese and Parsee merchants present came in the mourning garb of the European which was no small manifestation of the respect they felt for the deceased (PGSC). William Anderson is not known to have married or to have produced any children. Marcus Langdon PWIG (6 Dec 1820, 30 Jul 1821, 1 Feb 1823, 26 Jun 1824, 31 Jan 1826, 3 Feb 1827); PRM (9 Apr 1828); SFP (16 Mar 1837); SCCR (3 Sep 1836); PGSC (6 Dec 1845); SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); Dunbar, Fordyce & de Maria, pp Arackell, Carapiet (b. unknown d. 1819) Merchant, Philanthropist. Carapiet Arackell was a prominent merchant amongst the early Armenian population of Penang, but little trace of his mercantile activities has been found. He may have operated a mercantile business in Calcutta before relocating to Penang around Although he is not listed as the owner of any property in an 1806 inventory he would later have either purchased or leased business premises and a home. One of the few mentions of him in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette is in December 1812 when he advertised a brick house and godowns in Penang Street lately in the occupation of Johannes Narcis. His address was simply stated as Malabar Street, which was an early name for the lower half of Chulia Street. The Armenians were classed as a separate population group and an 1810 census tells us that there were 70 Armenians and 95 Europeans as free settlers 26

31 on the island at that time, so their representation was significant. Skilful merchants, they were also generous with their earnings. Arackell was no exception, and is listed as a contributor of the then significant amount of $100 towards the establishment of the Penang Free School in Nadia Wright states that Arackell lived near today s Pulau Tikus area. The IGI records that he had a daughter, Maria, born on 13 December 1808 to a mother named Kurging. No evidence of a marriage has been located. In the last months of 1819 a cholera epidemic reached Penang. Perhaps ill, Arackell departed Penang on 21 November 1819 aboard the ship Po for Calcutta, but died on the voyage. His last philanthropic act before he left was publicised in the Gazette of 6 November 1819, which reported that in thanks for his 16 years of residence, during which he had acquired a handsome independence, Arackell paid off the debts of all 16 prisoners then languishing in the debtors jail. The total amount was around $400 and he offered further help if the families required it. A memorial tablet on the outside of the Church of Nazareth in Calcutta noted that he was Eminently distinguished for his philanthropy and benevolence. His wife died in Calcutta on 30 November 1826, aged 72. What may have been the largest philanthropic donation made by Arackell was made via a bequest in his Will, whereby he left $2,000 towards the construction of an Armenian church in George Town. Along with Catchatoor Galastaun, he should also be remembered for his contribution to this project. The Church of St Gregory the Illuminator was completed in late 1824, but was unfortunately demolished early in the twentieth century. Marcus Langdon PWIG (19 Dec 1812, 24 Feb 1816, 6 Nov 1819, 27 Nov 1819); SSFR (R30 V84 7 Feb 1822); Wright, pp.25, 304-5; Website (IGI). Ariffin, Wan Chik bin Mohamed Ariff (1880s-1920s) Rice Merchant and Wholesaler, Philanthropist Wan Chik Ariffin, also known as Wanchee Ariffin, was a prominent wealthy Malay in the early 20th century. His ancestors were among the early Muslim millionaires since the British entry into Penang. His father was Mohamed Ariff bin Tajudin Arif, a well known millionaire. Wan Chik Ariffin inherited his father s wealth, much of which consisted of land and buildings at strategic locations in George Town. The real estate was inherited from his grandfather, Bapu Alaudin bin Meera Hussain Lebai, who was responsible for guiding Francis Light from Kedah to land at Tanjong Penaga (where Fort Cornwallis was built) on 11 August However, Wan Chik made his name as a successful rice merchant and wholesaler. His interest in the rice trade stemmed from his family s close association with the British officers. He yearned to be successful, thus he grabbed the opportunity to delve into the rice business with the encouragement of the British. As rice was Malaya s staple food, he envisioned that it could be a profitable enterprise. He was able to afford a luxurious life as his business thrived. He owned a fleet of horse carriages for his own use, as well as for the use of his staff. He lived in a huge house, now the Savoy Hotel, inherited from his father. He was also a moneylender. The success he achieved allowed him to engage in charitable work for the Penang Muslim community. He donated his father s land (wakaf) in Perak Road to build a mosque. The mosque was called Masjid Ariff, later renamed Masjid Wan Chik Ariffin. He also built a welfare home for the poor, and established a cemetery. He donated two pieces of land to the Municipal Council for road construction. Ariffin Road and Ariffin Court were named in his honour. Wan Chik Ariffin attended St. Xavier s Institution. His interests were in sports and culture. Every Muharam, the first month in the Muslim calendar, 27

32 boria, a traditional form of entertainment of song and dance, would go from house to house. As the local millionaire, Wan Chik Ariffin would sponsor and prepare the compound of his house in Hutton Lane to welcome the boria with visitors from every corner of Penang converging to watch. In the sports arena, he sponsored football clubs and has served as president of the Mohammadan Football Association and as a patron of the Crescent Football Club. The pinnacle of his involvement in football was when he donated a trophy made of pure silver for inter-club games, the Wan Chik Ariffin Cup. The trophy was made in England and cost nearly $30,000 at that time. Wan Chik Ariffin died in the 1920s. His resting place was the family plot in Perak Road, behind Masjid Wan Chik Ariffin. His residence is now the Penang Malay Museum in Hutton Lane, called Mansion Teh Bunga after Haji Yusoff s daughter-in-law. His son Haji Yusoff and Teh Bunga (original name was MZ Marican) had also stayed there. Mohd Salleh Bin Yahaya & Siti Amirah Bt Abdullah A. Shukor Rahman, pp.51-52; Buku Salasilah Wan Chik Ariffin; Personal Communication (Abdullah Sani). Bacon, Nathaniel (c ) Merchant, Lawyer, Prominent Citizen. Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Penang in 1786 as an 18-year-old, employed by Francis Light as a writer, or clerk. In 1794 he is one of the witnesses of Light s Will. Madras records show the birth of a Nathanael Bacon on 8 July 1767, and as this tallies with our Nathaniel s age at death, it could be the same person. By the turn of the century Bacon had acquired a number of free land grants on the island and soon realised the advantages of commercial enterprise. In June 1806 he was granted administration of the estate of the late Superintendent, Philip Manington. Manington s household goods were advertised for sale at Bacon s godowns in China Street the following month in the Prince of Wales Island Government Gazette. After failing to sell Manington s extensive Ayer Itam property in January 1807, Bacon moved into the property himself. Perhaps he relocated from a large two-storey house he owned opposite the padang on Light Street, which he regularly offered for lease over the coming years. In 1809 Bacon is trading out of godowns at 9 Penang Street. In early 1808 his trading vessel, the brig Martha, was captured enroute to Rangoon by French privateers who intended to sail her to Mauritius. Bacon s crew managed to overpower their captors in the Indian Ocean and sailed the vessel instead to the Maldives. A ship was sent to escort her back and they arrived in Penang in May 1809 loaded with cowrie-shell and coir. It would seem however that Bacon had given her up as lost and had recently taken delivery of a new 500-ton ship that had been constructed for him in Rangoon. This vessel appears to have also been named the Martha. She was loaded with cotton in Calcutta and in early 1810 sailed for China with Bacon and his two (unnamed) sons aboard. On the return voyage the ship ran aground on a coral reef and was lost. After nearly a month in an open ship s boat, Bacon, his sons, the captain and some of the crew arrived in the Philippines, barely alive. After recovering from the ordeal they arrived back in Penang in December the same year. By 1816 his failure to complete the administration of Manington s estate caught up with him. In the latter half of that year, as a result of court action by the East India Company, the several properties remaining were sold up by the Sheriff. Interestingly a complainant in one court action was a John Ferguson Bacon, who was possibly a nephew. Perhaps family money was involved. Bacon was also required to repay the income he had received from the rents of these properties over the past decade. Bacon served as Sub-Sheriff in and later as Registrar to the Court of Judicature, but it seems 28

33 his brush with the law did not hinder his career. On 20 August 1817 he was admitted as an attorney and solicitor to the same court, a position he held up until his death, which was noticed in the Government Gazette of 10 April 1830: tombstone in the old Christian cemetery in George Town simply records the names Nathaniel Bacon, Thomas Bacon and Martha Bacon. Marcus Langdon On the 31st ultimo, aged 62 years, Nathaniel Bacon, Esq. the oldest resident on this Island, having settled here shortly after its first establishment in 1786, by Mr. Light, under whom and the subsequent superintendents he was employed in various important situations and enjoyed their perfect confidence. Mr. Bacon, latterly was one of the Law Agents in the Court of Judicature, and was much respected by the successive Recorders for his ability and integrity, and for the extensive local knowledge he possessed. Administration of his estate was granted to his son Thomas, who was described as a master mariner. Thomas is regularly found arriving and departing Penang in his vessel, the brig Maria. Initially he would have assisted in his father s firm, but commenced his own business as an auctioneer and general agent in Beach Street in February Bacon s estate was auctioned on 26 June 1830 and comprised a range of brick shops on the south side of China Street running through to Che Em Lane; a brick and timber house in the same street; a new brick house just outside the town on 20 acres in Penang Road, and 184 acres in Ayer Itam. This latter property may have been Manington s, which Bacon had possibly purchased at the Sheriff s sale. Despite his profile, his private life is not easy to determine. We know he had at least two sons, Thomas and possibly Nathaniel. Records list a daughter, Martha, born in Calcutta 22 November 1798 to a Nathaniel Bacon, and given the name of his ship it is likely to be relevant. The death at Penang of Martha Bacon on 10 August 1847, aged 57, and of Thomas Bacon on 1 August 1847, aged 53 would appear to confirm this. These two, brother and sister, were savagely attacked by Malay workers at their Tuddenham sugar estate in the northeast of Province Wellesley (Seberang Prai), where they had been pioneers of sugar-growing in the district. Both succumbed to their wounds. A plaque on a SSFR (R9 V16 Appendices 1806); PWIGG (21 Jun 1806); PWIG (31 Dec 1808, 13 May 1809, 31 Mar 1810, 1 Dec 1810, 8 Dec 1810, 5 Feb 1814, 31 Aug 1816, 16 Nov 1816, 1 Nov 1817, ); GGPWISM (10 Apr 1830, 19 Jun 1830); SFP (12 Aug 1847, 26 Aug 1847); Kyshe, V1, p.cxiii; Website (IGI). Badjenid, Sheikh Hassan Badjenid bin Sheikh Mohamed ( ) Cloth Trader, Manufacturer, Wholesaler and Retailer of Perfumes and Essential Oils, Philanthropist, Politician. Sheikh Hassan Badjenid, an Arab descendant, was a well-known cloth and minyak atar (fragrant oil made from rose petals) trader throughout the 20th century. He was involved in the business since the 1930s, ever since his father, Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid established the shop selling cloth, spices and minyak atar at , Beach Street. The company was also involved in the tarpaulin and canvas trades and goods suppliers to government, estates, mills, mines, steamers, and the military. Sheikh Hassan and his brother were always present to help their father manage the business. Sheikh Hassan received his education at the Al Mashoor School in After his brother and father passed away, he continued the business with his children, Tawfeek Badjenid and S.A. Hamid Badjenid. Later, S. A. Hamid Badjenid took over the management while Tawfeek went on to open a law firm. The shop is still in existence, trading in minyak atar and cloth. Sheikh Hassan Badjenid married when he was in his 20s. He had three wives. His first wife, Siti Fatimah, was from Penang. They had seven children. While on a business trip to Indonesia, he married Fatimah Badjenid, a Bandung Arab descendant. Fatimah, with whom he had a child, came from a business family. In Singapore, Sheikh Hassan Badjenid 29

34 married Sharifah Aloyah who also gave him seven children. Altogether, he had fifteen children, nine girls and six boys. He died in Penang in Apart from managing his business, Sheikh Hassan Badjenid was also active in the social, religious and political arenas. As a former student of Al Mashoor, he never forgot his Alma Mater. He contributed to the development of the school, physically and financially. He was also involved in the construction of Masjid Arab. The mosque s location was right in George Town. He was also a treasurer of the Masjid Bukit Bendera in the 1960s. The building was a double storey shop house with its prayer hall downstairs, and the kitchen and store room upstairs. Together with the residents around the mosque, they helped to maintain it. His other activity was in the political party, UMNO (United Malays National Organization), in which he was active since its inception. Mahani Musa TST (11 Oct 1965); ANM-PLB; Al-Mashoor; Khoo Su Nin, p.47; MPG, 1964, p. 16; 1965, p. 20; 1967, p. 13; 1968, p. 19, 1970, p.14; Peduman Bakal-bakal Haji; Personal Communication (Sheikh Tawfeek Badjenid); Websites (S.M. Badjenid & Sons, History of S.M. Badjenid & Son) with Arab ancestors. They had two boys. After several years in Aceh, Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid moved with his wife to Penang in the early 1890s. In Penang, they opened a shop in Lebuh Acheh, selling spices, and cloth. In 1917, he established another shop at Beach Street. His company was called S.M. Badjenid & Sons. In the beginning, he was selling spices from India, cloth from Indonesia, and velvet from Persia. In the 1930s, he began selling minyak atar (fragrant oil) as his spice trade stopped because of the downturn in economy. He just continued selling minyak atar, and cloth. Today, his grandson, S.A. Hamid bin S. Hassan Badjenid continues the business. Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid was not involved with any associations in Penang. However, he often interacted with other Arabs in Penang, joining in their efforts to improve the Muslim community. He was actively involved in activities at Masjid Melayu Lebuh Aceh, and contributed towards the building of Madrasatul Quran, later known as Al-Mashoor School, since He was also involved with many religious and social activities at Masjid Arab in Seang Tek Road. Mahani Musa Badjenid, Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid bin Sheikh Ahmad (1860s, Hadramaut ) Cloth Trader, Philanthropist. Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid bin Sheikh Ahmad Badjenid was a successful cloth trader in Penang in the early 20th century. He was also involved in importing spices from India, cloth from Indonesia and velvet from Persia. Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid started his business in Hadramaut when he was still in his teens. He traded in spices and cloth. When he was in his twenties, he married an Arab lady from Hadramaut. They had a child. Later, he left for Aceh to trade in cloth and spices. Sheikh Mohamed Badjenid s parents were also conducting business in Aceh. In Aceh he married Siti Salmah Bahawaris, an Aceh born lady Khoo Su Nin, 1993, p.47; MPG, 1964, p.16, 1968, p.19, 1970, p.14; Peduman Bakal-Bakal Haji; PJH, 1967, p.13; Personal Communication (Sheikh Tawfeek Badjenid); Websites (S.M. Badjenid & Sons, History of S.M. Badjenid & Son) Bahwirith, Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Sheikh Mansoor ( ) Pilgrim Agent. Sheikh Abdul Rahman bin Sheikh Mansoor Bahwirith was a prominent haj agent in Penang, arranging for the transport of haj pilgrims by boat, the main means of transportation for pilgrims from Malaya until His business premises was at 2, Lumut Lane. As a pilgrim agent, he arranged for the tickets and accommodation in Penang for the pilgrims before they left for Mecca. At any given time, he would be responsible for 50 to 60 pilgrims, 30

35 including their relatives who had gathered at Lebuh Acheh. He moved to Telok Anson after he married Siti Aloyah binti Jaafar who was also from Penang. While in Telok Anson, he continued to be a haj agent. He would accompany pilgrims to Penang and arrange for their trip to Mecca. Although he lived in Telok Anson, his business was still centred in Penang. Besides being a haj agent, 2 Lumut Lane also functioned as a shop, where he sold sandals, ointments and majun (various types of tonics) with the brand name Mahsuri. As one who was also involved in religious matters, Sheikh Abdul Rahman made many contributions to the community around Lebuh Acheh Mosque. In 1973, he published a guide book for haj pilgrims entitled Peduman Bakal-bakal Haji, for their use while they were in Penang before sailing to Mecca. Sheikh Abdul Rahman died on 28 February 1980 and was buried in Kampong Melayu, Ayer Itam. Mahani Musa Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan, pp.38-39; MPG, 1968, p.19, 1969, p.25, 1970, p.14; Peduman Bakal-Bakal Haji, p.14; Personal Communication (Haji Abdul Malik bin Md. Hussain & Haji Jaafar bin Haji Abdul Rahman). Balhetchet, William (c ) Naval Secretary, Merchant, Newspaper Proprietor, Sheriff, Law Agent, Assistant Resident Councillor. Little is known of the genealogical details for William Balhetchet, though his obituary states that he died on 30 November 1850, aged 65, at Pall Mall. His later legal proficiency suggests a formal education prior to entering the British Royal Navy, where he served as Secretary to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane during the war with America and later with the Naval Commander in Chief in the East Indies, Rear Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, when that gentleman succeeded Sir Richard King in August Blackwood had arrived at Penang aboard his flagship HMS Leander on 19 June 1821, and remained at the island until 22 August, during which time Balhetchet decided to try his prospects there and resigned, forming a mercantile partnership with William Anderson as of 28 July which traded as Balhetchet & Anderson. With the backing of Sir Henry Blackwood his application to reside at Penang was granted on 16 November that year, pending the usual confirmation by the Court of Directors of the East India Company. His undoubted knowledge of Government affairs coupled with a sharp mind meant he was a force to be reckoned with. He held the position of High Sheriff on the island for the year and was often to be found at the forefront of public bodies such as the Grand Jury, the Committee of Assessors, the Public Library Committee, and the Free School, where was a Director. He was also prominent in public meetings and business groups, such as in February 1827 where he chaired a meeting of the merchants of Penang to set new rates of Agency, Commission and Godown Rent. Business was good and the firm moved to the old naval warehouse on the seaward side of Beach Street adjoining Brown & Co. on 3 April On 1 February the following year Balhetchet & Co. was formed, the partners being William Balhetchet, William Anderson, and prominent Armenian merchants Catchatoor Galastaun and Narcis Mackertich. The firm dealt with the usual assortment of imported merchandise as well as the sale of local property and goods, advertising regularly in the Gazette. In June 1824 the firm was appointed agents of the Asiatic Insurance Office of Calcutta. For reasons unknown, William Anderson, Catchatoor Galastaun and Narcis Mackertich withdrew from the firm on 31 January 1826; Galastaun forming his own mercantile business as of 1 February 1826 in Beach Street and Anderson joining Carnegy & Co. When the proprietor of the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, William Cox, relinquished the business in July 1827, merchant Norman Macalister McIntyre approached Balhetchet to become a financial partner and editor of a revised publication. It was a opportunity he could not resist. The Penang Register & Miscellany printed its first edition on 22 August that year, but despite Balhetchet s promise to Government that my interest in the success of 31

36 the undertaking would prevent the Paper s adoption of any line of Politics at variance with the views of Government it would appear his outspoken views could not be suppressed. In challenging censorship regulations he raised the ire of Government and the paper was shut down on 20 September Balhetchet was also informed that his licence to reside at Penang would be cancelled; but he argued that as he owned freehold land on the island he could not be deported, and was subsequently allowed to remain. Meanwhile his mercantile business flourished. In early 1828 Henry Heylin was named as one of the employees at Balhetchet & Co. Following the closure of the newspaper Balhetchet, perhaps out of sympathy, admitted McIntyre as a partner on 1 January the following year. It is not known how long the Company continued for; however it is still being mentioned in 1833 newspapers. On Christmas Eve 1832 he was appointed Law Agent of the Court of Judicature for the three settlements of Penang, Malacca and Singapore, then a Notary Public on 11 January 1833 and Law Agent to the East India Company at Penang on 25 February 1834; the latter a post he apparently resigned from shortly thereafter. In 1833 he is also recorded as holding the post of Collector of Land Revenue. Although an uncovenanted member of the East India Company s civil service, and despite his past indiscretions, Balhetchet was appointed Assistant Resident Councillor of Penang on 25 January 1837, and in June the following year to the same position at Singapore to officiate for Mr Wingrove on leave to England. His house and godowns in Beach Street were advertised for sale in August 1838 and he departed for Singapore on 14 November It would appear he resigned his civil service positions in 1839, but he is noted as a legal representative, along with 21-year-old James Richardson Logan, for the Kedah princes against charges of piracy in November 1840 at Penang. Marcus Langdon GM, V35, p.104; AJMR (Jan 1819, 96) POHCI (V2, No. XI, 1838, 514); PWIG, (30 Jul 1821, 6 Apr 1822, 11 Jan 1823, 28 Sep 1822, 6 Dec 1829, 17 Feb 1827); BD (25 Jan 1837, 57); SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); Langdon, 2013, V1, p.339; PGSC (10 Nov 1838); SFP (3 Dec 1840); Kyshe (V1, Preface lxxxv, cxiv). Bapu Alaudin bin Meerah Hussain Lebai (b.unknown, India-d.unknown) Cattle Dealer, Philanthropist. Bapu Alaudin was a successful cattle dealer from the end of the 18th century till the early 20th century. He came from India and settled in Kedah to run his business. He developed a good rapport with the Kedah royal family. He was made a representative of the Kedah Sultan to escort Francis Light to Penang in 1786, and they anchored at Tanjong Penaga (where Fort Cornwallis is now located). His descendants were appointed community leaders in Balik Pulau in remembrance of his services with the East India Company, honorary posts without pay. Bapu Alaudin s search for cattle, for his import and export cattle business, took him in lighters or barges through the length and breadth of the estuaries of rivers in Kedah, Perak and even Siam. At any given time, he amassed a lot of cattle, both cows and buffaloes. As a wealthy man, he was most charitable towards the Muslim community in George Town. He distributed food and drinks during the month of Ramadan to mosques for people to break their fast. He died while on a trip to buy cattle in the Peninsula. Siti Amirah binti Abdullah Khoo Su Nin, 1993, p.93; A. Shukor Rahman, p.51; Badriyah Haji Salleh, 2012, pp.38-51; Abdul Kahar Yusoff, no. 44, Masjid Kongsi, Balik Pulau; Personal Communication (Abdullah Sani); Website (Tanjong Tokong Dossier Section B). Basheer, Sheikh Omar ( ) Pilgrim Agent, Religious and Community Leader. 32

37 Sheikh Omar Basheer was one of the more successful agents for the haj pilgrimage from the middle of the 19th century until his demise in Penang port became an important base for departure to Jeddah and received pilgrims not only from the Straits Settlements but also from other Malay States, Indonesia and southern Thailand. His business, based in Acheen Street and Lumut Lane, evolved around securing ship owners who would take the pilgrims registered with his agency to Jeddah. The business flourished and Sheikh Omar also owned shophouses in this area which he rented out for various Muslim business activities. After he died, the business was continued by his son, Sheikh Zachariah Basheer. Even before becoming a successful agent for haj pilgrims, Sheikh Omar was already known among the locals as a reputable religious and community leader. This might have contributed to his success. He was the religious head (imam) of the Masjid Acheh (Acheen Street Mosque), also called Masjid Melayu (Malay Mosque) and continued the legacy of his grandfather to transmit the teachings of the Naqsyabandiah sect in Penang. When he was still young, Sheikh Omar was sent to Mecca to study the sect. His grandfather, Hamid bin Bahaman, who hailed from Hadramaut went to Aceh before coming to Penang in Hamid had opened two madrasah (religious school) to promote Naqsyabandiah teachings and the practice of sulok, which is a special form of meditation. One of them was located in Bayan Lepas and the other in Ayer Itam. The mosque in Ayer Itam is still known as Masjid Sulok by those living in the vicinity. His followers, both men and women, came from all over the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand and Indonesia. In fact, many of the pilgrims who registered for the haj with his agency were his followers. Sheikh Omar was born at Buckingham Street in Kampung Masjid Kapitan Kling. He resided at 69 Acheen Street, which was located within the mosque enclave. He not only enjoyed the public trust due to his religious background and knowledge, but also the trust of the British authority. On 3 August 1867, riots broke out between two Chinese secret societies, the Ghee Hin and Toa Peh Kong. Known as the Penang Riots 1867, it also involved two Malay secret societies which colluded with these two Chinese factions; the White Flag with the Ghee Hin and the Red Flag with the Toa Peh Kong. The riots lasted 10 days. A Commission which investigated the cause of the Riots required Muslims who were involved to swear before Sheikh Omar, rejecting their membership with the Red and White Flags. At the same time, to avoid bad influences seeping into the Naqsyabandiah sect which he led, Sheikh Omar issued a ruling that every member must pledge that they had never been involved and would distance themselves from any secret society. Mahani Musa ANM-SP 63/8; ANM-SL; Buku catatan Peribadi Sheikh Omar Basheer; HPP, p.147; Mahani Musa, 1995, pp ; 2006, pp.82-84; Omar Farouk Shaeik Ahmad, pp.6-7; Abdul Kahar Yusoff, no 2, Acheen Street Mosque, Acheen Street); Izrin Muaz Md Adnan, pp.1-44; Peraturan atau Sumpah Setia Tarikat Naksyabandiah; Personal Communication (Mohamed bin Yahaya). Basheer, Sheikh Zachariah bin Sheikh Omar Basheer ( ) Merchant, Pilgrim Agent, Community Leader, Mufti. Sheikh Zachariah Basheer was a prominent business and religious figure from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. His businesses comprised importexport trading of rubber, pepper and gambier. He was also an agent for haj pilgrims. Besides his involvement in business, he was also an influential mufti and an imam throughout the early 20th century. Sheikh Zachariah was born in Penang. After the death of his father, Sheikh Omar Basheer, Sheikh Zachariah took over his father s traditional business. He turned premises in Lumut Lane, next to Acheen Street, as his business headquarters. Since 1900, he traded in rubber, pepper, and gambier, besides being an agent for haj pilgrims. His business was known as Sheikh Zachariah Basheer & Sons, which he formed in He also formed a Commission Agency in Lumut Lane. By the end of his life, he ran an import-export trade with countries located in the Arabian peninsula, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. 33

38 He also acted as an agent for Mansfield & Co. which at one time was involved in transporting haj pilgrims to Jeddah. His success in business was evident in his acquisition of almost all the double storey shophouses in Lumut Lane, and a bungalow known as Al Basheer. After his demise, his business was run by his sons and son-in-law. In 1931, his family business was advertised in the business directory which was published in Singapore. Directory of Malaya 5 Raffles Place, Singapore, 1st August Sheikh Zachariah Basheer & Sons Produce Merchants & Commission Agent 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7, Lumut Lane Shipping Departments Agents Mansfield & Co. Ltd. for the Pilgrim Passengers to Jeddah and other Arabian Ports Based on the different types of businesses and premises set up as business headquarters, Sheikh Zachariah s business grew and thrived with a staff of 20. Business was temporarily halted during the Japanese Occupation, and resumed after the war. Sheikh Zachariah also took over his late father s duty as the leader in Acheen Street. He continued his father s effort in expanding the teachings of Naqsyabandiah Sect (Tarekat Naqsyabandiah). He was also the first Penang mufti. In the twenties, he was involved in an effort to eradicate boria, a typical Penang traditional play of song and dance. Boria was seen to deviate from the Muslim s way of life from the economic and social aspects of Islam. In 1917, he rented a house at 67, Acheen Street and turned it into a religious school (madrasah) where Al-Quran was taught. This was to be his important contribution as at that time Acheen Street did not have such a place. This madrasah was well received and later developed into the Al-Mashoor school. Sheikh Zachariah married Hajjah Salmah Ansari, a Penangite. They had nine children. Mahani Musa BT (6 Sep 1900); Directory of Malaya, 1931; Al-Mashoor; HPP, p.178; Izrin Muaz Md Adnan, pp.1-44; ANM-SL; Personal communication (Mohamed bin Yahaya & Tuan Hj. Fathil Basheer). Ben Hariz, Abodd bin Salim (b Kelantan) Textile Merchant, Manufacturer. In 1948 at the age of 26, Abodd, a Kelantan born of Yemeni descent, was persuaded to return to Malaya after being sent back to his family s village near Shibam in Hadhramaut. It was the Yemeni culture for parents to send their boys back home regardless of whichever new country they resided. After the experience of long travel from Kelantan to Yemen, at a young age of 8, Abodd had to go through a long journey back to Malaya. Abodd and four others from a nearby village started their journey on camels across Shibam to reach their first destination, the port of Aden. There, they embarked a ship scheduled for Singapore which they reached after travelling for 14 days. Abodd and Abdul Rahman al-zubaidi, a close travelling companion, headed for Penang by train as their parents were already there. The other two friends travelled southwards to Indonesia. Abodd could adjust himself well in Penang because he joined his eldest brother Saleh and worked together at Saleh s textile shop, Saleh & Bros. on Penang Road where part of KOMTAR now stands. Later, he married Faridah al-shibli, a Penang girl also of Yemeni descent. Together, they settled in their home on Sri Bahari Road. While Abodd busied himself with the textile business, his brother found that it was not doing as well as he expected. Saleh moved to Patani, Thailand and Abodd carried on with the business. From time to time, Abodd visited his parents in Kelantan. It was during his visits to Kelantan that he decided to set up a batik factory to support his business outlet in Penang. It was a right move as the factory registered under the name A.S. Hariz became an important source in supporting his shop in Penang. Abodd became a successful manufacturer and distributor of batik, not just centred in Penang but throughout Malaya. It was indeed a demanding task and hard work for Abodd over the years, securing deals especially between the East coast and Penang. After 15 years of tiring work, he decided to reduce his travels in order to focus on his family and finally 34

39 settled in Penang. Both Abodd and Faridah have been blessed with four sons, Salleh, Faisal, Farid, Fuad and a daughter, Faizah. However, Salleh, the eldest son, was called to meet his Lord in mid 1980s leaving his parents and the rest of his siblings to survive as the only descendants of the ben Hariz clan, not only in Penang but in Malaysia. Abodd who is now in his early 80s is living with his beloved wife while his children have settled down in Penang and Kuala Lumpur further blessing him with nine grandchildren. Habsah binti Abdul Rahman bin Isa al-zubaidi Business-Doc Abodd; Personal Communication (Abodd ben Hariz ) Bhatt, Himatlat Hariram ( ) Merchant, Philanthropist, Community Leader. Himatlal a/l Hariram Bhatt was born in a small village, Zanzmer, in India in His education was until Standard 4. Sent by his elder brother, he came to Malaya as an 18-year old teenager in In Penang, he worked as office boy, cook and general factotum for a Parsi couple who had no children, and who took him in. Gradually he began to pick up the threads of the business due to his keen intelligence and determination. Having learnt the import business, he started a company in partnership with Purushotamdas Patel and Shiv Shanker Joshi in The company was named Purushotamdas & Co. They were importers of onions, potatoes and spices. Later, they started exporting Penang s betel nuts, mostly to India. He married a 15-year old girl Devkaur Dalparam, in Gujarat, in 1935, and brought her back to Penang with him. The eldest child, a daughter, Dhaniben, was born in The eldest son, Harsukh Rai, followed in There were 6 more sons born to Bhatt and his wife. The family stayed in a shophouse in 68, King Street. The children were sent to Stamford School in Clove Hall Road. At that time, a Sadhu or holy man, came to Penang. He stayed at 98 King Street, which belonged to Bhatt. The Sadhu saw children, orphans, living on the five-foot way opposite the house. He took them in and started an ashram or orphanage in Chulia Street on the first floor of a shophouse, which he rented from a Chulia (Indian Muslim). The first Trustee was H.H. Bhatt. This was how the famous Ramakrishna Ashram of Scotland Road began! After the Sadhu left, the ashram continued running. The ashram s well wishers wanted to provide a more conducive environment for the children and looked around for likely locations. When they wanted to purchase the land where Ramakrishna Ashram now stands, they faced a lot of opposition because behind the land that was earmarked for the ashram stood York House where the Governor General and other Officers resided, and British people were staying in adjacent houses. Bhatt was the one who spearheaded the project to build the ashram, forming a committee to mediate with the British and finally obtained permission to acquire the land as well as conduct a fund-raising campaign to finance the project. H.H. Bhatt and his partners, along with a few others, were the pioneers who initiated the formation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce in Penang in the 1920 s. He was one of the first trustees. With the onslaught of World War II, Bhatt and his family relocated to Gujarat, India in 1942, leaving behind the son of Shiv Shanker Joshi, one of the partners, who was also manager of the firm, to look after the company. The present Datuk Markend Joshi is Shiv Shanker Joshi s grandson. H.H. Bhatt had RM100,000 in his possession when he landed in Gujarat. However, he spent all the money within two years helping the villagers as there was a terrible drought in Zanzmer at that time. His daughter died in Gujarat at age 12. In 1946, he returned alone to Penang, under pecuniary circumstances once more. Between 1947 and 1955, the other two partners left Malaya for 35

40 India and remained there, while H.H. Bhatt ran the business singlehandedly. They did not return to Malaya, and Bhatt conscientiously and unfailingly reimbursed their share of the company profits to them in India. H.H. Bhatt started the first Gujarati Tuition Centre in Chulia Street after the war, called the Ramakrishna Gujarati School and taught Gujarati at the Centre. He was a member of the Ramakrishna Ashram Committee and supported the Ashram as well as other charitable organisations such as the Old Folk Homes and Centre for the Handicapped. In 1955 the partnership was dissolved. His one-third share in the partnership could not sustain him and his family who had rejoined him in He ended up owing the partnership RM10,000 when it was dissolved. In spite of being in debt, he started his own business, Syarikat H.H. Bhatt in 1955 at the age of 55. His eldest son, Harsukh Rai, joined his father in the business. He was 18. In 1957, at age 16, another son, Harvind Rai, joined the firm, and later, Arun Bhatt, in In 1960, when Ambalal Bhai Patel, manager of C.K. Joshi died, resulting in the company closing down, Syarikat H.H. Bhatt took over their tin business. In the 1970 s, the company expanded further into the tin trade, and has been in it ever since. H.H. Bhatt became a millionaire. In 1950, Bhatt became the Founder President of the Gujarati Seva Samaj. Under his chairmanship, the premises at 41 Green Hall was purchased for a sum of about RM 27,000 and was converted into the Headquarters for the Gujarati Seva Samaj. Bhatt was a pillar of the North Indian community and was often called to act as mediator to settle disputes within the Indian mercantile community, especially where the British legal system failed to resolve issues. From 1970 to 1984 Bhatt was Chairman of the Sri Kunj Bihari Temple on Penang Road. During his chairmanship, the Temple underwent major reconstruction. In 1972, the Main Altar of Lord Krishna and the present hall were built. In 1975, Bhatt donated RM58,000 to Universiti Sains Malaysia as a student loan fund for needy Indian students. The fund is still being maintained till today. His health deteriorated after falling down in his office and fracturing his hip. H.H. Bhatt passed away in 1985 at the age of 85. His sons took over the family business. From H.H. Bhatt & Co. to H.H. Bhatt Trading Sdn. Bhd., today the name has changed to Bhatt Enterprise. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Arun Bhatt); HPP, p.30; Website (Tyebkhan) Bone, Andrew Burchett (b.c ) Merchant & Auctioneer, Newspaper Owner & Editor, Prominent Freemason. Andrew Burchet Bone arrived in India around 1792, finding work with the Joseph Cooper Press in Calcutta. He was then sent to Madras to print a new newspaper, The Hircurrah, but following owner Hugh Boyd s death in October 1794 Bone became printer for the Madras Gazette, which commenced on 1 January It would appear that he again worked for Joseph Cooper in Calcutta until around 1800, after which he relocated to Malacca, marrying Isabella Charlotte Sophia Baumgarten (chr. 21 Jul 1782), daughter of Christiaan Gottfried Baumgarten and Maria Catharina Elizabeth Velge, in the ensuing year or two. Their first child, James Byng Bone, was born there on 1 November 1803 and the second, Charlotte Maria Bone, on Christmas Eve the following year, after which the family probably went to Penang to seek out business opportunities. A second son, John Joseph Bone, was christened at Penang on 1 November Bone was permitted to reside on the island by Lt Governor Robert Townsend Farquhar which points to 1804/5 as an arrival date. When Farquhar authorised a subdivision of land between Battery Lane (the section of Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah passing the old cemetery) and the newly created Farquhar Street, Andrew Bone purchased one lot on 1 June 1805 and added a neighbouring one a few months later, giving him a total allotment size 36

41 just short of an acre, on which he built his home. This land later became the property of the London Missionary Society and a chapel was constructed there in With the arrival of the Presidency Government in September 1805 Bone saw an opportunity to print the vast numbers of official forms that would be required, and on 30 January 1806 he was granted a licence to establish a press and print a newspaper. Initially named the The Government Gazette it was the first English language paper in Malaysia. The first edition was printed on 1 March that year; assuming its more commonly-known name; the Prince of Wales Island Gazette in October Bone s partners in the newspaper were probably one of the Cooper family in Calcutta and a sea captain, Thomas Watkin Court, with whom he had earlier established the mercantile firm of Court and Bone, operating as Merchants, Agents and Auctioneers. Following establishment of the newspaper both operations were initially run from premises at 68 Beach Street but soon moved to 233 Beach Street, before moving again in June 1807 to 23 Bishop Street. Naturally the firm advertised regularly in the weekly Gazette, selling everything from small goods to houses and ships, but in early 1810 the business and the press were moved to 6 Bishop Street; the retail section of Court and Bone being relinquished in favour of acting solely as Auctioneers. Captain Court was often away on trading voyages aboard his brig Britannia so the work was predominantly performed by Bone, and by the end of 1810 the partnership was dissolved. Bone continued as a two-thirds owner but by August 1811 the silent Calcutta partner too wanted out and Bone obtained a loan of Sp$2,500 from Government in order to purchase the remaining share. To consolidate his assets he then moved the press to his house at 10 Farquhar Street and tried without success to sell the Bishop Street premises where the auction business operated from. It is clear that his business skills as a merchant did not reap him the rewards it did for some of his fellow merchants, and burdened by growing debt Bone announced that as of 1 January 1812 his rates of commission for the sale of general goods by auction would be raised from five to eight per cent in line with Calcutta rates. In September 1813 the financially strapped Bone put up for sale a one third interest in the printing business, but again met with no buyer. Then disaster struck. On 17 November 1814 a fire, suspected of being deliberately lit, started in the roof of 6 Bishop Street destroying the building and a good part of the town. Once again Bone rebuilt with a loan from Government and in April 1815 unsuccessfully tried to sell the building whilst temporarily operating his mercantile business from merchant Anthony McIntyre s rooms at 10 Beach St. In the end the stress took a heavy toll and Andrew Burchett Bone died on 26 April 1815 aged 42, though the actual cause of death is not known. His family was left destitute as the properties in Farquhar Street and Bishop Street were sold off to satisfy creditors, however a public appeal raised Sp$950 to assist them relocate to Malacca and send the eldest son to England for schooling. His widow Charlotte died on 20 February 1825 at Malacca. Andrew Burchett Bone also played his part in social and official affairs. He had joined the Freemason s Lodge in Calcutta in 1799 and both he and his partner T.W. Court were founding members of the Neptune Lodge 344 in Penang in 1808; Bone being elected Master for the year He was also a member of the Committee of Assessors in 1810, and served on the jury of the Court of Judicature on a number of occasions. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R9 V16 Appendices 1806, R10 V19 3 May 1808); SSR (A9 1 Aug 1811); GG (12 Apr 1806); PWIGG (22 Jun 1807); PWIG (23 Dec 1809, 29 Dec 1810, 17 Aug 1811, 4 Jan 1812, 22 Nov 1814, 17 Dec 1814, 15 Apr 1815); LMF; Bloomfield, pp.7-34; Harfield, p.40; Website (IGI). Brown, David ( ) Planter, Landowner, Merchant, Community Leader, Public Figure. David Brown was born in 1776 in the small village of Duns in Berwickshire, Scotland, to parents 37

42 David Brown and Janet Stuart, and christened at Edinburgh on 14 December that year. Information from private family records left in 1935 by descendant Helen Margaret Brown states that he and his younger brother Alexander were raised by Janet s parents, Alexander and Margaret Stuart, following the separation or demise of their own parents. David Brown was apprenticed as a law clerk under Walter Lorrain before studying law at Edinburgh University. In January 1800 he was sent out to Penang with 300 and power of attorney to administer the estate of his uncle, Alexander Stuart, who had died there in the immediate years prior. In an 1808 return of residents, Brown produced evidence to show that he had been granted permission to stay at Penang on 1 February 1802 by Lieutenant Governor Sir George Leith. According to family records he first stayed with James Scott, but although he may have learnt some of his mercantile skills with James Scott & Co., around he teamed up with James Carnegy and Patrick Clark to form the mercantile firm Carnegy, Clark & Co. By August 1803 he had begun to acquire land at Sungai Keluang towards the south of the island and by 1806 his holdings amounted to over 6% of those issued at that time, or around 915 acres; 115 of which were owned jointly with Patrick Clark. By far the majority was about 450 acres in Sungai Keluang, followed by 215 in the Tanjong Bungah region (then known as Tulloch Teecoose, or Vale of Tempe); 53 at Bayan Lepas (where he was the only landholder); 49 at Glugor; 48 at Batu Uban; and smaller holdings in Sungai Tiram, Sungai Dua, Ayer Rajah, Ayer Itam, Batu Lanchang, Jelutong, and George Town. Initially much of his land was devoted for growing pepper, but also the valuable nutmeg and clove plants so laboriously collected from the Moluccas by Christopher Smith several years earlier. At the end of 1808 his plantations were producing around 300 tons; 20% of all pepper grown on the island that year. Following the demise of Scott & Co in June 1807, Carnegy, Clark & Co. became perhaps the most prominent mercantile firm on the island, but in February 1808 David Brown and Patrick Clark withdrew, leaving James and Patrick Carnegy to operate as Carnegy & Co. Around this time Brown lived in a two-storey tiled house in Penang Road, but moved to Nathaniel Bacon s house facing the Esplanade on Light Street when the former was advertised for lease in February As his profits grew he began to construct a substantial home on his lands at Glugor, which he moved into in Brown s legal and business acumen soon saw him as one of the small community s leaders, and his name is found at nearly every public meeting and on numerous committees; often as chairman. He was on the first jury when Sir Edmund Stanley arrived to establish the first Court of Judicature on Penang in May 1808, and for many years was appointed chairman of the jury. Brown also held office as Sheriff in the year and again in On 2 July 1810 he formed a mercantile partnership with his cousin William Stuart to act as General Agents under the name Brown & Stuart. The firm did not utilise advertising in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette as much as others did, and a notice in the 30 November 1811 issue advises that in consequence of the death of Stuart the firm ceased as of that date. On 1 January 1812, David Brown joined the firm of Forbes & Scott, but as partners Duncan Forbes- Mitchell and Robert Scott withdrew as of the same date, Henry David Forbes and David Brown were left to trade as Forbes & Brown. Again the firm advertised very sporadically in the Gazette, offering the usual fare of wines and spirits and acting as agents for freight to Calcutta, London or China. Exactly two years later Robert Scott was re-admitted to the firm as a partner, Henry David Forbes having flagged his intention to depart for England. Forbes s interest in the business was withdrawn on 31 December 1814 and 21-yr-old David Powell was admitted as a third partner, although it was not until the end of March 1816 that the business changed its name to Brown & Co., with the same three partners. Along with Carnegy & Co., the firm also acted as official agents for the East India Company at Penang but it would appear that they were not auctioneers as several others were, and in general stuck to their import/export trade. David Powell died on 7 April 1818 of over exposure to the sun and the firm carried on with David Brown and Robert Scott as partners until David Brown was struck down with illness and died on 12 September 1825 aboard the 38

43 HCS Windsor en route to seek a cure in a different climate. His death left a void in the small European community, and immediately a meeting was held to consider how to memorialise him. This resulted in subscriptions of over Sp$1,200 being collected and a monument was erected on land he owned at today s Padang Brown at Dato Kramat where it can still be seen, though relocated from its original position in the centre of the playing field. The inscription reads: This monument was erected by public subscription, by the European and Native inhabitants of Pinang; to the memory of the late David Brown Esquire, in testimony of their esteem and approbation of his character, and for his unwearied zeal and usefulness as a member of the community during the long period of 25 years which he was a resident on the Island. His death took place on the 12th September 1825 in the 49th year of his age, on board the H.C.S. Windsor Castle on her passage to Malacca. His public profile had continued to grow in the last decade of his life. He was on the founding committee and a Director of the Penang Free School from 1816, and founding Treasurer of the Public Library in 1816, which position he held until his death. His strong Anglican faith saw him on the founding committee of an Auxiliary Bible Society in 1816, and he was the driving force behind construction of a publicly funded Missionary Chapel in Farquhar Street in The same year he played a prominent role in establishing a committee to raise funds for construction of a cenotaph memorial to Francis Light, which was successfully completed in late 1824 in front of St. George s Church. This same committee also oversaw placement of a tomb on Light s grave in the cemetery, which had hitherto been unmarked. Both monuments can still be seen today. As a landholder and planter David Brown was not surpassed at the time. In addition to his extensive pepper plantations Brown persisted with planting spice trees, nutmeg in particular; Captain James Low later recalling that He stood alone in 1810 as a spice-planter on an extensive scale; but instead of finding encouragement in the sympathy of those around him, he was inconsiderately supposed by many to be in search of an El Dorado, and no one ventured to follow his steps. Slow to reach maturity, these trees would provide a handsome income to his son David Wardlaw Brown in later years. In his last years he concentrated on establishing large coffee plantations. In a report to the Court of Directors in September 1823 Council noted a letter from David Brown the most extensive Landholder, and certainly one of the most intelligent and public spirited Europeans on this Island, reporting to us that he has planted upwards of 100,000 Coffee Trees and cleared Forests to enable him to complete the number to 300,000 and requesting our sanction to his extending the Cultivation. He also purchased the grain market at the southern end of Beach Street following the death of its previous owner, John Brown (relationship unknown) in July 1808, which carried with it, by Government sanction, the right to charge duty on all grain imported to the island for sale in the market. This right was renewed for a further ten years in May 1817 and was only abolished in August He was also not afraid to pioneer new sources of income. In October 1814 he sought and was given assurances by Government that if he found commercial quantities of tin on available land he would be assured of a grant for up to a maximum of 100 Orlongs (132 acres). By April the following year he reported finding reasonable quantities and provided two sample slabs of smelted tin to Council, each weighing about 80 lbs. He had also sold quantities in the market at the same price as for mainland tin, i.e. $17.50 per picul (133.3 lbs); however he suspended further operations to concentrate on pepper growing. The extent of this undertaking can be gauged by an offer he made in April 1810 to enter a 10 year contract to supply the East India Company with pepper at the rate of 500 tons per annum in the first three years; doubling it in the next three; and tripling it to 1,500 tons for the remainder. Unfortunately for all growers on the island pepper later failed to bring the expected income due to weak prices and an oversupply to the European markets. David Brown is erroneously attributed with owning the landmark known as Strawberry Hill, which 39

44 during Brown s lifetime in Penang was in fact owned successively by William Edward Phillips (who had obtained the first Grant No.1702 on 1 August 1805); Member of Council John Macalister; and prominent Armenian merchant Catchatoor Galastaun. He did however build what was described as a substantial brick house on a hill known as Belmont in the Pentland ranges. Upon his death his vast landholdings passed to his eldest son George Wilson Brown, to whom probate also fell, but the name of Brown & Co. was retained over the following decades and it remained one of the foremost mercantile companies on the island. He left nine children behind, some of whom continued mercantile and agricultural pursuits at Penang, followed by several generations to come. All children were born to local women with whom David Brown cohabited and are recorded as follows: Nonia Ennui: 1. George Wilson Brown b: 28 February Sophia Brown b: 28 May 1806 Barbara Lucy Meklang 1. Lucy Grace Brown b: 19 December David Wardlaw Brown b: 17 September 1812 Inghoo 1. Forbes Scott Brown b: 24 August 1816 Akeen 1. Alexander Stuart Brown b: 10 December John James Erskine Brown b: 20 December Margaret Stuart Akeen Brown b: 24 October Madalina Brown b: 19 June 1825 Marcus Langdon PWIG (20 Feb 1808, 4 Feb 1809, 4 Nov 1809, 7 Jul 1810, 4 Jan 1812, 30 Mar 1816, 11 Apr 1818, 17 Sep 1825, 1 Oct 1826); PRM (22 Aug 1827); SSFR (R9 V16 Appendices 1806, R10 V , 3 May 1808, R18 V44 21 Oct 1814, R19 V48 21 Apr 1815, R59 V181 1 Jul 1817, R35 V May 1825); SSR (B 7, 18 Sept 1823, I 24 Jan, Feb, Apr); James Low, 1836, p.19; Brown, Brown, George Wilson ( ) Planter, Merchant. George Wilson Brown was born in Penang on 28 February 1805, the eldest son to parents David Brown and Nonia Ennui. He was sent for schooling in England and returned to Penang on 11 August 1824 aboard the HCS General Harris. Also aboard was his cousin George Stuart who, like Brown, had been permitted by the East India Company s directors to proceed to Penang to re-join his parents. Brown was remembered in an unpublished memoir by a relative, Helen Margaret Brown, as a very handsome and good-hearted youth and deservedly popular, but did not possess the abilities of any of his brothers. When his father died in September 1825 he was named the principal beneficiary in the Will and was granted probate in April the following year once he had turned 21. It would appear that for some years David Brown had not paid quit rent (land tax) on his many properties. A document produced in council in May prior to his death noted the amount due annually to be Sp$775.97½ with total arrears of $4,562. As executor George became responsible for repayment of these arrears, the bulk of which were adjusted when he agreed in February 1827 to sell his father s section of the Scotland estate (originally belonging to James Scott ) to the East India Company government. This was a portion of about 225 orlongs, or nearly 298 acres, for which he asked Sp$3,000 for the best 100 orlongs and $25 per orlong for the balance. Other than land that regular grants had been issued for, David Brown left a large number of portions that were still held under cutting papers. This was a document issued to an applicant for a specified area of land with the requirement that the holder must clear and improve the land within a given period of time before a regular grant would be issued. In 1826 Government decided to convert all existing cutting papers to regular grants should the holder wish to do so. George Wilson Brown pleaded that From the great quantity of Land in every direction belonging to the Estate of the late D Brown he had no chance of determining which had regular 40

45 titles and which didn t by the deadline of 31 March 1827, but forwarded a list of 31 cutting papers in his possession. These totalled an area of 848 orlongs (about 1,121 acres) in eight districts, but he offered to tender any that remained uncleared back to Government. George Wilson Brown appears not to have joined Brown & Co., instead setting up a mercantile and agency business on 8 March 1827 with his cousin George Stuart, who must have left Brown & Co. to do so. This partnership was called Brown & Stuart; duplicating the name of their parents firm of nearly 17 years earlier. The firm did not advertise in the newspaper and for unknown reasons it was dissolved on 1 November 1830 by mutual agreement. At that time the presidency government had recently been abolished, and due to a technicality the Court of Judicature was unable to operate. This left merchants with no recourse to a high court for debts incurred over $32; the maximum the Court of Requests was authorised to handle. As a result credit dried up and trading became very difficult for the next two years until the Court of Judicature was re-established. It is not known if this was the reason for closing the firm, but George Stuart was left to balance the accounts. Income from the Brown estates was apparently not high in these years, as pepper prices had fallen to uneconomical levels and the spice plantations had yet to come to maturity. Family recollection is that G. W. Brown did not find wealth; the lavish entertaining of his friends keeping him relatively poor. When a severe outbreak of malaria struck the settlement in 1832 George Wilson Brown was one of several who succumbed, dying on 25 August that year aboard the ship Dunira in Penang harbour. He was unmarried and aged just 27. The estate then passed to his 20-year-old brother, David Wardlaw Brown, who had returned to Penang around David was not part of the mercantile community as such, though the spice plantations began to produce an income of some 10,000 a year making him a wealthy man. He returned to England within a few years, living at Blanerne House owned by the Lumsdaine family in his father s birthplace of Duns in Berwickshire, Scotland, before purchasing Longformacus House in the same village in He married Margaret Turnbull Tait in 1837 and died on 26 September Marcus Langdon PWIG (14 Aug 1824, 17 Sep 1825, 29 Apr 1826, 8 Mar 1827); SSFR (R35, V101, 26 May 1825); SSR (I 24, 24 Jan, 5 Feb & 27 Apr 1827); SCCR (30 Dec 1830, 13 Sep 1832); NAK (Prob 11/1714); H. M. Brown (various). Brown, John (b.unknown 1808) Merchant, Public Servant, Landholder. John Brown appears not to have been related, at least closely, to the more well-known family associated with David Brown. He was probably in Penang around 1798 when it appears he was in a mercantile partnership with Charles Wallace Young. They owned a vessel named the Fort Louis which had shipped a cargo in India with 20,000 pagodas and goods to a large amount on freight and was to have sailed this morning for Penang when it caught fire and was lost off Nagore on the evening of 3 July Despite this disaster Brown continued to operate from godowns in Beach Street. In addition he was appointed Provost by Lieutenant Governor Sir George Leith in September 1801 following the resignation of Thomas Layton. In this role he undertook numerous tasks; acting as Clerk and Registrar of the Court for Judge and Magistrate John Dickens; acting as Coroner and Sheriff; in charge of the Jail and Town Guard; in charge of the Company s slaves and in charge of a ten-man armed vessel and a fire engine. For these services he received a total wage of Sp$ per month with a support staff of forty Chinese, Indians and Malays. When the offices of the Chinese, Chulia and Malay Kapitans were abolished in April 1804, Brown also absorbed management of disputes from these sections of the community under his job description. Brown lost most of his job roles when the new presidency government arrived in September 1805; however he is still noted as Registrar of the Court in 41

46 August He was also clerk to the Committee of Assessors and managed three markets along Beach Street on their behalf. In June 1806 he proposed to build new, more spacious markets at his own expense on land he owned on the seaward side of Beach Street bounded by the Prangin Canal. In fact at the time Brown also owned a huge portion of land in George Town stretching from Penang Road to Beach Street, fronting Prangin Canal to the south and to about today s Kimberly Street/Malay Lane in the north. Although the market would operate in conformity to the committee s regulations, in return for constructing the buildings Brown would be entitled to collect rent from the stallholders. He also requested that an exclusive privilege which had first been established by the committee in July 1802, limiting the sale of all rice of less than one bag of 164 lbs to one market, be extended to him for a period of ten years. This monopoly applied to the whole of George Town, south to the Penang River and from there in a line west to the beach just short of Burmah Town (Pulau Tikus). His proposal was accepted in July 1806 and in order to finance construction of the market he sold his godowns near the old fish market in Beach Street. When John Brown died on 6 July 1808, the Gazette printed a short obituary which described him as an upright, friendly, and honest man. It also noted that he had only recently been married. His wife s name was Margaret and there is documentation noting the marriage of a John Brown and Margaret Aldred in Calcutta on 30 April 1808 which may be the relevant record. Following his death, probate was granted to James Scott, Thomas McGee and Daniel Carroll, who promptly began selling off his mercantile goods at his new godowns at Oogean Passier (Ujong Pasir; the end of Beach Street nearest the Prangin Canal) including livestock, carts, boats, spars, timber, miscellaneous goods and foodstuffs. His home was at Ayer Rajah and that property, which spanned from the sea to Burmah Road, was offered for sale in August ½ acres of beachfront owned by Brown closer to town was sold off later that year, as were two smaller allotments and his trading brig Abdullah. A further thirty-two acres on North Beach was offered for sale in February 1809 and the following month the George Town markets were put up for auction. It would appear that the purchaser of the markets at this sale, coincidently, was David Brown, and they remained the property of the Brown family until abolition of the monopoly in Despite the apparent wealth of Brown s estate, Court records of 1815 find Margaret still trying to gain possession of her inheritance, which appears to have been misappropriated by his executors; in particular fellow merchant, Thomas McGee. Marcus Langdon AAR (V2, 1800, 17); SSFR (R7 V11, 8 Oct 1805; R8 V13, 5 & 12 June 1806; R8 V13, 11 & 15 Jul; R19 V48, 21 Jan 1815); GG (16 Aug 1806); PWIG (9 & 30 Jul 1808, 13 Aug 1808, 19 & 26 Nov 1808, 10 Dec 1808, 4 Feb 1809, 4 Mar 1809); Website (IGI). Capes, Edward Essex (b. and d. unknown) Merchant. All Europeans not in the service of the East India Company who wished to reside in one of their territories were obliged to obtain permission to do so. In answer to a Government directive in 1808 that all such persons must state their residency status, Edward Essex Capes advised that he was permitted to reside in India by the Bengal Government in 1793, and in Penang by successive administrators from 1795 onwards. The Asiatic Annual Register for 1802 reports his marriage at Bombay to Mary Gilbert on 18 June 1800, though the IGI lists this marriage as being at the Bengal Presidency. In 1806 he was authorised to practice as an auctioneer and general agent at Penang, setting up in James Scott s godowns at the Fort end of Beach Street with business partner Daniel Carroll on 15 August 1806 and trading as Capes and Carroll. Along with Court and Bone, merchants and owners of the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, the firm advertised prolifically for the following year, selling everything from general merchandise to houses, land and ships. 42

47 In April 1807 Capes was appointed a member of the Committee of Assessors along with fellow merchants James Scott, Patrick Clark, George Seton, Patrick Chiene and Thomas McGee. The firm of Capes & Carroll was dissolved on 15 August the same year when Capes withdrew, leaving Daniel Carroll to form a partnership with Robert Scott which traded from then as Carroll and Scott. His whereabouts over the following two years is unknown; however he joined forces with Jonathan Burke McHugo on 1 July 1809 to form the mercantile business of Capes & McHugo, trading from premises at 233 Beach Street. His former partner, Daniel Carroll, had died on 3 June prior and Capes and David Brown were granted probate as executors. Capes is noted as the owner of a property behind the China Church probably in Stewart Lane which was leased to school teacher Thomas Cullum in August The new firm did not advertise in the Gazette and did not last a year before Capes withdrew on 1 April Although McHugo stated his intention to carry on alone, both men departed for Calcutta on 18 November that year aboard the Penang Packet and there is little indication that either returned. Capes turns up again in Malacca where he signed himself as a merchant on an 1812 petition, and it is likely he relocated there. Little other detail has been found about Edward Essex Capes. A daughter, Jane, was born on 8 August 1806 at Penang but no further family details have been located. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); AAR (V3, 1802, 101); PWIGG (2 Aug 1806); PWIG (8 Aug 1807, 1 Jul 1809, 5 May 1810, 24 Nov 1810); Website (IGI). Carnegy, James (c ) Country trader ship s Captain, Ship Owner, Merchant, Landowner, Sheriff, Public Figure. Although genealogical date is scarce, from evidence discovered to date it would appear that James Carnegy was born c.1767, second son to Patrick Carnegy 3rd of Lour ( ), Forfar (Angus), Renfewshire, Scotland; but possibly to an unknown woman following the death of Patrick s second wife, Margaret Graham, in Like Francis Light and James Scott, James Carnegy spent many years in the East Indies as Captain of a country trader ship, i.e. a vessel not licensed by the East India Company to trade between Britain and the East, but permitted to trade within the local region. It would appear that he first settled in Penang around 1801, stating in an 1808 return that he considered himself licensed to reside at the island by the fact of his purchase of a grant of land in Tanjong Penaigre on 2 October 1802 (Grant 498; 2 Orlongs 11 Jumbas or just over 2½ acres; location unknown). In the same return he noted that he had been in India prior to renewal of the EIC Charter in He had married Mary Ogilvy in Calcutta on 5 July 1798, possibly a daughter of John Ogilvy whose daughter Margaret had married prominent Calcutta merchant William Fairlie in February the same year. It is clear that James Carnegy and William Fairlie were well known to each other through their mutual trading interests, and indeed Fairlie and his wife were god-parents to James s eldest son, James Fairlie Carnegy. Carnegy s years of experience in local trading had not only been financially beneficial but probably gave him an edge over many of his competitors. His firm occupied extensive godowns on the seaward side of Beach Street and a substantial stone wharf costing some Sp$6,000 was constructed. Carnegy also purchased a large waterfront property on the eastern side of Government House as his private residence; possibly Grant 498 mentioned above. This property, which previously belonged to Lieutenant James Gray, was accessed from Light Street and known as Green Hall; the access lane to which still bears that name today. The first mercantile house established by Carnegy was a partnership with Patrick Clark and David 1 The IGI however records the birth of a James Carnegy in 1766 to Patrick and Margaret Carnegy of Lour. Also see the Will of Patrick Carnegy (4th) of Lour ( ); The National Archives, UK, Prob 11/1626, Ref 257; which appoints James Carnegy Merchant Penang my brother one of his trustees. 43

48 Brown ; both of whom arrived at the island around , which traded as Carnegy, Clark & Co. Patrick Carnegy (possibly James s younger brother) arrived in June 1806 and was also admitted a partner in the business. As an indication of the early success of the business, in October that year the company purchased the captured Dutch ship Victoria for substantial sum of Sp$48,000 renaming her Troubridge, and adding the vessel to their existing fleet which included the brig Tweed and later the Tay. Patrick Clark and David Brown withdrew from the partnership in February 1808 and the business became Carnegy & Co, with partners James and Patrick Carnegy. The firm operated mainly as General Agents for trade merchandise but also occasionally offered property on behalf of vendors or estates. At this time their godowns were valued at Sp$27,000, second only to James Scott s. When Sir Edmund Stanley arrived in May 1808 with the first Charter for a Court of Judicature at Penang, James Carnegy was appointed the island s first Sheriff. With the limited number of Europeans on the island it was common for merchants and planters to hold such positions, and most also served on juries and other public and administrative bodies at various times. Carnegy was also one of the experienced sea captains called on to advise Raffles on the most suitable passage for the British invasion of Java in Some confusion arises with the presence of James Carnegy s nephew, James Carnegy Jnr, who initially commanded one of Carnegy & Co s vessels, the Isabella, before setting up business in July 1817 in Melaka with Thomas Cooper, trading as Cooper & Carnegy; however Cooper died the following month and James Jnr himself died in March 1821 whilst returning to England on sick leave. William Muir Wilson was admitted a partner in Carnegy & Co in May 1817 but ill health plagued him in following years and he died at Batavia on 29 April A cholera plague swept India and the East Indies throughout and when it reached Penang around 1,000 people died; including Patrick Carnegy, aged 41, on 5 November 1819, the first European to succumb in the settlement. James carried on the business, and along with David Brown was one of the more prominent community leaders. In August 1820 he pushed for a public subscription to build a tomb over Francis Light s grave, hitherto unmarked; however this was not achieved until early 1824 with the support of the then Governor William Edward Phillips, when a committee was formed to oversee construction of a cenotaph to Light in the grounds of St Georges Church and to mark his grave in the old Christian cemetery. Although a member of that committee James Carnegy would not get to see the end results, as he died on 5 April 1824, aged 56, after a short illness. The following is an extract from a eulogy published in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 7 April: As a British Merchant, Mr. Carnegy s character will ever be held in veneration and respect by this Community, where his extensive Mercantile Transactions for 23 years have gained for him a celebrity, which the strictest principles and the most conscientious rectitude could have alone conferred. His remains were attended to the grave by the Honorable the Governor and every public authority at this Presidency, as well as by the whole of the British Community; and the concourse of Natives of all ranks by whom the streets and roads leading to the place of Interment were crowded, testified the feeling of genuine regret which has attended his loss. As a tribute of respect from the Native Mercantile Community, the whole of the Shops in George Town were closed throughout the day. He also left a large family, of which the following is a brief genealogy. Margaret Carnegy; b. 10 Sep 1799 Calcutta; m. 19 Jul 1817 William Armstrong Clubley, at Penang. Mary Alison Carnegy; b. c.1800; m. 30 May 1818, John Anderson, at Penang. James Fairlie Carnegy; chr. 21 Aug 1802 Penang; m. 21 Sep 1835 Catherine (nee Moore), widow of W B Kerr, at Singapore (d. 21 Jun 1839 at Penang). Isabella Carnegy; b. Nov 1803 Penang; m. 11 Mar 1820 Richard Caunter at Penang; d. 6 Feb 1824 aged 20. Patrick Ogilvy Carnegy; chr. 15 Dec 1804 Penang; m.14 Sep 1826 Susan Henrietta Imlach, 44

49 at Penang; d. 22 Mar 1861, Pwllheli, Wales. Charlotte Dick Carnegy; b. 11 Apr 1806 Penang John Allan Carnegy; b. 03 Oct 1807 Penang Jane Foster Carnegy; b. 16 Sep 1809 Penang Elizabeth Carnegy; b. 03 Mar 1811 Penang; m. 19 Jan 1830, George Carter, at Carnegie Park, near Port Glasgow William Fairlie Carnegy; chr. 16 Oct 1814 Penang Marion Craig Carnegy; chr. 16 Oct 1814 Penang; m. 10 Apr 1833, Edward Merrick Elderton, in Cambridge. Agnes Clubley Carnegy; b. 13 Dec 1818 Penang; m. 6 Jul 1840, Robert Laing, Edinburgh, Scotland. James Carnegy s widow and five of their children departed Penang for England aboard HCS William Fairlie on 1 September 1824, being accompanied as far as China by her second son, Patrick Ogilvy Carnegy, then a Writer in the office of the Secretary to Government. Carnegy s personal household goods, horses, carriages etc. were sold off; as was other property including a house and extensive brick godowns on the eastern side of Beach Street lately occupied by Che Oosoye; premises occupied by the renters of the opium revenue farm bounded on the east by King Street and south by China Street; and brick shops bounded on the east by Queen Street and north by Bishop Street. His eldest son, James Fairlie Carnegy, inherited Green Hall and carried on the firm of Carnegy & Co until 1832 when the firm was liquidated. James Carnegy s modest tomb can still be seen in the old Christian Cemetery in George Town, Penang. Marcus Langdon PWIG (28 Jun 1806, 1 Nov 1806, 20 Feb 1808, 31 May 1808, 10 May 1817, 5 Jul 1817, 6 Nov 1819, 2 Aug 1823, 4 Sep 1824); SSFR (R9 V16 Appendices 1806, R10 V , R10 V19 3 May 1808, R11 V20 31 Mar 1808); Website (IGI). Carnegy, James Fairlie (c ) Merchant, Newspaper Proprietor, Public Figure. James Fairlie Carnegy was the eldest son of James Carnegy, ship s captain and merchant, and born about 1801/2; quite possibly in Penang as he was christened there on 21 August As was common for the children of Europeans in Penang he was sent to England for his education but was obviously being groomed for mercantile business. His return to Penang is not known, however he would undoubtedly have been trained in his father s firm. In November 1823 he sold up his goods in Penang and went to Calcutta where he presumably set himself up as a merchant or worked under another firm; perhaps his godfather William Fairlie. Following his father s death in April 1824 he inherited the business of Carnegy & Co. in Beach Street, as well as the substantial family residence named Green Hall on the waterfront adjoining Government House, and returned to Penang in July that year announcing that he would carry on business under the same name. The firm was also the Penang agent for the Bengal Mariners and General Widows Fund, until agencies for that fund were abolished in It is clear he had a good friendship with William Anderson, who at that time was a partner in Balhetchet & Co., and when he travelled east on business he entrusted management of the firm to Anderson. They were also on the management committee of the public library in ; regularly served on the jury at the Court of Judicature and on numerous other public committees. Anderson withdrew from Balhetchet & Co. in January 1826 and was admitted a partner in Carnegy & Co as of 1 February Although it would appear that his father had not been a member of the Freemasons at Penang, when the Neptune Lodge was revived there in February 1827 James Fairlie Carnegy, his brother Patrick, and William Anderson all became members. When an elaborate black marble memorial to John Macalister (Member of Council who had died in 1824) arrived from England in September 1827, a large Masonic procession proceeded from 45

50 Green Hall to St Georges Church, where it was erected inside on the eastern wall. Unfortunately this memorial was destroyed when this side of the church was bombed during WW2. Singapore s rise in importance as the main trading port on the China trade routes inevitably had an adverse impact on Penang s mercantile fortunes, and when the Presidency status of the Straits Settlements was reduced to a Residency subservient to the Bengal Government in June 1830, the island s merchants went through a difficult time. This was primarily due to the absence of a Court of Judicature for two years, which in effect made it too risky for merchants to sell goods on credit without recourse. Trade in general was depressed at this time, epitomised by the failure in early 1830 of one of the large Calcutta merchants, Palmer & Co. Carnegy & Co. also became a victim of this downturn and the firm was put into the hands of trustees, George and Hugh Scott, who sold off all the properties in November 1832 at the bottom of the market. These included the godowns in Beach Street, Green Hall, and Anderson s house, Northam Lodge. James Fairlie Carnegy next tried his hand in the media business, purchasing the Singapore Chronicle and Commercial Register in October 1835, just after he married Catherine (neé Moore), widow of fellow merchant William Boyd Kerr, on 21 September The seller, Singapore merchant Walter Scott Lorrain, had only purchased the newspaper the month prior from William Renshaw George. Its outspoken Editor, John Henry Moor, joined a rival newspaper that started up in response to these changes, called the Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. But it is clear that either the interloper, Carnegy, was not welcome, or was just not cut out for such an occupation and the once solid business shut its doors with the issue of 30 September 1837 under competition from its rival. His premises at 26 Commercial Square were sold off and Carnegy, his wife, and two children departed Singapore for Penang on 23 October 1837 aboard the Harriet. Having failed to sell the printing press, it too arrived back in Penang, where Carnegy teamed up with merchants George Stuart, John Revely, George Scott and Norman Macalister McIntyre to print the first edition of the Pinang Gazette & Straits Chronicle on 7 April Following publication of articles the following month which the Recorder of the Court of Judicature found slanderous, Carnegy was forced to sell his shares in the concern or lose his new position as a law agent in the Court. McIntyre, with his previous publishing experience in the short-lived Penang Register & Miscellany, was nominated Superintendent of the paper, but within a few months he and Stuart also resigned. But despite these early challenges, the newspaper evolved into a successful enterprise, continuing in various incarnations until James Fairlie Carnegy died in Penang on 16 June 1842, aged 41, but his wife Catherine predeceased him, passing away on 21 June They had three children; two were born in Singapore though only the birth date of a son born 24 June 1836 is known, and a daughter Mary Bland Carnegy born 4 August 1838 in Penang. Marcus Langdon PWIG (12 Nov 1823, 14 Jul 1824, 4 Jun 1825, 3 Feb 1827); PRM (19 Sep 1827); SCCR (25 Oct 1832, 26 Sep 1835, 25 Jun 1836); SFP (26 Mar 1836, 26 Oct 1837, 14 Jun 1838); NAK (Prob 11/1796); AJMR (V , 252); LMF; Website (IGI). Carnegy, Patrick (c ) Merchant, Public Servant, Planter. Patrick s birth is somewhat of a mystery. He was certainly the son of Patrick Carnegy of Lour, Forfarshire, Scotland as this is noted at his death; however as he is not found amongst records of births for either Patrick Carnegy (3rd) of Lour ( ), nor his son Patrick Carnegy (4th) of Lour ( ) it is left to consider that like James Carnegy, who was either his uncle, brother or step-brother, he may well have been born out of wedlock, c At the age of about 28 Patrick travelled to Penang aboard HMS Caroline, arriving on 22 June 1806 to become a partner with James Carnegy and Patrick Clark in the mercantile firm Carnegy, Clark & 46

51 Co., despite having no official permit from the East India Company to reside at the island. He participated in many public affairs, regularly sitting on various committees and on the jury of the Court of Judicature. The first Freemason s lodge, Neptune Lodge No. 344, was established in Penang on 10 September Patrick joined on 21 November that year and became an active member. Patrick s life was cut short at the age of 41 on 5 November 1819 when he became the first European victim of a cholera epidemic which struck Penang, killing over 1,000 people before it abated towards the end of that year. His simple obituary stated that He was a very kind and friendly man, and his loss will be much felt in our small community. Fellow merchant William Revely was charged by executor James Carnegy with selling up his landed property at Penang, comprising a large house and compound; an estate of just over 38 acres planted with spice and fruit trees (Grant 1031 at Ayer Rajah, known as Balma Wapple); and nearly 36 acres (Grant 1685) in the same district planted with beetle-nut palms. The Balma Wapple estate remained unsold until March 1820 when the auction reserve was reduced to Sp$750. His private residence was described as being near St George s Church when it was again offered for sale in September 1821 for Sp$3,000. There is no record of Patrick Carnegy having married or of producing children. Marcus Langdon NAK (Prob 11/1333, 11/1626, 11/1796); GG (28 Jun 1806); SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); PWIG (6 Sep 1819, 13 Nov 1819, 1 Mar 1820, 15 Sep 1821); LMF, Website (IGI). 3 June Following Daniel s death the firm s mercantile premises in James Scott s warehouses on Beach Street were regularly advertised for lease by Robert Scott Jnr and David Brown; however it would appear that a lessee could not be found. In June 1810 David Brown, in his capacity as Sheriff, advertised that the assets of Carroll, Scott & Co. were to be sold at a date to be advised per a writ from Calcutta merchants Fairlie, Gilmore & Co., but no evidence of this sale ever proceeding has been found. Hugh Carroll then decided to try his hand at mercantile pursuits and set up business in the very same premises Carroll, Scott & Co. had occupied, first advertising on 22 September 1810, auctioning some of the remaining goods belonging to James Scott, who had died two years earlier. At this time Scott s creditors were challenging his executors in Court for recovery of debts. Carroll advertised regularly in the Gazette over the following three years, apparently as a sole trader. He was never listed amongst members of the jury of the Court of Judicature, which most of his European contemporaries did at one time or another, which may indicate that he was under the age of 21. His death on 28 November 1813 was briefly noted in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 11 December, which also mentioned that he was interred close by his deceased brother, Daniel. David Brown, as the principal creditor to Hugh Carroll, was granted administration of his estate. The timber house he lived in near the Goddess of Mercy temple was offered for sale in early 1814, though indications are that he was merely renting the property. Marcus Langdon Carroll, Hugh (b. unknown; d. 1813) Mariner, Merchant. In a list of European residents in Penang dated 2 February 1810, Hugh Carroll is noted as a mariner. Perhaps he was in Penang on sick leave at the time, but was certainly the brother of Irish merchant Daniel Carroll of Carroll, Scott & Co., who had died on SSFR (R13 V29 15 Mar 1810); PWIGG (10 Jun 1809, 16 Jun 1810, 22 Sep 1810, 5 Feb 1814). Cheah Chen Eok, 謝增煜, Xie Zengyu ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Tin Trader, Public Official, Community Leader. 47

52 Cheah Chen Eok was a leader of the Hokkien community and held several public posts. He was one of the most influential and respected business and social figures in Penang. Cheah Chen Eok alias Zhanmei ( 占梅 ) was born on 23 February 1852 in Penang, the only son of Cheah Sim Hean ( 謝森賢, Xie Senxian), a merchant in Penang. His ancestry can be traced back to Changtai District ( 長泰縣 ), Zhangzhou Prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian Province ( 福建省 ). He was educated at the Penang Free School ( 大英義學 ) and started work at the age of 16. His first job was with Boon Tek and Company ( 文德公司 ), a ship chandler. He did not remain long with this firm, moving to the Penang branch of the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China ( 印度倫敦中國三處匯理銀行, later 有利銀行 ), where he worked for 8 years. In 1872, he married the daughter of Foo Tye Sin ( 胡泰興, Hu Taixing ), one of the leading members of the Chinese community. With the financial backing of his father-in-law, Cheah started his own enterprise, Chop Chen Eok & Co ( 增煜公司 ), in 1876, which operated as a ship chandler and general merchant. It became one of the biggest of its kind. Six years later, in 1888, he ventured into opium and spirit revenue farming in Perak. Together with Chung Keng Kwee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ), they held the tobacco farms in Larut and the Larut coast. He also secured the Perak Opium farm by himself in Within 25 years, he managed to be involved in practically every farm in Singapore and Penang. Even after he had retired from his business in 1902, Cheah continued to serve as the superintendent of the Penang Opium and Spirit Farm at the request of the syndicate. Cheah Chen Eok did well in developing his connections. In association with his brother-in-law, Foo Boon Sean ( 胡明宣, Hu Mingxuan) and his clan kinsman, Cheah Tek Lee, Chen Eok and Co. was able to link up with some Hong Kong and Sino-Thai merchants. Subsequently, he expanded into straits tin transactions with Lim Kek Chuan ( 林克全, Lim Kequan ) in the early 1900s. Later, he devoted himself to his estates. He owned several large estates including Combe Hill ( 占梅岗 ). Cheah also became the chief attorney of Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ) to manage all his business interests in Penang when the later was in the bad books of the British for his Qing service. Cheah was among the first Chinese to enter the western insurance business in Penang. Together with other prominent Chinese towkays in Penang, they founded the first Penang-based Chinese insurance company, the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 檳榔嶼乾元保安公司 ), in Through his business links, Cheah also had shares in Khy Guan & Co. of Rangoon and Penang (a rice trader and insurance agent) and Cheng Chan & Co. (a trade and shipping store in Penang). In terms of public service, Cheah became a Municipal Commissioner in 1888, a member of Chinese Advisory Board from 1890 to 1910, a Visitor to prisons and hospitals, and he sat on the Board of the Port and Harbour Commission for the improvement of Penang s harbour. As for his social involvements, Cheah was president of the Penang Literary Association ( 以文齋 ) in 1897 and 1898; a trustee of the Penang Free School and Penang Literary Association in 1899; a board member of Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ) in 1913 and the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ) in 1892, and a member of many local clubs. Apart from his involvement in social activities, Cheah Chen Eok also made an effort to address societal needs - on record are his donations to the Hokkien cemeteries - Cemetery of Batu Gantong ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ) and Pulau Tikus - and also for the building of Qingbao Dian ( 清寶殿 ), the main hall of Cheng Leong Keong ( 清龍宮 ), Jelutong road; and to the Free School for the construction of its extension in In 1899, $200 was given to The Penang Widows and Orphans Transvaal War fund and $250 to Alma Baker s Air Fleet Fund in In 1897, in order to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee celebration of Queen Victoria, Cheah Chen Eok erected an iconic clock tower in King Edward Place, at the cost of $35,000. However the queen had passed away before it was finally completed in

53 In recognition of his services to the community, Cheah Chen Eok was awarded a title of Daoyuan ( 道員 ) by the Qing government in 1897, and later in 1901, he was appointed Justice of the Peace. On 3 June 1922, Cheah Chen Eok died suddenly from apoplexy at his residence, Holland House. He was buried at the Batu Lanchang cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). From epigraphic evidence, we learn that he had at least five wives and concubines; three sons, Tat Jin ( 達仁, Xie Daren), Tatto ( 達道, Xie Dadao) and Tat Kheam ( 達權, Daquan); and two daughters, Kim Suat ( 琴雪, Qinxue), Chew Suat ( 棋雪, Qixue). Among his children, Tatto and Tat Jin, were more well known. Tan Kim Hong and Hung Bee Ling TST (13 Jul 1889; 28 Dec 1895; 15 Dec 1899; 19 May 1915; 5 Jun 1922; 22 Apr 1953); SFP (30 Jun 1898); Lee & Chow, pp.13-14; Franke & Chen, pp.623, 673, 733, 751, 727, 745, 754; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.34; Wright, pp.757, 761; HPP, p.39; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, pp.77n7; ; 2002, pp ; Goh Leng Hoon, Godley, p.48; Wong Yee Tuan, 2007a, pp ; Wynne, p.344; Khong Kwek Siong, p.100. Cheah Choo Yew, 謝自友, Xie Ziyou ( ) Revenue Farmer, Planter, Merchant, Community Leader, Public Figure. Cheah Choo Yew was one of the prominent business and social figures from the late-19th century to the early-20th century in Penang. He rose to become an important businessman and community leader around the 1890s. His business interests were in different spheres, but revenue farms remained the core. He was most probably the longest living businessman at the time and died at the age of 90. Choo Yew was one of the six sons of Cheah Yeam ( 謝寒掩, Xie Hanyan), a well-known merchant who came to Penang from Bagan Dalam, Kedah in the early 19th century. His ancestral origin was in Sek Tong Seah village ( 石塘社, Shitang She), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). Cheah Yeam passed away when Choo Yew was only three years old. He was educated first at the Brothers School and then at the Penang Free School. He also received a good Chinese education. Upon completion of his studies, he commenced business with his elder brother, Cheah Choo San. They carried on a large trade between Penang and Aceh. Their small sailing ships also went to Langkat at the east coast of Sumatra and traded from one port to another. With these mercantile activities, Choo Yew became acquainted with the local government and obtained a licence to operate the Deli import and export duty farm. Later, he also gained control of the Deli opium, spirit and gambling farms. Equipped with the experience in managing the Deli s revenue farms, Choo Yew joined the Penang Opium Farm Syndicate and became a partner. By pooling more capital, Choo Yew together with his partners of the syndicate expanded their revenue farm business by gaining control of Perak s opium, spirit, and general farms, and also the opium and spirit farms in Hong Kong, Bangkok, and Singapore. He served as the manager of the Bangkok and Hong Kong farms for three years, and the Singapore farms for 12 years. Apart from revenue farms and trading, Choo Yew was also involved in the planting, insurance, and shipping business. In 1896, he secured a 700-acre estate in Tanjong Bunga at a public auction. Coconut and fruit trees were planted and a resort called Vale of Tempe was built in the estate. In 1907, he was one of the founding directors of the Eastern Shipping Co. Ltd., which was incorporated with a capital of $1,800,000. He joined the Penang Khean Guan Insurance & Co. ( 檳榔嶼乾元保安公司 ) and became a director around 1908, a post he held until the company was liquidated in On social and public affairs, Choo Yew was actively involved by assuming some leadership positions. He was a member of the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) and the Rural Board. In 1912, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace. In Chinese associations, he became a trustee of the Cheah Kongsi in 1901 and later, the president of the kongsi until his death. During his tenure, Choo Yew with the support of his co-trustee acquired a piece of land for the Cheah Cemetery, which was named the Cheah Sek Tong Family Cemetery ( 謝石塘家塚 ), at Mt. Erskine Road. Besides, he was also the 49

54 president of Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ) in 1913; an administrative officer of Seng Ong Beow ( 城隍廟 ) in 1917 and later, a board member in 1927; a board member of Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ) in 1922; a trustee of Chinese Town Hall ( ) and Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ). In 1928, Choo Yew was awarded the Certificate of Honour and a gold plated silver medal from the British government in recognition of his loyal and valuable services rendered to the Straits government. On 8 February 1931, Choo Yew passed away and was buried at the the Cheah Sek Tong Family Cemetery. He had two wives, Lim Chye Geam and Lim Saw Yew and a number of children. Among them, Seng Khim ( 成金, Chengjin) and Seng Yean were the most well-known. Cheah Choo Yew Road in Penang is named after him. Wong Yee Tuan SE-ME (13 May 1904, 13 Jul 1921); SFP (16 Feb 1931); TST (11 Sep 1909, 10 Feb 1931); Cushman, 1991, p.64; Franke & Chen, pp.602, 626, 673; Lee & Chow, p.14; R & R of the Seh Cheah Kongsi, p.10; Cheah SM, p.88; Kong Hock Keong, p.91. Cheah Choon Seng, 謝春生, Xie Chunsheng (1847 Pontianak-1916 Hong Kong) Miner, Revenue Farmer, Philanthropist, Community Leader, Diplomat. Cheah Choon Seng alias Siek Yung Kuang, Sia Yuen Kwang ( 謝榮光, Xie Rongguang) alias Cheah Meng Chi ( 謝夢池, Xie Mengchi), was a Hakka with his family origins from Tongpan Village ( 銅盤村 ), Songkou Town ( 松口鎮 ), Mei District ( 梅縣 ) of Guangdong Province ( 廣東 ), China. His father, Cheah Song Giok ( 謝雙玉, Xie Shuangyu alias Yi Qing, ) migrated to Pontianak, Borneo Island in the 1840s to earn a living. Later on, he married and settled there. Cheah Choon Seng was his eldest son. When Cheah Choon Seng came of age, he moved to Kota Raja, Aceh, Sumatra. At first, he contracted to supply food to military camps. Later he moved to the west coast of Sumatra. In addition to the contract for food to the military, he also engaged in the construction of railway tracks, opium-farming and other revenue farms. Through these businesses, he was able to accumulate wealth. He was conferred the post of Lieutenant by the Dutch, subsequently the title of Kapitan, which entitled him to take care of the affairs of the Chinese community, earning him the nickname of Kapitan Cheah (Xie Jia 謝甲 ). In the 1890s, Cheah migrated to Penang, and started businesses in mining, Chinese medicine and revenue farms in British Malaya. He focused on tin-mining - the establishment of Perak Tambun Mining Company with his son in-law, Leong Fee ( 梁輝, Liang Hui ), and in Bentong, Pahang and other places as well, together with Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ). During this time, in collaboration with of Thio Tiauw Siat and in-law Tjong Yong Hian ( 張煜南, Zhang Yunan), Cheah was actively involved in a project in China, the construction of the Chao Shan Railway Line ( 潮汕鐵路 ) led by Thio Tiauw Siat. Although the railway line did not yield large profits, it was noted in the history of China as the first railway built by civilians. There are records which show that Cheah had donated substantial amounts to alleviate famines in China. As a result, the Qing government honoured Cheah with a title, Hua Ling ( 花翎, imperial peacock plume) in May 1902 as a token of gratitude for his donation to Shan District during its famine ( 陜災 ). During the early establishment of Shang Bu (Ministry of Trade) when the treasury was short of funds, for his generous donation of One Thousand Liang ( 两, equal to Mexican silver dollars) to the Chinese government, Cheah was rewarded with a higher rank, ( 二品頂戴, Status of Second Level of Ministers) in October In mid-1895, Cheah Choon Seng replaced Tjong Yong Hian as the acting Vice-Consul of Penang, the beginning of his services for China. This position was originally held by Thio Tiauw Siat. Tjong Yong Hian stepped into the post when Thio was proposed to be the Pro-Consul-General of Singapore. After Cheah succeeded to the position, he worked diligently to look after the interests of the Chinese overseas. He 50

55 was more than adequate to the challenge which earned him recognition from the Qing government. He was selected to go to Canada as a representative of the Chinese government in 1902, to win over the overseas-chinese then being wooed by Sun Yat Sen. However, Cheah did not go because he was ill, this illness leading to his resignation in January Cheah recommended his son-in-law, Leong Fee to succeed him. Nonetheless, Cheah resumed the position twice, in the period December 1906 to December 1907, when Leong went on leave and when he subsequently resigned. Thereafter, Cheah resigned on the grounds that he had to fulfill his filial duty to his parents. Although Cheah Choon Seng gained his wealth in Nanyang (Southeast Asia), his dedication towards China did not waver, falter or wane. After his achievements in business, he was generous in helping his village of origin, including the development of education in his hometown, Songkou. He made donations to Songkou Public School ( 松口公學 ) and Tongpan Primary School ( 銅盤小學 ). At the same time, he did not neglect cultural and educational development in Malaya. For example, he was one of the main donors to Penang Free School s ( 大英義學 ) reconstruction fund in 1895 and And from 1904, Cheah co-founded three schools, Chung Hwa School ( 中華學堂 ), which was recognized as the first Modern Chinese School in Malaya; Chong Hua School ( 崇華學堂, later Shih Chung School 時中學校 ); and Min Tet School ( 明德學校 ) in Perak. Cheah made donations to China s Beijing Medical Bureau and England s London Medical School. In 1905, Cheah initiated the establishment of a Chinese Funeral Improvement Association. Because of their generosity to the Kek Lok Si Temple ( 極樂寺 ), Cheah, Thio Tiauw Siat, Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie ( 張鴻南, Zhang Hongnan), Chung Keng Quee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ) and Tye Kee Yoon ( 戴喜雲, Dai Xiyun or 戴春榮, Dai Chunrong ) were listed as the Six Principal Directors, who were also trustees of the temple. The involvement of Cheah in charity and public welfare was highly praised by the Penang public, earning him his high social standing. Cheah Choon Seng had two wives, Mdm. Zhang and Mdm. Guo, a concubine, Liang Ruiming ( 梁瑞鳴 ) and many children. Although Cheah was an Acting Vice-Consul for the Qing government, he was among those who cut their plaits right after the Wuchang Uprising ( 武昌起義 ), which eventually led to the collapse of the Qing. In his later years, Cheah travelled to China, and after 1915, he spent most of his time in Hong Kong where he passed away. Chong Siou Wei PSP (7 Feb 1916); Chong Siou Wei, 2004, pp ; 2005, pp ; Chang Eng Bee, 1998b, pp Cheah Chow Phan, 謝昭盼, Xie Zhaopan (b.unknown - d. 1864) Merchant, Ship Owner, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Cheah Chow Phan alias Cheah Phan was a leader of the Hokkien community in Penang from the early to mid-19th century. His ancestral origin was Shitang village, Sandu county ( 三都石塘社 ), Haicheng District ( 海澄縣 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). Cheah was a joint owner with Khoo Sim Keok ( 邱心菊, Qiu Xinju) of the barque Adelaide which, from the 1840s to 1850s, plied between Arracan (a region stretching from the east of the Bay of Bengal, from the river Naat to Cape Negrais, some 400 miles long) and Penang; thereafter with tin, rice and betel nut to China, and back with China goods to Penang and the port of Rangoon. Cheah was also one of the chief importers of China goods to Penang. His business activities were sufficiently profitable for him to acquire various landed properties which his sons, Tek Soon ( 德順, Deshun) and Tek Thye ( 德泰, Detai) inherited, allowing the later to become a Hokkien community leader and join the syndicate for the Penang Opium and Spirit Farm in the early 20th century. While there is no information as to when he arrived 51

56 in Penang, there is mention of his role as one of the prominent members of the Cheah Kay Hock How Kong Kongsi ( 世德堂謝公司 ) subsequent to the purchase of the site of the present ancestral temple by other leading clan members, namely Cheah Chengin ( 謝清恩, Xie Qing en), Cheah Lye Yeam ( 謝來掩, Xie Laiyan) and Cheah (Tai) Pang, who served as trustees from In 1855, he became one of the trustees of the Kongsi and held the position until In 1858, Cheah Chow Phan together with Cheah Teow Koh ( 謝紹科, Xie Shaoke) and Cheah Phaik Ee ( 謝伯夷, Xie Boyi), utilized $12,367 from the common fund of the Kongsi to build the ancestral temple for the worship of their two territorial patron saints, the two Hock Haw Kong ( 福侯公, Fuhou Gong). The temple was named Chong Tek Tong Cheah Kay Beow ( 宗德堂謝家廟 ). One of the requisites for a leadership position in Chinese society is to be relatively wealthy in order to be able to assist in the growth of a particular social organization. Cheah is on record as having donated 140 yuan to the opening of Pulau Tikus cemetery in 1856 and 120 yuan to the restoration of Kuan Yin Ting temple ( 觀音亭 ), also known as Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ) in 1862 or 1863, and serving as a director of Pulau Tikus cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ) in 1856 as well as being on the committee of the Restoration of the Kuan Yin Ting temple. Loh Wei Leng and Hung Bee Ling R & R of the Seh Cheah Kongsi, pp.6, 7; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, pp ; Franke & Chen, pp.538, 541; 722 & 724; PGSC, Wong Yee Tuan, 2007a, p.111; 2007b, p.19; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.101; website (Cheah Kongsi) Cheah Lean Guan, 謝連元, Xie Lianyuan (1882 d. unknown) Tin and Gold miner, Revenue Farmer, Chinese Drugstore Owner, Community Leader. Cheah Lean Guan alias Cheah Choong Khoy was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He succeeded his father as a leader of the Hakka community but lost his leadership when all his businesses failed. Cheah Lean Guan was born in Penang in 1882 and his ancestral origin was in Song Kou Xi Nan Village ( 松口溪南 ), Mei district ( 梅縣 ), Jiaying prefecture ( 嘉應 ), Guangdong province. He was the second son of Cheah Choon Seng ( 謝春生, Tjia Tjoen Sen alias Cheah Yung Kuang ), a Kapitan Cina of Aceh and Vice-Consul of China. At the beginning, he joined his father s firm Cheah Choon Seng and Co. of Sumatra as a partner. The firm dealt in landed property, ran gambling farms, opium farms and pawn-shops. After the death of his elder brother, Kia Guan, he became the manager of the firm in 1922 until the end of July In 1912, he took over his father s Chinese drugstore Chop Yen Choon Tong and became a sole proprietor. He managed it with some help. In 1929, he invested $40,000 to $50,000 in opening tin mines at Kampar and owned more than 300acres of land in Kampar. This tin mining endeavor was carried out in co-partnership with Leong Kon Chen under the name of Chen Nyan Hin. In 1931, he started a gold-mining concern in Kelantan with a capital of $12,000. In addition, he also invested in real estate and owned considerable property in Penang, including a very fine Tanjong Bungah residence known as Sandycroft. As a businessman and a son of an established Chinese towkay, Lean Guan quickly came to the fore in public and social affairs. In 1911, he worked together with twenty-one Chinese leaders to raise funds for the Confucian Temple ( 孔聖廟 ) and School in Penang. In 1916, he represented the Hakka community of Penang to attend a meeting held at the Penang Chinese Town Hall to discuss the British government s proposal of company income tax. In 1924, he made a donation of $25 for the establishment of Westminster College in Fujian. None of his various enterprises became successful. In 1922, his Chinese drug-store made a loss of about $5,000. In 1933 there was another loss of $4,000. His tin mining undertaking in Kampar suffered a loss of $166,710 after four years of operation. There 52

57 was also a loss of $29,079 in the Kelantan gold mine which was closed in On 15 December 1933, he was declared a bankrupt in the Penang Supreme Court on the application of a Chetty creditor. Wong Yee Tuan MM (17 Mar 1934); PSP (3 Aug 1911); TST (10 Nov 1924, 18 Dec 1933); Cheah SM, p.84. Cheah Tek Soon, 謝德順, Xie Deshun ( ). Merchant, Land Proprietor, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Cheah Tek Soon was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late-19th century to the early- 20th century in Penang. He held important positions in the major Chinese organizations in Penang and his business interests spanned across shipping, trade, revenue farms, insurance, and real estate. His ancestral origin was in Sek Tong Seah village ( 石塘社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was the third son of Cheah Chow Phan ( 謝昭盼, Xie Zhaopan ), an established merchant and community leader. Among his siblings, Tek Soon was the most outstanding. He received both English and Chinese education in Penang. Upon completing his studies, he may have worked for his father. However, in order to gain more profits from the tin boom in the mid-19th century, he established the Chop Sin Eng Moh to trade in tin. By partnering Chuah Yu Khay ( 蔡有格, Cai Youge ), a late 19th-century ship owner, Tek Soon operated two ships, Dora and Ngapoota, that carried goods between Deli and Penang. In 1892, these two towkays were granted permission by the Sultan of Kedah to erect a saw-mill and a rice mill at Kuala Muda. In 1894, Tek Soon joined the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 檳城乾元保安公司 ) and became one of the directors, resigning in Apart from these businesses, Tek Soon was deeply involved in the opium revenue farm business. In 1880, he partnered Cheah Chen Eok ( 謝增煜, Xie Zengyu ), Gan Kim Swee ( 顏金水, Yan Jinshui), Lee Chin Chuan, and Khoo Thean Poh ( 邱天保, Qiu Tianbao ) to gain control of Penang s opium farm under Chop Ban Bee. This syndicate monopolized the Penang s opium farm until A year later, Tek Soon partnered Cheah Chen Eok, leading a syndicate to gain control of the opium farms in Singapore, Melaka, Perak, and Selangor. With the money made from his businesses, he invested heavily in landed properties. He built a five-storey mansion or Goh Chan Lau at Northam Road. Besides, he was one of the largest landowners in Teluk Anson (Teluk Intan) owning twelve pieces of lands and twelve town lots. With his accumulated wealth, Tek Soon donated generously to Penang s major Chinese temples and cemeteries. In 1880, he made a donation of 120 yuan for rebuilding Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ) or Snake Temple and 100 yuan to repair the old rest house and build a new one in the Batu Lanchang Cemetery. In 1882, he donated 60 yuan for rebuilding Chooi Bee Keong Temple ( 水美宮 ). In 1886, he made another donation of 320 yuan to repair the cemetery rest house and to recondition the Batu Lanchang Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). In the same year, he made a donation of 2600 yuan for the establishment of Batu Gantong cemetery ( 峇都眼東公塚 ). In 1888, he donated 312 yuan to build a main hall for Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ) at Jelutong Road. In 1890, he contributed 260 yuan to restore the Hokkien cemetery at Pulau Tikus ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ) and two years later he donated 180 yuan to recondition the same cemetery. Besides making donations, Tek Soon was keen to lobby for public works for the benefit of the communities. For example, in 1893, together with Cheah Eu Ghee ( 謝有義, Xie Youyi), they were the principal movers for the improvement of the road from Tanjong Tokong to Tanjong Batu. In 1911, he was responsible for collecting donations at Tiong Ke or the middle part of Beach Street for relief of the flood victims in Chaozhou ( 潮州 ), China. With his business success and philanthropic acts, Tek Soon held some important leadership positions. In 1886, he sat on the board of directors of Batu 53

58 Lanchang and Batu Gantong Cemeteries. In 1890 and 1892, he was a director of the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery. In 1904, he was appointed to be a committee member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ) and he held the post for two terms until In 1915, Tek Soon passed away at the age of 63 after a prolonged illness at his residence in Rangoon Road. He left a widow, nine sons and five daughters. His body was laid to rest at the cemetery of the Cheah lineage ( 謝氏石塘家塚 ) at Mount Erskine. Tek Soon Road ( 柴埕後 ) in George Town is named after him. Wong Yee Tuan A (21 Oct 1892); PGSC (29 Oct 1892); PGG (24 Apr 1891); SE (2 Dec 1915); SFP (5 May 1893); Franke & Chen, pp.558, 580, 623; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, pp. 112, 128, 191, 192; Goh Leng Hoon, pp.159, 233. Cheah Tek Thye, 謝德泰, Xie Detai ( ) Merchant, Planter, Community Leader. Cheah Tek Thye was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang and his business interests spanned across trade, insurance, and planting. His ancestral origin was in Shitang village ( 石塘社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was the youngest son of Cheah Chow Phan ( 謝昭盼, Xie Zhaopan ), an established merchant and community leader. He received his education at Penang Free School ( 大英義學 ), St Xavier s Institution ( 聖芳濟書院 ), and Doveton College, Calcutta. Upon finishing his studies, Tek Thye worked as an assistant to his elder brother, Tek Soon ( 德順, Deshun ), in his firm, Chop Sin Eng Moh ( 新榮茂號 ), which traded in tin. In 1897, he joined the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Company and held a secretarial post until At the same time, he was the manager for Penang s Overseas Chinese Bank and Sin Joo Leong Company ( 新如隆 ). Besides that, he also held the agency for Lipton s wines. Later, he extended his business interests into planting by partnering other Chinese towkays to own a 3,400- acre Eng-Moh-Hui-Thye Kee Estate in Semeling, Kedah. The estate was planted with 20,000 coconut trees and 30,000 rubber trees. It produced about 10,000 coconut fruits in one month. With his business success, Tek Thye was able to assume some leadership positions. He was elected twice as a member of the Municipal Commission and was in the committee of Penang Free School. In 1903, he sat on the trustee committee of Victoria Green (Chinese Recreation Club). He was also one of the principal headmen of Cheah Kongsi and assistant secretary of the cemetery of the Cheah lineage ( 謝氏石塘家塚 ) in He served as an officer of Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ) in A year later, he was made a Justice of Peace. Tek Thye was a keen Turf Club member for a number of years. He owned several race horses and won many tournaments in the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States. He also presented a two faced turret clock with dials three feet in diameter on the tower standing on the course. In 1886, he contributed a donation of 66 yuan to the Batu Gantong Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都眼東公塚 ). In 1900, he subscribed 100 yuan to the Indian Famine Fund. Tek Thye passed away on 11 January 1935 at his house at 48e Northam Road and left behind five sons and four daughters. He had two marriages his first wife was the youngest daughter of Koh Teng Choon. She died after thirteen years of marriage. His second wife was a daughter of Gim Tong. His body was laid to rest at the cemetery of the Cheah lineage at Mount Erskine. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (30 Mar 1900); TST (27 Jan 1903, 22 Jan 1935); Franke & Chen, p.709; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.183; CRC, 1992; Lee & Chow, pp

59 Chedin Mohamed Hashim, Tan Sri ( ) Rubber Broker, Auctioneer, Insurance and Shipping Agent, Philanthropist, Politician. Tan Sri C.M. Hashim, (C.M. is short for Chedin and M. stands for Mohamed) was born in 1896 in Penang. His grandfather, Nordin, was from India. His parents divorced when he was eight years old. He was brought up by his aunt, Tok Teh Bongkok. Due to poverty, his schooling stopped at standard six. Soon he was offered work at Buntar Estate in Parit Buntar, Perak by an English employer. He travelled to Parit Buntar daily from Penang. At Buntar Estate, he learnt the English way of life. C.M. Hashim worked at Buntar Estate until 1918 when he was offered employment in Allen Dennys & Co., an English rubber broker. He was to be the book keeper and a personal assistant to Allen Dennys. When the world price of rubber fell, he took the initiative to delve into various other enterprises, such as rubber evaluation, auctioneering, insurance, shipping, forwarding agency. He worked with Allen Dennys & Co. until When Allen Dennys died in 1935, C.M. Hashim took over the company, but the name was retained. He did not share the business with anyone else. During the Japanese Occupation, he changed the name of the company, calling it Malay Trading, for purposes of protection as the Japanese did not like the English and would close down his company. His business, then, was mainly rubber. After the war and the return of the British to Malaya in 1946, Allen Dennys & Co. resumed its operations in the various enterprises as before. In 1957, the company was renamed A. Dennys Sdn. Bhd. It became a family business. Besides himself, his partners were his son, Dato Haji Zainuddin, and his son-in-law, Dato Haji Mushir Ariff. After the Second World War, C.M. Hashim not only became a very successful businessman, but was also the first Malay to be a capable player in the share market. A. Dennys & Co. Sdn. Bhd. was managed by C.M. Hashim till By then, his health was waning. In 1969, he passed away in Penang. The company was then managed by his son and his son-in-law. In 2007, his son-in-law, Dato Haji Mushir Ariff died. The company is now managed by Dato Haji Zainuddin and his son, Dato Seri Zahrin Mohd. Hashim. In his lifetime, C.M. Hashim held many offices. He was the President of the Penang Malay Association ( ). He was the President of the Penang Malay Chambers of Commerce, the President of the Penang Malay Football Association, and in 1950, the Chairman of the Federal Legislative Council. In that same year, he was also the chairman of orphanages in Penang. C.M. Hashim was appointed Justice of Peace, (Jaksa Pendamai) in This was followed by several other meritorious awards viz., JMN (Jasa Mangku Negara) in 1957, PSM (Pingat Setia Mahkota) in 1966, and finally Tan Sri, when he was Penang UMNO leader (not including Seberang Perai). C.M. Hashim s contributions to Penang Malays were many. He sold a piece of land at a reasonable price to the Penang Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang) to build homes for needy Malays. The housing area is still in existence today. In 1950, before he was the Chairman of the Board of Orphanages, Penang, he fought to get an orphanage built. In 1964, he put aside $50,000 in a bank where the annual dividends from the savings were donated to poor Malays in Penang. In 1965, he established a scholarship for Penang Malay students who were furthering their studies at the University of Malaya. His other contributions were to specific organizations helping to build mosques in Penang. He had three wives. He had a daughter with his first wife. With his second wife he had two children, a son and a daughter, while with his third wife he had eight children, five sons and three daughters. Omar Yusoff TST (10 Apr 1935, 30 Oct 1953, 28 Jun 1958, 1 Jun 1959, 28 Dec 1964); Zubaidah bte CM Hashim; HPP, p.66; Personal Communication (Zainuddin bin Mohd. Hashim); PEMENANG, p

60 Chee Wor Lok, 朱和樂, Zhu Hele (1883, China ) Merchant, Planter, Miner, Community Leader, Public Official. Chee Wor Lok, alias Zhedan ( 者耽 ) was born in Zhudong ( 朱洞 ), Taishan county ( 台山 ), Guangdong ( 廣東 ). He came to Penang at the age of 17 and studied at the St. Xavier s Institution ( 聖芳濟 ). Chee was a leading member of the Chinese community in Penang in the 1920s and 1930s, involved in almost all the main social organizations and selected to represent the community. Together with Teoh Soon Keng ( 張舜卿, Zhang Shunqing), they founded Tong Joo Company ( 同裕土庫, at 39 Beach Street, Chong Wor Company ( 張樂公司 ), Ban Poh Company ( 萬寶公司 ) at 212 Beach Street, a groceries store which sold foreign goods, Jin Jin Company ( 進進公司 ) at 16 Beach Street, which sold imported goods. He established Ban Lee Company ( 萬利公司 ) with Chee Boon Yee ( 朱文意, Zhu Wenyi). He owned a few hundred acres of rubber plantations and ran different kinds of businesses. Chee served as the chairman ( , ) and vice-chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 檳州中華總商會 ), vice-chairman and trustee of Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), chairman and trustee of The Kwangtung and Tengchew Association Penang ( 檳榔嶼廣東暨汀州會館 ), trustee of Kuan Yin temple (Kong Hock Keong, 廣福宮 ), Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺, at Ayer Itam) and a clan organization, Toishan Ningyang Wui Kwon ( 庇能台山寧陽會館 ) at King Street, president of Toisan School, director of Chung Hwa Confucian School ( 中華學校 ). He was founder and chairman of the Confucian temple ( 孔聖廟 ), founder and trustee of Overseas Chinese Benevolent Association, chairman of Lam Wah Ee hospital, and served on the committees of Po Leung Kuk ( 保良局 ) and Penang General Hospital ( 檳城中央醫院 ). He was the first non-straits-born Municipal Commissioner, and one of the Cantonese members appointed to the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ). The Beijing government hired him as industrial counselor ( 北京工商部聘為遙領實業諮詢員 ). He passed away on February 14, He had three wives, among his children are: Peiqiong ( 佩瓗 ), Peizhang ( 佩璋 ), Peiji ( 佩基 ), Peishan ( 佩山 ), Peiheng ( 佩恒 ), Peili ( 佩禮 ), Peigui ( 佩癸 ), Peiqi ( 佩琦 ), and Peizhen ( 佩珍 ) Goh Leng Hoon MT (18 Feb 1926); Lee & Chow, pp ; Lin Bo ai, V1, p.35; PCTH, pp ; HPP, p.41. Chew Sin Yong, 周興揚, Zhou Xinyang ( ) Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Community Leader. Chew Sin Yong alias Chew Sin Jong was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid to late 19th century in Penang. He was a leader of the Cantonese community and had business interests in revenue farms and trading. Chew Sin Yong was born in Penang and his ancestral origin can be traced to Nanhai ( 南海 ), Guangdong ( 廣東 ). He was educated at the Penang Free School and was one of the few Chinese of his age who spoke English fluently. He was a partner in the firm of Thean Chee & Co., a ship-chandlers and general store located at 21, Beach Street. In addition, Sin Yong was also involved in both Penang s and Singapore s opium farms. He and Chan Lye Kam ( 陳俪琴, Chen Liqin) led a syndicate that gained control of Penang s opium farm in September 1890 and He served as manager of both the farms. He was also a member of the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ), committee member of the Po Leong Kuk ( 保良局 ) and Hon. Treasurer of the Pauper Hospital. In 1874 and 1876, he was appointed to serve as Special Juror at the Settlement of Penang. In 1881, he became one of the fourteen founders of the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章 56

61 會館 ). Sin Yong was a deputy director and later, director of the Kwangtung and Tengchew Public Cemetery ( 廣東汀州義山 ) in 1885 and In 1890, he became a member of the Penang Free School s managing committee. Chew Sin Yong passed away at the age of 53 on 21 October 1894, at his residence in Penang Street. The cause of death was a carbuncle in the face, from which he had been suffering for the past few weeks. He left a widow, three sons, and four daughters. His estate was valued at $100,000. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (22 Oct 1894); SSD 1882, p.108; 1890, p. 211; 1893, p.191; Goh Leng Hoon, p.228. Choong Cheng Kean, 莊清建, Zhuang Qingjian ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Rice Miller, Rubber Planter. He was born in Xiaxianglu village ( 霞祥露社 ), Tong an district ( 同安縣 ), Xiamen City ( 廈門市 ), Fujian Province ( 福建省 ). To complement the important role of Lim Leng Cheak ( 林寧綽, Lin Ningchuo ) from Penang, Choong Cheng Kean was the most important Chinese merchant in Kedah in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. His powerful linkages with the Sultan and the royal families, and other Malay elite on the one hand, and the Chinese community in Kedah on the other, were fundamental in shaping his close connections with the Chinese merchant community in Penang, and vice versa. Especially after the sultan had fallen out with Lim Leng Cheak in 1894 over the paddy farm, the Sultan depended much more on Choong Cheng Kean in his routine dealings with the Penang community. It is impossible to write an economic history of Kedah and Penang without mentioning the Choong family. Choong was born to a poor family in China, migrating to Tongkah in the 1870s as a teenager, and shortly afterwards moving to Kedah. There he served as an assistant in a grocery shop. Two or three years later he was dismissed over some incident. He went then to work as a gardener for the Raja Muda, brother of the Sultan. A good relationship developed, and the Raja Muda encouraged Choong to start his own grocery store and provided some initial capital. His business prospered and following that, Choong joined the Penang opium syndicate. With the exception of Kulim under Lim Leng Cheak before 1894, Choong Cheng Kean monopolised the Kedah opium farm, particularly during the late 1880s He participated in most revenue farms such as opium and spirit, gambling, pawnbroking, customs, ferry, pig sales, and tin and tapioca export duty, that covered most parts of the state. From Kedah, his business network extended to Penang and southern Thailand. Towards the end of the 19th century, he moved his residence to Penang. The Choong family hence became an important part of the Penang merchant community and very ably carried on their founding father s business up to the present. For his family life, at least four women were closely related to Choong Cheng Kean. The first was Yeoh Khuan Neoh ( 楊環, Yang Huan). She was his wife in China, probably the girl to whom Cheng Kean had been engaged to. This lady adopted several children and lived with Cheng Kean s mother. The second was Lim Gek Kee Neoh ( 林玉枝, Lin Yuzhi) from Kedah. She was the principal wife. She had two sons with Cheng Kean, Lye Hock ( 來福, Laifu ) and Lye Hin ( 來興, Laixing ), who continued to carry on the family business after Cheng Kean s death on 23rd June The third was Lim Gaik Teen Neoh ( 林玉田 ), from Tongkah, Siam. The fourth lady was Ong Ee Gaik Neoh, also from Kedah. She had been associated with Cheng Kean since Around 1900, Choong Chen Kean left Kedah to settle down permanently in Penang. Cheng Kean s first wife, Lim Gaik Kee, their two sons, Lye Hock and Lye Hin, and their families also joined him to live in Penang. However, their business base remained in Kedah. This geographical movement of residences coincided with the generational shift of businesses. With the phasing out of the revenue farm system, Choong ventured into rice-milling and rubber planting. With the solid capital accumulation 57

62 by the founding father, the expansion and shift of the family business were successfully achieved by the second generation of Lye Hock and Lye Hin under Hock Hin Brothers Ltd. ( 福興兄弟有限公司 ). Their rice business developed to such an extent that by the 1930s, the Choong family owned a chain of large and successful rice mills in Penang, Kedah, and Perak. A number of rubber plantations were also opened. In the 1960s, interestingly the Choong family had another important business shift, also in line with the generational change. This was conducted under the third generation of the brothers, Eng Kim ( 榮山, Rongshan) and Eng Hai ( 榮海, Ronghai), who were very influential in the real estate sector of Penang. Wu Xiao An KAR 1909; SE (10 Dec 1918, 11 Dec Dec 1918). Choong Lye Hin, 莊來興, Zhuang Laixing (c ) Rice and Oil Miller, Merchant, Landlord. Born the son of prominent businessman, Choong Cheng Kean ( 莊清健, Zhuang Qingjian ), and his wife, Lim Gaik Kee, Choong Lye Hin began his career working for his father before setting up business together with his brother, Choong Lye Hock ( 莊來福, Zhuang Laifu ), and venturing out on his own. He was a founding shareholder and director of Hock Hin Brothers, named after himself and his brother Lye Hock. The firm today exists as the private and limited company, Hock Hin Brothers Sdn Bhd. Back in the day, this property development company was also concerned with planting coconuts and milling coconut oil. At one time, Hock Hin Brothers, together with Ng Sui Cam s ( 伍瑞琴, Wu Ruiqin) Sun Wo Loong, Yeap Chor Ee s ( 葉祖意, Ye Zuyi) Ban Hin Lee Oil Mills and the family company of Lim Cheng Teik ( 林清德, Lin Qingde ), and Lim Cheng Law ( 林清露, Lin Qinglu ), Ban Teik Bee, were producing 85% of the oil in Penang. He was involved in rice milling and owned a fouracre plant at Sungei Pinang, bearing his own name, the Lye Hin Rice Mill. The rice shortage of 1919 forced the closure of Lye Hin Rice Mill, among others. Lye Hin and several of his fellow millers then formed the Central Milling Agency, around the end of March of that year, in a Governmentapproved experiment to take over the production of all the mills and fill all existing contracts without any alterations to their original terms, and to book further orders and contracts as padi became available. The Agency met the terms of existing contracts, supplying rice at $11.17 per 170 catty bag but its supply of new contracts at $11.57 drew strong criticism and Government was forced to step in and take over the whole of the distribution of the Central Milling Agency. The decision was announced by the Food Controller at the end of April. In early May, Lye Hin, together with his other Central Milling Agency partners, Lim Cheng Law, Lim Chin Guan ( 林振元, Lin Zhenyuan), Chua Kee Ee ( 蔡其意, Cai Qiyi), Leong Tek Khean and Ng Seng Sooi, formed a deputation and called on the Food Controller, the Hon Mr. F. Seton James, C.M.G., in the Governor s Office in Penang. The deputation handed over a petition to the Food Controller. The Controller acknowledged that the Central Milling Agency was doing its best for the people and though he agreed that the Central Milling Agency continue to serve as a centralized buying and milling operation, he remained steadfast in his opinion that distribution ought to be done by Government in order to avoid criticism. The decision was Gazetted and a notice of this and of the decision to cancel all existing distribution contracts of the Central Milling Agency, distribution now being handled directly by Government, was published. The Central Milling Agency continued to exist until As independents, together with his brother, Lye Hock, Choong Lye Hin had a mill in Kedah and two in Krian (Perak) that were large enough to stand on their own and compete with the government mills in Bagan Serai (Kedah) and Kuala Kurau (Perak). By 1934 the mills of Lye Hin and his brother were capable of producing 2,000 bags or 340,000 catties (between approximately 205, ,400 kilograms) of rice a day, equalling the combined output of the 14 other medium to large mills, then present in Kedah. 58

63 In 1933, with just $12,000, Lye Hin acquired, $60,000 worth of Tujoh Tin Shares and $12,000 worth of property that had been mortgaged to him earlier by millionaire-turned-bankrupt Cheah Leang Guan ( 謝連元, Xie Lianyuan ), instantly realising a gain of $59,000. Lye Hin was a member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce and served as office bearer in its committees. During the Japanese Occupation of World War II, he was a member of the Grow More Food Committee formed in October In 1937, when Dr. Wu Lien Teh (Ngoh Lean Tuck, 伍連德, Wu Liande) sought support for his war relief efforts, Lye Hin promised the loan of his big godown in Jelutong Road to be used for the reception of all clothing and material to be donated by local residents. He was a vice-president of the Old Frees Association (OFA), a member of the Rotary Club and a member of the Penang Chinese Swimming Club, presiding as Chair, in a 1932 meeting to decide whether or not to admit women as members to the swimming club. He travelled round the world together with Lim Cheng Teik and G. B. Taye between late 1920 and early 1921, including Canada, America, France, Germany and Hongkong. In late 1935, together with Ng Sui Cam, Lye Hin embarked on a continental tour that included England, Italy and Switzerland, among other countries. Choong Lye Hin Road (Jalan), Choong Lye Hin Close (Solok) and Hock Hin Terrace (Tingkat), all in Penang, are named after him. Jeffery Seow Star (25 Jun 2001); SFP (6 May 1919, 9 May 1919, 30 Mar 1931, 14 Jan 1932, 10 Mar 1934, 10 Jun 1935, 30 Aug 1937); TST (29 Mar 1919, 28 Apr 1919, 14 May 1919, 30 Dec 1920, 10 Mar 1934, 19, Aug 1935, 20 Aug 1935, 13 Jun 1939); Wright, p.856; Lee & Chow, p.33; Wu Xiao An, 2012, p.213; Hara, p.72; Wong Yee Tuan, 2011, p.46. Choong Lye Hock, 莊來福, Zhuang Laifu (31 May February 1960) Landed Proprietor, Planter, Rice and Oil Miller. Choong Lye Hock was the eldest son of Choong Cheng Kean ( 莊清健, Zhuang Qingjian ), and his wife, Lim Gaik Kee, and brother of Choong Lye Hin ( 莊來興, Zhuang Laixing ). By the 1930s he was thought to be one of Penang s most notable old residents. When he died, a newspaper reported that a link with the past in Penang was broken. Chairman of the Phor Tay School ( 菩提中學 ) new building committee, he was a well-known property developer who not only built homes but also provided buyers with loans so they could acquire those homes. Lye Hock was a down-to-earth sort. His grandson, Eddy Choong recalls, My grandfather was a simple man who would exercise by walking the length of MacAlister Road, where the family mansion is, wearing just a pair of Chinese pants with a towel hung over his shoulder. His palatial mansion sitting on a 48,943 sq. ft. plot on MacAlister Road, bought in the late 1890 s, still exists. It was sold and its façade restored in 2012, and is now known as Macalister Mansion, a boutique hotel. After 1909, Lye Hock together with his brother, Lye Hin took over the management of their father s business in Kedah. Gradually the two brothers expanded their father s business, which involved revenue farming (opium, gambling and pawnbroking), into other, varied areas. Together with Chua Kee Ee ( 蔡其意, Cai Qiyi), whose father was in shipping and rice-milling, the Choong brothers ventured into the rice-milling and coconut oil business. With two other families (Lim Eow Hong 林耀煌 and Lim Eow Thoon 林耀椿 ; and Lim Cheng Teik 林清德 and Lim Cheng Law 林清露, Lye Hock and Lye Hin dominated the rice-milling business in Kedah, Perak and Penang up till the mid 1920s, after which time they controlled the entire northern ricemilling business until the 1950s. 59

64 Together with his brother, Lye Hin, Lye Hock had a mill in Kedah and two in Krian (Perak) that were large enough to stand on their own and compete with the government mills in Bagan Serai (Kedah) and Kuala Kurau (Perak). By 1934 the mills of Lye Hock and his brother were capable of producing 2,000 bags or 340,000 catties (between approximately 205, ,400 kilograms) of rice a day, equaling the combined output of the 14 other medium to large mills, then present in Kedah. Choong Lye Hock was a founding shareholder and managing director of Hock Hin Brothers Ltd., named after himself and his brother Lye Hin. The firm today exists as a private and limited company, Hock Hin Brothers Sdn Bhd. Back in the day, this property development company was also concerned with planting coconuts and milling coconut oil. At one time Hock Hin Brothers, together with Ng Sui Cam s ( 伍瑞琴, Wu Ruiqin) Sun Wo Loong, Yeap Chor Ee s ( 葉祖意, Ye Zuyi ) Ban Hin Lee Oil Mills and the family company of Lim Cheng Teik and Lim Cheng Law, Ban Teik Bee, were producing 85% of the oil in Penang. Lye Hock was also founding shareholder and managing director of Ban Hock Bee Rice Mill, Ban Hin Bee Oil Mill, Malayan Ice Works, Ban Heng Bee Rice Mill in Alor Star, and Ban Eng Bee Rice Mill in Nibong Tebal, and founded or established the Choong Lye Hock Theatre (now Cathay Cinema), the Choong Lye Hock Estate, and the Choong Cheng Kean Estate. Lye Hock was a director of the E. & O. Hotel. Around 20 May 1951, Choong Lye Hock Estates Ltd acquired the Runnymede and Eastern and Oriental Hotels from Runnymede Hotel Ltd., at an investment of $1,450,000. In the week that followed, the Runnymede Hotel was sold to the Penang Government for $750,000. The headlines in the Sunday Times ran, Chinese Buy E & O, Runnymede, a big deal at a time when there was still a wide divide between Europeans and Asians. The purchase now meant that the hotel was no longer the exclusive preserve of Caucasian folk. During the Japanese Occupation of World War II, he was a member of the Grow More Food Committee formed in October He died at 8 p.m. on 12 February 1960 after being unwell the previous two days following a fall. The Straits Times, at the time of his death reported that he was 82 years old. This is untrue and he was not born in 1878 but on 31 May 1882 as recorded by Wu Xiao An - there was a practice among Chinese of adding 3 years to a person s actual age, at the time of their death. 2,000 wreaths and scrolls were received and the funeral, the services of which were performed by both Taoist priests and Buddhist monks, took place on the morning of 18 February 1960, attended by over one thousand people. Lye Hock was interred at the Batu Gantong Cemetery. He left two sons: Eng Kim ( 榮金, Rongjin) and Eng Hye ( 榮海, Ronghai) and four daughters: Mrs. Ong Huck Chye nee Choong Saw Hoon, Mrs. Lee Hong Teik nee Choong Saw Har, Mrs. Chee Hock Keat nee Choong Saw Cheng, and Mrs. Ong Huck Hong nee Missy Choong Saw Sim. Among the grandchildren he left behind were badminton players, Eddy ( 友明, Youming) and David Choong ( 友良, Youliang) as well as lawyer and badminton player Amy Choong, wife of badminton player Johnny Heah Hock Aun. Choong Lye Hock Road (Jalan), and Hock Hin Terrace (Tingkat), all in Penang, are named after him. Jeffrey Seow Star (25, Jun 2001, 3 Nov 2012); SE (11 Aug 1936); SFP (19 Dec 1935); TST (3 Sep 1924, 23 Oct 1935, 13 May 1951, 20 May 1951, 25 May 1951, 18 Jul 1955, 14 Feb 1960); Star (4 Jul 2004) Lee & Chow, p.33; Wu Xiao An, 2009, pp.195, 201, 203; 2012, pp ; Malaysia, 1960, p.33; Websites (Toyad); Personal Communication (Amy Choong). Chung Keng Quee, 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ( ) Tin-Miner, Capitalist, Community Leader, State Councillor, Landowner, Philanthropist. 60

65 His name has been romanised many ways. He was also known as Siwen ( 嗣文 ) and Shenzhi ( 慎之, meaning discreet ). Born in Xinchun Wei ( 新村圍 ), Zengcheng District ( 增城縣 ), Guangdong Province ( 廣東省 ), he left family plot and life as a farmer, at 16 years old, for Malaya, seeking his father and brother. Arriving in 1843, he found both, father Hsing Fah ( 興發, Xinfa), an early settler of Larut, and brother Keng Seng ( 景勝, Jingsheng), well-established in Perak. He became a tin mine coolie in the Perak wilderness. In 1845, at 18 years old, he began residing in Penang, while continuing prospecting in Perak. In 1848, when Long Jaafar first discovered tin in Larut, three Chinese were already working there. Shortly, he struck a rich lode. His career as towkay, began. His operations (tin-mining, revenue-farming, contracting, development of Taiping and administration of Perak) outside Penang were controlled through Hye Kee Chan ( 海記棧 ), in Beach Street, Penang. He imported Zengcheng Hakkas. All was well till Long Jaafar died in Under Ngah Ibrahim, the first of a series of bloody, expensive encounters, spanning twelve years, collectively known as the Larut War, broke out in He formed an alliance with Khoo Thean Teik ( 邱天德, Qiu Tiande ), Koh Seang Thye and Tan Yit Hoon, vying against the Ghee Hin society ( 義興 ) for lucrative Larut mining property. The fighting touched him in Penang his enemies attempted to destroy him and his (Armenian Street) house in He lost everything by the end of the war. Later, when asked about those years, he replied, Banyak rugi! meaning big financial loss. Undaunted, he rebuilt. Perhaps the first true capitalist in the country, he was the largest tin mine owner and employer of labour in British Malaya. By 1886 he was the largest financier in Larut. By 1887, the largest tin producer in Perak. His Kwong Lee Mine employing 5,000 coolies, the largest alluvial tin mine in the world. When he died, he had ten mines, throughout Perak, employing 15,000 coolies. In 1892, after confirming the tinmining potential of land in Burma, he applied for, and received, a five-year concession for over 1,400 sq. miles the British Government s first attempt at encouraging large-scale tin mining there. He won large, tightly-held monopolies. A revenue farmer ( ), he held, at different times, the Larut Farms, Larut Opium & Tobacco Farms, North and South Larut Coast Farm, Kuala Kangsar and Upper Perak General Farms, Larut Coast Farm, Kinta General Farm, Kuala Kangsar General and Opium Duty Farms, the Penang Opium Farm, and the Kulim and Kuala Muda Opium Farms. He was also involved in logging and was a government contractor. Hye Kee Chan s main business involved tin mining and real estate. He began property investments, early. He acquired 31 Beach Street, 25 China Street and a house in Armenian Street, failing in his $120,000 bid for Sandilands, Buttery & Co. s land in 1883, which Government acquired for reclamation and construction of a quay for Penang. In June 1889, he demolished buildings on Beach Street, from Bishop Street to Church Street junctions, for what was touted to be the handsomest block of offices and dwellings, Ah Quee s Buildings. In 1893 he acquired two adjacent plots on Church Street the former Ghee Hin headquarters and the original site for the Ng Fook Hsu Yin ( 五福書院 ). On these he built his residence (1895), and personal temple, Shen Zhi Jia Shu ( 慎之家塾, 1898). With $35,000, he bought Lee Phee Choon s ( 李丕焌, Li Pijun) palatial Penang Road residence (1895). In 1894, together with his daughter, he purchased land, stretching from Fettes Park to Mount Erskine, for his grave and those of his descendants. At that time he had property near the Waterfall. He had property and businesses in Penang, the F.M.S., Hongkong and China. When he died it was reported he owned 10% of George Town. His property in Beach Street comprised over $1.5 million of his $7 million Penang property. His property in Hong Kong was estimated at $10 million. He had connections with Khoo Thean Poh ( 邱天保, Qiu Tianbao ), Chin Seng Yam ( 陳亞炎, Chen Yayan), Cheah Tek Soon ( 謝德順, Xie Deshun ), Cheah Chen Eok ( 謝增煜, Xie Zengyu ), Lee Pean Peh ( 李邊坪, Li Bianping ), Chew Sin Yong ( 周興楊, Zhou Xingyang ), Choong Lye Hock ( 莊來福, Zhuang Laifu ), Tye Kee Yoon ( 戴喜雲, Dai Xiyun ), Chan Ley Kam ( 陳俪琴, Chen Liqin), and also with Frank Swettenham, Hugh Low, Ernest 61

66 Birch, John Douglas, Leonard Wray, Henry Trotter, and James Vermont. His employees, Lam Kam Thong, Lim Ah Kye and Foo Choo Choon ( 胡子春, Hu Zichun ), became related to him through marriage. After endorsing the Engagement at Pangkor, he was appointed a Commissioner for the Pacification of Larut. He was appointed Kapitan Cina by Captain Speedy and Ngah Ibrahim before that, and again on 24 October 1874, by Hugh Low. He became lawmaker and public administrator upon his appointment to the first multi-ethnic State Council (1877), serving till his resignation in He served many communities in different roles. He was Assistant Department Magistrate of the King Street Fude Ci Dabo Gong temple (1868); Principal/Chief Director of Penang Tseng-Lung Association (1890), like his father, one of its early leaders; Secretary of Kwangtung and Tengchew Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山, 1891); first, Chief Secretary (1893), later Principal Director (1898) of the board of Ng Fook Hsu Yin; Director of the Penang Chinese Town Hall (1895); having earlier played prominent roles there ( ). He founded the Persatuan Keturunan Teh Si Eng Eong Tong Pulau Pinang ( 滎陽堂鄭公司 ), a Hakka not a Hokkien association as some may think. In Taiping he founded the Lingnan Old Temple, Penang Tsen Lung Fui Kon ( 檳城增龍會館 ), He Xian Gu Temple ( 何仙姑廟 ), and Kwangtung Huiguan ( 廣東會館 ). In 1849 he spearheaded the replacement of the wooden, attap-thatched Penang Tseng-Lung Hui-Kuan premises with a brick and tile-roofed building, transforming a sleepy hollow, into a hive of activity. He was liberal, generous, benefitting many local eleemosynary institutions, leaving a trail of beneficiaries from Penang to Perak, India, China and Britain. His benevolence began, aimed at his own territorial clansmen, but soon encompassed Chinese from other territories and from other dialect groups his donations extended beyond Hakka-based temples after the 1880s where he was always the chief donor eventually including European and other causes, as he drew larger circles around himself. He was possibly the biggest patron of his era. No record of all his gifts exists. What we know of, is impressive. 150 yuan, Tanjong Tokong Thai Pak Koong Temple ( 海珠嶼五屬大伯公廟 ), 1865; 30 yuan, Thai Pak Koong Temple - Ng Suk ( 福德祠大伯公 ), 1868; $200, Yue Dong Old Temple (Taiping) Taiping,( 粵東古廟 ) 1882; 10,000 taels, China s Franco-Annam War Fund, 1884; land and 1,800 yuan, Kwangtung and Tengchew Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ), ; 600 yuan (largest individual donor), foundation of Penang Chinese Town Hall, 1886; Munificent gifts, Queen Victoria s Golden and Diamond Jubilees, ; $60, Fude Ci Dabogong Temple (Taiping), 1889; Initial start-up capital and 600 yuan posthumously, Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), ; $250, Sui Jing Bo Temple (Taiping, 綏靖伯廟 ), 1893; land, 6,566 yuan, loan of 20,000 yuan (which he, himself, helped pay) to Wufu Tang / Ng Fook Hsu Yin, ; $100 (to buy maps), St. George s Girls School, 1895; $200 (1895) and $12,000 (1901), Penang Free School; Double-storey building (1895) and $6,000 (1901), St. Xavier s Institution; $300, Indian Famine Relief Fund, 1897; land for construction of roads connecting Kuala Kangsar Road to Penang Road, and Buckingham Street to Beach Street, 1898; $15,000, Transvaal War Relief Fund For Widows and Orphans, 1900; Temporary Pustule Hospital, Batu Gantong Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ), 1901; Founded Chongwen She Free School ( 崇文社 ), 1901, Double-storey building (Leith Street), Engineer s Institute, He also gave towards the Scholarship Fund for Civil Service Exams and various flood relief funds in China. He built schools, contributing to those he had not. He built orphanages, contributing towards the lives of orphans and widows elsewhere. He established temples and clan organizations, built bridges, paved roads, provided burials for those who could not afford them, dispensed medicines and generously donated to those in need. He was guided by, and championed, Confucian values, but embraced the principles, practices and culture of Western administrators of his adopted country, evidenced by his lavish wine and champagne soirees and his stewardship of turf clubs. The Dragon Throne bestowed rank, titles and honour. Local authorities knew him as a most loyal British subject, the words Chinese liberality 62

67 peppering newspaper articles about his charitable acts. For his gifts to China, he was appointed, by Imperial Diploma, Zizheng Daifu ( 資政大夫 ) retrospectively for three generations, elevating him, his father Hsing Fah and his grandfather Tung Lin (the last two posthumously), to Mandarin of the Second Rank. Two years later, around March 1901, the Peacock Feather ( 戴花翎 ) and Expectant Daotai ( 道台 ) of a Circuit of the Fourth Rank were added, and his wife Tan Gek Im was appointed, by Imperial Diploma, Shu-jen of the Third Rank. At his birthday, at the end of 1895, he received congratulatory memorial tablets from Tjong Yong Hian ( 張煜南, Zhang Yunan) and Cheah Choon Seng ( 謝春生, Xie Chunsheng ) etc. representing the business community, while Chinese Vice-Consul Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ) delivered an eulogy praising his virtues and outlining his contributions and achievements. On the 12 December 1901, he died, 74 years of age. His body lay in state, from the time of his death till his funeral on 11 May If funeral turnouts indicate the difference the deceased made, the difference he made must have been significant. Thousands came from Penang, Kedah and the F.M.S., including over 500 Europeans, taking part in a procession about a mile and a half long. One account ran, What was most remarkable was the exceptional good behaviour of the many pickpockets and bad characters, who had an unlimited harvest staring them in the face with fabulous wealth in precious stones and jewellery worn by hundreds of Chinese ladies. Not a single cent worth of property was missed on the occasion, not a crime was reported. This speaks volumes for the universal deep respect and affection in which the deceased Capitan China was held by the entire community. His green, granite grave, imported from Fujian, is at the Kwangtung and Tengchew Public Cemetery, on the west section of the large parcel he and his daughter, Gengniang, had donated. At one acre, it was, and probably still is, the largest tomb in the whole country. In China, graves of this size were only for members of the Imperial family or officials of the highest rank. Two pillars and life-size statues bearing his official imperial ranks and titles Mandarin of Our Nation and Kapitan Perak of the Immigrant Nation, usually only permitted for mandarins of the first rank, surround the grave. This is the only grave in Malaysia with statues like those. He married into other dialect groups including the old-time Peranakan lau-khehs. He had a number of wives Lim Ah-Chen, whom he married before venturing to Malaya; Tan Gek-Im; Foo Teng-Nyong, Tan Ah-Loy, and Lau Tye-Thye. He left nine sons Ah Yong ( 大養 Dayang), Daren ( 大仁 ), Thye Jit or Thye Ngit ( 大日, Dari), Thye Phin ( 大平, Daping ), Thye Cheong or Thye Chong ( 大昌, Dachang), Dakang ( 大亢 ), Thye Seong ( 大詳, Daxiang), Daxin ( 大興 ), and Dajin ( 大金 ) and five daughters Gengniang ( 觀娘 ), Siewying ( 秀英 ), Lianying ( 連英 ), Fengying ( 鳳英 ), and Lianxin ( 連心 ). His other son, Thye Gan, predeceased him in Leaving over 3,000,000, he was the richest man in the country, if not Asia. Far-sighted, his will mandated his estate remain intact until his last grandson reached majority. Most were born after he died, his last grandson in His name is perpetuated in roads named after him; Keng Kwee Street ( 景貴街 ) and Ah Quee Street ( 阿貴街 ) in Penang; Chung Keng Kwee Road in Asam Kumbang, Taiping; a memorial tablet at the Engineer s Institute building; and through the Pinang Peranakan Mansion, once his residence at 29 Church Street; and its adjoining ancestral temple. Jeffery Seow DA (25 Aug 1891, 24 Nov 1891, 15 Dec 1891, 12 Sep 1892, 19 March 1894); TST (Nov 1874 Nov 1937); SFP (Apr Aug 1939); DN (14 May 1909); PP (10 Nov 1900, 17 Nov 1900, 14 Dec 1901, 15 May 1902, 17 May 1902); STOJ (23 Oct 1873, 19 Nov 1874, 18 Oct 1879); SPJP (3 Oct 1951); STWI (Sep 1883 Oct 1891); LCT (9 Jun 1902); NYT (29 Apr 1872); MDH (20 Feb 1895; 16 Jul 1895); GD (19 Sep 1873); CM (30 Dec 1901); SMH (19 Jul 1882); Boyle; Burns, pp.63, 64, 83, 84, 95, 192; Campbell, pp.1-25; Chee Liew Seong, pp.90, 98, 111, 113, 190, 223; Comber, pp.102, 158, 165, 178, 179, 184, 188, 190, 191, 194, 200, 226, 227, 290; C.S.Wong, 1963a, p.79; 1963b, p.93; Chung Keng Quee; Franke & Chen, pp.551, 552, 644, 645, 658, , 816, 820, ; HKLR, V18-23, pp.77-80; HPP, pp.47, 81; Knapp, pp ; Khoo Su Nin, 2005, p.103; Khong Kwek Siong, 1958, pp ; Law, V1, pp ; Lee & Chow, pp.38-39; Lee & Tan, p.20; H. Low, p.164; 63

68 Mak, 1987, pp.259, 263, 264; Ong Seng Huat; Reid, 1970, pp ; Sadka, pp.180, 303, 319, 334; TSJ, p.254; Stokes, p.64; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.53; Wilkinson, p.90; Wong Kin, p.1105; Wong Yee Tuan, 2007a, pp ; 2008, pp ; Wray, Leech & Lefroy, p.8; 1909, p.37; Wright, pp.130, 203, 576, 577; Yen, 1985, pp ; 1986, pp.10, , 232; 1995, p.166 n.32; Yip, Yat Hoong, p.58; Yoshihara, p.414. Chung Thye Phin, 鄭大平, Zheng Daping ( ) Tin Miner, Revenue Farmer, Perak State Councilor, last Kapitan Cina of Perak. Born 28 September 1879, about half a mile from Klian Pauh in Kota, the principal village in Taiping at the time of the Larut War, he was the fourth son of Kapitan Chung Keng Quee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui) of Perak and Penang, and the Godson of Kapitan Chin Seng Yam ( 陳亞炎, Chen Yayan) of the Ghee Hin Society ( 義興會社 ). Although born outside the Settlements, he lived most of his life and died a British Subject, a certificate of naturalisation having been granted in May Chung Thye Phin was a perfect example of a new breed of ethnic-chinese Malayan capitalists. Western-educated, Westernoriented, urbane, erudite, eloquent and elegant. His father s foresight saw him schooled at the Central School (later the King Edward VII School) and St. Xavier s Institution ( 聖芳濟書院 ). His first reported brush with the media happened Thursday 28 November 1895, during the inauguration of a two-storey school block, erected by his father and presented to St. Xavier s Institution. At that event, Thye Phin was presented with a medal by the then Resident Councillor of Penang, Henry Trotter. At the age of 24, his biography, detailing his career to date, was published in October 1903 by the Straits Echo, of which he was a director, as part of a series of biographies on the leading men of Penang. From late 1898 till the early 1906 his name is most strongly associated with horse-racing. Together with his brothers Ah Yong ( 大養, Dayang), Thye Yin, Thye Kam and Thye Seong ( 大詳, Daxiang), he entered his horses in races all over the Settlements and the Federated Malay States (FMS). Thye Phin had an 8hp De Dion, and a 16-20hp Talbot which he raced at the FMS s first motor gymkhana (31st August 1907). He won, in his De Dion in class A, the Starting and Stopping Race. He had a 9/10hp Swift which he raced in the 1st September 1907 Hill Climbing Competition at Batu Gajah. It has been reported that the first motorcar seen in Penang was Thye Phin s De Dion. Like his brother, Ah Yong, Thye Phin was a keen billiards player and even had a billiards room at his holiday home, Relau Villa in Penang. On the 3rd of April 1903, he played world billiards champion John Roberts at the premises of the Engineers Institute, which his father had erected and presented to them. He lost with 959 points to Roberts 1,000. A paper reported, The Chinese player made a very good start, but fell off badly afterwards. His earliest travel experiences began in the 1890s. In July 1897, together with some relatives, he was aboard one of his father s steamers, heading to his father s home in Xincunwei ( 新村圍 ), when they were attacked by pirates. He was a man of the world, literally, and is said to have travelled round the world several times. He travelled to Japan, Europe and various parts of China, sometimes with family, sometimes with friends like Eu Tong Sen ( 余東旋, Yu Dongxuan), his sworn brother or the self-made millionaire, Chew Boon Juan. Among his more notable travels, apart from his experience with pirates, were a tour of China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan in 1922 and a thirteen month round-the world tour from 1924 to While he had access to all his father s properties, Thye Phin made his own real estate investments. He had a two-storey house, The Highlands, nestled 1,800 feet above sea level on the Penang hills. Around early August 1906, he completed a palatial residence at North Beach between Kelawai Road and the sea. He owned 58 Northam Road where he died, and is reported to have owned one of the most stately homes on Light Street. In the 1920s he commissioned the firm of Stark and McNeil to build a holiday home in Relau. He bought property outside Penang as well. Around 1903, together with 64

69 Eu Tong Sen, he built a holiday home at Gopeng Road, featuring a large stable, known as Forest Lodge. In 1904 he commissioned the construction of nine three-storey offices built on his newly acquired property in Ipoh. He owned land in Papan. After selling off his half of Forest Lodge to Eu Tong Sen in 1912, Thye Phin bought the 50-acre former Residency of Sir Hugh Low, Drummond Hill. His residence on Chamberlain Road, named The Nest, exists today as the Kinta Medical Centre. Thye Phin was an amateur actor, performing with amateur troupes in Penang and Perak. Two of his more notable performances occurred in 1908 and His performances in 1908 and 1916 have been well documented, the latter included such amateur actors as Yup Long Hin, Loke Chow Kit ( 陸秋傑, Lu Qiujie), Loke Chow Thye ( 陸秋泰, Lu Qiutai), Lo Man Yuk and Chua Kee Ee ( 蔡其意, Cai Qiyi) among the eighty-member troupe. His first recorded acts of charity began at the age of 23 when he made two donations, between 1901 and 1902, totalling $750, to Sir Francis Lovell for the London School of Tropical Medicine, $250 to the Ying Jing Medical School and $ towards the costs of the Wufu Shuyuan. And while he made numerous other contributions over the years, the more prominent ones included Seven States Medical School ($1,000, 1904), Singapore Chinese Girls School ($100, 1906), the Kek Lok Si Temple ($500, 1906), Wufu Shuyuan common tomb ($40, 1906), Papan Gaol (land, 1908), Canton Flood Relief ($100, 1908), Raffles College Fund ($10,000, 1919), Perak Chinese Recreation Club ($500, 1913), British Red Cross Society ($300, 1916), Yuk Choy Public School ($1,000, 1923), Victoria Green ($2,000, 1903). He was a consummate host, counting among his guests, at various times, the Sarkies Brothers, Sir Ernest Woodford Birch, A. B. Jordan (Protector of Chinese, Perak), A. M. Goodman (Protector of Chinese, Perak), the Sultan and Raja Permaisuri of Perak, Colonel Cecil Rae (Officer Commanding the Ipoh Chinese Platoon of the Malay States Volunteer Infantry), Choo Kia Peng ( 朱嘉炳, Zhu Jiabing, Federal Councillor), and, Sun Tze Ting (Consul- General for China), apart from other leading members of the community at that time. He travelled to Singapore to greet and present an address to King George V when the latter, as Duke of Cornwall and York, visited in 1901, and chauffeured the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, to whom he was introduced during their visit in He was a committee member of the newly formed Perak Motor Union (1907), representative vicepresident of the Garden Club (Penang 1920; Perak 1923), Patron of the Perak Chinese Dramatic Club (1923), and honorary member of the Europeansonly Ipoh Club (1926). He was also involved with the Penang Mutual Improvement Association, Yan Jian Club, Merchants Club, Perak Club, Perak Sporting Club and Penang Chinese Club. Like his father before him, he owned tin mines and plantations and became famous for them in his own right. Unlike his father, he did not work those himself, preferring to let others deal with operational aspects. They included Messrs Boy and Parsy, Cheong Chee, W. G. Henning, and Khoo Teng Thay. At the end of 1907 he had the Seng Kee Tin Smelting Works ( 成記熔錫廠 ) floated as the Eastern Smelting Company Ltd. ( 東方熔錫公司 ), and sat on its board of directors. His other listed concerns included the Tin Trust Ltd., the Kampar River Tin Dredging Company and the Toh Allang Chinese Tin, Ltd. Outside of tin, he was a Director of the Straits Echo ( 亦果西報 ). He became a lawmaker in 1900, succeeding his father to the Perak State Council which he served on till January Other community or public appointments included: Director, Penang Hills Railway Company Ltd. (1903), Juror, Penang (1904), Trustee, Penang Chinese Recreation Club (1906), Representative, Ipoh Hospital (1913), Representative, Chinese contingent to Sir Arthur Young s Farewell (1914), Council member, FMS Chamber of Mines (1914), Patron, Penang Tseng Lung Hui Kuan (1916), Justice of the Peace, Perak (1917), Councillor, FMS (1918), President, Chinese Widows and Orphans Institution, Perak (1920), Representative, Ipoh community at electricity supply discussions with Perak Resident George Maxwell 65

70 and Government Electric Adviser F. Bolton (1920), Member, FMS Restriction Committee for Perak South (1922), Trustee, Perak Miners and Planters Association (1922), President, British Chinese Association of Malaya (1923), Representative, Chinese community s welcoming contingent during visit of King of Siam (1924). He was also member and trustee of the Penang Chinese Town Hall, member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Penang Chinese Ratepayer s Association, and honorary patron of the Hakka Community Guild of Singapore. In 1921, in recognition of services rendered to the royal family of Perak, believed to have been of a financial nature, Thye Phin was appointed Kapitan Cina, at the personal wish of the Sultan of Perak, twenty years after that role had been abolished by the British administration (hence, possibly the last British-appointed Kapitan Cina). He received, King Edward s Certificate of Honour in 1927 and the Malayan Certificate of Honour in And, from the Government of Indo-China, he received a tasselled gold medal for his contributions to the Annam Relief Fund. He had seven wives. He had married Khoo Joo Bee around 1900 and they had a daughter, Mrs. Lam Teng Kam, who died in October 1922, the result of a fire at a travelling cinema in Tronoh. Khoo Joo Bee died two years later in October In November 1922, his wife Lee Sau Yeng ( 李秀英, Li Xiuying), bore his first son, Kok Soon ( 國順, Guoshun). She also gave him two daughters, Yuet See ( 月詩, Yueshi) and Yuet Kuen ( 月娟, Yuejuan) and another son, Kok Heng ( 國慶, Guoqing). His wife Tan Sim Hiang bore him Guat Hooi ( 月輝, Yuehui), Kok Ching ( 國貞, Guozhen), Guat Hong ( 月紅, Yuehong), Guat Kheng ( 月琼, Yuexiong), Kok Tong ( 國棟, Guodong), Kok Choy ( 國材, Guocai) and Kok Chuan ( 國全, Guoquan). His wife, Chan Kwai Chee, bore him Kok Choon ( 國聰, Guocong), Kok Khen ( 國權, Guoquan), Kok En ( 國恩, Guo en) and Kok Leong ( 國梁, Guoliang). And his wife Oh Jit Kwai bore him Yuet Wah ( 月華, Yuehua) and Yuet Fong ( 月芳, Yuefang). He had two other wives, Wong Yoon Hoe and Ho Foon Kaee, neither of whom bore him any children. He passed away on 29th March 1935, the funeral occurring on 4th April, when he was removed to the family burial ground purchased by his father and sister many years before. His passing was mourned by family, friends and close associates including the Hon. Palgrave Simpson, Leong Sin Nam ( 梁燊南, Liang Shennan), Cheah Cheang Lim ( 謝昌林, Xie Changlin), Dato Panglima Kinta and Heah Joo Seang ( 連裕祥, Lian Yuxiang). Chung Thye Phin Road and Chung Thye Phin Lane in Ipoh are named after him. Jeffery Seow TST ( ); SFP ( ); EDM (9 Oct 1906; 7 Dec 1906; 31 Jan 1907; 13 July 1907); NYT (20 Sep 1897); CDT (26 Sep 1897); MDR (21 Sep 1897); SV (31 Oct 1897); BET (31 Aug 1897); PE (30 Aug 1897); SR (30 Aug 1897); LAT (31 Aug 1897); BS (31 Aug 1897); ET (13 Sep 1897); Ho Tak Ming, 2008, p.7; 2009, pp ; C.S.Wong, 1963a; Wright, pp.252, 568; The Autocar, V19, p.597; FMSGG 24 Mar 1921 n 370:GN 1147; Blythe, p.290n12; NYTribune; ADB; Khoo Kay Kim, 1991, p.4. Website (Shinozaki) Court, Thomas Watkin (b.unknown - d. c.1822) Mariner, Merchant, Newspaper proprietor. Thomas Watkin Court describes himself as an English Mariner in the 1808 census return for Penang, stating that he resided there by the express permission of Lieutenant Governor Robert Townsend Farquhar dated 13 June 1804; however he is a signatory to a public address of February that year. Soon after his arrival he and Andrew Burchett Bone, who also arrived around the same time, formed a mercantile partnership called Court and Bone, which operated initially from premises at 68 Beach Street. In early 1806 he joined Bone as a one third owner of a printing press establishment which would print the first English language newspaper on the Malay peninsular, the Prince of Wales Island Gazette. Both Bone and Court had been active freemasons in Calcutta and were founding members of the Neptune Lodge in Penang in 1808, and it is quite possibly this common interest that originally united the pair. 66

71 It would appear that Court played little part in the day to day running of the businesses; instead being the mercantile mariner country trader who probably sourced goods and provided some capital. He had in fact played a very interesting and active role in development of the early spice trade, being appointed 1st Officer aboard the Duke of Clarence on an expedition led by Lieutenant John Hayes to seek out nutmegs reported to have been seen growing in New Guinea. Departing Calcutta in February 1793 the expedition involved a voyage anti-clockwise around Australia and a thorough exploration of Storm Bay and the Derwent River in Tasmania before finally reaching Dorey Bay on the northern coast of New Guinea in September the same year with half the crew dead from scurvy. Hayes formed a settlement there which he named New Albion and constructed Fort Coronation. On 25 Oct 1793 he took possession of the area in the name of Great Britain; the signatories to the proclamation being John Hayes, Thomas Watkin Court, William Relph and William Bellamy Risdon. Hayes returned to India to lobby support for the settlement but failed. Court remained in charge of Fort Coronation for a total of 21 months before it was abandoned. He later visited Amboyna in command of the Sultan and was suspected by Colonel Oliver, Commander in Chief at the Moluccas, of smuggling spices from Ternate via his connection with Nuku, Sultan of Tidore, with whom Court had previously discussed spice trading whilst in New Guinea. In his own defence Court protested that he possessed permission from Sir George Leith, Lt Governor of Penang, authorising him to trade to the eastward, including the Moluccas. During the expedition s stopover in Tasmania a cluster of small islands off the southwest tip of Bruny Island were named Court s Islands. These are known today as the Actaeon Island Group, one of which still retains the name Court s Island, after 1st officer Thomas Watkin Court. In Penang, Court is regularly noted arriving and departing in his brig Britannia but by the end of 1810 he withdrew from the firm of Court and Bone and sold his share of the newspaper press back to Bone. Court s movements from there are uncertain. His name appears as captain of the East India Company s ship Sir William Burroughs departing from Calcutta in September 1812 and arriving in England in May After that he is noted the same year as being a mariner of Union Court, Broad Street, London in what appears to have been a transaction of convenience in the purchase of a vessel called the Mangles along with two Calcutta merchants. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register, Vol. 14, notes the death on 10 May 1822 of Mrs. E. Court, relict of the late Capt. Thomas Watkin Court, of the country sea service, aged 50 years. This of course suggests that Capt. Court had pre-deceased her. The Asiatic Annual Register, Vol 2, 1800, lists his marriage on 20 October 1799 to a Miss Fisher ; however it is not known whether or not this is the same lady, or whether they had any children. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); PWIGG (20 Aug 1808, 29 Dec 1810); AJMR, (V14, 1822, 512); AAR (V2, 1800, 99); LMF; I. Lee, pp.9 170; LMREIC, p.104; Bateson, p.236. Cox, William (c ) Schoolmaster, Publisher, Merchant, Auctioneer. Although attached to the Madras Presidency William Cox, aged about 29, arrived in Penang on 19 June 1816 aboard the Phoenix from Batavia (Djakarta) just at the time deliberations were under way to establish the Penang Free School. Cox s presence seems to have been entirely coincidental, but nevertheless he was deemed the perfect candidate for Schoolmaster, though it took time to obtain permission from Madras to retain his services in Penang. The school was duly opened in a rented house in Love Lane on 21 October 1816 and twenty-five boys were admitted that day. When the Prince of Wales Island Gazette newspaper was offered for sale in 1817 William Cox purchased it. By this time he had taken a house on the corner of Bishop Street, opposite Church Square where St Georges 67

72 Church was soon to be constructed, however he rented a room at the schoolhouse for Sp$10 a month to accommodate the newspaper press equipment. Having successfully established himself he sent for his wife Anne who arrived on 12 June 1817 with their children aboard the brig Fair Trial from Madras. Mrs Cox was immediately employed as schoolmistress to take in female students at the Free School for the first time; she on Sp$50 a month, her husband on Sp$80 a month. With limited circulation the newspaper business was barely viable, and Cox relied on government advertising to stay afloat. When this source dropped significantly in 1819 Cox pleaded for a regular monthly allowance, giving government first rights to the front page in return. This was granted in March 1820; without which it is evident the newspaper would have collapsed. By the following year Cox had increased publication of the Gazette from weekly to bi-weekly, then daily. Anne Cox resigned from the school and the female branch was closed on 12 January William Cox also resigned his position and was replaced upon the arrival of David Churcher and his wife in August the same year. The following month Cox moved the Gazette to leased space in James Scott s godowns in Beach Street and also began a mercantile Auction, Retail and Commission business trading under his own name. He placed the first ads in the Gazette of 13 October 1821, announcing an auction of miscellaneous goods for Monday the 15th. Cox himself was auctioneer at the many sales advertised over the next eighteen months, but at the end of May 1823 he relinquished the more demanding auction and commission sides of the business. Cox continued to place sale ads irregularly for a few months to come. As of 1 January 1824 the Gazette Press was moved to his house on the beach side of Farquhar Street (now the site of the E&O carpark), but by late 1825 the press was located in Bishop St. By then Cox had reverted to issuing a once-weekly Saturday newspaper, reducing the subscription from Sp$9 to $7 a quarter. Cox continued to find business conditions difficult and when schoolmaster George Porter tendered his resignation on 1 August 1826, Cox re-applied for the position. He also tendered the press equipment to the Free School directors for the Sum of Sp$5,000, but this did not eventuate. Cox was given the job of schoolmaster on a temporary basis, and a boarding school for boys was established on 1 January 1827 before he was replaced by William Anchant. But worse was to come. In July that year government withdrew their patronage of the newspaper despite Cox s desperate pleas that he could not continue without it, and indeed the last edition printed was 21 July Added to his woes, his 18-month-old son William had died on 11 June. The house he had been living in adjoining Suffolk House was sold up and he had little choice but to try and survive by reestablishing his mercantile business. The Penang Register and Miscellany was then established, but only lasted a year before being shut down for flaunting censorship regulations. The Government Gazette, Prince of Wales Island, Singapore and Malacca followed and was first issued on 25 October William Cox is found amongst the merchants advertising in subsequent editions. Cox very much regretted having given up the newspaper business years earlier, and in late 1828 offered to purchase all the press equipment and operate it under conditions approved by government; however he was denied the opportunity. His next opportunity arose when the Government Gazette closed with the abolition of the presidency government in June 1830 and he wasted no time applying to purchase the press equipment. Again he was denied. On 8 October the following year, his wife Anne died. She was buried in the old Christian cemetery alongside their son William and their five month old daughter, Janet Anderson Cox, who had died only ten days prior, and their grave can still be seen. Tough business conditions followed the departure of the government and it was not until April 1833 that William Cox again proposed starting a newspaper, this time being approved. Purchasing press equipment from Calcutta he first issued two failed editions of the Commercial Advertiser before 68

73 reverting to his old title the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, printing the first issue on 20 July 1833 at a subscription fee of Sp$1.50 per month. This newspaper continued until at least his death; notice of which was published in the Singapore Chronicle of 5 November 1836: At Penang on 2nd October, William Cox Esq., Proprietor and Publisher of The Gazette and Deputy Sheriff of P W Is, after an illness of several months; leaving a large family to mourn his irreparable loss Though not as successful as others in mercantile pursuits, William Cox must be counted amongst the men who shaped early Penang, particularly through his other occupations. Marcus Langdon PWIGG (22 Jun 1816, 10 May 1817, 14 & 22 Jun 1817, 25 Oct 1817, 27 Aug 1821, 3 Oct 1821, 31 May 1823, 3 Jan 1824, 28 May 1825); PRM (5 Mar 1828); SSFR (R27 V74, 2 Mar 1820; R39 V111, 28 Sep 1826; R42 V121, 15 Feb 1827; R44 V125, 5 Nov 1828); SSR (I39, 6 & 15 Jul 1830; U2, 5 Oct 1832; V5, 9 Apr 1833); LMF; Website (IGI). Dabab bin Haji Muhammad Salleh (early d.unknown) Printer, Publisher, Merchant. Dabab bin Haji Muhammad Salleh was a hardworking and successful Muslim businessman. He started in Penang and Perak when he was in his twenties. In 1925, he and Syed Abdul Rahman bin Muhammad al-habshi formed a publishing company, naming it C.A. Dabab Company. A year after that, Dabab sold his shares in the firm. He formed a new company, C. Dabab & Company. In 1928, he formed The United Press at 248, Dato Kramat Road, Penang. His printing company published books and magazines. Dabab wrote his first book, Kitab Taman Pengetahuan dan Perjalanan bagi Orang Ramai, on moral education. He also printed Warta Malaya. Besides printing and publishing, he was also a distributor of perfumery, toiletries, and medicated oil. A few years after that, he expanded his business by opening a subsidiary company, named United Trading Company, which distributed general goods. This subsidiary company also acted as a publisher, an agent and a supplier to The United Press. In 1932, Shamsuddin bin Muhammad Yunus, a government pensioner, took over the ownership of The United Press. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah TST (9 Jun 1941, 3 Aug 1941, 28 Sep 1941); Md. Sidin Ahmad Ishak, pp ; Jelani Harun, 2003, p.14; Mohd. Sarim Mustajab, 1988, p.39. Douglas, James (b. unknown c.1810) Harbourmaster, Merchant. Sir George Leith was Lieutenant Governor when Captain James Douglas first arrived in Penang with an appointment from the Governor General of India dated 28 January 1803 as Superintendent of Pilotage and Harbourmaster. Previous service with His Majesty s navy armed him well for the position and when Robert Townsend Farquhar succeeded Leith in January 1804, Douglas was charged firstly with preparing a naval defence for Penang in case of French attack, and secondly with commencing a naval dockyard on Pulau Jerejak. His efforts however came to no avail when Penang was raised to the status of the fourth presidency of India, and when the new administration arrived in September 1805, he found himself unemployed. Without a means of income, Douglas decided to try his hand at mercantile business, but being inexperienced in this field he took on a partner, John Grant Willson (also spelt Wilson), a Calcutta merchant and accountant. The firm, called Douglas and Willson, probably commenced around the end of 1805 and traded from godowns in Beach Street apparently financed by Douglas, despite the fact that he had previously constructed a substantial range of godowns on the south-eastern corner of Penang and Bishop Streets, which included two houses above (in 69

74 one of which he lived), brick and tile outbuildings, a coach house and stabling for six horses, a brick well, and the whole stone paved and secured. On the eastern boundary lay the Catholic Church grounds. On 4 October 1806, Douglas and Willson parted ways; the former claiming the latter failed to contribute to the partnership resulting in heavy debts and numerous claims on the firm, as well as a loss of Sp$6,000 following the death of a debtor, Varsy Mahomed. Willson then commenced his own business on the western side of Beach Street. In addition, the cargo of Douglas s trading vessel, the Palmer, which was mortgaged to Trail, Palmer & Co. of Calcutta, was seized pending legal action by another Calcutta creditor. To add further to Douglas s woes, he failed to attract tenants for his own godowns for months, which although being in a prime part of town did not suit mercantile business as they were then some 270 yards from the sea. These were valued at Sp$24,000 but as a consequence of his situation, he had offered them for sale to Government for $12,000 in March Despite Governor Dundas recommending the purchase, it is evident the sale did not proceed; however part of the building was later leased for a Police office. Despite his troubles, Douglas tried to speculate his way out of trouble, and when land along North Beach was subdivided and Northam Road was commenced in 1808 he, along with several others, constructed comfortable houses, among which was Raffles s Runnymede. Douglas s land adjoined that of John James Erskine to the east and Robert Ibbetson to the west, placing it two lots west of today s Penang Club. He first offered this house for lease upon its completion in December Douglas s buildings in Beach Street were also offered for lease in May 1809 and were described as ten godowns, a second-storey residence and out offices extending from Beach St. to the water. The fallout with Willson continued to generate litigation for Douglas, including one against Patrick Deane of Bombay, in which Douglas claimed collusion and false evidence had resulted in a verdict against him for Sp$6,364; despite a counter claim for $6,443. The complex web of mortgages and securities set up to stay off creditors would eventually take its toll. Douglas apparently left the island some time during 1810 and disappeared, leaving a wife and young family. In July 1811, his household goods and livestock were sold off at his Beach Street premises, which were then advertised for lease and subsequently taken up by Government as a supplies godown. Douglas s family departed the same month aboard the Betsy to the Isle of France, recently captured from the French. In satisfaction of the several mortgages, the Sheriff then foreclosed on his property in Bishop Street and on the North Beach, first offering them for sale in September that year, then again in February 1812 following Court proceedings. The Deane affair finally resulted in a Sheriff s sale of more of Douglas s estate in November This included his Beach Street godowns, acreage land in the Pulau Tikus area and at Ayer Itam and an allotment on the east side of Queen Street in town. Administration of his estate did not occur until His house in town and land at Ayer Itam, the final remaining holdings, were sold off the following month. The example of James Douglas clearly demonstrates the hazards of mercantile enterprise in inexperienced hands, and saw the loss of what was evidently once a significant life s savings. Birth records at the British Library record a child named William, baptised 10 Feb 1805, son of James Douglas and a Native Woman. This woman s name may or may not have been Gracinea, but the IGI records two further births for James Douglas and Gracinea at Penang as follows: John Richard Douglas b. 25 June 1806 James Douglas b.12 November 1807 Marcus Langdon GG (27 Sep 1806, 4 Oct 1806); PWIGG (3 Dec 1808, 27 May 1809, 3 Jun 1809, 11 Nov 1809, 27 Jul 1811, 7 & 14 Sep 1811, 1 Feb 1812, 12 Nov 1814, 8 Sep 1821); SSFR (R9 V16 17 Mar 1807; R9 V17 29 Sep 1807); BL (IOR/N/8/1); Website (IGI). 70

75 Downes, Peregrine Butler ( ) Merchant. Peregrine Butler Downes was aged about 52 when his licence to reside in Penang was approved there on 8 January He had arrived in Penang on 30 September 1826 aboard the East India Company ship Sir David Scott which had left London 30 March via Calcutta. It would appear that he had been called to Penang by William Hall to assist with his business, as he was admitted a partner with Hall as of 1 January 1827 in a mercantile firm to be then named Hall, Downes and Co. This business was located near the northern end of Beach Street. Hall departed Penang the following month for England where he would marry before returning in mid Downes lived on Northam Road where it was noted in May 1828 that a whirlwind had damaged his house. Having served his purpose Downes withdrew from the business at the end of November that year. The firm then became known as William Hall and Co. Downes departed Penang for Calcutta aboard the ship Flora on 30 January 1829 and there is no evidence to suggest he ever returned to reside. It is possible that he may have previously been in business in Calcutta. Indian journal notices record his death at Calcutta on 4 September 1843, late of Gorakhpur, noting his age as 68. The IGI notes his occupation at the time as Indigo Planter. It appears he may not have married. Marcus Langdon SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); PWIG (7 Oct 1826, 30 Dec 1826); PRM (14 May 1828, 3 Dec 1828); GGPWISM (31 Jan 1830); AIM (7 Nov 1843, courtesy of FIBIS); Website (IGI). Dunbar, John (b.unknown ). Merchant, Planter. John Dunbar s first arrival in Penang is not known; however he describes himself in the 1808 census as being from Great Britain, and a cultivator of the soil. It is clear he did not have formal permission from the East India Company to reside on the island as he claims this right by virtue of having had land granted to him by the Lieutenant Governor of Prince of Wales Island. A list of land grants reveals that grants of acreage land at Sungai Dua were made to Dunbar and to McGee and Dunbar jointly in June 1804, and in George Town in June At some stage he became a partner with David McCulloch in McCulloch and Co., the first advertisement for that company appearing in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette in October McCulloch withdrew in mid-1812 and Dunbar formed a partnership with Thomas McGee as of 1 June that year, trading as McGee and Dunbar. After McGee died in July 1813, Dunbar carried on alone for a while but at some stage admitted William Scott and traded as Dunbar and Scott from premises on the western side of Beach Street. In May 1814, certain houses and property jointly owned by McGee and Dunbar were auctioned, realising a total of Sp$9, In December the same year, two large commodious houses & grounds on Farquhar Street in the vicinity of the western end of today s new E&O Hotel wing were advertised for sale, along with six grants of land in the south of the island totalling about 145 acres. The two adjoining houses were valued at $9,000 but were sold for $1,500 to the deputy sheriff, Frederick Halliburton. This sale was later deemed suspicious and the Court subsequently ordered the sale cancelled and the houses re-sold. An auction was held in February 1815 and another in June 1815, but the outcome is not known. The estate of McGee sorted out, Dunbar departed Penang for Britain in October 1815 and died in Tonbridge Place on 24 March His personal estate in Penang was still substantial and he had probably expected to return. The godowns in Beach Street were advertised for sale by Scott as executor in March 1818 along with his property on the island. This included a brick house and 58 acres of land over four grants at Batu Lanchang, four acres of 71

76 which was planted with oranges; nine acres at Sungai Nibong; a 74 acre coconut plantation at Sungai Dua; ten acres of oranges at Ayer Itam; three eighths of the Spice Plantations (once part of the Company s Spice Gardens); and a house on the north side of Farquhar Street. Dunbar was one of the early members of the Freemason s Neptune Lodge 344 in Penang, joining on 8 December 1810 with his partner McGee, but resigned in September He was also a regular juror at sessions of the Court of Judicature. Marcus Langdon SSFR, V19, 3 May 1808; V16 Appendices 1806); PWIG (6 June 1812, 14 Aug 1813, 3 Dec 1814, 24 Jun 1815, 23 Oct 1815, 18 Nov 1815, 7 Mar 1818); BEM (V1 1817, p.228); LMF. Fazal Mohammed (1913, India-1999) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. Fazal Mohammed was a proprietor and the operator of Fazal Mohammed Textiles. He migrated from Jullandar in Punjab (now India because of the Partition) to Penang to look for greener pastures. From Penang, he journeyed to Sungai Bayor, Selama, Perak where he had relatives, around His father, Kamaruddin, had been to Penang in 1920 seeking a business opportunity but he fell sick and had to return to Punjab where he died in When Fazal Mohammed settled in Sungai Bayor, he started selling textiles on a small scale. As he wanted to improve his business, he moved to Penang in Hard work and patience helped him realise his dreams and he opened his shop at 111, Chulia Street, in the same year. At that time, his business was known as Syarikat Fazal Mohammed. In 1939, Fazal Mohammed returned to Punjab. There he took a Punjabi wife named Sardaran Bibi. In 1940, he and his wife returned to Penang and they remained there until their deaths. The marriage produced seven children, four boys and three girls, Mohammed Anuar, Mohammed Ashraf, Ahmad Syaid and Asghari, Rashidah Begum, Jamilah and Faridah. In 1940, two of his relatives, Mohammed Ismail and Atta Mohammed, became his business partners. Thus his business took a new name which was Syarikat Fazal Mohammed & Brothers. Today, the business is managed by his son, Mohammed Ashraf (a wholesaler) and Abdul Wahab (a relative of Fazal Mohammed who is a retailer). Now the business is called Fazal Mohammed Brothers Sdn. Bhd. The goods offered are religious in nature such as Quran, prayer mats, shrouds, and some fifty items that one may need when going on a pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1999, Fazal Mohammed died of old age. In his life time, Fazal Mohammed contributed much to the welfare of the Muslims in Penang. He was very charitable and financially helped in the building of mosques. He also gave money to orphans and spent on charity in the month of Ramadan. Among the offices he held in Islamic organisations were Trustee for Kapitan Keling Mosque, Al- Mashoor Islamic School & Hostel, and Treasurer for the Penang Pakistan Mosque. At all these institutions he held office for more than 30 years i.e. from the 1950s till the end of In 1970, he was elected Treasurer of PERKIM (Pertubuhan Kebajikan Islam Malaysia). He was also a Trustee and a member of the Pakistani League of Malaya, from the 1950s till his death in He was also a member of the Penang Indian Chamber of Commerce in 1950s. Omar Yusoff ANM-KPP; Personal Communication (Mohammed Ashraf); website (Surin, 2009). Ferrao, Francisco (Francis) (b. unknown, d. unknown) Merchant, Prominent Citizen. It is not known when Francisco Ferrao first came to Penang, but he was Catholic and perhaps part of the Eurasian community. 1 He is a signatory to an address 72

77 to departing Lieutenant Governor Robert Townsend Farquhar in September 1805, and another to departing judge John Dickens in June The first notice appearing in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette is on 16 July that year when he advertised freight space aboard the Sir Thomas Strange departing for India s Coromandel Coast. Ferrao appears to have operated alone, advertising sporadically in the newspaper under his own name. He operated from 14 Beach Street, but also owned a two-storey, 4-bedroom house with a godown underneath near Pulau Tikus village, which he advertised for sale in June A huge fire swept through George Town in July 1812 and Ferrao s Beach Street building was one of many destroyed. He rebuilt his premises and in August 1817 took over the Star Insurance Company agency from Thomas Hutton. The following year Ferrao and Anthony Dragon received the Catholic Bishop of Siam when he visited Penang in January, and later the same year Ferrao was one of several prominent merchants lobbying Council to consider the loss the mercantile community would suffer if Malacca was returned to the Dutch. He also regularly sat on the jury of the Court of Judicature in the early 1820s and was on several other public committees during this time. Ferrao was married, although his wife s name is not known. The newspapers record the birth of a daughter in January 1811 and another on 7 March The death of an earlier daughter named Thereza is recorded as occurring in Chinsura, India on 12 October 1823, aged 19. The same month he advertised his business premises for sale in Beach Street. The last mention of him as a jury member was in January On 23 January 1828 the sale of his household goods, carriages and livestock in Pulau Tikus was advertised for the following Thursday. But three days earlier the whole Ferrao family, which included Mr and Mrs Ferrao, Misses Catherine Ferrao, Isabella Ferrao, Rosalia Ferrao, Caroline Ferrao and 1 Teixeira (Vol. 3, 1963, 326-7) claims that Ferrao was a Lusitanian trader from Brazil who arrived with his own ship. He also claims Ferrao was responsible for rebuilding the Catholic Church in Church Street in brick, and that he was made the Siamese Consul in Penang. Clara Ferrao; and children Barbara, Francisco, Maria, Mary, and Frank Ferrao, had departed Penang for Calcutta aboard the Spanish ship Rita from Manila. The family s further movements have not been researched. Marcus Langdon AAR (Vol. VIII, pt. 1, 1806, 105-7); PWIG (11 June 1808, 16 July 1808, 19 Jan 1811, 22 Jun 1811, 4 Jul 1812, 30 Aug 1817, 31 Jan 1818, 8 Mar 1823, 7 Jan 1826); PRM (23 Jan 1828); SSFR (R24, V66, 12 Jun 1818); AJMR (Vol. XVII, 1824, 464); QOM (Vol. VIII, No. XVI, Jan Jun 1828, cccxxvii); Teixeira, pp Foo Choo Choon, 胡子春, Hu Zichun ( ) Miner, Planter, Community Leader, Philanthropist, Public Figure. Foo Choo Choon alias Guolian ( 國廉 ), alias Nengzhong ( 能忠 ) was a well-known and rich tin mining magnate who controlled the largest number of coolies in Kinta. He was a leading social and business figure in, not only Perak, but also Penang. While most of Foo s social and business activities were in Perak, he also played a significant role in Penang affairs, moving his residence to Penang in later years. He was a Hakka, born in Zhongkeng village ( 忠坑村 ), Yongding district ( 永定縣 ), Fujian ( 福建 ) province. His grandfather was a migrant to Penang while his father, Foo Yu Chi ( 胡玉池 ) was a Penang-born Chinese who returned China to get married. Foo Choo Choon was brought to Penang at the age of 13. He received a few years of traditional Chinese education in Penang. Later, he worked in tin mining, in Taiping, with his clan uncle. After a few years, he moved to Kinta and commenced business on his own account. He formed his own mining companies at Lahat, named Yongfeng hang ( 永豐行 ), Yongyi & Ximi hang ( 永益和鍚米行 ). He took over Tronoh Mines when it was abandoned by its previous owner. He extended his business to Ipoh, Keladang, Sungai Besi in Selangor, Kaki Bukit in 73

78 Perlis and Tongkah in Thailand. He was named the King of Tin Industry by the British Queen after he donated a substantial amount to Britain. Besides investment in the tin industry, he was also involved in gold mining in Pahang and rubber planting in several areas. He was the proprietor of Gunong Rapat Estate, Setiawan Estate and Tanglin Rubber Syndicate. Foo was also nominated to be one of the Directors of Malayan Collieries Ltd. by the Federated Malay States Government. As an active and respected leader of many Chinese associations, Foo Choo Choon was appointed as a councilor in the Perak State Council in He became founding member, trustee and president of the Perak Chinese Chamber of Commerce in He was also the president of the Kinta Planting Association, founding member of the Perak Mining and Planting Association and a member of the Perak Advisory Board. In addition, he was the president of the Straits Settlements and F.M.S. Chinese Board of Education and the Chinese Widows and Orphans Fund in Ipoh; one of the founders of the Chinese Maternity Hospital, the Chinese Girls School, Yuk Choy Secondary School in Ipoh, the Mandarin School in Lahat and patron of the Perak Anti-Opium Society ( 檳榔嶼戒菸會 or 振武善社 ). His leadership position was not limited to Perak, but extended to Penang where he was founder member of the Penang Chinese Teachers Training College, trustee of the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), the Chung Hwa Confucian Chinese Primary School ( 孔聖廟中華小學 ) and Chung Hwa Girls School ( 中華女校 ), president of the Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ), Anti-Opium Association ( 檳榔嶼戒菸會 or 振武善社 ) and Tay Koon Seh Oh Kongsi ( 帝君胡公司 ). Joining a long list of mercantile entrepreneurs, Foo was a Director of the Eastern Shipping Co. As a wealthy and enterprising businessman, his investments went beyond British Malaya. He invested in railway construction in Fujian, China. In 1906, together with Lim Eu Toh, he was appointed Penang s manager of the Fujian Railway Construction Company ( 福建全省鉄路有限公司 ). He was absent from the Perak State Council meetings in the years 1906 to 1907 due to this commitment in China. He was honoured by the Qing Government for his contribution of $10,000 to the National Fund ( 國民捐 ). Initially a pro-qing loyalist, he later became an anti-qing revolutionist. He was critical of superstitions and called for the establishment of schools. This did not mean he was anti-chinese religion, serving as one of the trustees of Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), the Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Penang. Foo Choo Choon was a leader who straddled the British and Chinese states, Malaya and China. The Colonial Administration appointed him Justice of the Peace, Federal Councillor and Fellow of the Society of Arts of England. On his tomb is recorded Third Minister Title in pre- Qing ( 前清三品卿銜鹽運使銜 ). He was dubbed `The Father of Modern Malayan Chinese Schools for his substantial donation of 80,000 Straits dollars to schools. Because of his business success and generous charitable donations, Foo was voted as the most popular man in the Straits and the FMS in the Straits Echo s Popular Man Competition in His first wife was the niece of Chung Keng Kwee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ), Kapitan Cina of Perak. He had three sons, Mow Ching ( 茂青, Maoqing), Mow Ying ( 茂英, Maoying) and Mow Huang ( 茂煌, Maohuang). He passed away on 27 March 1921 at his residence, 66 Muntri Street and was buried in Mount Erskine, Penang. Loh Wei Leng & Tan Ai Boay SE-ME (24 Apr 1908); MM (5 May 1921); TST (10 Feb 1908, 11 Nov 1911, 18 Jun 1918); Lee & Chow, pp.42-43; PGG ; PCSHCB, 2004; Franke & Chen, p.652; PCTH, p.173. Foo Tye Sin, 胡泰興, Hu Taixing ( ) Merchant, Planter, Tin Miner, Community Leader, Public Figure. Foo Tye Sin was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid to late 19th century in 74

79 Penang. He was a leader of the Hakka community and held several public posts. His business interests spanned across tin mining, planting, trading, and insurance. Foo Tye Sin was born in Penang and his ancestral origin can be traced to Yongding ( 永定 ), Tingchou prefecture ( 汀州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). He first received Chinese education at a private school and later attended the Penang Free School. He was one of the few Asians able to read and write English and speak it fluently. He started his career as general trader. In 1852, he partnered Koh Seang Tat ( 辜上達, Gu Shangda ) and founded Tye Sin Tat and Company, a general store, at 6, Beach Street. The company dealt with goods imported from England and China. In addition, Tye Sin also invested in plantations and owned the 25,000-acre Victoria Estate in Kedah. In order to tap the riches of the tin boom in Larut, he financed some tin mining operations by providing credit to Malay chiefs and Chinese towkays. Tye Sin was also an agent of the Onn Tai Insurance Company Limited based in Hong Kong for some years. In 1885, together with fourteen Chinese towkays, they established the Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 乾元保安公司 ), the first non-western insurance enterprise in Southeast Asia. He sat on the board of directors until Around the 1860s, Tye Sin rose to become a leading community leader and played an active role in public and social affairs. In 1868, he was appointed by the Straits government as one of the members in the Commission of Enquiry to look into the causes of the Penang Riots of In 1872, together with Lee Phee Chuan ( 李丕銓, Li Piquan), they were appointed the first Justices of Peace in Penang. In 1874, he was a member of the Committee of Management for the Anti-Mendicity Society. In 1875, Tye Sin was appointed as Municipal Commissioner. He held the position for several years and was much liked and respected. Being involved in colonial administration, he became a personal friend of Major General Sir Archibald E. H. Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang. Tye Sin also assumed leadership positions in Chinese organizations. In 1864, he founded the Seh Foo (Oh) kongsi ( 永定胡氏安定堂 ). In 1881, he was one of the founding members of the Penang Chinese Town Hall. In 1885, Tye Sin donated $100 to the construction of a hall for funeral ceremonies at the Kwantung and Tengchow Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ). In the same year, he also sat on the board of directors. In 1888, Tye Sin and his son donated a piece of land for the construction of Thean Hock Keong Temple ( 天福宮 ) at Bagan Tuan Kechil, Butterworth. He showed considerable interest in educational matters and was the first Chinese in Penang to give a liberal contribution to the Convent School and thereby encourage education for Chinese girls. Around 1880s, he received the title of Tongzhi ( 同知 ) from the Qing Government. Tye Sin died at the age of 63 at his residence, 1 Light Street. He had a stroke of paralysis from which he did not recover. He left behind eight sons: Ming Sean ( 明宣, Mingxuan), Can Sean ( 燦宣, Canxuan), Jing Sean ( 鏡宣, Jingxuan), Eang Seng ( 炎宣, Yanxuan), Hee Sean ( 喜宣, Xixuan), Boon Sean ( 汶宣, Wenxuan), Tiat Sean ( 哲宣, Zhexuan), and Chye Sean ( 財宣, Caixuan), and six daughters. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (6 Nov 1888); Franke & Chen, pp , ; Genealogy of Foo, p.33; Lee & Chow, p.129; PD, 1874, pp Forbes-Mitchell, Duncan ( ) Merchant. Duncan Forbes-Mitchell was the third son of Duncan Forbes-Mitchell ( ) of Thainstone, Scotland, and Katherine Ann (née Fraser) of Fraserfield and was born in At the age of around 21 he was permitted by the EIC to proceed to India by a licence dated 19 February This branch of the family stemmed from Forbes of Craigievar and although his father had assumed the additional name and arms of Mitchell, he was commonly known simply as Duncan Forbes. He probably arrived in Penang around August

80 and soon afterwards joined Thomas Hutton in a mercantile partnership called Hutton and Forbes. Their first advertisement appeared in the Government Gazette of 6 September that year for the sale of the 130-ton Danish brig Eliza. Thomas Hutton withdrew at the end of December 1808 and the remaining partners Duncan Forbes and Robert Scott, 1 the latter having joined at an unknown time, carried on the business as Forbes and Scott. The firm was mentioned in April 1809 as agents for the Calcutta-based India Insurance Co. The Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 29 July 1809 reports that the firm s vessel, the Swallow, which had some time since been captured by the French in the Bay of Bengal, had been re-captured by HMS Albion and sent to the Cape of Good Hope. The firm seldom advertised in the Gazette, no doubt preferring to trade by word of mouth. Duncan s younger brother Henry David Forbes- Mitchell, (who tended not to use the additional surname of Mitchell), aged 20, was admitted as a partner as of 1 January Duncan Forbes-Mitchell departed Penang for Britain via Madras on 20 February 1811 aboard H.M. Cutter Sylvia, accompanied by merchant George Seton, also returning home. Robert Scott departed Penang for Britain on 28 December 1811, both he and Duncan withdrawing from the firm as of 1 January The same day David Brown was admitted as a partner and the firm then became known as Forbes and Brown. Perhaps illness had persuaded Duncan Forbes- Mitchell to return home as he died in Half Moon Street, Piccadilly, London, on 7 March 1812 at the age of 28, unmarried. Despite his tender years he had apparently been a successful Penang merchant as he was able to leave a total of 12,000 to his surviving brothers John, Alexander, Mansfield and Henry and his sisters Rachel and Margaret, with the residue (unknown) to his mother. 1 There were three or more Robert Scotts in Penang at the time, and sorting out which is which is a complicated task. One was James Scott s son; however it is not believed that he is connected to this firm. The Robert Scott mentioned here may in fact be Captain Robert Scott of the firm s vessel, the Swallow. Duncan s sister in Scotland, Rachel, was married to Robert Eden Scott; a different person again. Henry Forbes-Mitchell carried on in the firm until January 1814 when Robert Scott returned to Penang and was re-admitted as a partner. Henry returned to Scotland and withdrew his interests completely as of 31 December There he married Margaret Fraser of Fraserfield on 27 May 1816 and died at the age of 78 on 24 July Upon his withdrawing from Forbes and Brown, David Powell was admitted as a partner along with David Brown and Robert Scott, and in March 1816 the company changed its name to Brown and Co. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); GG (6 Sep 1806); PWIG (28 Jan 1809, 15 Apr 1809, 29 Jul 1809, 12 Jan 1811, 23 Feb 1811, 4 Jan 1812, 15 & 30 Jan 1814, 21 Jan 1815); NAK (Prob 11/1552); EAR (V5, pt2, 1812, xxxiv); MMBR (V41, 1816, 576); Website (Strachan). Galastaun, Catchatoor (c ) Merchant, Philanthropist, Prominent Citizen. Armenian merchant Catchatoor Galastaun was aged about 30 when he first arrived in Penang around 1810/11. Little is known of his activities for the next few years, though he is mentioned as a subscriber to the Free School in February He advertised freight space aboard the ship John Bull in September 1819 and was joint administrator of the estate of coroner Anthony Dragon in December that year with prominent merchant Anthony McIntyre. Around this time he apparently teamed up with fellow Armenian, Narcis Mackertich, to form the mercantile firm of Galastaun and Mackertich. The company did not advertise in the Gazette and on 1 February 1823 he and Mackertich joined forces with William Balhetchet and William Anderson to form Balhetchet and Co. Galastaun may well have been a successful businessman elsewhere before coming to Penang, as it is evident he was a man of some wealth and standing in the Armenian community. In October 1819 he had acquired land on the north side of Bishop Street from King Street through to Penang 76

81 Street, and in early 1821 he, along with other Armenian residents, sought approval to build a church there, submitting final plans in January The cost was estimated at $7,000, of which they had raised $4,000 ($2,000 from Carapiet Arrackell, and $2,000 by the community) and sought the balance from government, who only saw fit to contribute $500. It appears that Galastaun then made up the difference and became the main driver of the project. The building was completed in 1824 and consecrated as the Church of St Gregory the Illuminator on 4 November that year. Galastaun was the first to be married in the new church ten days later. The bride was Varterny Johannes Carapiet, daughter of Calcutta merchant Johannes Carapiet. Varterny s younger sister, Mariam, married Galastaun s partner, Narcis Mackertich, three weeks later. Varterny died on 4 October 1834 and her remains were interred in the southern portico of the church. Balhetchet and Co. was an active firm, offering a wide variety of imported merchandise as well as the sale of local properties and goods, advertising regularly in the Gazette. In June 1824 the firm was appointed agents of the Asiatic Insurance Office of Calcutta. The partnership lasted almost three years, until 31 January 1826, when the partners went their separate ways. Balhetchet continued the firm under the same name and William Anderson joined Brown and Co. Galastaun commenced his own mercantile business as of 1 February 1826 in Beach Street, possibly with Mackertich, though he is not mentioned. Galastaun and Mackertich both served as jurors in the Court of Judicature and played a part many public meetings. In December 1826 Galastaun was appointed to the Committee of Assessors. As a highly esteemed, active and philanthropic member of the community he was known respectfully as Agah Catchatoor. For many years he lived at, and may have owned, the property known as Clove Hall (later acquired by the Armenian merchant Arratoon Anthony and subsequently by his son, prominent merchant Anthony A. Anthony) and in the 1830s he also owned the well-known Penang Hill landmark, Strawberry Hill. He died in Calcutta on 26 January 1841 at the age of 60. The Armenian community in Penang dwindled during the latter half of the nineteenth century and the church was demolished around 1909 when it became structurally unsound. A memorial to Galastaun was erected in its stead, but this too was demolished in the 1930 s. A number of Armenian graves on the land were relocated to the Western Road Cemetery; the remains being re-interred in a special plot. Nadia Wright states that the land was then sold off for $33,000 and the proceeds were invested by the trustees in the Catchatoor Galastaun Memorial Fund in Singapore. Marcus Langdon PWIG (24 Feb 1816, 11 Sep 1819, 11 Jan 1823, 16 Jun 1824, 6 & 17 Nov 1824, 4 Feb 1826, 27 Dec 1826); SSFR (R30 V84, 7 Feb 1822); AJMR (V17, 1835, 46); N.H.Wright, pp.25 27, Gan Ngoh Bee, 顏五美, Yan Wumei ( ) Merchant, Tin Miner, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Gan Ngoh Bee was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He was described as the doyen of the Chinese community in Penang and had business interests in trading, tin mining, and revenue farms. His ancestral origin is linked to Yongchun ( 永春 ), Fujian ( 福建 ). He was a son of Gan Guan Theat ( 顏元哲, Yan Yuanzhe). Guan Theat was educated at the Penang Free School and became a fluent French scholar. Upon finishing school, he was employed by as an interpreter in Saigon by the French Government. Subsequently he acted as a commissariat agent during the war between France and Annam. Guan Theat owned five sailing vessels trading in rice between Penang and Saigon. Unfortunately he died while on a voyage back to Penang and was buried at Macao. Before his son was born, Guan Theat had named him Ngoh Bee, which literally means five rice. 77

82 Ngoh Bee received his education at the St. Xavier s Institution and Doveton College, Calcutta. On the completion of his studies, he joined his uncle and brother, Gan Kim Swee ( 顏金水, Yan Jinshui) and Gan Hong Kee ( 顏宏基, Yan Hongji) in business Eng Joo & Co. at 47 Beach Street, which traded in pepper and tin. They also opened two branches Eng Hong & Co. in Rangoon and Calcutta trading in rice and cutch. Ngoh Bee managed the Penang headquarters, Hong Kee the Calcutta branch, and Lim Teow Seng the Rangoon branch. In 1889, he went to Singapore to serve as manager of the opium and spirit farm and remained in the post for nine years. In 1897, he came back to Penang and managed the opium and spirit farm until Ngoh Bee retired from revenue farming business in 1908 but remained a keen investor in tin mining. He had a large share in Tronoh Mines and owned a mine at Chooliat, in Perak. With the money made from his business, he bought up extensive landed property holdings in Penang. For example, his town mansion Aurora House located at Light Street was built with a combination of Eastern and Western styles. He owned two other mansions one at Bloemfontein Estate, Glugor and one on Ayer Itam Hill called Town View, some 800 feet above sea-level. Alongside business, Ngoh Bee was also actively involved in social and community affairs. He donated generously to major Chinese temples and cemeteries. In 1886, he donated $60 to the Batu Gantong Cemetery. In 1901, he gave a pair of stone pillars with a couplet to Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), a Buddhist temple at Ayer Itam. Five years later, he donated $3000 to the temple. In 1906, he contributed $1000 to the Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ) or Snake Temple. Besides Chinese temples and cemeteries, Ngoh Bee also extended his generosity to other institutions and charitable movements. In 1900, he made a donation of $3000 to the Famine Fund for India. In 1906, he donated $500 to the Hare Memorial Fund and the Japanese Famine Relief Fund. In 1914, together with Khoo Cheow Teong ( 邱昭忠, Qiu Zhaozhong ), he presented a reconnaissance plane to the British Government. In 1915 he contributed $1000 to the Air Fleet Fund. A year later, he subscribed $50,000 for the war loan initiated by Federated Malay States Government to assist the British Government in the war. He also made handsome donations to the Red Cross Society as well as $30,000 to the China Famine Fund. With his wealth and philanthropic acts, Ngoh Bee earned respect from the communities and assumed leadership positions. In 1901, he was the Hon. Treasurer of Penang Literary Association ( 以文齋 ). In 1905, he served as a member of Penang Free School s managing committee. In 1907, he sat on the board of directors of Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ). In 1911, he was appointed a committee member to collect subscriptions for the Memorial to King Edward VII. In 1917, he was appointed as a member of the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) representing the Hokkien community. He was appointed Visitor to local hospitals and was a member of the Royal Society of Arts in London, the Penang Association, Chinese Club, and Perak Chinese Dramatic Club in Ipoh. Later he was appointed Justice of the Peace in Penang. On 4 September 1922, Ngoh Bee passed away at his residence in Leith Street after ailing for some time. He left behind two wives (Khoo Kuat Keong and Lim Aik Kheng), three sons (Teong Oon, Teong Khum, and Teong Eng), eight daughters, forty grandchildren and three great grandchildren. He was buried at the family grave yard at Udini Road (present Jalan Tunku Kudin). Wong Yee Tuan EDM (22 Feb 1906); PGSC (17 Dec 1900); SFP (4 Jan 1911, 7 Sep 1922); SE-ME (5 Sep 1922, 24 Oct 1922); TST (19 May 1915, 17 May 1916, 7 Sep 1922); Lee & Chow, pp.45-46; D&C, 1905, p.667. Goh Say Eng, 吳世榮, Wu Shirong ( ) Merchant, Community Leader, Revolutionary. Goh Say Eng originated from Qingchuan Village, Haicheng District in Fujian Province. He was the eldest son of Goh Yu Chai ( 吳有才, Wu Youcai) 78

83 and a third generation Straits-born peranakan, born in Penang in Goh was an influential personality in early to mid-twentieth century Penang. TST (10 Dec 1908); HPP, p.61; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.134; Khong Kwek Siong, pp ; Lee & Chow, p.48; Goh Leng Hoon, pp ; Franke & Chen, p.652; PCCC, pp At the age of 21, he inherited great wealth from his father s company, Chop Swee Hock ( 瑞福號 ) which dealt with rice vermicelli, sugar and matches in Penang. The firm was established by his grandfather, Wu Yuanxin ( 吳源信 ), who came to Penang. Habib Mohamed bin Abdul Latif (1925, India) Jewellery Merchant, Philanthropist. In 1906, when Sun Yat-Sen ( 孫中山, Sun Zhongshan) fled to Penang, Goh Say Eng and his friend Ooi Kim Kheng ( 黃金慶, Huang Jinqing) warmly welcomed Sun Yat-Sen, regardless of their own safety. Since then, Goh actively participated and sacrificed most of his fortune in support of the Chinese Revolutionary activities of 1911 against the rule of the Qing Dynasty. Goh was elected as the President of the United League, Penang Branch (Tongmenghui, 同盟會檳城分會 ). After the promulgation of the Republic of China in 1911, he was invited by Sun Yat-Sen to form an Overseas Chinese Union in Nanjing and to assist him in the establishment of the Zhong Hua Realities Bank ( 中華實業銀行 ) in Goh assumed leadership positions in various social organisations. He helped in the development of his own clan association, Ean Leng Tong Goh Kongsi ( 吳氏延陵堂 ) In 1903, he became a founding committee member of Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ) and held the position for five terms (1903-4, , , , ,). He was also involved in initiating the establishment of Penang Philomatic Union ( 檳城閱書報社 ) in 1909, serving as its president. In 1910, he helped to found the Kwong Wah Yit Poh ( 光華日報 ) newspaper and became a director. Goh was also president of a Chinese subscription library set up in He was also a committee member of Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ). In 1906, he made a donation of $1,000 to the Kek Lok Si temple ( 極樂寺 ). Ku Boon Dar Haji Habib Mohamed was the founder of Habib Jewel, a well-known jewel company not only in Penang, but also internationally. Beginning as a family business, Habib Jewel was established in 1958 in Pitt Street (Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling today). Then, it developed into Habib Corporation Berhad, and became the first jewellery company to be listed on the stock exchange in His son, Meer Sadik Habib, was managing director. The expansion of the business was not just in the sales of jewellery, but also the design, production and marketing of the jewellery. To date, Habib Jewel has fourteen branches throughout the country. Habib Mohamed first came to Penang with his parents and two younger sisters when he was still in his teens. The family went straight into business. After several years, he went back to India to get married to a bride chosen by his family. His bride was Ummu Latifah, who was also from a business family in India dealing in apparel. They were blessed with five children, Siraj, Siti Jawaahari, Sabariah, Meer Sadik and Siti Shariffah. Meer Sadik, being the only boy in the family, was his father s hope of managing the business as the girls would get married and follow their husbands. Habib Mohamed appointed him as Managing Director of Habib Corporation Berhad on 19 November He was to be responsible for the marketing, promotion, research, and strategizing the business development to ensure the success of Habib Jewel in local and international markets. Habib Mohamed s involvement in the jewel 79

84 industry started in 1950 when he was an assistant in a jewellery shop in Penang. There, he learned how to run the business and was exposed to the networking in the industry. He gained the trust of many people in the industry. This facilitated his intention of starting a jewellery business with his friend as his business partner in By 1958, he had enough capital to strike out on his own and opened Habib Jewel in Pitt Street; Habib being his name and jewel was because Pitt Street was locally known as the Jewel Street (Jalan Batu Permata). His business flourished as some of his local customers sold his jewellery in Mecca. The response was good because the Saudi Arabian customers liked his designs. Some even made wholesale orders. In his effort to ensure that his jewels were genuine, Habib Mohamed travelled to Mumbai, Belgium and America to select and buy them himself. Habib Mohamed s success allowed him to make various contributions towards the socioeconomic development of Penang society. In the Penang Malay Chamber of Commerce, he was the division head for the jewellery section. He was also the President of Muslim Jewellers and Money Changers Association, Malaysia, for seven years since In 1954, the Muslim League Association was formed. It was a non-profit association aimed at helping the less fortunate Muslims in Malaysia, particularly in Penang. Habib Mohamed was a former president of this association. He was also involved with the Penang Malay Association (Persatuan Melayu Pulau Pinang PEMENANG), and was an active member of UMNO (United Malays National Organization), Tanjung Division. Mahani Musa Around the age of 25 William Hall arrived in Penang from Calcutta on 22 September 1823 aboard the ship Alfred with the intention of establishing a mercantile concern. All that is known of the location of his godown is that it was towards the northern end of Beach Street opposite the Commissariat office. His first advertisement in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, simply trading under his own name, was on 14 July the following year and advises that he is the authorized agent at Penang of Singapore agents Morgans, Hunter & Co for freight to London on the East India Company ships Acguillar, Prince Regent and Caroline. The same month Hall is recorded as a member of the jury for sittings of the Court of Judicature; a duty he performed regularly, and he generally played an active part in community affairs. His name is amongst a list of inhabitants requisitioning a meeting to form an address on the departure of Governor William Edward Phillips in August 1824; and another by merchants planning to erect a memorial to David Brown, who died in September Hall employed a young man named Jonathan Padday in his business, and when Hall spent a month in Singapore in mid-1825, Padday was left in charge. The firm advertised spasmodically, offering general goods, liquor, freight and passage, and even bills of exchange on London. When the auction of goods was called for, the services of merchants Revely & Co (Revely, John ) were utilised. In September 1826 Hall advertised his house pleasantly situated in Northam Road for sale, and on 30 November severed ties with Morgans, Hunter & Co, carrying on that business on his own account. BH (16 Aug 1999, 25 Nov 2010); NST (4 Jun 2006); UM (5 Apr 2012, 15 Aug 2012); Star (21 Jul 2007); Personal Communication (Hemeed Jagubar). Hall, William (c ) Merchant. On 1 January 1827 Hall admitted Peregrine Butler Downes a partner in his business, which became Hall, Downes & Co as a result. The firm is one of several mercantile businesses to agree on common rates of Agency, Commission and Godown Rent at a meeting of 10 February that year. Two days prior the Freemason s Neptune Lodge 441 had been reconstituted at Penang and Hall s name appears on the register, he being 80

85 noted as aged 29. Jonathan Padday, 22, was secretary of the Lodge. Hall then departed Penang on 21 February for London direct aboard the free trader Lallah Rookh, accompanied by fellow merchant Richard Snadden and his wife, and former tavern-keeper Anthony Brunoe. While in London William Hall married Isabella Mary Ann Hughes on 20 September 1827, eldest daughter of William Hughes of Hampstead. On the return voyage to Penang a few months later, once again aboard the Lallah Rookh, the vessel grounded and was wrecked at Pondicherry in southern India on 6 March Most of the cargo; including a substantial quantity owned by Hall, was lost. Hall, his new wife, and his sister arrived back at Penang aboard the Pallas in June that year. Downes withdrew from the firm on 30 November 1828 and it then became known as William Hall & Co. Hall admitted his long-term employee Jonathan Padday as a partner the following day but only a few months later, on 19 July 1829, William Hall died. His widow, Isabella, applied for administration of his estate and merchant William Cox sold off the house and chattels, including horses and carriages, though the location is not stated. There do not appear to have been any children of the short marriage. Just over three months later, on 31 October, Isabella married Captain Charles Johnson of the 3rd Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry at the HEIC chapel in Macao. Jonathan Padday, and later his sons, took over the business, which continued to trade under the name William Hall & Co until 1884 when poor sugar investments forced closure. Marcus Langdon (24 Sep 1823, 28 May 1825, 2 July 1825, 24 Sep 1825, 9 Sep 1826, 6 Jan 1827, 17 Feb 1827, 24 Feb 1827); PRM (6 Feb 1828, 6 & 23 Apr 1828); GGPWISM (22 Nov 1828, 25 Jul 1829, 1 Aug 1829, 19 Dec 1829); LMF; TST (8 May 1884). Halyburton, Thomas (b.unknown; d. c.1823) Merchant. Thomas Halyburton was granted permission to reside in Penang by Lieutenant Governor Sir George Leith on 13 October Presumably he began a mercantile business soon afterwards, trading from a prominent location at 4 Beach Street. In the relatively small European community at Penang it is not surprising that the principal merchants, planters and business people would also be called upon to join various committees and take up ancillary roles with the EIC administration on the island. Halyburton was quite prominent in such activities and can be found on numerous committees; as a juror; and as Sheriff for the year He acquired several properties other than his godowns, including a house on the Esplanade which was later leased by government as a house for visiting navy captains and later still as the government secretary s office. The grand old City Hall buildings now occupy this site. Halyburton is particularly associated with Halliburton s Hill (erroneously spelt) on Penang Hill on which the Bellevue Hotel now stands, which he probably acquired in 1807 when the first owner, Charles Sealy, offered it for sale. Over the following decade he rebuilt the dwelling to house six bedrooms before unsuccessfully trying to sell the whole in It would appear that he did not persist with his mercantile business as he tried to let then sell his godowns in Beach Street during 1807/1808, eventually leasing them to Ogilvie and Hutton in January 1809 (Ogilvie, John ; Hutton, Francis ). Halyburton departed Penang for England aboard the Cumbrian on 5 April 1816 and did not return. Although the date of his death is unknown, probate of his Will was granted to James Carnegy and David Brown in March 1824 and his property, including the godowns and Bellevue was put up for auction by them. 81

86 Thomas Halyburton was also prominent in freemasonry at Penang. He joined Neptune Lodge 344 in September 1810, but resigned in 1813 while holding the appointment of Master in protest at what he saw as misappropriation of funds and disrespect for his position. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); PWIGG (21 Feb 1807); PWIG (21 Nov 1807, 3 Sep 1808, 31 Dec 1808, 22 Sep 1810, 27 May 1815, 6 Apr 1816, 20 Mar 1824); LMF. Heah Swee Lee, 連瑞利, Lian Ruili (1875, Province Wellesley ) Planter, Merchant, Rice Miller, Community Leader, Public Official. Heah Swee Lee s ancestral origin was in Dabu village ( 大步 ), Chaoyang district ( 潮陽 ), Chaozhou ( 潮州 ) prefecture, Guangdong Province ( 廣東 ). His father, Heah Jin Wooi ( 連仁偉, Lian Renwei), was a pioneer sugarcane planter in Kuala Kurau and one of the leaders of Penang Teochew Association ( 檳榔嶼潮州會館 ). He took over his father s vast 2,000-acre Jin Heng Estate ( 仁興樹膠園 ) in Kuala Kurau and expanded it to 4,500 acres, replanting it with rubber and coconut. Europeans were employed to manage the plantations for him. His extensive interests in the rubber industry led to directorship in the Nellmay rubber company where he promoted business partnerships among different ethnic groups. Apart from that, he was also in partnership with Europeans in Cash Chemist Ltd ( 客氏化學有限公司 ), Batu Lintang Estate, and operated Khay Hin Co. which dealt in tin and copra. Together with Leong Fee ( 梁輝, Laing Hui ), Heah also established the Kwong Jin Chan Rice Mill Company with a capital of $400,000. He obtained a contract for par-boiled rice from the state government. His Penang office, Swee Lee & Co. ( 瑞利公司 ), was located at 31 Beach Street. From 1886 to 1909, Heah Swee Lee served as a member of the Perak State Council. In addition, he played different roles in various governmental and non-governmental organizations, serving as a committee member of the Prince of Wales War Relief Fund (1914), Po Leung Kuk ( 保良局 ) (1915), Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ) ( ), Penang Chinese Advisory Board, Penang Teochew Association ( 檳榔嶼潮州會館 ) and Kong Hock Ju. He was also cofounder and president of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( ) and The Kwangtung and Tengchew Association Penang ( 檳榔嶼廣東暨汀州會館 ). Together with other leaders of Penang Teochew Temple (Teochew Kongsi), he established the Han Chiang Chinese School ( 韓江學校 ) in October, He was also noted for his philanthropy. Heah was the first and an active Chinese member of Penang Turf Club, where he had opportunities to establish good interpersonal relations with people of different races, especially the British colonial officials. He passed away in He had five sons: Seng Whatt ( 成發, Chengfa), Seng Hye ( 成海, Chenghai), Seng Jin ( 成金, Chengjin), Seng Poh ( 成寶, Chengbao) and Seng Feng ( 成豐, Chengfeng). The eldest, Seng Whatt, helped to manage the Jin Heng Estate and continued in his father s footsteps, serving in various social and public bodies. Goh Leng Hoon TST (29 Mar 1910); Lee & Chow, pp.51-52; Goh Leng Hoon, pp. 13,38, 77, 79, 81, 91, 96, 113, 140,142, 150, 158, 160, 164, 165, 167, , 215; PCTH, pp Hussain bin Long, Haji ( ) Literage Owner, Shipping Agent, Stevedore. Haji Hussain bin Long was a well known figure in the Muslim community in Penang. His father s actual name was Shaik Madar bin Teena Maidin, a brother of Shaik Mohammad bin Teena Maidin. T.M Shaik Madar had four wives. Haji Hussain bin Long was the only son and only child from the first wife, Khatijah bt.rejab, a Penang born Jawi Peranakan. 82

87 Hussain bin Long married his cousin, Fatimah bin Ibrahim, a local Jawi Peranakan. They had three children, Baharuddin, Amirrudin, and Sabariah. He was educated at Hutchings Primary School, and continued his secondary education at the Penang Free School. Hussain bin Long inherited the literage business from his father, Shaik Madar bin Teena Maidin. He transported mainly dried areca nuts and copra, from the big ships that came from India to the port of Penang. He also acted as a shipping agent for Borneo Company. By about 1973, he joined the Amalgamated Stevedoring group as he was also in the stevedoring business. Much like all other literage and stevedoring businessmen, Hussain bin Long also ended his operations when Penang ceased to be a free port. As with all other businessmen of the day, Hussain bin Long also contributed to the welfare of the Penang Muslim community in the form of donations to the building funds of mosques, and Muslim orphanages. Ramadan would be a special month when he would fulfil his Islamic obligation of paying tithe (zakat) and giving alms. He would also give financial help to mosques to make rice broth or moreh (feast held in the mosques during the fasting month of Ramadan). His other social service was to visit sick people, almost on a daily basis, at the Penang General Hospital and give them words of comfort. He did this until he was unable to walk due to problems in the knees. He was a committee member of the Penang Malay Association in He died at his house, 2 Kim Bian Aik Road, Penang, on 29 August 2005, of old age at 85 years old. Noriah Abdullah Business-Doc Hussain; PEMENANG, p. 36; Personal Communication (Sabariah bt. Haji Hussain). Hussein Kanapatchee, Haji ( ) Shipping Agent, Land Owner, Politician, Philanthropist. Haji Hussein Kanapatchee or widely known among Penang people as KP Haji Hussein, was a wealthy Indian Muslim before the Second World War. He was a successful shipping agent at that time. Haji Hussein inherited the shipping agency business from his father, Kanapatchee. The business, registered as K. Patchee and Company Stevedoring, was in Bishop Street. He managed the firm with his younger brother, KP Abu Bakar, better known as Pak Wan Pak Chik Dubas. Their company was huge and was at the forefront in the free port. They had big lighters to transport goods to and from the wharfs. This service was important because the big ships could not anchor at the wharfs as the sea there was not deep enough. The company also offered tugboat services to tug ships to the dockyards for repairs. Besides that, a branch of the company would take care of the business of supplying foodstuff and water to the ships and their workers at the quayside. This branch was managed by his family members. As a wealthy man, Haji Hussein owned several big houses around Kelawai Road and George Town. He lived at 39, Kelawai Road. He also owned several luxurious cars. With his wealth he could afford trips to London and Europe. As with most wealthy Indian Muslims, Haji Hussein was also a philanthropist. Once, he equipped a house as a hostel for secondary school students from Perak, Perlis and Kelantan. This was after the Second World War, between the years 1945 and the 1950s. The hostel could house about 20 students. Among them were children of royalty and prominent figures. They were studying at the Penang Free School, at the time, a famous educational institution. He also donated a piece of land in Kampung Baru, Ayer Itam Road, which became the site of Kampung Baru mosque. He was also one of the vice-chairmen and one of the three Trustees of Penang Hill Mosque in the 1960s. In Kelawai, he was among the founders of UMNO (United Malays National Organisation), together with leaders, such as Syed Omar Almashoor, Biyazid Khan, Pak Wan Hashim and Pak Yazid. As a matter of fact, the UMNO building was built with donations from wealthy Malays and Jawi Peranakan like Haji Hussein. 83

88 Haji Hussein s wife was Hajjah Che Chak. They had two children. Haji Hussein died in He was buried at the Dato Kramat Muslim cemetery. Mohd. Salleh Bin Yahaya ANM-PLB; Personal Communication (Yusof Azmi Merican) Hutton, Francis (b. unknown; d. unknown) Merchant. Nothing is known of Francis Hutton s family background, though it is possible he may have been related to merchant Thomas Hutton who was also on the island at the time. The date of his arrival in Penang is not known; however it is likely to have been just prior to him becoming a partner in a well established auctioneering and general mercantile concern operated by John Oglivie on 1 September The new firm was called Ogilvie and Hutton and at the time operated from 230 Beach Street, but relocated at the end of that year to Thomas Halyburton s prominent godowns at 4 Beach Street. Without fanfare, the firm admitted Alexander Robertson as a partner in August 1809 and the name was extended to Ogilvie, Hutton and Co. The company heavily advertised in the Gazette, auctioning houses, property, ships and a wide range of imported merchandise, and at the time were only surpassed in activity by the mercantile firm of Carroll, Scott and Co. Robertson withdrew at the end of 1810 and the firm reverted to its previous name of Ogilvie and Hutton. In May that year, one of their trading vessels, the Governor Bruce, was sold to the East India Company for Sp$20,000 shortly after they had sold it for Sp$12,000. This resulted in an investigation in which the original purchaser, Captain Court, governor of the Moluccas, lost his job. Hutton owned land on the east side of Love Lane and in July 1813, this was cut up into small lots and advertised for sale by John Ogilvie, though the exact location is not stated. The partnership ceased as of 1 August 1816 with the death of Ogilvie but Hutton carried on as a sole trader. By then he was well established on the island and regularly served as a juror at the Court of Judicature and on various public committees. He became the agent in Penang for victualling His Majesty s navy from 1 February 1819 to 9 April In July 1822 Hutton placed his property at 4 Beach Street in the hands of auctioneer William Cox who advertised it as: The Valuable and Spacious Offices and Godowns, most desirably situated on the East side of Beach Street, between the Office of Messrs. Carnegy and Co. & Mr. Cox s Commission Warehouse, with a convenient Wharf and other necessaries adapted for a Mercantile Establishment, the Property of Francis Hutton, Esq. The last mention found of Francis Hutton in the Gazette is in May 1826 when he was listed on the jury of the Court. His whereabouts after this date are unknown. No evidence of his having married or of a family has been located. Marcus Langdon PWIG (3 Sep 1808, 31 Dec 1808, 5 Aug 1809, 12 Jan 1811, 11 May 1811, 3 Jul 1813, 31 Aug 1816, 17 Apr 1822, 13 Jul 1822). Hutton, Thomas (1 Aug ) Civil Servant, Translator, Merchant. Thomas Hutton married 21-year-old Janet Robertson, daughter of William Robertson, at Calcutta on 22 July 1802, and although their arrival in Penang is unknown it was certainly prior to February 1804 when he signed a public appeal for a portrait of Marquis Wellesley to be hung in Government House. Perhaps the surgeon James 84

89 Hutton who first arrived in Penang in September 1786, was his brother however this has not been established. It is also possible Thomas was initially sent by the Bengal government as a civil servant as he served as Third Assistant and Interpreter in Robert Townsend Farquhar s administration on a wage of Sp$ per month; however it was also common for free settlers to hold such positions. Following the arrival of the presidency government in September 1805 Hutton lost his civil appointment but was retained as the Malay Translator. This may have been the trigger for his forming a mercantile partnership with Duncan Forbes-Mitchell which traded as Hutton and Forbes and was probably located in Beach Street. The firm dealt mainly in the sale of imported goods and placed regular mercantile advertisements in the Gazette without reference to their location. In October 1807 merchants Carroll and Scott (Carroll, Daniel ) advertised for sale Those valuable premises, the property of Thomas Hutton, Esq., situated on the west side of Pitt Street, George Town. This was his dwelling at the time but it did not sell and was advertised for lease in February At some stage Robert Scott joined the business as a partner, and when Thomas Hutton withdrew at the end of December 1808 the remaining partners carried on the firm as Forbes and Scott. Hutton probably then left the island for Calcutta, where he may well have conducted business. He is next found stopping over in Penang in November 1814 on his way home to England aboard the Lady Nugent. In October 1815 he lodged a bond in England to return to Penang to reside to settle his private affairs. He arrived at the island from Calcutta on 13 January 1817, advertising that he had been appointed agent in Penang to the Star Insurance Company of Calcutta to issue shipping policies. Hutton certainly stayed for some months in Penang and is found serving as a juror in the sessions of the Court of Judicature in February 1817 and again in April, but there is no evidence that he re-established a mercantile company. The Star Insurance agency business was transferred to Francisco Ferrao at 14 Beach Street in August that year and Hutton returned to Calcutta. His wife Janet and a Miss Jane Hutton (perhaps a daughter or relative) lodged a bond in England in February that year to travel to Bengal and no doubt departed soon after. Thomas Hutton s links with the Forbes family were obviously strong and in November 1817 he commenced a mercantile business in Calcutta called Hutton and Co. The firm had alliances with Forbes and Co. of Bombay and Smith, Rickards and Co. of London. The partners were Thomas Hutton formerly of the House of Hutton and Forbes of Pinang and Thomas Allport, formerly of Forbes and Co in Bombay. The company also employed Nowrojee Sorabjee as their Indian agent. Hugh Forbes was admitted to the company in May 1820, and Thomas Hutton withdrew in April 1822, returning to England with his wife and three children, James, Mary, and Arthur, in December that year aboard the Bengal Merchant. Hutton again returned to Calcutta, becoming a partner in Cruttenden and Co in February 1827, amongst the assets of which were a number of indigo factories. It soon became clear that the firm was in trouble financially. Hutton retired from the firm due to ill health in January 1830 and returned to England. The firm failed in January 1834, resulting in large losses to creditors and court cases that stretched on for several years. Children of the marriage: Jean Lidderdale Hutton b Thomas Hutton b. 4 Mar 1807, d.19 Dec 1874 Eleanora Hutton b Janet Hutton b Elizabeth Hutton b Katherine Hutton b William Forbes Hutton b James Hutton b. 10 Oct 1818 Arthur Hutton b. 18 Mar 1820 Mary Hutton b. 29 Sep 1821 Marcus Langdon AAR, 1803, p.150; 1804, p.35; SSFR (R5 V8, 18 Sep 1805); PWIG (17 Oct 1807, 20 Feb 1808, 28 Jan 1809, 19 Nov 1814, 85

90 18 Jan 1817, 30 Aug 1817, 17 Jan 1818, 27 May 1820, 7 Dec 1822); AJMR, 1823, p.643; CMJGR (Jul 1836, 635; 1837, ); FIBIS (bonds);website (Family connections). Ismail bin Haji Hashim (1904, Kedah-1969) Haj Agent, Merchant, Community Leader. Haji Ismail bin Haji Hashim was a well-known haj agent in Kedah, Penang and Perak. He started his business as a haj agent, assisting thousands of haj pilgrims to Mecca around He worked for Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor in Syarikat Juddah Pilgrimage. His job was to recruit new pilgrims from Ipoh, Perak, and the northern Peninsula Malaya to as far as Thailand. In Thailand, new haj pilgrims would come from the sekolah pondok and madrasahs (religious schools). He would visit such places, meet with their leaders, penghulu (local headman), teachers and close friends, to get names of those who intended to go for the haj. At each place that he visited, he had representatives to help him. He would be responsible for passports, food, accommodation in Penang, and dealt with problems which arose before departure to Mecca and upon their return, too. Ismail had an office at 6 Lumut Lane. He shared the office with Syed Ali bin Syed Abdullah Al-Mufathal, who was also a haj agent. Besides being a haj agent, he and his wife, Hajjah Soo, also sold door to door jewellery, batik, fabrics, and suchlike, which they sourced from several shops in Penang. He had started this business since he left school. In 1957, Haji Ismail opened a shop in Sungai Glugor selling construction material, such as beams, planks and atap (roofing material). His business was well received by the local villagers, but his generosity led to the decline of the business, as he allowed them to buy on credit. This resulted in his not having enough capital and he had to terminate the business. After his demise, his son, Haji Abdul Aziz bin Haji Ismail inherited his business. Ismail bin Haji Hashim was born in Bandar Bharu, Kedah, in 1904, after which he and his family moved to settle in Penang. He attended Jelutong Malay School and studied until standard six. He married Hajah Soo bt. Haji Mahmud. They had four children. He died in 1969 at 63 Jalan Permai, Taman Brown, Penang when he was 65 years old. Being a haj agent made him a well known figure in Penang, Perlis, Kedah, and Perak. He was also a generous person who gave donations to the poor and needy. He contributed in the name of religion, particularly to the community in Jelutong. He was once a deputy imam of the Jelutong Mosque, and the penghulu for Jelutong. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan, p. 40; MPG, 1965, p.37; Personal communication (Haji Abdul Aziz bin Haji Ismail & Syed Salim bin Syed). Jagat Singh, Dr. (b. Punjab 1881 d. Penang 1956) Landowner, Community Leader. Jagat Singh first came to Malaya as a young boy from the Punjab. He worked in the stables of the Sultan of Kedah. Even though he did not get much of a formal education, nevertheless he was very interested in veterinary science and taught himself to be a veterinarian by reading many books on the subject. With this knowledge, he was a great asset to the stables and earned the title doctor ; everyone addressed him as Dr. Jagat Singh. Jagat Singh was a moneylender too, as well as a huge landowner. He became a very wealthy man and lived in a big bungalow. He became a well known and respected member of the Sikh community. In his capacity as moneylender, he had even loaned money to the Sultan of Kedah. When the Sultan could not settle his debts, Jagat Singh took over the lands that had been placed as collateral. Thus he came to own more than half of Kedah. It was an intolerable situation for the Sultan, and he wanted to somehow seize Jagat Singh s lands. He instructed the British Resident to arrest Jagat Singh. Jagat Singh had somehow gotten wind of the 86

91 situation. Having already packed their belongings earlier, he and his wife fled through the back door of his house to go to Penang. This was in the early 1930 s. In Penang, he built a mansion by the sea, a few doors away from the E&O Hotel in Farquhar Street, right next to today s No. 32 The Mansion. He lived there till his demise in He also owned many other properties in Penang. Jagat Singh was a staunch Sikh and he enjoyed the confidence of the Sikh community of Penang. On 3rd December 1916 he was appointed as Trustee and first Sikh President of the Wadda Gurdwara Sahib Penang, posts he retained for 40 years until his demise on 25th December He virtually controlled all the affairs of the Gurdwara Sahib. Upon his demise, his son, Jagjit Singh a lawyer, was elected as a Trustee and President in From 1927 Jagat Singh became a very prominent leader of the Khalsa Diwan Malaya, a national Sikh association whose objectives were to promote the Sikh religion, manage Sikh Temples, appoint priests, develop education in Gurmukhi, Malay, English and other languages, and to look after the welfare of the Sikh community overall. As President he gave a generous donation of $22,500 to launch an education fund. Efforts were made to acquire suitable land for a school. Ultimately on 24th November 1950 Guru Nanak Institution was established at Maxwell Road, Ipoh. Jagat Singh was also an active member of the Indian Association, and was its Vice President in 1937, 1939, 1940 and In 1940 he donated generously towards the Indian Association Building Fund; together with some other members, he was instrumental in installing the Association s first telephone (no. 3747). Dr Jagat Singh passed on in Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (K.K. Sharma); Website (Wadda Gurudwara Sahib, Khalsa Diwan Malaya); HPP, p.72; Records- Indian Ass Joshi, Dalpatram S. ( ) Merchant, Community Leader. Born in 1911, Dalpatram S. Joshi originated from Mota Khuntavda near Mahuva, in the district of Bhavanagar, Gujarat, India. His father, Shivshankar Joshi, came to Penang to trade and later went into partnership with two fellow Gujaratis, H.H. Bhatt even and Purushotamdas Patel to form a company, Purushotamdas & Co. in The district of Bhavanagar, Mahuva produced onions, and it was a natural choice of trade for Purushotamdas & Co. In fact they became the kings of onions in the region. The company then began to export coconut oil, betel nuts, etc. to India. Around 1928, Dalpatram joined the business when his father left for India. Just before World War II, H.H. Bhatt and Purushotamdas Patel left for India as well, leaving the young Dalpatram to manage the business, which he did for seven years, facing many difficulties in wartime Penang. After the War, around 1947/48, Dalpatram went to India while his brother Daulatram Joshi and H.H. Bhatt, returned to Penang. When Dalpatram returned to Penang in 1952, he was approached by Prabhudas V. Parekh, whom he had helped during the Japanese Occupation, to work as manager in his company, Parekh & Co., at 8, Penang Street. Parekh was a very seasoned and well-travelled businessman with a lot of experience in the tin and scrap metal business, having acquired the skills whilst working with Chinese businessmen. He asked Dalpatram to join him so that he could leave for India and stay for a longer period, knowing he would have a trustworthy person to handle his business while he was away. Later, due to his ill health, C.V. Parekh sold his business, Parekh & Co. to Dalpatram in Dalpatram expanded the business to include imports and exports besides dealing in the tin trade. At that time Penang was an entrepot, and it was an easy transition for him to liaise with diamond merchants who used to trade with Thailand via Penang. Dalpatram was appointed as a commission agent for 87

92 these diamond dealers between the Chinese traders in Penang and the Siamese traders in Siam. This slowly took precedence over the other products until it became Dalpatram s second line of business, and today, Parekh & Co. are mainly diamond merchants. Dalpatram was very active in social services. He was involved in the Ramakrishna Ashram, which was then just an attap house in Scotland Road, where many orphans were cared for. He became Deputy President of the Ashram in 1968, and subsequently, held the position of Hon. Treasurer, until his demise in Dalpatram held the post of Chairman of the Sri Kunj Bihari Temple on Penang Road in the mid 1950 s, and President of the Gujarati Seva Samaj from 1971 to He was also actively involved in the Hindu Sabha and Hindu Sangam, the latter initiated at his premises, 8 Penang Street. He was also involved in other social bodies, the Brahmana Society, Theosophical Society and the Divine Life Society. Dalpatram was appointed by the State Government as a Commisioner of the Hindu Endowments Board in 1980, and was subsequently conferred the title of PJK. Jaipur, India. Within the North Indian Community, the nine-day festival called Maha Navratri was initiated by Dalpatram, and to this day, the tradition is still continued after his demise. Many people from the other Malaysian states come to Penang to attend this festival. The procession on the last day of Navratri comprises as large a crowd as the mini Thaipusam in Waterfall, Penang! This celebration has been going on for the last 52 years. So great was his religious fervour and devotion to Goddess Durga that he even initiated the celebration of Navratri among the North Indians in Melaka. During the time that he was back in India after World War II, Dalpatram undertook to build a Nav Durga Temple in his village of Mota Khuntavda. The Temple still stands today, and is managed by a Trust appointed by Dalpatram. Dalpatram passed on in 1988 at the age of 77. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Markend Joshi); Gujarati Seva Samaj Directory of Members. He played a smaller role in the Penang Indian Chamber of Commerce (PICC). Parekh & Co., one of the oldest members of the PICC, is still a member of the Chamber. K. A. N. Bahurdin (1905, India 1966, India) Money Changer, Jewellery Merchant, Philanthropist. At one point during the War, Dalpatram was injured in a bomb blast. He had heard a divine voice urging him to get up and run. Heeding this warning, he ran away just in time, for another bomb fell on the very spot where he had been lying earlier! Grateful for escaping with his life and being convinced that it was only due to Divine Help, he became a staunch devotee of the Goddess Durga, and used to do home puja (ceremonial prayers) at his premises. The Gujaratis, Sindhis, Punjabis and Marwaris who lived along Penang Street attended the pujas, especially the Navratri Festival, which became a focal point in the lives of the North Indians who lived there. From using a picture of the Goddess Durga, in 1969/70, a beautiful idol of the goddess was commissioned and brought over to Penang from K. A. N. Bahurdin was the son of K. A. Naina Mohamed, a successful money changer in Penang in the early 20th century. He continued his father s business after the demise of his father in 1935 and was also involved in jewellery business in Penang. He was married to a woman by the name of Asiammal in India. As a prominent businessman, K. A. N. Bahurdin contributed significantly towards the wellbeing of the Muslim society in Penang. He was noted for his philanthropic activities and was awarded the title Khan Bahadur in 1943 by the Governor of Madras Presidency for his magnanimous services during the Second World War. He was the founder member of the Indian Association and also a trustee of Al- Mashoor School in

93 Mahani Musa PSP (20 August 1937); Website (Hist-Kanson); Personal Communication (Mohamed Hidayathulla Khan). Kerr, William Boyd ( ) Merchant, Juror, Member of the Committee of Assessors, Sheriff. K. A. Naina Mohamed (1863, India-1935) Money Changer. K. A. Naina Mohamed was a successful licensed money changer in Penang in the early 20th century. His business premises was at 81, Chulia Street, under the name K. A. Naina Mohamed & Son. He then moved his business to 75, Pitt Street (now Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling). K. A. Naina started operating the money changing business in Malaya in 1907, the firm registered on 12 August. As a successful businessman, he was actively involved in activities organised by the Muslim Merchant Society and was one of the founders of the Muslim Merchants Society in Penang. In 1922, K.A. Naina together with his Muslim merchant friends and several chettiars representing the chetty community held a public meeting to discuss the issue of income tax imposed by the government. The meeting was held at 1, Transfer Road, the Muslim Merchants Society premises. A resolution supporting the actions of the Straits Settlements (Singapore) Associations in a demand for the abolition of income tax was passed. In May 1927, K. A. Naina Mohamed was appointed Honorary Auditor of the Penang Muslim Merchants Society. His role and contribution in the society remained until his demise on 18 July As a man of wealth, he lived a life of luxury and was very fond of luxurious sports such as horse racing. His son, K. A. N. Bahurdin continued his business. Mahani Musa PSP (20 Aug 1937, 12 Jul 1937); SFP (5 May 1927); TST (23 Sep 1933, 29 Aug 1922); website (Hist-Kanson); Personal Communication (Mohamed Hidayathulla Khan). William Boyd Kerr was born 9 January 1801 in England to Scottish parents. He arrived in Penang on 26 November 1824 aboard the brig Countess of Loudoun and was granted a permit to reside at the island on 10 December that year. Kerr probably worked in one of the mercantile firms at first and is one of a number of gentlemen who promoted a meeting in September 1825 to erect a memorial to David Brown, who had recently passed away. On 1 August 1826 he entered a mercantile partnership with Edward Tanner, the firm being known as Kerr and Tanner, and they are found advertising general merchandise in the pages of the Prince of Wales Island Gazette and Penang Register & Miscellany over the following years. In December 1826 he was appointed a member of the Committee of Assessors and the following February he was treasurer of the revived Freemasons Neptune Lodge. Kerr married Catherine Moore in Calcutta on 2 June 1828 and returned to the island three weeks later aboard the Phoenix. On 20 September 1828 he was appointed Sheriff of the amalgamated settlements of Penang, Singapore and Malacca. Their only child, a daughter named Ann Morland Kerr, was born at Penang on 15 October Little is known of Kerr s later movements, but the last edition of the Government Gazette on 3 July 1830 following abolition of presidency status for Penang notes that he had ceased to be a partner in Kerr and Tanner. It appears that he departed for England and there is a record of the death of one William Boyd Kerr, 29, on 1 October 1830 in Cape Town, South Africa, which is likely to be him. His daughter Ann married Alexander Macredie of Challoch, Newton-Stewart, at the house of her uncle Charles Kerr, Stanraer, Wigtown, Scotland on 17 December Mathew Boyd Kerr, either William s younger brother 89

94 or cousin, was born on 30 September 1808 and joined the firm at an unknown date. He returned to Scotland to marry Montgomery Elizabeth Muir on 10 August 1835, and is noted as resuming his interest in Forbes and Tanner as of 1 June Tanner died on 19 October 1837, and as the last surviving member of Kerr and Tanner, Mathew is noted departing Singapore with his wife and baby aboard the Danish Oak in December the same year. He died at sea aboard the Duke of Argyle on 22 Feb 1838 on the forward journey from Madras to England. His Will, dated the day prior to his death, left his estate to his wife, and was proved after her arrival in England. Charles Scott and Jonathan Padday were executors of Edward Tanner s estate, and as Mathew too had been ill for some time Scott had been operating the business under a power of attorney. Following Mathew s death he applied to wind up the affairs of the business. Mathew s daughter, Annie Montgomerie Kerr, married Patrick Campbell on 16 October 1856 in Southport, Lancashire, England. Marcus Langdon PWIG (27 Nov 1824, 5 Aug 1826, 27 Dec 1826); PRM (23 Jul 1828, 20 Sep 1828); SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); GGPWISM (25 Oct 1828, 3 Jul 1830); LMF; TA (27 Jun 1851); SACA (6 Oct 1830); SMCA (22 Oct 1838); SCCR (18 Jun 1836, 14 Dec 1837); PGSC (7 & 21 Jul 1838); GAWFP (23 Oct 1856); NAK (Prob 11/1896); Website (IGI). Khaw Boo Aun, 許武安, Xu Wu an ( ) Sugar Planter, Manufacturer, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Through wealth, status and power, Khaw Boo Aun was the indisputable community leader of the Cantonese (Guangdong) segment of 19th and early 20th century Penang. Khaw Boo Aun was the elder son of Khaw Loh Hup ( 許栳合, Xu Laohe) ( ) of Hong An Zai New Village ( 宏安宰 ), Chaozhou District ( 潮州 ). Originally known as Khaw Ah Loh, Loh Hup had come from his native land to Batu Kawan to work as a coolie worker in sugar plantations. He gradually rose to become a pioneering sugar planter on his own in the 1830s, after he had acquired his first piece of land on the island in With a new acquisition of 135 acres of land, he extended his agricultural enterprise to Simpang Ampat in the following year, and to Changkat Keladang with another 100 acres for sugar planting later. His Chop Hong Hua was then the leading Teochew sugar factory in Southern Province Wellesley. Loh Hup died in his Bukit Tambun house in His second son, Khaw Boo Kuey accompanied the remains to Chaozhou for burial in later years. Khaw Boo Aun began his apprenticeship early, under his father since his younger days. After his father s demise, he expanded his family s business with the introduction of western technology and management skills. He had sugar manufacturing factories in Nibong Tebal, P.W., Kuala Kurau and Kuala Gula in Perak, a 2,000-acre giant plantation in Trans-Krian, and a 2,800-acre piece of land in Sungai Bogak, all in North Perak, planted with sugar and coconut, in the 1890 s. Succeeding his father as the Ghee Hin Kongsi ( 義興會黨 ) leader, his material support to Raja Abdullah in the Third Larut War ( ) was tremendously useful in promoting cordial relations with the Malay royal court which ultimately brought him economic advantages such as revenue farming rights and vast pieces of virgin land in North Perak, adjacent to Penang where his influence was the greatest. In 1886, the British authority appointed him one of the three Chinese members of the Perak State Council. He served in various capacities in Colonial Malaya, first as a member of the Penang Chinese Advisory Board in , and the sole Asian member in the Straits Settlements Labour Commission in Within the Chinese community, he was the Principal Director of Hang Kang Keh Beow, or the Han Jiang Ancestral Temple ( 韓江家廟 ), from the 1870s to 1904; one of the 14 founders of Penang Chinese 90

95 Town Hall in 1881; and the Principal Director of Kwantung and Tengchew Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義塚 ), the predecessor of The Kwangtung and Tengchew Association Penang ( 檳榔嶼廣東暨汀州會館 ), of Tan Kim Hong Khoo Kay Kim, 1972; Tan Kim Hong, 1981, pp.31-38; 2005; C.S. Wong, 1963a, pp Khaw Joo Tok, 許如琢, Xu Ruzhuo ( ) Ship Owner, Merchant, Tin Miner, Community Leader, Public Figure. Khaw Joo Tok was the eldest son of Khaw Sim Khim ( 許心欽, Xu Xinqin). His grandfather, Khaw Soo Cheang ( 許泗漳, Xu Sizhang), the patriach of the Khaw family, had built a business empire in the south western provinces of Thailand on to Penang under the British. While the second generation Khaws succeeded their father to bureaucratic posts in Langsuan, Kraburi, Ranong, Krabi and Trang, the Penang base was manned by the third generation Khaws - Joo Tok, his brother, Joo Choe ( 許如磋, Xu Ruchuo, b.1868 d. 1925) and his cousin, Joo Ghee ( 許如義, Xu Ruyi, b. unknown d ). Very much in keeping with the practices of the Khaw family business, Joo Tok was involved in various related fields, trade, shipping, tin mining and revenue farming in concert with many of the Chinese mercantile elite in Penang, building alliances and cementing ties via marriages. With reference to the latter, his eldest son married the daughter of Gan Ngoh Bee ( 顏五美, Yan Wumei ) who participated in various revenue farms in Penang ( ) and Singapore ( ) with members of the Khaw family. In trade and shipping, Joo Tok together with uncle Khaw Sim Bee ( 許心美, Xu Xinmei ) and cousin Joo Ghee, managed the Penang-based Koe Guan Steamship Co. ( 高源船公司 ), at 63 Beach Street. Their ships serviced the coastal trade from Burma to Penang, Sumatra, Singapore and China. He sat on the Board of Directors of the Eastern Smelting Co. ( 東方鎔錫廠 ) in Penang in 1908 and the Tongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Company, registered in Hobart, Tasmania in 1906, the first to conduct mining with dredges in Siam. He looked into mining in Lower Burma, attaining approval from the Government of Burma for mining concessions in When the prospectus of the North Tambun Tin-mining Company appeared in an Australian newspaper in 1910, and Joo Tok was noted to be on the directorate, the `extraordinary rush for share applications in New South Wales and Victoria was attributed to his fame as a business man, much like Rockefeller, reputed to be the world s richest man at the turn of the 20th century. After Khaw Sim Bee s demise, Joo Tok took over the reins of command in Penang, hosting Thai dignitaries on their trips. Just as Sim Bee hosted King Chulalongkorn at his Northam Road residence, so too Joo Tok had as his guests the King of Siam in 1924 and 1929, and Prince Damrong in His close ties with the Thai royalty bore fruit in the award of the title Phraya, the second highest bureaucratic rank, after the King s 1929 visit. Joo Tok played his part as community leader, a founding member of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce in 1903 and of the Khaw Kongsi from 1915, president of Chinese Merchants Club ( 小蘭亭俱樂部 ) in 1917 and a trustee of Victoria Green (Chinese Recreation Club, 中華體育會 ). He was appointed as one of the Hokkien representatives to the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) in 1918 and as a Justice of the Peace. He married Lim Chooi Hoon with whom he had four sons and six daughters, Bian Hoe, Bian Wan, Bian Teong, Bian Howe, Phaik Yong, Phaik Chin, Phaik Saik, Phaik Keow, Phaik Siew and Phaik Boey. Loh Wei Leng 91

96 TST (24 Dec 1917, 7 Nov 1924, 21 Apr 1930, 10 Oct 1929, 9 Dec 1935); SFP (4 Oct 1924, 7 Mar 1918); MT (18 Feb 1926); QA (16 Aug 1910); Cushman, 1986, pp.62, 64; Cushman, 1991, pp.21, 57, 65, 135-7, 139; Wu Xiao An, 2003, p.89; Lee & Chow, pp Khaw Seng Lee, 許生理, Xu Shengli ( ) Bullion Merchant, Rice Miller, Planter, Community Leader. Khaw Seng Lee alias Yinshan ( 隱山 ) was born in 1886 in Neixiang ( 內鄉 ), Anpu ( 安浦 ), Hui an district ( 惠安 ), Fujian province ( 福建 ). When he came of age, Khaw Seng Lee followed his cousin, Khaw Boon Ma ( 許文蔴, Xu Wenma) to Penang. Together with his cousins, Boon Ma and Khaw Kiat Seng ( 許吉成, Xu Jicheng), they established Kim Lean Seng Gold Merchant ( 金聯盛金莊 ) in Singapore and Siam and Kim Lean Yik Goldsmith ( 金聯益金鋪 ) at 134 & 136, Carnarvon Street ( 沓田仔 ), with branches in Butterworth, Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Indonesia and Bangkok. He was also a director of Shin Bian Seng, a bullion company in Penang. He founded Kim Lean Teck Rice Mill Company ( 金聯德米較 ) in Kedah, and in 1914 he established a textile factory. Later he expanded his business to rubber planting in partnership with a prominent Hainanese rubber planter, Quek Shin ( 郭新 Guo Xin, also known as 郭鏡川, Guo Jingchuan, Quek Keng Suan, ). They acquired thousands of acres of rubber estate land. During the Sino-Japanese war, he was in Chongqing ( 重慶 ), China, together with a number of overseas- Chinese from places such as Malaya and Burma. They started the Overseas Chinese Union Bank Ltd. to look after their money and investments, and Khaw became the deputy director of the bank. After the war, he went into the property and construction industry. During the late Qing era, Seng Lee became one of Sun Yat Sen s followers, actively supporting Sun s revolutionary activities. He served long term as an office-bearer of the Penang division of the Kuomintang Party of China (KMT, 中國國民黨 ). Because of his support for the KMT, he was inevitably involved in KMT-dominated associations, serving as committee member of the Penang Philomatic Union ( 檳城閱書報社 ) for 24 terms: President ( , 1932, 1934), Vice-President (1917, 1923, , 1933, 1935, ) and as a trustee from ; Li Tek Seah ( 麗澤社 ), Min Sin Seah ( 明新社 ), and the Kwong Wah Jit Poh newspaper ( 光華日報 ). Seng Lee was keen on Chinese affairs. He founded, with Luo Zonghan ( 駱宗漢 ) the clan association, Luoyang She ( 螺陽社 ) which was located in Magazine Road ( 頭條路 ). Shortly after its founding, it was suspended. Later in 1914 he co-founded the Huiqiao Lianhe hui ( 惠僑聯合會 ), which, in 1937, was renamed the Hun Aun Association ( 檳城惠安公會 ), and he served as its president and patron for a long period. In addition, he was one of the initiators of the construction of Khaw Kongsi Koe Yang Tong ( 許氏高陽堂 ), located in Burmah Road ( 車水街 ). Seng Lee played an active role in the education arena. In 1915, with other members of the Philomatic Union, Tan Sin Cheng ( 陳新政, Chen Xinzheng), Khoo Beng Cheang ( 邱明昶, Qiu Mingchang), Chee Yong Aik ( 徐洋溢, Xu Yangyi) and Lim Joo Teik ( 林如德, Lin Rude), they looked into the opening of a school, which was named Chung Ling ( 鐘靈 ) as suggested by Chee Yong Aik. The school, which was inaugurated two years later on February , was initially located at 18, Malay Street (the Penang Philomatic Union s building). Later, it moved to 65, Macalister Road, an old bungalow formerly used by The Chinese Merchants Club ( 小蘭亭洋樓 ). Considering a growth in the number of students, in 1922 it was decided to establish a high school, and the Chung Ling High School ( 鐘靈中學 ) was set up in Seng Lee served on the Board of Directors for many years: as president in , ; vice-president in 1928, In 1947, he became a member of the Chinese Chamber s sub-committee, which was set up to look into the establishment of a university college in Malaya. Together with the Philomatic Union members, they established the Fukien Girls School ( 福建女校, the present Penang Chinese Girls High School) in 1919, first located at 29 Dato Kramat Road ( 柑仔園 ). He 92

97 was also a board member of Li Tek School ( 麗澤學校 ), and Chung Hwa Confucian School ( 中華學校 ). Seng Lee took up other leadership positions. He was president of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce in and a committee member in ; a committee member of the Third All-Malayan Chinese Olympic committee in 1935; board member of Lam Wah Ee hospital; a chairperson of the Special Victims Committee (1946), which was set up to assist the War Crimes investigating team obtain as much evidence as possible regarding the alleged atrocities committed by former Penang Kempeitai ( 憲兵隊 ) chief, Major Yoshinobu Higashikawa ( 東川好信 ). His philanthropic contributions to the community included a donation for purchase of firearms in 1941; sponsorship of the Third Malayan Chinese Athletic Meet in 1935; and a donation of $3,500 for the construction of a new building for Hun Aun Association in After the Sino-Japanese war broke out, together with Lau Geok Sooi ( 劉玉水, Liu Yushui) he invited associations in Penang to set up a Penang division for its Relief Fund ( 檳城籌賑分會 ). He also sat on the committee of the China Relief Fund ( 南洋各屬華僑籌賑祖國難民總會 ). Seng Lee passed away on 4 October 1967 and left behind three sons: Tatt Yeow ( 達耀 ) Tatt Hock ( 達福 ) and Tatt Seong ( 達尚 ). Tan Kim Hong & Hung Bee Ling TST (30 Nov 1941, 15 Oct 1945, 14 June 1946, 30 Sep 1946, 29 March 1947, 28 Apr 1946, 2 July 1947, 29 May 1949); MT (15 Jan 1917); SFP (13 Feb 1935, 5 July 1935, 8 Aug 1936, 10 Aug 1936); Lin Bo ai, V1, pp ; Tan Ee Leong, p.276; Penang CCC, pp. 126, ; Lee & Chow, p.60; Song Yunpu, p.62; R. Jumabhoy, p.115; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, pp. 137, 188; Tan Soon Cheng, p.121; Yeap Kok Cheng, pp ; HPP, p.77; Franke & Chen, pp.910, 836; Quanzhou OC, pp ; Websites (Hist- Chungling, Directors-Chungling, Hist-PCGHS). Khaw Sim Bee, 許心美, Xu Xinmei ( ) Tin Miner, Revenue Farmer, Rubber Planter, Ship Owner, Public Official. Khaw Sim Bee was the youngest son of Khaw Soo Cheang ( 許泗漳, Xu Sizhang), a business and bureaucratic tycoon of Penang and Thailand. Sim Bee was born in Ranong Province in Southern Thailand where he was later known as Phya Rasada Nupradit. Straddling two territories, Thailand where he was appointed to the highest positions in the provincial government, and Penang under the British, Khaw exemplified the strong cross-border connections of the Chinese merchants of Penang. He was sent by his father at age twelve to Fuzhou, China for his early education, and after three years he returned to Thailand. Khaw could speak many languages - English, Thai, Malay and five Chinese dialects. Through the family business, he was involved in revenue farm syndicates in Penang, Kedah, Perak, Bangkok and Singapore. In Penang, Khaw was a member of the Chop Ban Lian Bee syndicate in 1901 and Khaw also headed the Penang-based Koe Guan Steamship Co. ( 高源船公司 ), at 63 Beach Street, the largest shipping firm by 1902, their first vessels dated to the early 1890s. The Khaw family s ships were a major carrier of coolies from China to Southeast Asia. Much of this labour found its way to the rubber plantations and the mines operated by the Khaw family in Thailand. Their steamers also had actual monopoly in the import-export trade along the coast, transporting locally mined tin to Penang, in return supplying provisions for the mining communities. Koe Guan was later incorporated into the Eastern Shipping Company formed in 1907, together with the shipping firms, Guan Lee Hin of Quah Beng Kee ( 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ), and Ban Joo Hin of Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ). Khaw was among the leading merchants who pioneered the insurance business in Malaya through the Penang-based Khean Guan Insurance Company founded in In 1906, he went into partnership with an Australian, Captain Edward T. Miles, to form Tongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Company. Among Khaw s contributions to the Penang community were his donations to the Penang Free School; serving as trustee of Kong Hok Keong Temple ( 廣福宮 ) in 1887, board member of Batu 93

98 Lanchang Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ) in 1886/87 and as one of the founding members of Po Leung Kok. He owned several fine buildings in Penang, the most notable being Chakrabong House on the seafront off Northam Road. It was named after a son of King Chulalongkorn, who personally declared the house open, when he was passing through Penang after it was built. Khaw was appointed, by the Thai government, Governor of Kraburi in 1885, and Trang in In 1900, he was promoted to the post of High Commissioner of Monthon Phuket which comprises seven provinces, from Ranong to Trang, until his death in In the 1890s, King Rama V Chulalongkorn acknowledged Khaw as Thailand s most successful provincial governor. The next king, King Rama VI Vajiravudh regarded Khaw as a close family friend. He was conferred the decoration of the Second (Special) Class of the Chula Chom Klao Order by the King in 1908 and the Grand Cross of the Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, Thailand s most prestigious honour, in January Khaw was shot by a hospital dresser, Dr. Chan, on February in Trang. The incident dubbed the `Trang Outrage by the newspapers, was supposedly due to his dalliance with Chan s wife. He died on 10 April 1913 in Penang where he went for medical treatment. The funeral ceremonies, prior to the removal of the body to Ranong, to the family burial ground established by the patriarch, Khaw Soo Cheang, took place at Chakrabong House in Penang. This was a reflection of Sim Bee s identity as a Penang Chinese with a strong foothold in Thailand. It was an imposing ceremony, attended by prominent Chinese, Siamese and British officials, including British Resident- Councillor at the time, William Evans. Khaw had three wives: Lim Seng Kim of Penang, and Klao and Nuan Na Nakhon of Thailand. His children from his Penang wife were four daughters, Swee Lan, Swee Hua, Swee Huat, and Swee In, and a son, Joo Chye ( 如財, Rucai). Today, Khaw s legacy still remains in Penang and Southern Thailand. Khaw Sim Bee Road is named after him in Penang; while in Thailand, a statue of Khaw was erected on Khao Rang Hill overlooking Phuket Town, a noteworthy accolade for a Chinese businessman. Loh Wei Leng and Tan Miau Ing C.S. Wong, 1963b, p.9; Cushman, 1991, pp.90, 93; 1986, p.58; Franke & Chen, pp ; Lee & Chow, pp ; Khor & Khoo, pp ; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp.89, 108. Khoo Cheow Teong, 邱昭忠, Qiu Zhaozhong ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Banker, Philanthropist, Community Leader. Khoo Cheow Teong, a leader of the Hokkien community, was born in 1840 in Penang, the fourth son of Khoo Cheng Lim ( 邱清臨, Qiu Qinglin) and Koh Qing Yan, a granddaughter of Koh Lay Huan ( 辜禮歡, Gu Lihuan ). His ancestral origin was Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村 Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). He studied in a local Chinese school. His first job was as an assistant with a Chinese firm, after which he went to Perak to start his own business. Later, he went to Asahan, on the east coast of Sumatra to try his luck. He was quite successful there as a general merchant, subsequently expanding to other parts in the region. He went to Melaka in 1874 and married the eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, a rice merchant of Melaka. The Dutch recognized his achievements and appointed him Kapitan Cina of Asahan in 1878, and resigned the post on account of old age in He was a revenue farmer, joining syndicates in Deli, Asahan, Bengkal, and Penang. During his trading activities in Sumatra, he founded the Deli 94

99 bank with four other directors. However, he moved back to Penang while his business in Asahan was still running. Meanwhile, he managed to get the lease of the Penang opium and spirit farm with Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ) and Cheah Choon Seng ( 謝春生, Xie Chunsheng ). He acquired the Penang opium farm under the Chop Ban Chin Bee around In 1904, he resigned from the position of Kapitan Cina at the age of sixty-four. Being a wealthy businessman and merchant, Cheow Teong was able to engage in generous philanthropic acts. He donated $2,000 to the Medical College in Singapore. He also helped in the repair of the Mohamedan community s mosque in Asahan. In the First World War, together with Gan Ngoh Bee ( 顏五美, Yan Wumei ), they presented a reconnaissance plane named Malaya No. 15, Khoo Cheow Teong- Gan Ngoh Bee to the British Government. Both of them also donated $12, to the Malayan Air Squadrons Fund (War Fund). In the field of education, Khoo Cheow Teong sponsored a $1,500 scholarship for each of the boys schools in Penang, Anglo-Chinese Boys School, St. Xavier s Institution and Penang Free School in Cheow Teong was also a member of the Royal Society of Arts in the early 20th century and a committee member of the Penang Chinese Town Hall. In 1914, he was appointed the Justice of Peace. His residence was called Sunbeam Hall, opposite the Supreme Court of Penang, at Light Street. It was one of the notable mansions in western architectural style at the time. However, the house was destroyed during the Japanese invasion in December He had 3 sons and 3 daughters. His wife, Cheah Geok Swan from Asahan, was the mother of Khoo Sian Wei and Khoo Sian Ewe and two daughters. The eldest son, Sian Wei married the daughter of Gor Khuan Long, grand-daughter of Foo Tye Sin ( 胡泰興, Hu Taixing ). His second son, Sian Ewe ( 邱善佑, Qiu Shanyou ), married the daughters of Lee Bian Tiong ( 李錦中, Li Jinzhong) and grand-daughters of Khoo Tiong Poh ( 邱忠波, Qiu Zhongbo ), a millionaire and steamship owner of Chop Bun Hin. When she could not conceive, Sian Ewe married her adopted sister. His second daughter, Chooi Lan married the first Chinese barrister-at-law in Penang, Yeoh Guan Seok ( 楊元續, Yang Yuanxu ), the nephew of Yeoh Seng Khoe. Cheow Teong passed away on 1 September, 1916 and was buried at Batu Lanchang Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). In recognition of his contribution to society, an alley off Fish Lane in George Town is named Khoo Cheow Teong Court. Chee Lee Yoon and Hung Bee Ling Lee & Chow, p.63; SFP (23 Jan 1919; 8 March 1909); TST (4 Jul 1916; 15 Sep 1908, 23 Nov 1935); Wright, p.777, C.S. Wong, 1963a, pp.24-25; Leong San Tong, p.47 Salina Zainol, p.147; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.216; Wu Xiao An, 2003, p.89. Khoo Hun Yeang, 邱漢陽, Qiu Hanyang ( ) Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Planter, Community Leader. Khoo Hun Yeang was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late-19th century to the early-20th century in Penang. He was a leading revenue farmer, who controlled revenue farms in Singapore, Johore, North Borneo, and Sarawak. Khoo Hun Yeang was born and educated in Penang. He was the fourth son of Khoo Thean Teik ( 邱天德, Qiu Tainde ). His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村, Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). Upon the completion of his studies, he went to Province Wellesley and took charge of a large coconut plantation which belonged to his father. After ten years, he returned to join the Penang Opium and Spirit Farm in which his father was partner and manager. After the death of his father, he took over the family business in 1891 which included two pawnshops, Ban Ho and Ban Lee, shares of revenue farms and plantations. Six years later, he commenced his own business, Chin Lee & Co. ( 振利公司 ) at 60, Beach Street, which dealt with tin and other trades. 95

100 In 1899, Hun Yeang together with his brother, Hun Yeam, and uncle, Thean Poh ( 天保, Tianbao ) as well as other Penang Chinese towkays went into a partnership with the Singaporean Chinese syndicate and took control of the opium and spirit farms in Singapore. He was made as the principal director and manager of the revenue farms, named Chop Chin Moh Hin. In Singapore, Hun Yeang also set up another trading firm, Chop Khoo Chin Hong Company. He owned one of the largest and finest houses in Singapore located at 65, Club Street. The house cost $100,000. Besides Singapore, he also owned considerable residential properties in Penang and Sarawak. His business interests in revenue farms went beyond Singapore to Johore and Sarawak. Hun Yeang partnered Wong Ah Fook, a Cantonese towkay based in Johore, and gained control of not only Singapore s opium and spirit farms but also that in Johore. In Sarawak, he partnered his clansman, Khoo Sian Tan, a wellconnected towkay, and held the Sarawak s opium, spirit, and gambling farms for nine years. Besides revenue farms, Hun Yeang was also involved in the construction business. He rebuilt a number of shops in a main street of Kuching, which was later named after him. With his success in business, Hun Yeang rose to become an important social figure and assumed some leadership positions in Chinese organizations. In 1906, he served as a council member of the Chinese Town Hall and held the position until In 1907, he also served as a board member of Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), the Buddhist Temple at Ayer Hitam and Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ). A year later, he became a board member of Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ) also known as the Snake Temple and in 1915, he sat in the board of Seng Ong Beow Temple ( 城隍廟 ). On 30 June 1917, Hun Yeang died in a car accident during a visit to Medan. His body was brought back to Penang for internment at the private family burial ground, Kampong Bharu at Ayer Itam. He left behind a wife, Ong Gaik Tay, nine sons and seven daughters. Among the sons, Siew Jin was the most well-known. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (31 Dec 1891); SFP (1 Mar 1909, 4 Jul 1917); SE-ME (4 Jul 1917, 26 Sep 1917); Franke & Chen, p.660; Lee & Chow, p.66; Trocki, pp ; Leong San Tong, pp ; PCTH, p.169; Goh Leng Hoon, pp Khoo Sian Ewe, 邱善佑 Qiu Shanyou (1886, Melaka 1964) Merchant, Legislative and Municipal Councillor. Khoo Sian Ewe was born in Melaka on 27 October His ancestral family origin was Xin an Village ( 新安社 ), Haicheng District ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou Prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian Province ( 福建省 ). He was the second son of Khoo Cheow Teong ( 邱昭忠, Qiu Zhaozhong ) J.P., a wealthy businessman who was the Kapitan Cina of Asahan, Sumatra. While not the eldest, Khoo Sian Ewe inherited his father s businesses in trade and shipping as his brother Sian Wei had his own business. He was also involved in poultry farming, and real estate via the Eastern Realty Company Limited. After putting his various businesses on a firm footing, Khoo began to participate in public affairs, serving his community, moving to broader societal levels as his appointments attest to. Khoo Sian Ewe was the longest serving president of the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ) - he served for nearly 40 years ( ). He was president of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce for four terms ( ). He was also president of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 龍山堂邱公司 ), Toon Keng Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 敦敬堂邱公司 ), Poh Hock Seah ( 寶福社 ), Poh Leung Kuk ( 保良局 ) and the Old Frees Association. He was cofounder of Cheang Chew Asociation ( 檳榔嶼漳州會館 ); vice-president of the Penang Wireless Society; honorary treasurer of Kim Lan Seah ( 金蘭社 ) and Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ); trustee of the Seow Tik Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 紹德堂邱公司 ), Chinese Benevolent Association (1917); Straits Chinese British Association (1929), Strait Settlements 96

101 (Penang) Association, and Penang Chinese British Association (1930); committee member of the District Hospital, the Malaya-Borneo Exhibition; fellow of the British Empire Exhibition and Royal Society of Arts, London (1924), and member of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Khoo Sian Ewe s interest in education is evident from his donations. He set up an annual Khoo Sian Ewe Scholarship for the Penang Free School, which he attended when he came to Penang. He also made donations to the St. Xavier s Institution and the Anglo Chinese School in 1918; contributed to the building of a hall each for both the Convent and the Pykett Methodist School; donated $1,000 for the erection of a tiffin shelter at the Anglo-Chinese Girls school, Anson Road and $10,000 to the University of Malaya Endowment Fund in He assumed positions in education institutions, acting as an unofficial trustee of the Penang Free School, patron of the Anglo-Chinese School Union (1934), council member of Raffles College, honorary member of Penang Chung Ling High School ( 鐘靈中學 ), and member of the Committee of Management of the Penang Free School before the Penang government took over the control of the institution. In addition, he also became involved in many charitable associations. For instance, he was one of the founders of the Penang Rotary Club in 1930; president of the Relief Committee (1935), Penang and Province Wellesley Jubilee Fund (1936) and the Penang Poppy Day Appeal Committee (serving for 30 years); trustee of the Penang Chinese Provident Association ( 檳城華僑一善會 ); member of the St. Nicholas Home for blind and crippled children when it moved from Melaka in 1932, and member of Compensation Board of Penang (1941). His other philanthropic contributions included $5,000 to the Red Cross (1918); expenses of food for one month at the unemployment shelter (1930), a mobile canteen to the Malayan Auxiliary Fire Service (A.F.S.) unit (1941) and 1,000 for Britain s war effort (1939). As chairman of the Chinese section of the Malaya Patriotic Fund, in 1939, he contributed $5,000 and helped raise $30,000. He donated 4 cottages to the Silver Jubilee Home for the Aged ( 檳城雙溪賴銀禧老人院 ) in memory of his wife, Lee Eng Sim Neoh. Khoo Sian Ewe was interested in sporting activities. He was founder of the Penang Badminton Association. In 1929 he founded a new Malayan Championship Cup to replace the Loke Yew Cup and presented a challenge cup for rifle-shooting for H.M. Forces in He became a president of the Penang Chinese Football Association (1930), vice president of the Penang Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ), vice-patron of Penang Amateur Athletic Association (AAA), trustee of the Penang Chinese Swimming Club s swimming pool fund (1947), and patron of the Malayan Chinese Athletic Association. He donated $1,000 and presented a Challenge cup for the 100 Metres Free Style Open Championship of Penang (1947). He also served as an official of Malayan Chinese Olympiad (1937). His participation in many different spheres made him a very popular man among the locals and in 1925 he took first place in the The Pinang Gazette s popularity contest campaign, the Malayan Tribune of 28th October reporting him as the first prize winner with over a hundred million votes! This was an indicator of his standing in the community. In recognition of his service to society, Khoo Sian Ewe was appointed Justice of the Peace (1920). He was a Municipal Commissioner of George Town for over 27 years ( ); an unofficial member of the Legislative Council (from January 11, 1934 to 1941), succeeding Lim Cheng Ean ( 林清淵, Lin Qingyuan); the Hokkien community s representative to the Chinese Advisory Board (1926), committee member of the Committee of Chinese Marriages (Singapore, 1925) and board member of Visitor s to the Quarantine Station Pulau Jerejak (1926). As a member of the Legislative Council, he was a recipient of the King George VI Coronation Medal (1937). To crown it all, Khoo was made an O.B.E. by the governor, Sir Shenton Thomas in 1939, who said Khoo has been an outstanding figure in the public life of Penang and his great influence there has always been used for good. This honour was followed by the C.B.E. in Khoo Sian Ewe Road was named in his honour as a tribute to his 97

102 outstanding contribution. Khoo Sian Ewe owned two buildings along the road: Loke Thye Kee ( 樂台居 ) and Majestic Cinema. The Majestic ( 大華戲院, Thye Hwa cinema, also known as Khoo Sian Ewe Theatre), the first cinema to screen Chinese Talkies in the 1930s, opened in 1926 as The Penang Theatre. In 1905 Khoo Sian Ewe married Lee Eng Sim Neoh and Lee Gaik Thye ( 李玉太, Li Yutai), both were daughters of Lee Bian Tiong ( 李錦中, Lee Jinzhong) and granddaughters of Khoo Tiong Poh ( 邱忠波, Qiu Zhongbo ), a millionaire and owner of steamship company, Chop Bun Hin ( 萬興號輪船公司 ). Together, they had eight sons: Keat Cheong ( 吉種, Jizhong), Keat Hoe ( 吉和, Jihe), Keat Theam ( 吉添, Jitian), Keat Hock ( 吉福, Jifu), Keat Siew ( 吉壽, Jishou), Keat San ( 吉山, Jishan), Keat Hye ( 吉海, Jihai) and Keat Een ( 吉年, Jinian); and five daughters: Gim Chit, Gim Gaik, Gim Choo, Gim Phaik and Gim Guat. Among them, Keat Siew (Dato Seri), is a distinguished member of Penang s civil society. Khoo Sian Ewe retired from public life in years later, on 24 January 1964, he passed away at the age of 81 in his residence at Penang Road. His stature and influence in society was clearly shown in his funeral s mile-long procession, attended by the governor of Penang at that time, Raja Tun Uda Al- Haj and his wife, Tengku Puan Hajjah Nor Sa adah, the chief minister of Penang, Dato Wong Pow Nee ( 王保尼, Wang Baoni) and the Mayor, C.Y. Choy ( 崔耀才, Chui Yaocai). Tan Kim Hong & Chee Lee Yoon MT (18 Feb 1926); TST (20 Oct 1905, 7 Sep 1918, 35 Nov 1924, 23 Oct 1925, 14 Dec 1929, 25 Jan 1929, 11 Jun 1929, 23 March 1929, 28 Oct 1930, 7 May 1932, 22 Jan 1934, 22 Feb 1935, 26 May 1937, 23 Jul 1947, 12 May 1960, 25 Jan 1964); SFP (12 Dec 1918, 26 Dec 1918, 19 Jun 1926, 6 Nov 1926, 25 Mar 1929, 15 Apr 1930, 22, Jul 1930, 14 Aug 1930, 26 May 1937); Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.164; Lee & Chow, pp.67-68; C.S.Wong, 1963a, po.24-25; Khoo Su Nin, 1993, p.55; Leong San Tong, pp.34, 50; Khor & Khoo, p.100; JMBRAS, 1937, p.xx; Website (Hist-Silver Jubilee Home) Khoo Soo Hong, 邱泗方 / 四方 / 泗芳, Qiu Sifang ( ) Merchant, Planter, Land Proprietor, Community Leader. Khoo Soo Hong was one of the prominent social and business figures from early 19th century to the mid-19th century in Penang. He was one of the founders of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi and had business interests in trade, planting and real estate. Khoo Soo Hong was born in Penang and his ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村, Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He started his career first as a fowl seller and then as sampan wallah. At age thirty, he established himself as a cloth dealer and opened a shop Chop Joo Huat at the junction of Armenian Street Ghaut and Beach Street. His shop was also a general commission agent and later he built an extensive trading concern in tin. He also owned a schooner Eagle ( tons). Having accumulated capital from the cloth and tin trade, Soo Hong invested in landed property in Armenian Street where he built and owned nearly all the shop houses. Besides that, he also owned several other properties situated at Beach, Church, Bishop, and China streets. He acquired a plantation situated at the junction of Bagan Jermal Road and Mount Erskine Road. The plantation was known as Square Villa. Soo Hong was a prime mover in the establishment of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 龍山堂邱公司 ) at Cannon Square and became one of the founding trustees of the Seah Khoo Kongsi in As a community leader, he contributed generously to local temples and cemeteries. For example, in 1856, a sum of 120 yuan was donated by Soo Hong to the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ). In 1862, he made a donation of 320 yuan for the restoration of Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ). In 1880, he donated 120 yuan for rebuilding the Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ) or Snake Temple. In 1886, he donated 200 yuan to the Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東公塚 ). Apart from donations, he built a 98

103 series of tile and corrugated-iron huts facing Weld Quay for the benefit of poor sampan men. He passed away on 12 January 1895 at the age of 82. He left behind six sons: Low Chung, Guat San, Guat Cheng, Jar Tee, Hoon Thooi, and Sun Poh; and three daughters. Soo Hong Lane ( 四方巷 ) in George Town is named after him. Wong Yee Tuan had one of his daughters married to Syed Mohamed Alatas, a wealthy Acehnese merchant of Arab descent. Having formed such alliances with the Acehnese, Thean Poh was able to secure a monopoly of the pepper trade which the Europeans found hard to break. Apart from the pepper trade, Thean Poh was also a partner of Boon Tek & Co., located at 29 Beach Street, which operated as ship chandlers, general store keepers, and general commission agents. PGSC (15 Jan 1895); SMJ (18 Jan 1895); Franke & Chen, pp.722, 724, 733; Salina Zainol, p.224; private paper from Khoo Salma. Khoo Thean Poh, 邱天保, Qiu Tianbao ( ) Merchant, Ship Owner, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Khoo Thean Poh also known as Khoo Tiang Poh, Khoo Tian Poh and Khoo Poh, was one of the prominent business and social figures from the mid- 19th century to the late-19th century in Penang. He was a leading merchant in the pepper trade between Penang and Sumatra. Khoo Thean Poh was born in Penang in 1833 and was the eighth son of Khoo Guek Chio ( 邱月照, Qiu Yuezhao), a merchant, landowner and a leader of the Khoo clan. His ancestral origin can be traced to Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村 Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. In the 1860s, Thean Poh was actively involved in the pepper trade with Northern Sumatra, particularly the western coast of Aceh. Together with Khoo Kay Chan, Lim Pet Lean, and Lim Tit, he formed a company that operated seven sailing ships, schooners, barques, and brigs. In order to manage his business, Thean Poh used to live in Melabuh for a few years and established a close relationship with Teuku Imam, Raja of Tenom and Teuku Yit, a prominent Acehnese trader. Besides that, he also Owing to the wars between the Acehnese and the Dutch and the restriction placed by the Dutch government on the export of pepper, Thean Poh sold all his ships and retired from the pepper trading business in the late 1870s. Later, he became actively involved in the opium farm business. Together with his nephew, Khoo Hun Yeang ( 邱漢陽, Qiu Hanyang ) and a few Chinese towkays, he gained control of opium farms in Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong. With his success in business, Thean Poh rose to become an important social figure and assumed leadership positions in Chinese organizations. He became the vice-president or Gee-ko of Kien Tek Tong, the most powerful Hokkien hui or secret society in Penang. In 1867, he and his elder brother, Khoo Thean Teik ( 邱天德, Qiu Tiande ), the president or Toa-ko of Kien Tek Tong ( 建德堂 ), mobilized thousands of coolies and started the Penang Riots of 1867, the worst riots in nineteenth century British colonies, in order to regain control of the opium farm in Penang. As a result, he was arrested and deported to Kedah. He was later allowed to return to Penang when the British authorities found that he was a natural-born British subject who was not liable to deportation. Despite the British criminal charges against him, Thean Poh assisted the British to resolve the Nisero Incident in Aceh. In 1884, he accompanied Sir William Maxwell, the Resident Councillor of Penang, to negotiate with the Acehnese chiefs for the relief of the 26 crew of the Nisero, who were detained when their schooner was wrecked on the west coast of Sumatra near Tenom. Being an associate of the Acehnese chiefs, Thean Poh successfully obtained their release. In recognition of 99

104 Thean Poh s help the Government of Queen Victoria awarded him a gold watch with the following inscription Presented to Khoo Thean Poh by Her Majesty s Government for services in connection with the release of the crew of the Nisero. In 1889, Thean Poh became a board member of Boon San Tong Koo Kongsi ( 文山堂邱公司 ) and in 1892 he served as its president. In 1895, he became the secretary of the Chinese Town Hall and Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ) as well as acting secretary of Lam Wah Ee Hospital ( 南華醫院 ). Thean Poh also donated generously to cemeteries and temples in Penang for their renovation and restoration. In 1886, he donated 60 yuan to build a rest house in the Batu Lanchang cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). In 1890, he made a donation of 60 yuan to build a rest house in the Hokkien cemetery of Pulau Tikus ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ) and two years later another donation of 12 yuan for reconditioning the cemetery. In 1891, he made a donation of 162 yuan to build the main hall of Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ) In January 1919, Thean Poh passed away at the age of 86 and he left behind four sons, five daughters, and many grandchildren, and great grand children. Wong Yee Tuan FO ; STWI (1 Oct 1890); SFP (21 Jan 1919); Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.183; PD, 1874, p.32; Genealogy of Khoo and Chan clans Khoo Thean Teik, 邱天德, Qiu Tiande ( ) Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Planter, Tin Miner, Community Leader. Khoo Thean Teik alias Khoo Tean Tek alias Khoo Tan Tek was one of the prominent business and social figures from the mid- to the late-19th century in Penang. He established a business empire which encompassed shipping, trading, planting, revenue farming, and tin mining. By controlling Kian Tek Tong ( 建德堂 ) or Toa Peh Kong ( 大伯公 ), a Hokkien-dominated hui, he became the most powerful Hokkien community leader in Penang and led his followers to start the Penang Riots of 1867, the worst riots in the British colonies. Khoo Thean Teik was born in 1818 in Penang. His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村 Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was the third son of Khoo Guek Chio ( 邱月照, Qiu Yuezhao), a merchant and landowner and a leader of the Khoo clan. Thean Teik was educated in Chinese. After completing his studies, he joined his father in business. After the death of his father, Thean Teik took over the family businesses and progressively expanded them. His principal firm, Chop Chin Bee ( 振美號 ), located at Beach Street, handled imports and exports as well as shipping. He also owned two pawnshops, Ban Ho ( 萬和 ) and Ban Lee ( 萬利 ), and two more trading firms, Chin Yang Mow and Chop Khoon Ho ( 坤和號 ), which dealt in provisions and the coolie business respectively. In the agricultural sector, Thean Teik invested substantially in planting cash crops, particularly sugar and coconut. He owned a 200-acre coconut estate at Payah Trubong. His major business interests were however in tin mining and revenue farms. Teaming up with Chung Keng Kwee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ), a Hakka and the leader of the Hai San hui ( 海山會 ), Thean Teik was able to tap the mineral riches in Larut, Perak. In one case, together with Koh Seang Thye ( 辜上達, Gu Shangda ), they supplied $60,000 in goods, money, and ammunition to Chung Keng Kwee for his mining activities in Larut. In return Keng Kwee repaid his creditors with seven-tenths of the percentage on the tin he produced. Thean Teik also owned a number of mines. In 1888 alone, his mines produced about 180 tons of tin. Opium revenue farming was another lucrative business that Thean Teik invested heavily. He was a partner of the Penang Opium Syndicate which secured control of the opium farms in Penang, Perak, Selangor, Singapore, and Hong Kong. In 1867, Thean Teik allied with the leaders of the Red Flag society and started a series of riots in George Town, which were known as the Penang Riots, in response to the competing syndicate 100

105 Ghee Hin s success in securing control of Penang opium farm. The riots reportedly caused a loss of lives and about 1000 houses burnt down. Thean Teik was arrested and put on trial. Two leading lawyers, Bernard Rodyk and R. C. Woods defended Thean Teik. After a trial, which lasted for few days, Thean Teik was found guilty for aiding and abetting in certain murder cases during the riots and sentenced to death. The death sentence was however commuted and he was banished to Singapore for two years as hard labor. When he came back to Penang, Thean Teik continued to play an active and influential role in business. He successfully regained control of Penang s opium revenue farms until In addition, he also cooperated with his old partner, Chung Keng Kwee to monopolise the revenue farms in Perak. In 1885, Thean Teik together with the other fourteen Chinese towkays of Penang founded the first and Penang-based Chinese insurance company, the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Company Limited. Thean Teik was also an influential social and community leader. In December 1860, he was elected by ballot to become the head of Kian Teik Tong. On 24th February 1861, he officially assumed the leadership. He was one of the pioneer trustees of Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 龍山堂邱公司 ) which was established in He succeeded his father as a member of the Board of Trustees of Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 文山堂邱公司 ). Apart from his own clan organizations, he also held some important positions in other local Chinese associations. He was a board member of the Batu Lanchang and Batu Gantong Hokkien Cemeteries, Snake Temple or Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ), Seng Ong Beow ( 城隍廟 ); principal director of the Penang Chinese Town Hall; and a trustee of the Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ), which was Penang s main community temple serving both as a site for individual and collective worship and as a community tribunal and council. In 1874, he was a member of the Committee of Management for the Anti- Mendicity Society in Penang. Thean Teik had three wives (Chew Fong Neo, Ooi Kiaw Neo, and Boey Kwee Lan) and eight sons (Hun Kang, Hun Chin, Hun Tee, Hun Yeang, Hun Yeam, Hun Swee, Hun Boh, and Hun Eng). Among the sons, Hun Yeang ( 漢陽, Hanyang ), who took over the family business, was the most well-known. On 8 April 1890, Thean Teik passed away at his residence at Ujong Passir. His body was removed on 24 September from Ujong Passir to his plantation at Payah Trubong for burial. It was reported that there were nearly four to five thousand persons who attended his funeral, the grandest of the times in the Straits. Wong Yee Tuan Lee & Chow, pp.70-71; PAMA (12 Mar 1868); PGSC (26 Sep 1890); Franke & Chen, pp.581, 601; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, pp.75, 78; PD, 1874, p.20; Wong Yee Tuan, 2007, p.107 ; 2009, p.60; PCTH, p.169; Leong San Tong, p.45. Khoo Tiong Poh, 邱忠波, Qiu Zhongbo ( ) Ship Owners, Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Tin Miner. Khoo Tiong Poh alias Khoo Teong Poh was one of the prominent business and social figures from the mid- to the late-19th century in Penang and Singapore. He established Bun Hin and Company, which became one of the leading shipping, perhaps the largest, enterprise in the Straits Settlements. His business interests spanned across trading, planting, revenue farming, and tin mining. Khoo Tiong Poh was born in China in 1830 and migrated to the Straits when he was about 22 years old. His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村 Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). He was the eldest son of Khoo Eng Chye ( 邱應財, Qiu Yingcai). In Singapore, he became a partner of chop Teong Ho in Market Street and of the ship-chandlery firm of Ann Bee, Keng Lam & Co. (Chop Sin Bee Siang) in Bonham Street. In 1874, Tiong Poh, who retired from Teong Ho, partnered with Rajah Wichit of Phya Puket to establish a shipping and trading company Bun Hin & Co. ( 萬興公司 ) located at Malacca Street, Singapore. Bun Hin & Co. also served as an agent for Man On Insurance Company, Limited of Hong Kong and Singapore Patent Paint Co. Ltd. 101

106 In 1880, Tiong Poh recruited a capable person, Quah Beng Hong ( 柯孟洪, Ke Menghong) from Penang, an elder brother of Quah Beng Kee ( 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ), as the manager of Bun Hin & Co. Within a few years, the company opened branches in Penang, Hong Kong, Amoy, and Swatow. The branch in Penang was known as Bun Hin Chan located at 89, Beach Street. At one time, Bun Hin & Co. owned twelve steamers s.s. Cheang Chew, s.s. Cheang Hock Kian, s.s. Cheang Hye Teng, s.s. Samtor, s.s. Chow Phya, s.s. Petrel, s.s. Chan Tai, s.s. Kedah, and s.s. Hanoi, s.s. Pearl, s.s. Carisbrooke, and s.s. Ferntower. Each of these steamers plied different regional and international routes. For example, s.s. Pearl sailed between Singapore and Saigon; s.s. Chow Phya sailed between Singapore, Melaka, and Klang; s.s. Hanoi sailed between Penang and Larut; s.s. Cheang Hye Teng sailed between Penang, Singapore and China. The principal commodities carried by these steamers were tin from Perak and Selangor, rice from Saigon, coolies and China goods from China. Apart from shipping and trading, Tiong Poh also had business interests in tin mining, revenue farming, planting, insurance. He partnered Ong Beng Tek and Khoo Cheng Sin and ventured into the tin mining and smelting business in Perak. They operated chop Khun San, a shop-cum-smelting house located at Main Road, Kamunting, Larut. In Kamunting, Tiong Poh owned nine pieces of lands which totaled about 16,000 square feet. In Selangor, he owned the chop Hock San to operate tin mining. Besides having his own tin mines, he also financed other Chinese towkays mining operations. In 1886, Tiong Poh became the director of The Straits Fire Insurance Company, Limited, which was incorporated in Singapore. Forming an alliance with the Penang Opium Syndicate, he was successful, gaining control of the Singapore s opium and spirit farms and the Larut coast revenue farm in In Penang, Tiong Poh owned a large plantation near Batu Lanchang. Tiong Poh s philanthropic deeds in Penang were his donations to the two largest Hokkien cemeteries (Batu Lanchang and the Batu Gantong cemeteries) and four major Chinese temples: Chooi Bee Keong ( 水美宮 ), Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ), Seng Ong Beow ( 城隍廟 ), and Cheng Leong Keong ( 清龍宮 ). He was appointed to the Selangor Cooly Depot Committee in Selangor. In 1888, he was given an honourable title, Daotai ( 道台 ) by the Qing government for his financial contribution for coastal defence and flood relief in China. Tiong Poh had three wives (Yeoh Siew Kim, Tan Poo Neo, and Tio Oo Neo), eight sons (Ghin Choe, Ghin Keat, Ghin Yew, Ghin Tak, Ghin Teow, Ghin Haw, Phee Soon, and Mah Lek), and four daughters (Sor Pek, Sor Tin, Sor Gan, and Sor Lan). On 2 March 1892, he passed away in Singapore after a prolonged illness. His body was brought over to Penang by s.s. Cheang Chew to be buried in his plantation. After about nine months of Tiong Poh s death, Bun Hin Chan of Penang was wound up due to financial difficulties and family feuds. All Tiong Poh s properties in Penang were seized by the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China and put up for sale by public action on 30 December His properties included three shop-houses (14, 18 and 20) situated in Toh Aka Lane in George Town; two dwelling houses (42 Armenian Lane and 152 Acheen Street); a piece of 2,660-square-feet land situated on the north side of Weld Quay; ten shophouses (296, 298, 300, 302, 304, 306, 308, 310, 312, and 314) and seven brick-bult godowns located at Sungai Pinang. The whole of his estate, including those in Singapore, Swatow, Amoy, and Hong Kong was estimated at $2,000,000. Tiong Poh Road in Singapore is named after him. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (21 Dec 1892); SFP (3 Mar 1892); PGG (Jul-Dec 1891); SGG (30 Oct 1891); Leong San Tong, p.44; Yen Ching Hwang, 1992, p.28; Kua Bak Lim, p.101; Lee & Chow, p.71; Song Ong Siong, pp. 176, 188, 201-2, 260, 311; Franke & Chen, pp. 558, 580, 598, 623. Koh Cheng Sian, 辜禎善, Gu Zhenshan ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Koh Cheng Sian was the fourth generation of 102

107 Koh Lay Huan s ( 辜禮歡, Gu Lihuan) lineage, the first Kapitan Cina in Penang. He was one of the prominent business and community figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He was one of the founders of the Straits Echo, the first Chinese-owned English newspaper in Penang. Koh Cheng Sian s ancestral origin can be traced to the village of Fengshan ( 峯山 ), Tong An ( 同安 ), Quanzhou prefecture ( 泉州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was educated at the Penang Free School and at Doveton College, Calcutta, where he completed his commercial course. Upon returning to Penang, he partnered his brother, Cheng Hooi, and other kin and friends (Koh Seang Chee, Koh Choon Keat, Cheah Cheng Tuan, and Khoo Ghee Boo) and founded the ship-handling firm of Cheng Hooi and Company, located at 10, Beach Street. The firm closed down when Cheng Hooi died. Later, Koh took up the appointment as a managing partner in Chop Ban Chin Hong, a leading Chinese shipping firm. In 1889, he went to Hong Kong as a managing partner of the opium and spirit farms known as Cheang Teik Kongsi of which his father, Koh Seang Tat ( 辜上達, Gu Shangda ), was the principal partner. In 1892, he was accused by the Hong Kong partner of embezzlement and was arrested by the Hong Kong authorities. Later, he was released when the Hong Kong partner found out that it was a misunderstanding. After four years, he came back to Penang and worked for Messrs Presgrave and Matthews (Advocates, Solicitors, and Notaries Public), located at 13, Beach Street. His responsibilities involved preparing cases, both civil and criminal, and drawing up legal documents for his principals, W. E. Presgrave and Sir Bromhead Matthews. In 1903, he resigned his job with the legal firm to manage his father s estate. Koh Cheng Sian assumed a number of leadership roles in the local Chinese organizations. He became the first Honorary Secretary of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce and the Honorary Secretary of Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ), a Straits-born Chinese association, for several years. In addition, he was also the president of the Anglo-Chinese Reading Room and the secretary and advisor of the Straits Chinese British Association for two years. His wife was Cheah Keow Moh, a daughter of Cheah Siang of Penang. He had one son, Leok Hup, and two daughters, Chooi Pheng and Chooi Eng. Chooi Pheng, the elder daughter, married Chung Thye Seong, the eighth son of Chung Keng Kwee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ), the Kapitan Cina of Perak and leader of the Hai San hui. Chooi Eng married Oh Joo Kooi. In December 1928, Koh died from broncho-pneumonia at his residence, 76, Bishop Street. He was buried at the family burial ground at Batu Lanchang. Wong Yee Tuan SE-WE (5 Dec 1928); TST (4 Dec 1928); C.S. Wong, 1963a, pp.17-18; Lee & Chow, p.72. Koh Lay Huan, 辜禮歡, Gu Lihuan (b. unknown, China - d. 1826) Planter, Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Kapitan Cina. Koh Lay Huan, alias Chewan, Cheko and Che Kay, was one of the earliest Chinese to come to Penang, with his family being one of the earliest and oldest on the island. Koh and his descendants, second to the sixth generations, were key players within the Chinese community as well as society at large, since the establishment of Penang as a British outpost in 1786 well into the twentieth century. Koh came from Fengshan ( 峯山 ), Tong an ( 同安 ), Quanzhou prefecture ( 泉州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was said to be one of those who had rebelled against the Manchus and fled from China. He first migrated to Siam and later to Kuala Muda, Kedah where he was Kapitan Cina. But there is little information on his activities at these two places except that he married a daughter of the ruler and had a considerable sway in their Becharas or Councils. Koh Lay Huan, together with some Indian Christians, presented Francis Light with a fishing net on 18 July 1786, the day after Light s men landed in Penang Island. They were allowed to erect a small 103

108 bazaar near the cantonments. In 1787, Koh brought over 500 Chinese from Kuala Muda and established a settlement in China Street. In the same year, Francis Light appointed Koh as the first Kapitan Cina of Penang. Koh was a leading merchant and planter. With Light s financial help, he introduced pepper plants from Aceh to Penang in Other than planting, he was also involved in revenue farming. He obtained the licence for the Arrack (Liquor) farm for James Town (now Sungei Kluang) in 1806; subsequently other revenue farms in George Town in were awarded to Chewan, his name in official records. In 1807 he was appointed to be one of the Asian members in the Roads Committee to plan and develop the communication system in George Town. One of the Penang s earliest streets, China Street, was said to be established by Koh with his residence at 33 China Street, one of the brick shop-houses. In the 1870 s, Koh and his family moved into Edinburgh House at Duke Street. He died in 1826 and was laid to rest at the family burial ground at Batu Lanchang. He had two wives, one in Penang, Saw It Neoh ( 蘇憶娘 ), and one in Kedah, Guan Boey Neoh ( 顏梅娘 ); eight sons, Yushui ( 雨水 ), Kok Chye ( 國彩, Guocai), Aun Peng ( 安平, Anping), Guozhong ( 國忠 ), Guozhen ( 國珍 ), Leong Tee ( 龍池, Longchi), Guoliang ( 國良 ) and Yinglei ( 應雷 ); three daughters, Li Niang ( 莅娘 ), Cailuan ( 彩鸞 ) and Qian Niang ( 謙娘 ); and seven grandsons, Teng Choon ( 登春, Dengchun), Zhixi ( 指西 ), Xialian ( 夏蓮 ), Minzheng ( 敏正 ), Renchen ( 壬辰 ), Jianxun ( 建熏 ) and Ziyun ( 紫雲 ). His descendants continued to play significant roles in Penang. Beginning with his eldest son, Kok Chye, who served as a public official in Kuala Kedah and governor in Siamese territories; grandson, Teng Choon was also a governor in Siam; great-grandson Seang Tat ( 上達, Shangda ) was appointed Justice of the Peace and Municipal Commissioner; sixth generation Sin Hock ( 承福, Chengfu) served as councillor at state and federal levels, not to mention assuming leadership positions in most community organisations. Other family members were prominent social figures, among them greatgrandson Hong Beng ( 鴻明, Hongming) a wellknown literary figure; Seang Tat s son Cheng Sian ( 禎善, Zhenshan ) a leading personality in business and social organisations such as Poe Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ), a `Straits-born kongsi and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ). Undoubtedly, Koh Lay Huan was a major figure in Penang, followed by equally illustrious descendants who were influential in economic and social arenas throughout the nineteenth century into the postindependent era. Loh Wei Leng and Tan Miau Ing Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.42; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp.28, 61; Wright, p.755; C.S. Wong, 1963a, pp , 47; Franke & Chen, pp ; Turnbull, p.9; Lee & Chow, pp.73-74; HPP p.92, Tan Kim Hong, 2007, pp.80, 86. Koh Seang Tat, 辜上達, Gu Shangda ( ) Court Interpreter, Planter, Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Activist, Philanthrophist, Public Figure. Born in 1831, Koh Seang Tat (also known as Koh Seang Tatt and Koh Seang Thye or Koh Seang Tai) was the eldest son of Uhoo Sim Neoh and Koh Teng Choon ( 辜登春, Gu Dengchun), the eldest son of Koh Kok Chye ( 辜國彩 Gu Guocai) who, in turn, was the eldest son of Koh Lay Huan ( 辜禮歡, Gu Lihuan), the first Kapitan Cina of Penang. By the end of his life, eighty years later, he had achieved significant notability, or notoriety, depending on whose point of view you prefer. However, it was clear that he had undertaken matters of considerable importance. It is likely that few Asians, without formal legal education, understood the laws of the land as well as the canny Koh Family. Koh Teng Choon, although known for his success as a planter, first worked as an Interpreter in the Penang Supreme Court, his son, Seang Tat following suit in his father s footsteps. His intimate knowledge of the law and of the workings of the justice system ensured that Seang Tat stayed 104

109 on the right side of it, and allowed him to make full use of it for his own ends. By 1861 Seang Tat had since left the service of the Colonial Government and gone into business with Foo Tye Sin ( 胡泰興, Hu Taixing ), under the style Tye Sin Tat & Co., general and wine merchants, operating out of two shop houses on Beach Street. They expanded their business interests to shipchandling and revenue-farming. He was known to have been a headman of the Tokong Secret Society involved in both the Penang Riots and the Larut War. Although it is not known for a fact, he may have had a personal interest in the mines at Larut. During the last of the disturbances that made up the Larut War, he financed Chung Keng Quee s ( 鄭景貴, Zheng jinggui ) efforts against the opposing Ghee Hin backed miners to the tune of $60,000. At the end of 1869, during the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh, Lieutenant-Governor Anson rented Seang Tat s brand new, and never-yet-occupied Anglo-Straits style mansion in Light Street, for the use of the Duke. He received a souvenir gold medal from the Duke. Upon the Duke s departure, Anson made a gift to Seang Tat of the bed that the Duke had used while staying there. The house was thereafter known as Edinburgh House in memory of its Royal occupant. Danish photographer Kristen Feilberg (or Christen Schjellerup Feilberg) of Sachtler & Co. of Singapore and Sachtler & Feilberg of Penang, produced a 10- part panoramic view of Penang taken from the tower of Seang Tat s Edinburgh House around the late 60s or early 70s. There was no love lost between the people of Penang and those of Singapore who seemed, between the two, to have always had the upperhand. However, in 1879 Seang Tat convinced Penang s Lieutenant- Governor Anson, who had relocated from Penang to Singapore to serve as Acting Governor of the Straits Settlements, that the Singapore farmers were making far too much money compared to the money made by Government on the letting of the Opium Farm there. Breaking with tradition, where tenders were usually opened in the Governor s private office, and where he was not obliged to accept the highest bid, Anson moved to have a publicly open tender. Seang Tat s was the highest bid and so wrested their tightly held jewel from the hands of the Singapore Opium Farmers, the first person from Penang to have ever managed this feat. Whether to celebrate, to salve the wounded pride of defeated Singaporeans, or to rub their noses in his win, Seang Tat promptly sponsored The Opium Farmer s Cup for the Second Race of the Singapore Autumn Race, 15 November 1879, which carried a value of $300 compared to the $150 value of The Merchant s Cup for the First Race and the $100 value of The Square Plate for the Third Race. He was one of the founders of the Penang Po Leung Kuk ( 保良局 ), a charitable society for the Protection of Women and Children. He represented the interests of the poor and the smallholder, in discussions with the Governor, on Crown Lands Encroachments in December In October 1886, in connection with the Penang Centenary, Seang Tat set aside $3,000 for the establishment of a scholarship each for the Penang Free School and St. Xavier s Institution. Around the middle of November 1886, Seang Tat entertained visitors from China at Edinburgh House - the two Chinese Commissioners of the Emperor of China General Wong Yung Ho and Consul-General W. Tsing. General Wong, born in Penang, was a British subject and an old schoolmate of Seang Tat, having attended the Penang Free School in his youth. He was an expert witness providing evidence and opinions to the Royal Commission on Opium ( ). Although he was, himself, an Opium Farmer, Seang Tat gave candid and honest testimony, weighing the benefits of the drug, and the farming of it, against the physical and social harm these caused. All in all, more negative than positive. In fact, he concluded, that it will be to the advantage of the whole if the opium traffic can be entirely stopped. Earlier on, in 1886 he had similarly tendered evidence and opinions to the Commission on Public Gaming and Lotteries. Seang Tat was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 105

110 January On 24 September 1884, at a meeting of the Justices of the Peace, Seang Tat was elected to the membership of Licencing Board. In a hotly-contested Municipal Commission election in February 1888, among the 10 candidates, the top three elected were Koh Seang Tat 136 votes, Dr. Brown 141 and Cheah Chen Eok ( 謝增煜, Xie Zengyu ) 145. Following a libel suit brought against him by the then Resident Councillor, W. E. Maxwell, Seang Tat retired from the Municipal Commission, and resigned his Commission as a Justice of the Peace by December Seang Tat, accompanied by his fifth son, Koh Cheng Soon, took an extended tour of Europe and America, returning around the middle of He had been to Europe about ten years earlier in He was not idle for long. On 21 July 1891 Seang Tat once more stood for the Municipal elections, garnering 18 votes, C.A. McIntyre coming in second with 1 vote. There were only two candidates. He polled 339 votes on 10 January 1893 when he stood a third time. In 1893, frustrated and angered by the unfair distribution of State Funds from the collective General Revenue of the Colony of the Straits Settlements, Seang Tat put together a damning, statistics-backed case against the actions of Legislative Council, and, armed with 3,941 signatures, fought for the rights of the businessmen and indeed the whole population of Penang, and her dependancies, Province Wellesley and The Dindings. Koh Seang Tat, 80 years of age, passed away on the 26th of April, 1911 at Edinburgh House, Penang. His funeral took place on Sunday 14 May 1911, attended by nearly 3,000 people from all walks of life. The funeral procession stretched almost half a mile long from Light Street to the Jubilee Clock Tower. He left many gifts for the people of Penang, some of which remain. Among those gifts are the land used to build the Ayer Itam reservoir and a police station at Bukit Panara; a wing for the Penang Free School built with the $2,020 he donated in 1878 ; the hospital built for $2,000 in memory of his father Koh Teng Choon and a second ward of about 4,914 sq. ft. which was opened by Dr. Hampshire on 21 July 1883, built at a cost of $16,250; a fountain erected near the Penang Town Hall, officially unveiled by Mrs. McNair on 4 July 1883; and a fountain with cattle-through which he presented to the people of Balik Pulau in commemoration of Governor Frederick Weld s visit there in 1882, officially unveiled by Colonel Dunlop in He was married to Oon Geok-Teah, sister of the Kapitan Cina of Deli, Oon Gan Thay. He was survived by five sons, the most notable among whom was Koh Cheng Sian ( 辜禎善, Gu Zhenshan ), four daughters and six grandsons. Jeffery Seow LG (2 Apr 1861); DA (10 Mar 1893, 20 Mar 1893, 25 Mar 1893); STWI (20 Oct 1883, 8 Dec 1883, 20 Aug 1884, 22 Nov 1886, 13 Dec 1886); STOJ (9 Feb 1881); TST (27 Apr 1911, 1 May 1911, 16 Jan 1960); SFP (23 Oct 1886, 27 Apr 1911, 19 May 1911, 6 Dec 1918); Wright, pp ; Beighton, pp , , 124; SICMD, 1869, p.86; Anson, pp ; Royal Commission on opium, pp. 146, 158; Wynne, 1941, p.318; Khor & Khoo, p. 34; Khoo Salma, 2006, p.34; Yeang Ken; M Rathnavelu, p.83; Khor, p.72 Law Seow Huck, 盧小學, Lu Xiaoxue ( ) Merchant, Ship Owner, Planter, Community Leader. Law Seow Huck was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid to late 19th century in Penang. He was a leader of the Hokkien community but an arch enemy of Khoo Thean Teik ( 邱天德, Qiu Tiande ). His businesses comprised of trading, shipping, and planting. Law Seow Huck alias Low Seow Huck was born in Penang and his ancestral origin can be traced to Miaodou ( 廟兜 ), Zhangzhou ( 漳州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). Upon finishing his studies at the Penang Free School, he worked as a lawyer s clerk. In 1862, together with a few Chinese towkays like Koh Teng 106

111 Guan, Leong Weng Song and Ooee Cheng Ho, they established a firm called Seow Huck and Company at Beach Street. The firm had a branch at Ohleh-leh in Aceh. This firm conducted trade between Sumatra, Penang, and China. Seow Huck owned a 292-ton steamer S.S. Singapore. Apart from the trading firm, he also owned two coconut estates Formosa (200 acres) and Sandridge (72 acres). With his educational background and business achievement, Seow Huck was able to assume leadership positions. He was one of the leaders of the Ghee Hin Kongsi ( 義興會社 ), a Cantonesedominated brotherhood hui. In 1874 and 1876, he was appointed to serve as Special Juror at the Settlement of Penang. In 1880, he served as a board member of the Batu Lanchang Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). In 1882, he sat on the board of the Chooi Bee Keong ( 水美宮 ). Seow Huck fell ill at intervals for some time and passed away on 15 January He left a wife, née Yeoh Gaik Seow Neoh, and six sons, Lyn Chye, Yew Guan, Yew San, Yew Swee, Yew Bee and Yew Ho and two daughters. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (17 Jan 1888); PAMA (16 Dec 1871); SE-ME (24 Dec 1919); SSLCP, 1873, p.23; 1876, p.10; PAD, 1876, pp.37, 41; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.209. Lee Chin Ho, 李振和, Li Zhenhe ( ) Tin Miner & Smelter, Planter, Public Official, Community Leader Chin Ho was a planter, interested in rubber and tea. He owned the Hermitage and Cicely Tea Estates in Taiping. He was a trustee of the Rubber Trade Association ( 樹膠貿易公所 ), Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), Chung Hwa Confucian School ( 中華學校 ) and Chinese Recreation Club (CRC, 中華體育會 ); President of Seh Lee Kongsi ( 李氏宗祠 ) and the Penang Buddhist Association (PBA, 檳城佛學 院 ), Vice-President of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Committee Member of the Penang Chinese Merchants Club ( 小蘭亭俱樂部 ) and a Municipal Councillor. But Lee Chin Ho is most well known for his involvement in the smelting of tin. He was the second son of Lee Pean Peh ( 李邊坪, Li Bianping ) who made it easier and cheaper to smelt tin by introducing the Tongka Furnace or Relau Tongka. Being brought up in a trading, tin mining and tin smelting family stood him in good stead later in life when he branched out on his own. He was born a British subject in Penang but grew up in Taiping where his father had moved to when that place was first established. It was here that he began trading and smelting for himself under the chop of Leong Seng, in Later, he opened branch operations at Kinta as trade increased. From the mercantile business, he diversified into mining and when he had become successful as merchant and miner, he decided to expand his smelting operations, and built a plant in Penang. At 73, Dato Kramat Road, Chin Ho established Seng Kee Tin Smelting Works ( 成記鎔錫廠 ), in 1897, later appointing his eldest son, Lee Quee Choo ( 李桂子, Li Quizi), as manager of the works and his second son, Lee Quee Inn, as head of its testing laboratory. Earlier, in 1887, the Straits Trading Company had constructed the first coalfired reverberatory furnace at Singapore, the existing furnaces of the time being fueled by charcoal. Seng Kee s was the second reverberatory furnace in British Malaya. Chin Ho was also the first Straits Chinese to introduce gas-producing plants for tin smelting. Seng Kee bought and processed tin from Chin Ho s own mines at Gopeng in the Tempolong district of Perak, and from other mines. The motors for plant machinery were driven by electricity produced by a dynamo driven by a gasproducing plant. The smelting works and Chin Ho s own private residence were electrically lit from the same source. Seng Kee Tin Smelting Works employed Javanese workers and tin ore was smelted 107

112 in four large reverberatory furnaces and the residue re-smelted in two old-fashioned Chinese furnaces producing as much as twelve and a half tons of pure tin a day. Two large furnaces were fueled by oil and two more by coal. The business became so successful it attracted the attention of investors. In 1907 the Eastern Smelting Company was formed which bought over Seng Kee, lock, stock and barrel for $300,000, $150,000 being the value of the works, premises, plant machinery and so on, and $150,000 for its goodwill, paid in the form of $250,000 in fully paid up shares in the company and $50,000 in cash. The company was then floated, 25,000 shares were offered to the public at $10 per share (payable $1 on application, $2 on allotment and the balance on the 28th day of December, 1907). The directors comprised Herrmann Jessen (Managing Director), R. L. Corbett, Chung Thye Phin ( 鄭大平, Zheng Daping ), Eu Tong Sen ( 余東旋, Yu Dongxuan), Ng Boo Bee ( 黃務美, Huang Wumei), Lim Kek Chuan ( 林克全, Lin Kequan), Loke Chow Thye ( 陸秋泰, Lu Qiutai), Khaw Joo Tok ( 許如琢, Xu Ruzhuo ), Chu Shu Ming, and Lee Chin Ho. His skill and expertise must have been greatly valued by the company and its shareholders and directors, and the prospectus read, Mr. Lee Chin Ho has also promised the Company the full benefit of his services, skill and experience for the next 3 years at least. But in 1910 he sold off his shares, which must have appreciated, and left the business early, for reasons of poor health, after many years as a smelter. He left for China around 1911, but was back soon, continuing to serve in the PCCC from 1918, rising to become Vice-President , his services as member there ending in Lee Chin Ho was recognised for his contributions towards the general public with the appointment of Justice of the Peace in It is possible he was involved in real estate, albeit in a small way. In 1908 Chin Ho s home, later named Birch House after Ernest Woodford Birch, together with the smelting works and the surrounding terraced houses made up a piazza known as Chin Ho Square, the whole of this sitting on a 13-acre plot of land. While Birch House still exists, the remainder of Chin Ho Square is being rebuilt. In 2005 construction began on a mixed development known as Penang Times Square. Birch, The Plaza, the first of four phases being completed in Another part of the development, Chin Ho Plaza, memorializes the smelter. Jeffery Seow HPP, p.87; Wright, p.813; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.103; Lin Bo ai, V1, pp.65-66; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2007, pp.68-70; Headrick, p.265; TST (Aug Jul 1941); WS (3 Sep 1910); SFP (Nov Mar 1931); TE (27 Jan 2010). Lee Pean Peh, 李邊坪, Li Bianping ( ) Merchant, Tin Miner & Smelter, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Born in 1829 in Changjiang village, Sandu ( 三都長江社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), Lee Pean Peh alias Lee Peh, arrived, with his father, when he was thirteen years old. He became a naturalized British subject, and never went back to China. He was trained as a trader in Penang, eventually establishing himself as a nutmeg merchant and general trader. Lee Pean Peh began trading connections between Penang and Larut around 1854, when he must have begun business relations with Long Jaafar and Chung Keng Quee ( 鄭景貴, Zheng Jinggui ), if not before. Eventually, he opened branch operations at Matang. His home base, all this while, had been Penang, but he moved it to Taiping when it was established, still regularly travelling between the two places. Lee Pean Peh was known to have been a business associate of Chung Keng Quee and to have provided financial assistance for the latter s business ventures. He had a share of the Larut general revenue farm (spirit, gambling, and pawnbroking) in He soon became involved in mining himself and was one 108

113 of the first miners to use a steam engine at his mine at Tupai. Lee Pean Peh was an innovator. At that time smelting was carried out at the Perak Tin Smelting furnace but it could only be fed expensive quality charcoal. Lee Pean Peh introduced the Tongka Furnace or Relau Tongka which allowed tin ore to be smelted using charcoal made out of any kind of wood, making it more convenient and, perhaps, less expensive, compared to other furnace. During the early days of Taiping, children were already present and growing up at the place. Seeing the need to provide them with an education and recognizing the importance of the British in Malaya, Lee Pean Peh initiated, through his request to the British Resident, Hugh Low, the establishment of an English School. The Central School (later the King Edward VII School) became the first English school in Taiping, and all of Perak. Lee Pean Peh had a hand in helping to put down the riots of 1879 at Larut where 30 were killed and received a letter of thanks from the government. He also helped settle the matter of the claims in Chop Ban Joo Hoo s affairs in Kinta, which was appreciated both by the government and the financial houses at Penang. He was selected by the British Resident, Hugh Low, as a founding member of the board to establish the Yeng Wah hospital and the Chinese Widows and Orphans Asylum and was the very first Chinese member of the Sanitary Board. He was also made a Visiting Justice of Perak and was conferred a title within the Mandarinate system of the imperial Chinese government. He was popular with Chinese community and greatly respected by them, especially the elders and chiefs of the Hokkien section. The Kinta miners showed their approval of him by a display of cracker firing all over, whenever he was leaving that place. Lee Pean Peh died in May 1902 at the age of 73. He left a widow, three sons, two daughters and 21 grandchildren. The most well known of his sons was Lee Chin Ho ( 李振和, Li Zhenhe ). A final testament to how he was regarded has been engraved on the headstone of his tomb: Loyal to the Government of his adopted country. Esteemed by the British officials with whom he came in contact as an upright and trustworthy citizen. W. H. Treacher, Resident General, F. M. S. 10 May 1902 Jeffery Seow Lee & Chow, p.92; PP (15 May 1902); Tombstone of Lee Pean Peh; STOJ (18 Oct 1879) Lee Phee Eow, 李丕耀, Li Piyao ( ) Merchant, Ship Owner, Planter, Land Owner, Community Leader. Lee Phee Eow alias Lee Phee Yeow, alias Lee Pee Eow was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid to late 19th century in Penang. He was a leader of the Hokkien community and established the largest Penang-based shipping company. Lee Phee Eow was born in Penang and his ancestral origin can be traced to Jingdun ( 金墩 ), Quanzhou prefecture ( 泉州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). He was the fourth son of Lee Ghe Ang (Seng Moh), a wealthy trader and planter, who owned a vast piece of land of 1,130 acres in Juru, Province Wellesley. Upon finishing his education in Chinese, Phee Eow most likely joined his father and brothers to manage the family business. In the late 1860s, he and his brother, Lee Phee Choon, founded a shipping company Chong Moh & Co. located at 38, Beach Street. The enterprise first owned two to three vessels. Two vessels, 432-ton bark Martaban and 549-ton bark Asia, for instance, sailed between Penang, Rangoon, and Moulmein. In the early 1870s, the company began to acquire steamers. By 1874, Chong Moh & Co. owned at least two steamers 597-ton Fitzpatrick and 86-ton Deli. The former sailed between Penang, Rangoon and Singapore and the latter sailed between Penang, Deli, Kedah, and Laroot (Larut). In the 1880s, Chong Moh & Co. grew to become 109

114 the largest shipping enterprise in Penang, owning eight steamers (s.s. Diamond, s.s. Fitzpatrick, s.s. Ho Kwei, s.s. Rosa, s.s. Langkat, s.s. Taw Tong, s.s. Mary Austin, and s.s. Deli) by It also had two branches Seng Moh & Co. at Rangoon and Calcutta. Each of these steamers was put to transport commerce on different regional and international routes. For example, s.s. Langkat sailed between Penang, Deli and Palembang carrying coolies and Straits produce; s.s. Deli sailed between Penang, Perak, and Kedah; s.s. Rosa sailed between Penang and Singapore; s.s. Taw Tong sailed between Penang and China. With all these steamers, the company controlled two-thirds of the rice imported into Penang. In 1893, Chong Moh & Co. was in financial difficulties and it was sued for bankruptcy by its creditors. The company was reported to have liabilities of $280,000. As a result, all the properties owned by the company were sold to repay the debts. For example, the steamers Deli, Taw Tong, Mary Austin, and Langkat were sold for $45,000 to Chuah Eu Khay ( 蔡有格, Cai Youge ) and Khaw Joo Ghee ( 許如義, Xu Ruyi ) while Ho Kwei and Rosa were sold to Lim Leng Cheak ( 林寧綽, Lin Ninchuo ) and Capt. Ross for $50,000. Besides shipping and planting, Phee Eow also invested in real estates. He owned some shop-houses at Beach Street and a bungalow named Bellevue on Penang Hill. With his success in business, Phee Eow played an active role in making significant contributions for the welfare of the Chinese community. In order to meet the acute need for burial grounds, Phee Eow keenly initiated and sponsored the establishment of Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ) in He took a prominent and active part in raising subscriptions of $83,413 for purchasing the land and laying out the burial grounds. In appreciation and recognition of his contribution, a stone statue of Phee Eow was ordered from Amoy at the cost of $600 and erected in the pavilion at the cemetery. Phee Eow became a board member of the Cemetery. In 1890, he donated $1521 to the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ). He also sat on the board of directors for 1890 and Phee Eow died on 11th June 1900 and left four sons. He was buried at his family burial ground near Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (2 July 1886, 22 June 1893, 21 Sep 1893, 5 Oct 1893); SE (8 Apr 1904); PAMA (29 July 1871, 9 Sep 1871, 11 Nov 1871, 9 Dec 1871); SSD, 1882 p. 101; 1890, p.203; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.68 Lee Toon Tock, 李純篤, Li Chundu ( ) Planter, Ship Owner, Race-horse Breeder. Lee Toon Tock was one of the prominent business and social figures from the late-19th century to the early-20th century in Penang. He was the third generation of the Lee family, who owned a large sugar plantation and a leading shipping company. He was well-known for his keen interest in horse racing. Lee Toon Tock, second son of Lee Phee Choon ( 李丕焌, Li Pijun), was born in Penang and educated at the Penang Free School and Roberts College, Calcutta. His ancestral origin was in Jindun village ( 金墩 ), Quanzhou prefecture ( 泉州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). After completing his studies, he assisted his father in business and managed his father s estate in Province Wellesley, which had 1,800 acres of coconut, betel nut, and tapioca. When his father passed away, he took over the estate. He also had capital invested in a few rubber planting companies. One of these companies was the Bassett Rubber Company located at Bagan Serai, Perak in which he was a director. Apart from agriculture, he was involved in shipping and owned a steamship, s.s. Un Peng, which was later sold to the Eastern Shipping Company. Toon Tock had a great interest in horse-racing and he was one of the most popular members of the Penang Turf Club. He served as a committee member of the Turf Club for several terms. He owned 14 race horses Obsron, Architect, Senator, Colford, Forest Empress, Orion, Fly, Gold Finder, Dawn, Yeoval, Chanticlear, Wellington, Bostra, and San Sebastian. With these horses, he won the Pinang 110

115 Plate, the Paddock Cup, and the Scurry Stakes at the Penang meetings, and also secured several trophies at races in the Federated Malay States. Among the horses, Obsron, which won the Maiden Plate in 1904, was the most famous. On 18 March 1919, Toon Tock passed away at his residence in China Street after a long illness. His body was brought to the Mount Erskine Cemetery for burial. He left behind a wife, who was a daughter of Khoo Chew Eng, and seven sons. The fourth son, Lee Hong Cheang, married second daughter of Tan Kim Bee, a wealthy tin miner of Kuala Kubu, Selangor. Wong Yee Tuan SE-ME (19 Mar 1919, 2 Apr 1919, 2 Oct 1923); Wright, pp ; Lee & Chow, p.95; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.52. Leong Fee, 梁輝, Liang Hui ( ) Miner, Planter, Public Official, Philanthropist, Diplomat. Leong Fee alias Liang Tingfang ( 梁廷芳 ), alias Liang Pi Joo ( 梁碧如 or 璧如, Liang Biru), a Hakka from Sanjiao Di, Baitu Bao ( 白土堡三角地 ), Mei District ( 梅縣 ), Guangdong Province, was a well-known businessman, philanthropist and diplomat in Penang in the early 20th century. He was the eldest son of Liang Peng Shi, and had great ambition. In his twenties, he came to Malaya. He lived in Penang, and later moved to Ipoh. Ipoh was a sparsely populated area when he arrived. By his perseverance and courage, he cultivated the barren land. He was a pioneer, operating his business in situ. He founded the Chop Kwong Kar Hing ( 廣嘉興商號 ), a coffee plantation company. Later, he invested in tin mining with the profits from coffee planting. In due course, he accumulated much wealth. He became known as The Coffee Mountain and Tin Miner ( 咖啡山錫礦家 ) in Nanyang. After that, he entered into revenue-farming, which added to his wealth. Due to his contributions to Ipoh s development, Leong Fee was viewed in favourable light by the British Colonial Government. He was appointed a Visiting Justice in Kinta in In 1894, he became a member of the Committee of the Sanitary Board in Ipoh. In 1897, he was appointed a member of Perak State Council, succeeding Khaw Boo Aun ( 許武安, Xu Wu an ). His public service career peaked in He was appointed the sole Chinese representative to the Federal Council. In the early years, under the mentorship of Cheah Choon Seng ( 謝春生, Xie Chunsheng or 謝榮光, Xie Rongguang ), his father-in-law, he became more involved with Chinese society in Penang. He was one of the donors to the expansion project of Kek Lok Si temple ( 極樂寺 ) in His relationship with the Chinese community in Perak improved further after Cheah Choon Seng was appointed Acting Vice-Consul in Penang. He acted in place of Cheah Choon Seng when Cheah went on leave. This position meant more interaction with Penang s Chinese society. Due to reasons of health, Cheah Choon Seng resigned from the post of Acting Vice-Consul in Leong was recommended to take over. During the period when he served in this position, he gained the trust of merchants and the general public for his competent work. Under the recommendation of Zhang Deye ( 張德彝 ), China s ambassador to England, he was appointed Vice-Consul of Penang in late During his term of office, the Qing Government tried hard to attract investment from Chinese overseas for the industrial development of China. Leong Fee, who made his fortune in tin in Malaya, was naturally involved with the development of mining in China during the late Qing. As the Vice- Consul in Penang, he had the task of encouraging investment in tin mining in China. The experienced miner translated the Mining Enactment of Perak into Chinese which was published in Shangwu Guanbao ( 商務官報 ), or Commercial Official Report many times. He 111

116 said, Poverty is the scourge of China. Developing mining is the way to save the country from poverty. His statement won the praise of those in power. To learn western mining technology, Leong Fee travelled around Europe to observe the mining business. At the same time he also purchased new mining equipment. His travels not only boosted his business, but also contributed to the article, Improvement of Mining Business ( 振興礦務芻言 ) which he sent to the Qing Government. It was referred to by the Qing Government during the establishment of their mining industry. Grand Coordinator of Guang Xi ( 廣西巡撫 ), Lin Shaonian ( 林紹年 ), invited Leong Fee to prospect at Fuchuan ( 富川 ) District and He District ( 賀縣 ) at Guangxi Province. Preliminary research revealed rich deposits, which led to Leong Fee promising to attract investment from Nanyang for the opening of the mines in China. Leong Fee actively participated in social welfare activities in Penang and Ipoh. In education, Leong Fee established the Penang Chung Hwa School ( 中華學堂 ) and Penang Chong Hwa School ( 崇華學堂 ) to which he also made donations. He supported education efforts during his lifetime and even beyond the grave. He left, through his will, bequests for Pi Joo Girls School ( 璧如女校 ) and Ipoh s Min Tet School ( 明德學校 ) which were established by Leong Fee s descendants based on his last will. The Penang Free School has on record Leong Fee s donation to the school. Leong Fee was also involved in the establishment of Lam Wah Ee Hospital ( 南華醫院 ) and donated money to the hospital to purchase coffins for the poor and those who died without family. His generosity garnered compliments from different levels of the community. The esteem felt by Chinese schools can be seen from the essay topic they set for students, such as, Liang Pi Joo s generosity in social welfare, a clear indication of his influence and the respect he earned from the Chinese community. Leong s donations in China were recorded, especially his contribution to relief funds and the building of hospitals. In addition, he constantly helped his village of origin. Leong Fee established Mengyang School ( 蒙養學校 ) which provided free education for local children. In 1908, a plague killed 500 inhabitants of his village in Jiaying ( 嘉應 ) district. Leong Fee, together with 21 Chinese traders in Nanyang originally from Jiaying, jointly sought public donations. Leong Fee had two wives, Madam Wu and Madam Cheah. They had six sons and three daughters. Chong Siou Wei PSP (12 Apr 1912); SFP (13 Dec 1909); PGG, 1889; Wong Sin Kiong, 1998, pp.1-15; 1999, pp.16-30; Chong Siou Wei, 2005, pp ; Lin Bo ai, V2b, pp.6-8; Lee & Chow, p.102 Leong Lok Hing, 梁樂卿, Liang Leqing (1851, Guangzhou-1912) Merchant, Miner, Planter, Community Leader, Public Official. Leong Lok Hing was a prominent Cantonese personality in Penang at the turn of the twentieth century. Lok Hing s ancestral origins were in Longyan township ( 龍眼鄉 ), Shunde district ( 順德縣 ), Guangdong province ( 廣東省 ). His schooling was in San Francisco. After graduation, he went into business in California. He came to Penang in 1888 and was naturalized as a British citizen in He rose to become a leading member of society in the early twentieth century. He founded a trading firm, Kwong On and Co. ( 廣安號 ) at 113 Beach Street and later opened branches in Ipoh and Tapah. He owned tin mines in Perak, Bidor and Kuala Lumpur. He founded Kwong Ji Chong & Co. ( 廣吉昌號 ) to trade in tin. In Sungai Semanbu, Krian, he owned rubber, coconut and yam plantations. Leong was a trustee of the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), also its founder and chairman ( ). He was on the first committee, serving as vice-chairman ( ), of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ). He was a director of The Kwangtung and Tengchew 112

117 Association Penang ( 檳榔嶼廣東暨汀州會館 ). Leong was a director of Ng Fook Hsu Yin ( 五福書院 ), trustee of the Penang Free School ( 大英義學 ), and chairman of Pinang Association ( 梹榔協會 ). He also participated in a clan association, Soon Tuck Wooi Kwon ( 順德會館 ). He was on the committee of the Chinese Advisory Board for ten years, and was appointed Justice of the Peace. Leong Lok Hing had four wives and two sons. His first son, Yuanzao ( 元藻 ) founded Yuanzao School ( 元藻學校 ). His second son was named Yuanmian ( 元冕 ). Goh Leng Hoon Lee & Chow, pp ; Goh Leng Hoon, pp ; PCTH, pp Lim Boon Haw, 林文虎, Lin Wenhu (1864, China ) Merchant, Tin Miner, Planter, Philanthropist. Lim Boon Haw alias Lim Mah Haw, the second son of Lim Miao ( 林貴妙 ), was born on 6 December 1864, in Liangwen village ( 良文社 ), An Koi District ( 安溪縣, Anxi), Fujian province. At a young age, Lim left for Deli, later venturing to Penang in May 1883, and became a naturalised British subject fourteen years later. Lim Boon Haw s business interests encompassed revenue-farming, tin-mining, planting and trading. Boon Haw was also renowned as a landed proprietor in Penang, Kedah, Perak and Tongkah (Siam). His business, in partnership with his elder brother, Lim Boon Par alias Lim Mah Aw, was run under the Chop Sin Ban Guan. It was managed by his adopted son, Lim Seng Tiew ( 林成绸, Lin Chengchou). Later the business branched out to Tongkah (Ban Guan Hin, 萬源興 ), Teluk Anson, Perak (Ban Guan Soon 萬源顺 ) and Kulim, Kedah (Ban Seng Guan, 萬成源 ). In Tongkah, their Ban Guan Hin Tin Mine was reputed to be the largest of its kind in Siamese territory. Other than his family, he also joined hands with some prominent Chinese, like Heah Swee Lee ( 連瑞利, Lian Ruili ), Lim Seng Hooi ( 林成輝, Lin Chenghui ) and Lim Soon Poe, as licensed auctioneers and rubber dealers in Penang. Besides that, Boon Haw and Seng Hooi jointly owned the 7,864-relong (5,538 acres) Ban Thye Lee estate located at Sungei Patani, Kedah. However this partnership was dissolved in October His unsuccessful tender for the gambling farm in Alor Star in 1916 suggests he may have been involved in revenue-farming. With his amassed wealth, Lim was actively engaged in philanthropy. When a rice shortage occurred in May 1919, he sold rice at cost price to the poor under his Hengmaofeng Ji ( 恆茂豐記 ). Besides that, he also advanced $10,000, free of interest, to the Chinese Protectorate, to buy 700 bags of Siamese rice and 1000 bags of Burmese rice to be distributed to the poor at a reduced price. During the war he contributed a substantial amount of money to war funds. In 1929, Lim Boon Haw donated $300 to the Clifford Fund for Raffles College. Lim Boon Haw was involved in many organizations: president of Kew Leong Tong Lim Kongsi ( 九龍堂林公司 ); trustee of Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ), Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), the Tong Kheng Seah ( 同慶社 ), and Un Khuay Hoey Kuan ( 安溪會館 ); committee member of Penang Chinese Town Hall and Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce; member of the Sanitary Board of Central Kedah; board member of the Seng Ong Beow ( 城隍廟 ) located in Bridge Street and Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ) located in Jelutong Road; vice-president of United Hokkien Public Cemetery Association ( 聯合福建公塚辦事處 ) in 1923; and member of the committees of Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ), Lam Wah Ee hospital ( 南華醫院 ), Tongxue Shantang ( 同學善堂 ) the present Tong Sian School, Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ), Chung Hwa School ( 中華學校 ). As a mark of appreciation of his many services and philanthropic acts, he was appointed Justice of Peace. After a prolonged illness, Lim Boon Haw died on 8 January, 1933 at the age of 72. He was laid to rest at the Batu Gantong cemetery. He left 2 sons, Seng Tiew and Chiew Chu ( 秋徐, Qiuxu), and two daughters. 113

118 Wong Yee Tuan & Hung Bee Ling SDN (10 Jan 1933); MSP (14 Jan 1933); TST (10 Jan 1933) ; PSP (26 Jul 1919); Lee & Chow, p.103; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp ; HPP, p.93; Lin Bo ai, V1, p.225; Franke & Chen, pp.604, 626; Goh Leng Hoon, pp.58-65; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.52; Notes on Lim Boon Haw. Lim Cheng Kung, 林清江, Lin Qingjiang ( ) Newspaper Owner, Intellectual The son of businessman and rice-mill owner Lim Choo Guan ( 林資源, Lin Phuah Hin Leong ( 潘興隆, Pan Xinlong ) by the latter s fourth wife, Lim Cheng Kung was educated at the Penang Free School and was the first ethnic Chinese to have graduated from the London School of Economics & Political Science with a Bachelor of Science degree. Together with some friends, he established a Chinese restaurant in Piccadilly, London that became popular with Asian students. Whilst in London, he made the acquaintance of notable personalities like H.G. Wells and became a member of the Fabian Society. He was also at one time the Secretary of the Chinese Legation in London. Upon his return from London, Cheng Kung became a major shareholder of the Criterion Press, the publisher of the Straits Echo, where he served as its managing director. In 1927, pending the arrival of W.A. Harpur, Cheng Kung assumed the duties as editor of the Straits Echo. He contributed articles on his travels including a piece about Tibet, which he visited in the 1930s. Cheng Kung was an active participant in the Cheeseman Committee, tasked with looking into issues on higher education when it sat in Penang. Cheng Kung was also the Secretary of the Penang Buddhist Association ( 檳城佛學院 ). His wife, together with local artist Abdullah Ariff, formed the Penang Impressionists in The latter is credited for the development of modern art in Malaysia. In 1931, Mrs Lim Cheng Kung, who chaired a public meeting at the Hu Yew Seah ( 輔友社 ) in Madras Lane, was hailed by the Straits Times as the first Chinese lady to have presided at a public meeting, a talk presented by an Indian woman Mrs E.V. Davies. Cheng Kung formed an informal association of Penang s returned students called the Lost Souls, who met once a week. Membership included the likes of Tan Sri Ismail Khan, former Chief Justice of Borneo; Tan Ah Tah (former Chief Justice of Singapore); Dr N.K. Menon and N. Raghavan, prominent doctor and lawyer respectively. One other prominent member was C. C. Tan, a lawyer who married Cheng Kung s daughter Joyce. His sonin-law became an Advisory Councillor in Singapore. Neil Khor Jin Keong TST (27 Dec 1931, 19 Jun 1947); SFP (29 Mar 1927); Lim Phaik Gan, pp.13-15; Chew Teng Beng, pp.5-7. Lim Cheng Law, 林清露, Lin Qinglu ( ) Rice and Oil Miller, Letter Writer, Patron of the Bangsawan Lim Cheng Law was the third son of businessman and rice-mill owner Lim Choo Guan ( 林資源, Lin Phuah Hin Leong ( 潘興隆, Pan Xinlong ). Educated at the St. Xavier s Institution, he left school and joined the European firm Messrs. Gilfillan & Company. Later he joined his father s firm Khie Heng Bee ( 開恆美 ) as manager and cashier. He was involved in the rice-milling business with his older brother Cheng Teik ( 清德, Qingde ) before establishing his own oil mill at Maxwell Road. Subsequently, he went into the production of copra owning coconut plantations in Province Wellesley (now Seberang Prai). Having made money through shares speculation, Cheng Law became a well-known supporter of the arts. He was the patron of the Bangsawan, Boria and Dondang Sayang. He paid for performances in the Straits Settlements, Malaya and Sumatra. In some of the dondang sayang parties, Cheng Law would exclaim pantuns (interchanging four-line verses 114

119 in Malay) conjuring up and matching words and rhymes extempore in racy competition at the same time engaging in the dance. His son Kean Chuan, taking after his father, formed the Penang Jazz Lads with his cousin Johnny Lim Kean Cheang ( 林建章, Lin Jianzhang, son of Cheng Teik) expanding the cultural horizons of the Straits Chinese community. Cheng Law married the only daughter of rice-mill owner Khoo Bean Leang. He was a member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ) and the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce of London. He was, briefly, a member of the Penang Anti-Opium Association. A horse-lover, Cheng Law s bay-gelding Diamond was described as a valuable animal. He was also an active member of the Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ). In 1924, he was made a Justice of the Peace. Writing under the pseudonym LCL for the Straits Echo Postbag, Cheng Law was an acknowledged champion of the modern girl, arguing for equal rights for women. He was also a local expert of all things Ceylonese, the only Malayan with a full set of the Ceylon Hansard, demonstrating an encyclopedic knowledge about that country and contributing numerous articles advocating its progress as a leading self-governing British colony, implying the same for the Straits Settlements. When he died in 1964, the Straits Echo mourned his demise and said that LCL had contributed more than 20,000 letters since his first letter published in Today, L.C.L. s pen is still --- and Malaysian journalism has lost one of its oldest and best known characters, wrote Khor Cheang Kee for the Straits Times. Neil Khor Jin Keong TST (1 Sep 1964); SFP (20 Feb 1918); Lim Phaik Gan, pp.13-15; Wright, p.781; HPP, p.133. Lim Cheng Teik, 林清德, Lin Qingde ( ) Rice and Oil Miller, Entrepreneur, Community Leader Lim Cheng Teik was the eldest son of businessman and rice-mill owner Lim Choo Guan ( 林資源, Lin Phuah Hin Leong ( 潘興隆, Pan Xinlong ) and his Penang wife Ong Teng Neoh. In 1904, he took over his father s Khie Heng Bee Rice Mill ( 開恆美米較 ) when the latter died and expanded it to become one of the biggest and most important businesses in British Malaya. Described as a natural-born entrepreneur by his niece the diplomat and lawyer P.G. Lim ( 林碧顏, Lin Biyan), Cheng Teik left the St. Xavier s Institution after completing his primary education going under his father s authoritarian discipline and tutelage to emerge an extremely self-assured and successful businessman. At the helm of the family business at 20 years old, he expanded the mills on the banks of the Pinang River to include a coconut oil mill. By 1918, when a fire destroyed the mills, the 3 acre site had a production capacity worth half a million Straits dollars. In his unpublished autobiography, Cheng Teik alluded to his father s reputation for honest dealing, his trips to Yangon to secure a steady supply of paddy, the operations of the mill and the process of making par-boiled rice for Tamil labourers in the burgeoning rubber estates of Malaya. To strengthen business networks, his father had arranged for Cheng Teik to marry Khoo Guat Lee Neoh (d. 1927), the grand-daughter of Koh Seang Tat ( 辜上達, Gu Shangda ). The latter was the patriarch of the Koh family, then an important revenue farmer with strong connections to the British colonial administration. Guat Lee was also related to Khoo Cheow Teong ( 邱昭忠, Qiu Zhaozhong ), the Kapitan Cina of Asahan, whose father had been a founding member of the powerful Penang Khoo Kongsi. Cheng Teik married Chin-chuay style in accordance with Hokkien custom whereby the bridegroom moved into the house of the bride s family as an honoured guest. The young couple moved into Edinburgh House, the Koh family home. In 1915, Cheng Teik moved to Limburgh at Larut Road, a colonial-style mansion designed by the architect Neubronner. By 1912, Cheng Teik, who had inherited the rights 115

120 to collect export duties on rice from the Kedah Sultanate, began to diversify by investing in copra, shipping and other non-rice related businesses. He was also quickly rising to the pinnacle of the Chinese business world having been included in the successful and lucrative revenue farm consortium led by Thio Thiaw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ), Quah Beng Kee ( 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ) and Khoo Cheow Teong. He was also a director of the Eastern Shipping Company that controlled coastal trading between Penang, Sumatra and Burma. Cheng Teik played an active role in the civic life of Penang having been appointed a municipal councillor at the age of 26, the youngest person so appointed. In 1917, he led a deputation from the Chinese Chambers to meet the Colonial Secretary regarding the Reclamation of Weld Quay to protect the rights of small dealers. At 33, he became Chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ). He was also made a Justice of the Peace for his public services. Lim Cheng Teik was among a small group of wealthy Chinese businessmen to have been the original trustees of the Chinese Recreation Club (est. 1906, 中華體育會 ). In the memory of his wife Khoo Guat Lee, he donated a piece of land that later became the playground of the Methodist School. In the 1920s, he owned the grounds of Suffolk House, which he sold to the Methodist School as well. Lim Cheng Teik Square is named after him. Neil Khor Jin Keong TST (1 Feb 1917, 30 Apr 1927); SFP (20 Feb 1918); HPP, p.95; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp Lim Eow Thoon, 林耀椿, Lin Yaochun ( ) Rice Miller, Rubber Planter, Manufacturer, Public Official. He was the third son of Lim Leng Cheak ( 林寧 綽, Lin Ningchuo) and Tan Say Seang ( 陳西祥, Chen Xixiang). His brothers were Eow Teng (one of the first to sign on for the Chinese Company of the Penang Volunteers), Eow Hong ( 林耀煌, Yaohuang), Eow Hooi (of the Chinese Benevolent Association of Penang), Eow Hoon and Eow Tong. He was educated at the Penang Free School, after which he worked in his father s firm, rice mill owner Chop Chip Hong Bee & Co. ( 集豐美米較 ), becoming a partner in He was also part owner of Batu Puteh estate ( 白石園 ) and of various other estates. Apart from his own Leng Cheak, Eow Thoon & Co., he was involved in numerous other business ventures and managed his deceased father s estate till late In addition to being an accomplished rice miller, rubber planter and manufacturer, he achieved notability in several other spheres, benefiting special interest groups and the general public. He supported and empowered the Wireless Club of Penang enabling them to experiment in January 1933, resulting in Penang becoming the location for the second broadcasting station (ZHJ) in Malaya, by December 1934 (the first being Singapore in 1923). Like his philanthropist mother before him, he was a staunch Buddhist and served Malayan Buddhists in many ways including lobbying, in 1949, for Wesak Day to be declared a public holiday. He was innovative and inventive and introduced the pedal-ricksha or cycle-ricksha in 1936, giving ricksha-pullers the option of a less strenuous life. The fruits of his creativity and labour can still be seen in George Town, Melaka and Singapore where trishaws have evolved from an essential means of transport to a tourist attraction. He was genuinely concerned for those less fortunate than himself, and spoke out on behalf of those who did not have a voice, including the hapless George Town hawker in 1949 who were, at that time, being arrested and, being unable to pay their fines, imprisoned, leaving their families unsupported. Throughout his life he was called on to serve and those at societal level included but are not limited 116

121 to: member, Penang Food Control Committee (August 1917); member, committee elected by Chinese merchants of Penang to consider the rice supply question (April 1919); organizing committee member, formation of the Chinese Planters Association of Malaya (May 1920); Justice of the Peace (June 1920); founding member and Secretary, Straits Chinese British Association of Penang (November 1920); member, committee (Penang) to hear appeals against rubber land decisions of the Collector of Land Revenue in connection with the Rubber Lands Assessment Ordinance (December 1922); member, Central Assessment Committee under the Rubber Restriction Ordinance (November 1925) and member of the Straits Settlements Consultative Committee (February 1934). public services. There is a Lim Eow Thoon Road in Penang. Jeffery Seow TST (20 Jan 1933, 5 Dec 1934, 3 Mar 1949, 22 Feb 1935, 4 Apr 1936, 27 Apr 1936, 31 Aug 1949, 1 Dec 1951, 22 Nov 1970); SFP (12 Jul 1924, 24 Feb 1936, 15 Aug 1936, 5 Jul 1940); Wright, p.772; Website (Mutiarafm). Lim Hock Chuan, 林福全, Lin Fuquan ( ) Rubber Planter, Shopkeeper, Revolutionary. At the beginning of January 1927, with 165 votes, he beat Lim Cheng Ean s 74 ( 林清淵, Lin Qingyuan), in elections for the Straits Chinese British Association s representative on the Municipal Commission and by the middle of the month he was appointed by the Governor to become a Municipal Commissioner of George Town, a role he served till January 1936 when an exciting new venture made him unable to offer himself for re-election. He rejoined the Municipal Commission after the war and served till 1951, 15 years service in all. He served on many other bodies: as president of Kong Hock Ju ( 廣福居 ); president and trustee of Kong Hock Kong Temple (Kuan Yin Temple, 廣福宮 ); trustee of the Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), Seh Lim Kongsi, and Lim Tong Seah ( 林東社 ); captain of the Penang Chinese Volunteers D Company. For many years, he was also involved in different capacities with the Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ), Hokkien Association ( 福建公司 ), Poh Hock Seah ( 寶福社 ), Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ), Penang Jubilee Home and Penang Turf Club. In 1936, Lim Eow Thoon s private residence, purchased earlier by his father, was acquired by the government for the construction of the current Police headquarters (278 Penang Road). Lim Eow Thoon was awarded the Malayan Certificate of Honour in 1940, in recognition of his Lim Hock Chuan, a sinkeh migrant, built up his wealth from rubber and rendered unreserved support to the revolutionary movement initiated by Sun Yat Sen ( 孫中山, Sun Zhongshan) in Penang. His ancestral origin was in Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. As a teenager, Hock Chuan migrated to Penang with his father. He first worked as a shop assistant where he acquired experience and skills in doing business. Later, he was recruited by a grocery shop as secretary. Learning about his capability, the employer invited him to become a business partner. It was in this partnership that he built up his reputation in business circles. Realizing the profitability in rubber planting, he invested in over ten acres of rubber estate. Later he sold the estate and made a profit of $10,000. With the profit, he bought another thirty acres, which was sold for over $40,000. This was how his trading firm, Chop Cheng Thye ( 正大商店 ), at Beach Street outdid others. Besides, he also operated a book store called Beng Beng Book Co. When Sun Yat Sen came to Penang in 1905, he urged his supporters to set up a branch of Tongmenghui ( 同盟會 ) to promote the revolutionary movement against the Qing government. In response to this, Hock Chuan, being an ardent supporter of Sun Yat Sen, joined Goh Say Eng ( 吳世榮, Wu Shirong ), Ooi Kim Kheng ( 黃金慶, Huang Jinqing), Tan Sin Cheng ( 陳新政, 117

122 Chen Xinzheng), Khoo Beng Cheang ( 邱明昶, Qiu Mingchang) and twenty others to establish Penang Soo Poh Seah or Philomatic Union ( 檳城書報社 ) on 31 January Its major aim was to raise funds in Malaya for financing uprisings against the Manchu (Qing) authorities. Besides contributing liberally himself to the revolutionary cause he spared no pains to induce friends and sympathizers to subscribe to the Revolutionary Fund, and it was due to his and his colleagues efforts that large sums of money were raised for the movement. Hock Chuan had great interest in publishing newspapers. He became a director of Kwong Wah Yit Po ( 光華日報, Guanghua ribao) (Penang) and Sin Kuo Min Po ( 新國民報, Xin guo minbao) (Singapore). He was instrumental in bringing into existence both papers. The two papers played important roles in spreading enlightenment and culture amongst the Chinese community and in shaping public opinion. He was also keenly interested in Chinese education in Penang and assisted materially in founding the Chung Ling High School ( 鐘靈學校 ) and the Fukien Girls School ( 福建女子學校 ). So great was his zeal for education that he established a girls school and financed it himself for several years. On 11 May 1930, he passed away at the General Hospital of Penang at the age of 47. He left behind a wife, three sons, and four daughters. Wong Yee Tuan EC (1 Jun 1929, 17 May 1930); Song Yunpu, pp.57-58; Lin Bo ai, V1, p.79; Tan Kim Hong, Lim Hua Chiam, 林花鐟, Lin Huazan (1837, Fujian ) Cloth Merchant, Chinese Medicine Dealer, Publisher, Community Leader, Public Figure. Lim Hua Chiam alias Ruzhou ( 汝舟 ) was one of the prominent business and social figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. His businesses comprised of cloth trading, Chinese drug-store, and printing press. By establishing a lithographic press, he was the first Chinese who pioneered the printing and publication business in Penang. He became the undisputable leader of the Hokkien community for about eighteen years and held leadership positions in all the major socioeconomic organizations. Lim Hua Chiam originated from Sam Toh Aoguan Seh village ( 三都鰲冠社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). In 1850, at the age of 13, Lim left China and settled in Penang. He first worked as an assistant in a small Chinese store. Nine years later, he became a British subject. In 1860, he accumulated sufficient capital to start business on his own account. Partnering Lim Pong, he opened a shop chop Ee Hin ( 怡興號 ) in Beach Street to commence cloth trading to Aceh. He owned a 51- ton schooner, Fathool Moobarack, plying between Penang and Aceh. The outbreak of the war between the Dutch and the Acehnese in 1874 ruined his trading business. Later, Lim who had considerable knowledge of Chinese medicine opened a Chinese druggist s shop - Chop Lo Ban Chuan ( 老萬全號 ). With his energy and business acumen, he soon built it up into a flourishing concern. In 1883, he established a lithographic press. His second son, Seng Hooi ( 成輝, Chenghui), was put in charge of the enterprise. In 1894, Penang Sin Poe, a Chinese daily newspaper, was published. Four years later, a Malay weekly paper, Chahayah Pulau Pinang was also made available. In 1903, the Straits Echo, an English daily newspaper, was issued. In the same year, Lim s publication business was incorporated and became the Criterion Press Limited ( 點石齋印字館有限公司 ), located at 226, 228, 230 & 232 Beach Street. As early as the 1860s, Hua Chiam was a councilor of Kien Teik Tong ( 建德堂 ), the most powerful Hokkien brotherhood hui in Penang. It was from 1870s onwards that Lim played a more active and significant leadership role in the Chinese communities of Penang. In 1878, he was appointed as the clan headman of Lim Kongsi, a position which he held until his death. During his tenure, he was a keen champion and spokesman for the welfare of the 118

123 Kongsi. As one of the seven directors representing the Hokkien community, he helped to found the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ) in Besides, he was also actively involved in local temple and cemetery associations, such as the Snake Temple or Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ), Cheng Leong Keong Temple ( 清龍宮 ), Batu Lanchang Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ), and Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ). In 1880s, Hua Chiam became the founding member of Cheng Ho Seah ( 清和社 ) and Tong Kheng Seah ( 同慶社 ). He was a generous donor to these associations and was frequently elected to the board of directors. Around 1890, he was appointed by the Straits Government as one of the first members of the Chinese Advisory Board, formed to deal with the problem of Chinese secret societies. In 1892, he was recruited by the Qing Government as one of the agents in Penang to raise funds for the Shantung flood relief. In 1900, he was elected as the president of the Chinese Town Hall. In the same year, he also served as a committee member of Lam Wah Ee Hospital ( 南華醫院 ), established in 1883 as a charitable institution to give free medicine to the poor and provide the needy with opportunities in education and employment. In addition, he was also elected as a Fellow of the Society of Arts in Penang. Proposed by Sir Henry Wood for his services rendered to Government, Lim was appointed by Sir John Anderson as Justice of the Peace for Penang in Three years later in 1908, he received the title of Daoyuan ( 道員 ) from the Qing Government for his service to the Penang Chinese community, his leadership, and his efforts in promoting Chinese education. Lim had two wives, Ooi Shu Shen and Khoo Shu Qin, three sons, Seng Teik, Seng Hoe and Seng Hooi, and three daughters. In February 1912, he succumbed to illness and died at his residence, 9, Soo Hong Lane ( 四方巷 ), George Town. He was buried at the Batu Gantong cemetery. Wong Yee Tuan SE (12 Jan 1906, 8 Mar 1912); Lat Pau (30 May 1908); Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2002, p.49; Lee & Chow, p.110; Goh Leng Hoon, pp Lim Kek Chuan, 林克全, Lin Kequan ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Tin Miner, Community Leader. Lim Kek Chuan was one of the prominent business and social figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. His businesses spanned across rice trading, tin mining and trading, opium revenue farms, and rubber planting. He was a co-founder of Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce. Lim Kek Chuan was born in Penang on 6 November His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Lin Tong Seh village ( 三都林東社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. After receiving his education at the Penang Free School, he joined Watson & Co. as a clerk. Later he left the company and established Chop Ee Thye, a rice trading firm, together with Khoo Oon Keong. The firm was located at 48, Beach Street, George Town and had branches in Rangoon, Mandalay, and Calcutta. Lim also set up Kek Chuan & Co. to engage in tin mining and trading business. This firm had large dealings with Behn, Meyer & Co. Besides tin and rice, Lim was also involved in revenue farming. He was a large shareholder in the Opium and Spirit Farms of Penang, Kedah, and Singapore. In partnership with Kedah towkay Choong Cheng Kean ( 莊清建, Zhuang Qingjian ), Lim held the lease of the Kedah opium farm for 15 years, Together with other Penang towkays, they controlled the Penang opium farm for 10 years, He was a partner in the Singapore opium farm for one term, When the rubber boom started, Lim partnered some Penang businessmen including several Europeans, such as Arthur Robert Adams, George Stothard, and Anthony & Anderson to set up Brieh Rubber Company, which owned 1,100 acres in Bagan Serai, Perak. Apart from rubber, he was also engaged in other businesses like shipping, smelting and insurance, forming partnership with other Penang towkays through the Khaw Group. He was one of the biggest land proprietors, owning all the shop houses at Kek Chuan Road, which was later named after him. 119

124 With his business success and wealth, Lim Kek Chuan was able to establish social leaderships in the Chinese community. In 1892, he co-founded the Chinese Recreation Club (CRC, 中華體育會 ) and became the president. In 1901, he was appointed a member of the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) which was established in Four years later, he was reappointed as a member of the Advisory Board. In 1901, he was elected as the president of Penang Literary Association. In 1903, Lim together with thirty other towkays founded the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ). He was elected as the first president and served until During his term, he led the Chinese merchants to support the anti-american movement in As a wealthy and successful member of the Lim clan, he was appointed as a trustee of the Seh Lim Kongsi. He was also a keen promoter of education. In 1904, together with other businessmen, they jointly established the first Chinese school in Malaya - Chung Hwa School ( 中華學校 ). He was appointed an office bearer of the school. In 1906, he served as a trustee of the Chinese Town Hall. He was also a keen participant in religious affairs. In 1906, he donated 2,000 yuan to Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), the Buddhist Temple at Ayer Itam and became one of the senior board members. In addition, he was also a Fellow of the Society of Arts, London ( 倫敦藝術協會 ). Lim was married three times. His first wife was Oh (Foo) Kee Neo ( 胡己娘 ), third daughter of Foo Tye Sin ( 胡泰興, Hu Taixing ). After her death, he married Oh (Foo) Jim Neo ( 胡壬娘 ), the fourth daughter of Foo Tye Sin. Later he took another wife, Ong Cheow Bee ( 王薔薇 ). All together, he had five sons, five daughters and fourteen grandchildren. Among the sons, Soo Chee ( 士志, Shizhi ) who took over the family business, was the most popularly known. Lim suffered from a stroke and died at his residence, 40 Muntri Street, George Town. He was buried at the Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ). Wong Yee Tuan SFP (3 Jul 1905, 26 Nov 1907); SE (22 Nov 1907); Lee & Chow, p.111; Diana Ooi p.160; Franke & Chen, pp.652, 924. Lim Leng Cheak, 林寧綽, Lin Ningchuo ( ) Merchant, Ship Owner, Planter, Rice Miller, Revenue Farmer. He was both a local born, English-educated British subject and a Hokkien Chinese tycoon. His father was Lim It Kim ( 林乙金, Lin Yijing), a first generation immigrant from Sandu Village, Zhangzhou Prefecture. Lim Leng Cheak was one of the most important Penang Chinese towkays in the late 19th century. His business involved shipping, trading, revenue farming, milling, mining, and planting, with its tentacles extending from Penang to Sumatra, Kedah, Perak, Singapore, and even to Ceylon and Burma, encompassing the pepper trade, rice and sugar milling, opium and spirit farms, and coffee, coconut and tapioca plantations. As a business lobbyist, Lim Leng Cheak played an important role in the elections of municipal commissioner in Penang (late 1880s and early 1890s). He was one of the most important revenue farmers in Kedah, very close to the Sultan of Kedah so much so that he could be considered an integral part of the state machinery. He arranged the sultan s affairs and maintained the latter s houses in Penang. He went shopping for the sultan, even for small items of stationery, fruit, as well as coffee cups, napkins and tablecloths, and a rifle, to mention just a few purchases. He escorted the Siamese official missions from Bangkok, attended horse-races on behalf of the sultan, acted as the middleman for the sultan and royal family when they wanted to secure chettiar or European loans in Penang, took care of most of the sultan s bills, and ran the sultan s private steamer, the Good Luck, from hiring the captain and engineer to assuming responsibility for repair and maintenance. In return, constantly bolstered by the sultan s strong support, he secured many Siamese loans. In 1888, the sultan granted him the rice milling monopoly in the whole of Kedah for 20 years, which was extended to the second generation after Lim s death. He also opened a rice mill, Chip Hong Bee Mill in Penang in Lim Leng Cheak s role in the tender for the 120

125 Kedah opium farm ( ) resulted in a series of challenges against the colonial authorities in Penang and Singapore. Among the effects were the 1893 opium disturbance in Kulim, to the libel case against François Charles Berger, and the proprietor of the Straits Independence and Penang Chronicle, to the Penang 1893 petition to oppose Cecil Clementi Smith s extension of his term as the governor in Singapore. After the last event, he seemed to retreat from the public scene. However, his family business continued to expand and was carried out by his son Lim Eow Hong ( 林耀煌, Lin Yaohuang) in the early stage and later by another son, Lim Eow Thoon ( 林耀椿, Lin Yaochun ) when Eow Hong ran into financial difficulty. Lim Leng Cheak had at least seven wives, distributed across Kedah, Penang, Ipoh, southern Siam, and Kuala Lumpur, related geographically to his business activities. His chief wife was Tan Say Seang ( 陳西祥, Chen Xixiang), a very generous Chinese woman, who was ranked number three as Hokkien top donor in Penang for more than half a century between 1850 and Tan Say Seang became an ardent Buddhist after the death of her husband. She made pilgrimages to all the well-known Buddhist shrines in Siam, Burma, Ceylon, and China and did a lot of work for charities there. In Penang itself, Tan Say Seang was entirely responsible for the building of the Perak Road Temple, and was also one of the main donors for the building of the Kek Lok Si Temple ( 極樂寺 ) at Ayer Itam. They had five sons: Eow Hong, Eow Thoon, Eow Hooi, Eow Swee and Eow Tong, and four daughters. Eow Hong and Eow Thoon were particularly prominent in business and politics in Penang and Kedah. Rice milling and rubber plantations became the main business concerns for the second generation. In terms of business relationships, the Lim Leng Cheak family was very closely connected to the leading Chinese families in Penang, such as those of Koh Seang Tat ( 辜上達, Gu Shangda ), Phuah (Lim) Hin Leong ( 潘興隆, Pan Xinglong ), Choong Cheng Kean ( 莊清建, Zhuang Qingjian ), Lee Phee Yeow ( 李丕耀, Li Piyao) and Chuah Yu Kay ( 蔡有格, Cai Youge ), which continued through the second generation. Wu Xiao An MM (22 Sep 1930); Wright, p.820; HPP, p.102. Lim Seng Hooi, 林成輝, Lin Chenghui ( ) Publisher, Revenue Farmer, Tin Miner, Planter, Community Leader, Public Figure. Lim Seng Hooi alias Youxuan ( 幼煊 ) was the second son of Lim Hua Chiam ( 林花鐟, Lin Huazan ), a prominent Hokkien leader. He was the secondgeneration owner of Criterion Press who played an important role in public service. Lim Seng Hooi s ancestral origin can be traced to Aoguan village, Sandu County ( 三都鰲冠社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. Seng Hooi was born in Penang in 1872 and received his education at the Penang Chinese School. At the age of 14, he quit his schooling and joined his father in business the Criterion Press ( 點石齋印字館 ) located at the 230 & 232 Beach Street, established in It was in 1888 that a letterpress department was set up. The first Chinese daily Penang Sin Poe ( 檳城新報 ) was published by Criterion Press in Four years later, a Malay weekly Chahaya Pulau Pinang, under the editorship of Abdul Ghani B. Mohd. Kassim, came into being. Later it was felt that another English press was necessary. Hence, on 1 June 1903, Criterion Press launched the Straits Echo ( 亦果西報 ) with Chesney Duncan as its editor. The Criterion Press was turned into a limited company in 1902 and Seng Hooi became the managing director of the company. He retired from the position in 1926 and Lim Cheng Kung ( 林清江, Lin Qingjiang ) was the successor. Apart from publishing, Seng Hooi also ventured into other businesses, forging a close partnership with other Chinese businessmen such as Quah Beng Kee ( 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ). Both of them became joint shareholders of Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 乾元保安公司 ) and were partners of the Penang opium syndicate in under Chop Ban Chin Bee. Later, Quah Beng Kee became one 121

126 of the directors of Criterion Press Ltd., and Seng Hooi invested his capital in Quah s Eastern Shipping Company Ltd ( 東方輪船有限公司 ) in Seng Hooi was also a director of the Bukit Ibu (Bandar) Tin Mining Company. In 1921, together with H. Welham they applied for an area of approximately 200 relongs mining land in Baling district, Kedah. During the rubber boom, Lim Seng Hooi in partnership with Lim Boon Haw ( 林文虎, Lin Wenhu ) built up a rubber estate of 5,538 acres in Kedah. Lim Seng Hooi also played a great part in the public life of Penang. In 1901, Seng Hooi was appointed to deal with the Common Lodging House Bylaws and in the same year served in the Committee responsible for the local celebrations in connection with the Coronation of King Edward VII. In , general dissatisfaction was felt in Penang over the action of the Government in prohibiting the circulation of the Sarawak copper coins as legal tender. Seng Hooi worked with the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) to allay public anxiety by persuading the Government to accept the coins in exchange for Straits money. In 1907, Seng Hooi acted as Hon. Secretary of the Penang Anti-Opium Society. In 1911, he served as a member of the Committee responsible for the collection of subscriptions from the public for the King Edward VII Memorial (Maternity) Hospital at Macalister Road. In the same year, Seng Hooi was successful in securing the withdrawal of regulations being introduced by the authorities, imposing a stamp duty on all communications by shopkeepers relating to remittances to China. Seng Hooi sat on the committee for the parade and the golden jubilee celebration of Queen Victoria s reign in 1887, the celebration of the coronation of King Edward VII in 1901 and King George V in 1911, as well as being one of the Chinese representatives to welcome the Prince of Wales during his visit in He was appointed as an inspector of prisons and Justice of the Peace in In addition, he was also the president of Penang Ratepayers Association and a committee member of the District Hospital. The leadership role of Seng Hooi within the Chinese community was equally influential. He was a cofounder of Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce ( 中華總商會 ) and was in the committee to draft the rules and regulations in He served as a committee member intermittently for more than 20 years. In the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), he served as president, vice-president, and trustee in different periods. He also served in the committee of the Chinese Advisory Board. His involvement in other Chinese associations included serving as the chairman of the Kuan Yin Teng Temple ( 觀音亭 or Kong Hock Keong, 廣福宮 ), the United Hokkien Cemetery, the Lam Hwa Ee Hospital, the Chung Hwa Confucian School ( 孔聖廟中華學校 ), the Confucian Association ( 孔聖會 ), and Lim Kongsi Toon Pun Tong ( 林氏敦本堂 ); a trustee of the Hok Tek Cheng Sin ( 福德正神 ), the Seang Kooi Tong Lim Kongsi, the Kew Leong Tong Lim Kongsi ( 九龍堂林公司 ), and the Chinese Quarantine Camp; a committee member of the Hokkien Kongsi, Poh Hock Seah ( 寶福社 ), and Tong Kheng Seah ( 同慶社 ); a member of the Chinese Recreation Club (CRC, 中華體育會 ), the Cycling Club and the Penang Mutual Improvement Association, Penang Philomathic Society ( 檳城閱書報社 ) in 1912, and the Republican Party in Seng Hooi was also took an interest in welfare matters. When the bubonic plague broke out in Penang in 1894, his commiseration with the poor, led him to engage Dr. Robertson and Dr. Locke to attend to poor patients with all the expenses were defrayed by him. Years later in 1918, he organized similar free medical aid for the victims of the influenza epidemic. He set up the Influenza Relief Fund and served as an honorary secretary and honorary treasurer. When the rice crisis broke out in , he played a great part in soothing the angry crowd during tense periods. He was a member of a Deputation that successfully negotiated with the Government to bring down the price of rice from $1.26 to 75 cents per gantang in In recognition of his involvement in public affairs and welfare, Seng Hooi was awarded the Straits Settlements Certificate of Honour in He passed away in 1943 and was buried at Batu Gantong cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ). Wong Yee Tuan & Hung Bee Ling TST (17 May 1926); SE (12 Feb 1930); KSS File S.C. 1528/1339; Lee & Chow pp.114-5; HPP p.103; Lin Bo ai, V1, p.139; V2, pp ; vol.4, p.227; Goh Leng Hoon, pp ; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp. 89, 202; Wright, pp ; Song Yunpu, pp

127 M. A. Pitchay Gunny (1875, India-1936) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. Haji Pitchay Gunny was a textile businessman and owner of Pitchay Gunny textile shop. He migrated to Penang in 1900 when he was 30 years old, in search of a business opportunity. After a few months, he rented a shop at Penang Road to start a textile business. The business was encouraging. Pitchay Gunny married an Indian- Muslim girl from Penang. They had six children, four boys and two girls. Haji Pitchay Gunny died in Penang in He was 61 years old. His son, Mohamed Abu Bakar, took over the business. After the Second World War ended, Abu Bakar continued the business with the British, getting them to bring in consumer goods such as jackets, jeans, T-shirts, shirts, and pipes. Since then, one could also buy imported garments from Pitchay Gunny, besides textiles. In 1955, Abu Bakar died in Penang. The business was then inherited by his son, Mohamed Ghani, who was still studying law at a college in Penang. Mohamed Ghani had to stop his studies in order to manage the business. The 1960s saw a change in fashion trends among the young who began to opt for the Western fashion of jeans, bell-bottomed pants, jackets, shirts, and T-shirts. Mohamed Ghani had to follow the new trend, and only at Pitchay Gunny could one get such imported items. The Chinese counterparts did not carry such items yet. Mohamed Ghani then bought a shop at 178 Penang Road. From then on, the business began to escalate. Mohamed Ghani was hardworking and thrifty. Soon he opened another outlet at A2-17, Komtar, in In 1991 Mohamed Ghani died in India while on a tour. Syed Ahamed, his son, took over the business. Although Syed Ahamed had a degree in civil engineering from UTM, he was more interested in continuing the business. Today, Pitchay Gunny sells original leather shoes, jeans, T-shirts, and others. In 1991, a new branch was opened at 440 Penang Road surviving for 10 years only while the commercial premises located at was closed down. M. A. Pitchay Gunny contributed to the Penang Muslim community in the form of financial support to build mosques. He often gave garments to orphanages in Penang. In the month of Ramadan, he would sponsor rice broth at mosques besides giving pelikat sarongs to fulfil the obligatory tithes (zakat) to the needy. He also donated financially towards the building of mosques in India. He was nominated a member of the Penang Mohammedan Advisory Board in 1934 and was actively involved in activities organised by the Penang Muslim Merchants Society. Omar Yusoff TST (29 Aug 1922, 14 Feb 1934, 26 Sep 1936); MDCRR, p.279; Personal Communication (Syed Ahamed bin Mohamed Ghani); website (Pitchay Gunny Company). Mahmud Abdul Manaf (1918, Kedah 2000, Kedah) Bookshop Owner, Book Dealer and Printer, Philanthropist. Mahmud Abd. Manaf was a Malay of Rawa descent, born in Bandar Baharu, Kedah. He was an influential businessman in Kedah and Penang. He started business selling religious books at the daily market in Pekan Nat, Kedah in the vicinity of Alor Star. A few years later his uncle, Haji Ali Rawa gave him a shop lot in Pekan Rabu, Alor Star. He sold various types of books, such as Kitab Kuning, Kitab Tajul Muluk and Kitab Mujarabah. Kitab Tajul Muluk and Kitab Mujarabah were used as references to forecast or predict the most auspicious dates to marry, and to name a newly born child. Most of these books were bought by religious schools (sekolah pondok) and the elderly. As his business in Pekan Rabu grew successful, he opened two other branches in Alor Star and Penang. In Penang, the bookstore was at 81, Lebuh Acheh. He named it Cawangan Pustaka Mahmud Abd. Manaf. It was very well-known to as far as Patani in Thailand and Kelantan. People from these places came to buy his books. There were other 123

128 Muslim bookstores on Lebuh Acheh at that time such as Haji Yusuf Basheer, Siru Omar Basheer (S. O. Basheer), Al-Muarif Press, and Sulaiman Press. In the 1970s Mahmud Abd. Manaf gave the bookstore to his son, Ismail bin Mahmud. The bookstore was then renamed Pustaka Ismail. As a prominent businessman, Mahmud Abd. Manaf contributed a lot towards the society in Penang although he was from Kedah. His bookstore in Penang made it easy for Penangites and their religious schools (sekolah pondok) to get the books they wanted. His donations also reached welfare homes and orphanages. As an active member of the Lebuh Acheh community, he was involved in its social activities. He had two wives, also of Rawa descent. His first wife was from Kampung Manggis, Rangoon Road, who bore him three children. He had one child with his second wife. He died in 2000 in Kedah. He was 82 years old. Siti Amirah binti Abdullah Peduman Bakal-bakal Haji; Personal Communication (Ismail bin Mahmud Abd. Manaf & Mohammed bin Yahaya). McCulloch, David (b. c October 1825) Merchant, Agent. David McCulloch was the third son of David McCulloch of Ardwall, Scotland, and Janet née Corsane, and was born about In his early twenties he spent a year in France and saw war break out. He became fluent in the language before returning home in late There he saw his father pass away in January 1794 and administered the estate. He also struck up a friendship with the poet Robert Burns, attested to by a letter from Burns now in the British Museum, dated 21 June Without job prospects at home, McCulloch sailed for India in April A departing fling with a girl named Peggy Bailey resulted in a pregnancy, which amounted to a small scandal but was settled by his brother some months after David had departed. It is not known when McCulloch first came to Penang, but he is one of several persons to sign an address to the departing Lieutenant Governor Robert Townsend Farquhar on 7 September The first mention of his mercantile firm, McCulloch and Co., is found in the Prince of Wales Island Government Gazette of 25 October the following year. By then he had built a house on newly subdivided land in Farquhar Street, about the location of the new western wing of today s E&O Hotel. He generally described himself as an agent i.e. he acted as a middleman rather than owning and operating trading vessels. In September 1807 he offered insurance to British East India Company ships trading to China at 4% of their value, with a 1% rebate for safe arrival. By April 1809 he had become an agent for the Ganges Insurance Office of Calcutta. McCulloch departed Penang aboard the Fifeshire in February 1811 but may well have continued business in Calcutta, withdrawing from McCulloch and Co. in His partners, Thomas McGee and John Dunbar carried on the business under the new name of McGee and Dunbar as of 1 June McCulloch apparently spent half of 1815 at the Cape of Good Hope recovering from illness, but returned to India. A mention is found of him being in Penang advertising his house in Farquhar Street in January 1818, but he may only have been visiting. McCulloch returned to Scotland in 1820 but continued to suffer ill health. In July 1822 his house in Farquhar Street was offered for sale, having been rented in the interim. He moved to Cheltenham, England in early 1825 for his health, and his sister, Elizabeth, who had married into the family of Sir Walter Scott but was recently widowed, moved there to care for him. It would appear that McCulloch had sent Sir Walter a present of Tippu Sultan s sword, according to a letter he wrote to McCulloch in May David McCulloch died on 17 October of that year, aged about 56; an event recorded in Scott s journal. He left his estate worth 10,000 to his sister and 124

129 50,000 Sicca Rupees to his natural and only son, Alexander, in Calcutta, should he reach the age of 21. This would indicate that Alexander was not the child of his 1796 dalliance with Peggy Bailey. Alexander married Louisa Elizabeth Harris, daughter of John Harris of the firm Nosky and Co. in Calcutta on 30 May Marcus Langdon AAR (Vol. VIII, pt. 1, 1806, 105-7); PWIGG (19 Sep 1807); PWIG (15 Apr 1809, 9 Feb 1811, 6 Jun 1812, 24 Jan 1818, 27 Jul 1822); AJMR (Vol. 6, 1831, 138); Website (Walter Jameson McCulloch). McGee, Thomas (b. unknown; d. 1813) Merchant & Property Owner. It is not known when Thomas McGee first arrived in Penang, but the first mention of him is found in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 28 June 1806, where he is noted as the secretary of the Prince of Wales Island Club. He may well have been employed at the firm of McCulloch and Co. who began advertising in October the same year. When David McCulloch withdrew in 1812, McGee and fellow partner John Dunbar effectively took over the firm as of 1 June that year, trading from the same premises at an unknown location on the west side of Beach Street. McGee departed on a trading mission to Java on the brig Maria the following week but fell ill, forcing his stopover in Malacca on the return voyage in October John Dunbar travelled to Malacca to bring him home, and they arrived back in Penang on 14 November, but it would appear that illness continued to plague him. On 25 July 1813, during a trading voyage to Pedier on Sumatra s northwest coast, McGee died, after a severe illness of several months. A significant amount of personal property including horses and carriages was sold off at McGee and Dunbar s house in Glugor the following month. John Dunbar then continued the business alone, and in May 1814 certain houses and property owned by the firm were auctioned, realising a total of Sp$9, In December the same year, two large commodious houses & grounds on Farquhar Street in the vicinity of the western end of today s new E&O Hotel wing were advertised for sale, along with six grants of land in the south of the island totalling about 145 acres. The two adjoining houses were valued at $9,000 but were sold for $1,500 to the deputy sheriff, Frederick Halliburton. This sale was later deemed suspicious and the Court subsequently ordered the sale cancelled and the houses re-sold. An auction was held in February 1815 and another in June 1815, but the outcome is not known. McGee was at one time one of the High Constables at Penang, and one of the early members of the Freemason s Neptune Lodge 344 at Penang, he and Dunbar joining on 8 December Marcus Langdon PWIG (6 Jun 1812, 17 Oct 1812, 24 Oct 1812, 21 Nov 1812, 14 Aug 1813, 28 Aug 1813, 3 Dec 1814, 24 Jun 1815); LMF. McHugo, Jonathan Burke (b. and d. unknown) Merchant. Jonathan Burke McHugo was born in Ireland and arrived at Penang on 15 April 1809 with the East India Company s ships from Bengal. On 1 July that year he formed a partnership with Edward Essex Capes in a mercantile business called Capes and McHugo which traded from godowns at 233 Beach Street. The new firm did not advertise their goods for sale in the Gazette and just nine months later Capes withdrew, effective 1 April McHugo was to carry on alone; however both men are noted leaving for Calcutta on 18 November that year aboard the Penang Packet. McHugo is found returning to Penang on the same vessel in early February 1811, perhaps to wind up his affairs, as he departed for Calcutta soon afterwards 125

130 where he spent 5,500 with Calcutta firm Anderson & Co. purchasing the 100-ton brig Active before stocking it full of merchandise and heading for Sydney. On the way he called in at Port Dalrymple (Launceston), Tasmania, in December 1811 where he convinced the incumbent Commandant, Colonel George Gordon who was at that time suffering mental illness attributed to sunstroke that he, McHugo, was of royal descent and there to assess the governing of the settlement. Finding his ploy successful he then proclaimed himself in charge as King of Launceston and had Gordon locked up. This fiasco lasted a week before McHugo was arrested and along with his ship sent to Sydney where a doctor proclaimed him insane. A Court hearing on 4 February 1812 found Jonathan Burke McHugo, late of Calcutta, Merchant, but at present Owner and Supra-Cargo of the Brig Active, of Calcutta is of an unsound Mind, and not capable of the Government of himself, his Tenements, Goods, and Chattels and appointed three local gentlemen custodians of his affairs and property. The Active and its considerable cargo was sold off; the proceeds of just over 7,000 being remitted to Anderson & Co. in satisfaction of McHugo s debt. The vessel was apparently purchased by missionary Samuel Marsden who subsequently used it to carry the first permanent European settlers to New Zealand. Departing Sydney on 29 March 1812 aboard the Guilford, McHugo was returned to Calcutta where he spent 2½ years confined in the General Insane Hospital. At Penang, Sheriff John Baird advertised his property at Ayer Rajah for sale in June that year in satisfaction of a writ by Morrison Walker Wallace. This was an estate of about 9½ acres on Grants 1549, 1551 & 1579 in the vicinity of today s Kampung Syed, and quite possibly his place of residence in Penang. A quantity of McHugo s glassware and stationery left on the island was sold off in March 1813 in satisfaction of a further writ by David Brown. After his confinement in Calcutta, McHugo was sent back to England, still obstinately claiming his royal connections this in a letter to merchant John Palmer upon his departure in January 1815: every intelligent Man who knows me must be aware that altho the Son of an Irish Snuff and Tobacco Seller, I am the lineal Descendant of Earl Bothwell and Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, the Great Grand daughter of Henry the 7th of England, in the line of his daughter Margaret, the Wife of James the 4th of Scotland, Consequently the rightful Heir to the Crown of England; but Henry Plantagenet I deem the root of my family in this Country. JONATHAN BURKE HUGO, Prince of Scotland, and of Great Britain and Ireland, Rex de Jure Divina. On 10 January 1817 he wrote to Lord Sidmouth claiming misconduct by the NSW Government in detaining him and selling off his property. He also wrote to Under-Secretary Goulburn claiming he was on the brink of starvation in the London streets, but little is known of his subsequent fate. Marcus Langdon PWIG (15 Apr 1809, 1 Jul 1809, 5 May 1810, 24 Nov 1810, 9 Feb 1811, 20 Jun 1812, 13 Mar 1813); Hansen; HRA, V9, pp ; SRNSW; SGNSWA (15 Feb 1812); TA (18 Oct 1919). McIntyre, Anthony ( ) Merchant. Anthony McIntyre was the eldest son of John McIntyre of Glenorchy, Scotland. Anthony was born c. February 1783, probably in Macao, where his father had set up a mercantile business in 1774 which ran very successfully until 1792 when four of his ships were lost in the China Sea, plunging him into financial difficulties. In 1793 he relocated his family to Penang where he found employment under the East India Company administration as a Vendue Master (public auctioneer) and in May 1795 as Clerk of the Market. When he died on 27 June 1799 Anthony, then aged 16, inherited his assets, which may well have also included a mercantile business. 126

131 When the first newspaper was established in Penang in 1806 we find Anthony well established as a merchant, advertising the auction of two properties and the sale of a curricle and horses in the 10 May issue. He continued to be a regular advertiser and the business grew. On 1 March 1807 he admitted Richard Snadden as a partner and the firm became McIntyre and Snadden, trading from 230 Beach Street. Official permission to operate as agents and auctioneers came two weeks later. A commission of 2½% was charged on the sale of houses, land and shipping, and 5% on household and other smallgoods. The partnership lasted exactly two years before being dissolved. McIntyre re-established himself at 250 Beach Street on 23 May 1809, in the same line of business, holding his first auction of Indian piece goods the following day. At the end of July the same year he admitted a new partner, John Fritz, who had just arrived in Penang. The company then traded as McIntyre and Fritz. They were prolific advertisers and very active merchants, selling all manner of goods and property. This partnership lasted just over two years before Fritz withdrew on 8 September 1811 due to illness and departed for Calcutta. He would later return to Penang and commence his own business, Fritz and Co. in May McIntyre continued as busily as ever, moving to new premises at 10 Beach Street. He traded under his own name until 1 May 1817 when he admitted his 23-year-old younger brother, Norman Macalister McIntyre, as a partner in the business, which then became McIntyre and Co. This firm continued its prominence in the following years, variously advertising sales of property, vessels, merchandise and livestock on an almost weekly basis. The Gazette records the death of Anthony s wife (name unknown) on 28 September In August 1822 he sailed for China, probably to seek business for his Penang enterprise, but he was back by 10 April 1823 when he dissolved the partnership with his brother. Once again he continued alone, trading under his own name. Norman Macalister McIntyre was then employed by the government as head clerk in the Lands office. 2½ years later, after perhaps 25 years in business, Anthony sold McIntyre and Co. to John Edmund McIntyre (possibly his son) and George Ricketts Mayers, who commenced operation on 16 October 1825, trading under the same name and from the same Beach Street premises. This venture collapsed when McIntyre died only eight months later, on 19 June Once again Anthony McIntyre took up the reins. He continued to trade under his own name over the next two decades, although advertising less frequently. As a resident of long standing he was involved in many public meetings and in later years regularly sat on the jury of the Court of Judicature. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser of 11 May 1848 records the death of Anthony McIntyre on 22 April at Penang, aged 65. With a trading record stretching over nearly 50 years McIntyre could possibly have been the longest serving individual amongst the mercantile community in the early years of Penang s development. His specialty was the auctioning of houses and land, and many a Penang property changed hands under his hammer. Little is known of his private life. Around McIntyre married, in Macau, the illegitimate daughter of well-known Macau merchant Daniel Beale and Penang woman Nonia Dolly. A daughter (un-named) was born on 6 July After his wife s death records show that he fathered at least two girls; Felicete Jane McIntyre in 1829 (she married John Gifford Symons 9 Feb 1865 at Penang) and Louisa McIntyre in 1842 (she married Norbit Elvins 14 Feb 1865 at Penang) though in both cases the mother s name is not recorded. Records also show a Sophia Isabella McIntyre marrying Christian John Rodyk on 7 Feb 1819 at Penang. She could perhaps have been a sister to Anthony. Marcus Langdon GG (10 May 1806); PWIGG (21 Mar 1807); PWIG (4 Mar 1809, 20 May 1809, 29 Jul 1809, 18 Aug 1811, 15 May 1813, 3 May 1817, 12 Jul 1817, 2 Oct 1819, 31 Aug 1822, 12 Apr 1823, 15 Oct 1825, 8 Jul 1826); SSFR (R24, V 65, 22 Jan 1818); SFP (12 Aug 1847, 11 May 1848); Website (IGI). 127

132 McIntyre, Norman Macalister ( ) Merchant, Civil Servant, Coroner, Newspaper Proprietor. Norman Macalister McIntyre was the youngest son of John McIntyre who had arrived in Penang in He was born in Penang the year after, but when his father died on 27 June 1799 Norman s eldest brother Anthony, then aged 16, became the breadwinner for the family, also caring for his 9-yearold brother Johnstone. Presumably their mother was still living, however no mention of her has been found. Inheriting his father s assets, Anthony soon became involved in a mercantile business. Norman was sent to Calcutta for schooling in 1800, returning to Penang seven years later. Aged just 13, he was employed by the East India Company in the secretary s office under Thomas Stamford Raffles. When Raffles became lieutenant governor of Java following its capture by the British in 1811, he thought highly enough of McIntyre to appoint him as a clerk in the secret department there. Five years were spent in Java, but in December 1816, due to illness, he returned to Penang. Anthony s mercantile business was thriving and on 1 May 1817 the then 23-year-old Norman was admitted as a partner. The firm then traded under the name McIntyre and Co. and was one of the busiest in Beach Street, dealing in the sale of property, vessels, merchandise and livestock. Norman remained in the business for six years until, for unknown reasons, Anthony dissolved the partnership on 10 April 1823, continuing the business alone and trading under his own name. Perhaps not feeling cut out for mercantile pursuits, Norman found employment with the East India Company government as head clerk in the lands office. At the time his elder brother Johnstone was coroner to the Court of Judicature, but when he became chronically ill in 1824, Norman also took on this role, being officially appointed to the position on 25 July Johnstone died on 11 May the following year, aged 36. He too had briefly dabbled in mercantile business in 1816/17 before becoming coroner. Now that Norman had a steady income, he married Jane Glass in Penang on 18 September Ecclesiastical records suggest they may already have had two children before the marriage, which although unusual may have been the case. Norman s next business venture would nearly ruin him. After a disagreement with the government, William Cox, owner of the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, shut the paper down, printing the last issue on 21 July McIntyre saw an opportunity, and with merchant William Balhetchet as partner they purchased the printing press and started a newspaper called The Penang Register and Miscellany, printing the first edition on 22 August. For a while all went well, but Balhetchet, as editor, was very outspoken and soon ran foul of the censor. The paper was shut down by government on 17 September Worst of all McIntyre was dumped from his job with the lands office and was lucky to retain his position as coroner. Government then imported its own press from Calcutta and began printing the Government Gazette. As some compensation to McIntyre they agreed to purchase his press as well for $3,750, relieving him of a portion of the financial trouble he now found himself in. Balhetchet must have felt some responsibility for his situation and admitted him as a partner in Balhetchet & Co. as of 1 January The partnership proved to be another financial disaster and it was dissolved in His penance served, McIntyre was once again appointed head clerk in the lands office in addition to that of coroner, both of which jobs he retained until his death on 11 July 1847, aged 53. His long obituary in the Singapore Free Press stated that he was much and universally esteemed for his courteousness and obliging disposition there is not a mercantile Firm, or scarcely indeed an European resident in business of whatever kind, who has not frequently been obliged to him for his assistance in drawing up deeds, agreements &c But it is by the native classes that he will be more especially missed. It is well known that his time, out of office, was fully occupied in affording them advice and assistance. The Chinese engaged in trade carried on all their 128

133 English correspondence through him; and the poorer Natives, of all classes, always found in him a ready listener to their wants and views, a person ever willing to afford them advice, to assist them through their difficulties and draw up their Petitions &c. without receiving, asking or wishing the smallest compensation for trouble. A true-born Penangite, McIntyre s benevolence was certainly from the heart, as his death left his family destitute. Such was his standing that a subscription fund was raised and liberally supported in Penang and Singapore for the support of his widow and children. These funds were managed by prominent merchant Jonathan Padday and civil servant Lawrence Nairne. McIntyre s wife Jane died in Calcutta on 19 July Nevertheless the name McIntyre, through the grandchildren of John McIntyre, would long remain a part of Penang s business and mercantile community. Children of Norman Macalister McIntyre and Jane: 1. Mary Matthew McIntyre b (possible: father Norman McIntyre, mother s name not recorded), m. 8 Feb 1864, John Walter Jeremiah, at Penang. 2. Maria Johnstone McIntyre b. 1826, m. 3 Jan 1850 Pierre Edmond Matthew at Penang. 3. Jane Malvina McIntyre b. 20 Jul 1827, at Penang. 4. Eliza Hester McIntyre b. 1828, m. (1) 12 Dec 1848 Emile Henri Noel at Penang; m. (2) 30 Mar 1876 John Eustis Jones at Calcutta, both widowed. 5. Charlotte Ann McIntyre b. 3 Oct 1830 at Penang. 6. Mary Elvina Mcintyre b. 10 Mar 1833 at Penang. 7. Norman Howard McIntyre b. 5 Aug 1834 at Penang Marcus Langdon PWIG (14 Dec 1816, 3 May 1817, 12 Apr 1823); PRM (22 Aug 1827); GGPWISM (6 Dec 1828); SSFR (R43, V124, 20 Sep 1828, R44 V125, 19 Nov 1828); SFP (12 Aug 1847); LMF; Website (IGI). Merican, Cauder Moheedin (1759, Pondicherry-1834) Merchant, Community Leader. Cauder Moheedin Merican was also known as Kader Mydin Merican, a prominent businessman and a social figure during the first half of the 19th century. He is remembered as the founder of the Kapitan Keling Mosque in Pitt Street, hence the title Kapitan Keling. Cauder Moheedin Merican was an Indian-Muslim of Arabic descent. He was born in Pondicherry, South India in When he was young, he lived in a settlement at Port Parangi Pettai, now known as Porto Novo, South India. In the 1770s, Kapitan Keling sailed to Penang with his younger brother, his mother, Fatma and a few other Indian Muslims. Their sole objective was to look for greener pastures. They landed at Batu Uban and later settled in Tanjung Puthukarei (the present area around Kampong Kolam, a part of Chulia Street and Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling). Kapitan Keling and his brother delved into business as a means of livelihood. As young as they were, they travelled to as far as Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Aceh, and other ports, trading in merchandise such as cotton, eaglewood, beads and various precious stones of different colours. His business also took him to India. By 1800, through their hard work and patience, they emerged as among the wealthiest and most influential Muslim traders in Penang. In 1834, Kapitan Keling s wealth was estimated at Sp$50,000. He was one of the biggest textile traders until his death in He acquired a lot of land in town and his family was well known among the British. Cauder Moheedin Merican had three wives. He had no children with his first wife, Fatimah Nachiar. His second wife, Che Aminah aka Menah, was Fatimah s niece. Udman Nachiar, a daughter, was born to them. His third wife, Tengku Wan Chik Taiboo aka Maheran, was from the Kedah royal house. She bore him six children, Udman/Othman Naina Merican, Udman/Othman Sah Merican/Othman Sahib Merican/Che Wan Othman Sahib Merican, Othman 129

134 Nachiar/Udman Nay, Othman Kandoo/Udman Kandu, Udman/Othman Bee Bee and Udman/ Othman Wan Niar. In 1801, Cauder Moheedin Merican was bestowed the honour of the position of Kapitan Keling by the East India Company. The choice was made according to one s status resulting from one s wealth. As a Kapitan Keling, his responsibility was to manage and administer the interests of the local Indian-Muslim community and settle the problems which arose. He also had the power in Islamic matters in the state. In 1801, the Kapitan Keling Mosque was built with his sponsorship and contribution from other Muslim communities in Penang. The 18 acre property belonged to Kapitan Keling. It was granted to him by George Leith, then the Lieutenant Governor of Penang, for religious purposes (grant no. 367 of 1801). By 1903, only one eighth of the 18 acres granted to him remained as the property of the mosque due to encroachment of private houses up to several feet of the mosque and also the improper management of the property after Kapitan Keling died on 10th September Omar Yusoff MHEB-AR, 1948; HMEB-AR, 1953; HPP, p.34; Khoo Su Nin, 1993, pp ; P. Stark, pp ; Ragayah Eusoff, pp.35-42; MHEB-HB, p.1; Fujimoto, pp.42-45; Abdul Kahar Yusoff, no. 1, Kapitan Kling Mosque, Pitt Street); PPTPAB, P.6; Omar Yusoff, pp ; Personal Comunication (Shaik Iskandar bin S.H.O Merican); Salina Zainol, Merican, Mohamed Noordin (1778, Pondicherry ) Textile Merchant, Community Leader. Mohamed Merican Noordin was one of the prominent Muslim business and social figures from the first decade of the 19th century to His businesses comprised textile trading and spices besides providing transport services for immigrants and haj pilgrims. In the 1869 directory, his name was listed as merchant and planter who lived in Chulia Street. As a wealthy trader, he contributed generously to ensure the well-being of the people of Penang through philanthropic activities. He also held leadership positions in major socio-economic organizations. Mohamed Merican Noordin came from Pondicherry, South India. At a very young age, he traveled to Penang with his mother and eldest brother, Cauder Moheedin Merican, looking for greener pastures. After some time in Batu Uban, he and his family moved to a place called Tanjung Puthukarei (now situated in Kampong Kolam). In the early 1820s, he started his own business and by the 1830s became one of the most influential business figures in Penang. He later succeeded to become Kapitan Keling as the most prominent Chulia merchant in Penang. He was involved in transit trading and bartering Indian textiles with pepper from Aceh. His fleet of ships called at not only the ports along the Straits of Melaka, such as Aceh and North Sumatra, but also went as far as Burma and India. In 1852, he even dispatched a trading consignment to China. Since 1838, his name appeared in the Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle as the consigner who had sent the most number of cargo shipments to local ports in Aceh, north Sumatra, Burma and India. In that year, he sent 17 trading ships to Chittagong, Arakan, Deli, Aceh, Pudu, Pedir, Cuddalore, Nagapatnam, Cochin China, Calcutta, Aleppy and Singapore. As a wealthy man, Mohamed Merican Noordin played an active and significant role in the welfare of the Penang people. He was appointed a committee member of Penang Chamber of Commerce in He built a school for local children to learn al-quran and Islamic religion, English and Arabic. The school was situated next to the Kapitan Keling Mosque. His name was listed as the principal inhabitant in the Penang Directory of 1869 together with his two sons, Vapoo Merican Noordin and Nina Merican Noordin. When he died in 1870, the family business was continued by his children. Mahani Musa PD, 1874, p.15; PAD, 1869, pp. 25,38; 1876, p.40; Khoo Su Nin, 1993, p.73; PGSC (21 Apr 1838, 15 Sep 1838, 24 Nov 1838, 12 May 1849) ; Salina Zainol, pp ; Fujimoto, p. 45; Website (Noordin Street). 130

135 Mohamad Ismail, Haji ( ) Jeweller, Philanthropist. Haji Mohamad Ismail was a precious stone jeweller. He started working as an assistant when he was seven years old. He worked with Abdul Rahman al-habshi, an Arab precious stone jeweller for 30 years. Having had no formal education, he acquired knowledge about precious stones from his employer. Thus, his interest in precious stones began. In the 1930s, he established his jewel shop, Kedai Permata Asli in Acheen Street. The shop, however, was destroyed by a bomb during the Japanese Occupation. After the war, he reopened his business at 127A Pitt Street (now Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling). Haji Mohamad Ismail married a Penang born Jawi Peranakan girl. They were blessed with four boys and four girls, Zainuddin, Sirajuddin Muneer, Mohd. Iqbal, Tajuddin Abdul Razak, and Noor Jahan, Noor Neem, Noor Aishah and Noor Zabeen. Haji Mohamad Ismail died in 1985, in Penang. He was 78 years old. After his death, his eldest daughter Noor Jahan and her husband, K. A. Oli Mohamed, and their son, Mohd. Feroz, took over the business. Like other Muslim businessmen, Haji Mohamad Ismail was also a philanthropist, giving alms during Ramadan, donating to orphanages and for the building of mosques in the vicinity of George Town. This tradition is being continued by his daughter and son-in-law. Omar Yusoff TO (30 Sep 1985, 23 Jan 1986, 20 Mar 1986, 24 Mar 1986, 31 Mar 1986, 25 Apr 1986, 11 Oct 1986, 30 Oct 1986, 23 Nov 1986); TM (30 Sep 1988, 31 Sep 1988); Personal Communication (Noor Jahan) Mohamed Ariff bin Mohd. Tajoodin (b. unknown ) Cattle Merchant, Land Owner, Philanthropist. Mohamed Ariff bin Mohd. Tajoodin was the grandson of a well-known cattle dealer in the 19th century, Bapu Alaudin. He learnt the ropes of the trade from his grandfather, and was among Bapu Alaudin s descendants who delved into the cattle business. In the early 20th century, he was a well-known figure amongst wealthy Muslim men in Penang. His riches bought him properties in Hutton Lane, Beach Street, Scotland Road, Penang Road, Cintra Street, Burma Road, Northam Road and Argyll Road. He also acquired properties in Balik Pulau, Seberang Perai and Teluk Remis Coconut Estate in Teluk Air Tawar. The Teluk Remis Estate was sold to Lim Chin Guan for $58,500 after his death. In addition, he was also the owner of Kulim Rubber Estate. Mohamed Ariff married Nyonya Tok Pusi Fatimah. They had five children. As a rich man, he was charitable towards the Muslim community in George Town. He served as juror in His wealth declined after his death. In 1927, his house at Hutton Lane was turned into a meeting place where wealthy Malays and Malay intellectuals congregated to discuss the foundation of a society that would safeguard the welfare of the Malays and Islam under British colonial rule. From this gathering was formed the Penang Malay Association. Mahani Musa SFP (21 Jul 1917); TST (5 Nov 1927); PAD, 1876, p.20; A. Shukor Rahman, pp.50-53; Website (Pemenang). Mohamed Kassim R. E. (1877, India-3 July 1931, Klang, Selangor) Merchant, Ship Owner, Landed Proprietor, Philanthropist. R.E. Mohamed Kassim was a wealthy merchant before the Second World War. He was the founder and sole proprietor of a trading firm and the Estate Supply Agency. His business comprised of shipping, import-export of textiles, and a chain of distribution centres of food commodities like rice and spices. He was also the sole distributor of Australian Roller Flour. He arrived in Malaya in After living in Penang for five years, he moved to Klang to start his 131

136 business. Klang remained his home. Mohd Salleh Bin Yahaya Mohamed Kassim inherited the business from his family. His father came from Rajaghiri, India of the Rawther family which was well-known in shipping and the stevedore business. Mohamed Kassim was a prominent supplier and distributor of food commodities especially to British owned estates. As he had developed a close rapport with the British, he was often given business opportunities by the colonial government. His business spread throughout Malaya with offices in Penang, Port Klang, Kuala Selangor, Melaka, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. In Penang, his business premises were at 65/67, Penang Street and 62, Beach Street. He also opened branches in Rajaghiri, Calcutta, Madras, Pondicherry, Negapatam, Dindigul and Rangoon. This millionaire owned a merchant ship which plied between India and Penang. Apart from transporting goods, his ship also carried passengers between India and Penang. Success in business enabled Mohamed Kassim to live a life of luxury. He owned several bungalows in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Klang, and Selangor. In Penang, his mansion was in Kelawai Road, an area where Malay millionaires lived. His holiday bungalow Terang Bulan ( bright moon ) was in Tanjong Bungah. He also owned land at strategic locations throughout Malaya. Like other Indian-Muslim millionaires of the day, Mohamed Kassim built mosques in Klang. He was also the President of Al-Hasanatul Jamiatul Islamiya Association which organized many charitable functions for the welfare of Muslims. Together with other Indian-Muslim millionaires, they set up a scholarship fund to help students who excelled in their studies to further their studies in Islam at the University of Aligarh in India. He was also the founder of a school at Rajaghiri for the education of poor Muslim children and the Kassim Charitable Dispensary. Although living in Klang, he was concerned about the welfare of merchants and traders in Penang and took part actively in public meetings organized by them. He was the President of the Selangor Indian Merchants Association and a Justice of Peace in Selangor. Referemces: Kosmo (25 Dec 2009, 18 Dec 2010); MT (6 Sep 1931); TST (29 Aug 1922, 10 Apr 1926, 24 Mar 1927, 14 Oct 1927, 25 Jul 1933, 16 Aug 1933, 16 Ap 1936, 29 Jul 1936); MDCRR, p.253; Khoo Kay Kim, 1991a, pp.1-8; R.E.Mohamed Kassim and Co. v. Seeni.Pakir; Seeni Naina Mohamed; Personal Communication (Haji Zainul Ariffin). Mohammad Sultan Yusoff (1922, India-1983) Restaurateur, Philanthropist. Mohammad Sultan Yusoff and his daughter, Minah (also known as Ahminah Bee), were the restaurateurs of Minah Restaurant, a popular Malay restaurant in Penang which is still well patronised today. Mohammad Sultan Yusoff came to Penang in 1936 when he was 14 years old with the intention of finding a job. In Penang, he worked as a labourer for a businessman, Cheng Kung Lim. He developed a very close relationship with Cheng who found him to be very hard working, educated and able to speak English. In the late 1930s, Cheng Kung Lim supported him to take the Junior Cambridge Certificate examination by post, at the Anglo Chinese School. The hard working Mohammad Sultan Yusoff passed the Junior Cambridge examination. In the 1940s, he was offered a job in the Penang Post Office as a postmaster. During his service with the post office until his retirement in 1965, he served in many places, viz, Balik Pulau, Bayan Baru, Bukit Mertajam, MacNair Street and Sungai Bakap. Mohammad Sultan Yusoff married Che Soam bt Md. Said, a Malay girl from Tanjung Tokong. They had three daughters, Wan Su, Ahminah Bee and Rahimah Bee; and two sons, Abdul Aziz and Abdul Shukor. They also adopted a son named Abdul Rahim. After his retirement, Mohammad Sultan Yusoff managed Minah Restaurant full time. The restaurant which was in Glugor, was opened in 1959 and had been under the care of his daughter, Ahminah Bee, while he was still in service as a Postmaster. In the beginning, the premises occupied only one shophouse. Later, Mohammad Sultan Yusoff bought the neighbouring shophouse, with the help of Cheng Kung Lim. Now, 132

137 Minah Restaurant occupies 362S and 362T, Sungai Glugor. After his death, the restaurant was managed by his daughter and grandson. The restaurant is not only well known in Penang, but also to people outside the country, for its northern Malay cuisine. In 1986, the fame of Minah Restaurant had attracted Madhur Jaffrey from BBC News, London to film a documentary to showcase northern Malay cooking of Malaysia. Today, Minah Restaurant still maintains a clientele from various races other than Malays. The restaurant also caters food to government departments and private sector firms for their functions. Mohammad Sultan Yusoff contributed towards the welfare of the Penang Malay society with donations to mosques, orphanages and tithes ( zakat ) for the poor. He died in Penang in 1983 at the age of 61. Omar Yusoff NST (11 Nov 2001); Peduman Bakal-Bakal Haji; Personal Communication (Abdul Shukor bin Mohammad Sultan Yusoff & Ashiah binti Tajuddin). Mohd Mastan bin Haji Abdul Rahman (29 August ) Antique Collector and Dealer, Politician. Mohd. Mastan bin Haji Abdul Rahman, from Kampong Kolam, was a well known major antique collector and dealer in Penang after the Second World War. He took over the business from his father in Mohd. Mastan s early education was in three Malay schools: at Hutan Mayat (now Lebuh Carnavon), Claimant s Place and Jelutong, before continuing his education at the Government English School (GES) and the Penang Free School (PFS) in He finished his schooling in As a young man, he often accompanied his father, an antique collector and dealer, to auctions at expatriate residences. His father, Haji Abdul Rahman, came from India and married a Penang woman. In 1941, the Federated Malay States Railways offered Mohd. Mastan a job, but before he could attend the interview, the Japanese had started bombing. Instead, he joined his father, selling secondhand goods. After the Japanese retreat, Mohd. Mastan rented a shop for $16 a month at 22 Kampong Kolam. His capital was from the sale of secondhand goods. Other than the locals, his clients came from Kulim, Alor Star and other places. In time, his business improved. He also sold his wares at Simpang Lelong (the junction of Pitt Street and Buckingham Street). The business has been inherited by his son, Mohd. Mustakim. In his lifetime, Mohd. Mastan was involved in the activities of clubs and associations. In 1955, as a of member of Persatuan Al-Ikhwan Al-Masakin, he gave his support to help the needy Malays in the Jelutong area. He was also the vice-president and treasurer of the Dahrul Aihsan Football Club, which he joined in In 1948, he became an UMNO member and was appointed leader of the Jelutong branch, a post which he held from 1975 to He was also the information officer of the Penang Landowners, Ratepayers and Taxpayers Association from 1975 to Mohd. Mastan married Mariam Bee bt. Mohd Ibrahim, a Penang resident, during the Japanese Occupation of Malaya. He died on 25 July 2005 when he was in his eighties. Mahani Musa A. Shukor Rahman, pp ; MPG, 1964; PJH, 1967, p.45; Personal communication (Mohd. Mustakim). Naina Mohamed (1870s, India-1930s) Merchant, Philanthropist. Naina Mohamed was a well-known and successful supplier of pharmaceutical products. He served as an agent, importing and exporting various types of medicine from USA and England. His firm also specialized in importing, promoting, distributing pharmaceutical products, vitamins, nutritional, health food supplements, herbal remedies, healthcare products and hospital products such as medical health supports to doctors, hospitals, nursing homes, pharmacies and health-food stores. The business, Naina Mohamed & Sons, represented a 133

138 number of well-known companies in the USA, Ireland, New Zealand and India. He started the business in Singapore in 1908 and it was incorporated as a limited liability company in In Singapore, it was known as Naina Mohamed & Sons Pte. Ltd. at 4 & 5 Raffles Place. Later, Mohamed opened a branch at 1-5 Medan Pasar, Kuala Lumpur. In the 1920s, he opened a branch, Naina Mohamed & Sons (PG) Sdn. Bhd at 12, Beach Street, Penang. Subsequently, the business moved to 32 Beach Street, then to 2 Bishop Street, and finally settling at 31 Bishop Street. The company s other branch is at 18 Cartak Street, Kuching. Other than supplying various medicines, Naina Mohamed & Co. also sells consumer and household items such as Planters Peanut Butter, Planters Cocktail Peanuts, Chocolate Laxative, cookie biscuits. It is the only agent in Malaysia for the famous bleaching product, Clorox, and Cloudy Household Ammonia. Naina Mohamed has also produced the translated version of Al-Quran in Tamil which are sold in Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Naina Mohamed was born in India in the 1870s. He was married in India and had three sons, Adam Abdul Rahman, Adam Mohamed Ibrahim, and Adam Abdul Salam. Naina Mohamed & Sons is now managed by his children and grandchildren. Naina Mohamed was well-known not just to people in Penang but also to people in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Kuching (Sarawak). He donated to the community and helped other Muslims to start their businesses. In Kuala Lumpur, he set up a scholarship for Indian-Muslim students to further their education in religious studies. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah BH (2 Jun 1981, 16 Jun 1981, 14 Jul 1981, 28 Jul 1981, 6 Oct 1981); TST (8 Mar 1918, 25 Jan 1936, 17 Nov 1939, 5 Jul 1940, 22 Jan 1941, 17 Oct 1947, 4 Nov 1948, 22 Dec 1961, 20 Aug 1963, 23 Oct 1963, 8 Apr 1964, 13 Oct 1965); Star (9 Sep 2004); MPG 1965, p.12; Personal Communications (Abdul Kassim b. Mohd Sharif, O. S. M Mohd Arif & Kalikul Jaman); Website (Naina Mohamed & Sons Pte Ltd). Nakhoda Kechil (b.unknown, Payakumbuh Sumatra d.unknown) Trader, Community Leader. Nakhoda Kechil or his real name, Ismail, was one of the important figures in the history of Penang before the coming of the East India Company in He was among the earliest settlers in Penang. Together with his brother, Haji Mohammad Salleh, also known as Nakhoda Intan, they opened up Batu Uban in the 1730s which later became the main port for local and foreign traders. A mosque was built in Batu Uban in 1734 to cater to the religious and social needs of the Muslim community including foreign Muslim traders who chose Batu Uban as their transit port. Batu Uban flourished and was once depicted as a future town by Major MacDonald who came to Penang during the Leith administration ( ). The word Nakhoda refers to an experienced sailor and trader. Nakhoda Kechil was not only a sailor but he was also a trader. He dabbled in spices, i.e. pepper and clove, for the locals. Most of the supply came from Sumatra. As his brother was more interested in religious teaching, Nakhoda Kechil was given the responsibility to take care of the area approaching Tanjung (Penang was known to the locals as Tanjung, the short form for Tanjung Penaga). He was one of the few Malays Francis Light met living near the beach during his tour of the island after his arrival. Light hired Nakhoda Kechil and his men to clear the jungle around the Penaga Point (where Fort Cornwallis now stands) and the adjacent area. As early settlers, he was also hired by Light to safeguard the coastal areas. After a few years working under Light, Nakhoda Kechil cleared an area in Jelutong. This land was granted to him on 1 January 1797 (Grant of 168). He later bequeathed the land to the Jelutong Mosque for the benefit of the Muslims in the area. The Jelutong Mosque is still in existence today. Unfortunately, the date of his demise and his grave is unknown although many of his descendants believed that he was buried at the burial ground in the Jelutong mosque enclave. Mahani Musa MHEB-HB, pp.2 & 18; HPP, p.121; Abdul Kahar Yusoff, No.9, Jelutong Mosque, Jelutong Village; Logan, pp ; Vaughan, p.174; Zulkifli Khair & Badrol Hisham Ibrahim, p

139 Narcis, Johannes [John] (c ) Merchant. Johannes Narcis came to Penang from Madras. He possibly worked with merchants Isaac Mathas and Sarkies Owen in George Town until he advised in the Gazette of 5 April 1806 that the latter pair had relocated their business to China. Narcis, then aged around 21, thereafter became their Penang agent. East India Company records show the birth of two sons; Joseph, born 27 September 1807, and Christopher, born 19 September 1808 to Johannes Narcis and Caroline ; however no marriage record, if any existed, has been located. Narcis regularly advertised in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, advising of the rent and sale of property, the freight and sale of ships, Indian piece goods and miscellaneous foodstuffs. He administered some deceased estates and by 1810 owned the 150-ton brig Lady Stanley. It is not clear whether or not he owned his own business premises as he tended to move around. In 1810 he was operating from James Douglas s godowns on the seaward side of Beach Street and in 1811 he was at 86 Market Street. In December 1812 Carapiet Arackell advertised the sale of a brick house and godowns in Penang Street lately in the occupation of Johannes Narcis. He did however own a house on the south side of Burmah Road which he advertised for lease in 1810, perhaps to move into town. This property was also advertised for sale by Arackell in December 1812 and the Lady Stanley was sold by merchant Anthony McIntyre in January By this time Narcis had been absent from Penang for a year, having departed for Madras for reasons unknown aboard the Fatty-ul-Kair on 15 December He then settled in Madras and it does not appear that he ever returned to Penang. Nadia Wright states that he died in Batavia [Jakarta] in 1837, aged 52. Marcus Langdon GG (5 Apr 1806); PWIG (17 Feb 1810, 6 Oct 1810, 17 Nov 1810, 1 Jun 1811, 21 Dec 1811, 19 Dec 1812, 16 Jan 1813); BL (IOR/N/8/1); Wright, p.310; Website (IGI). Ng Ah Thye, 伍積齊, Wu Jiqi ( ) Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Community Leader. Ng Ah Thye, also known as Ng Teik Thye, Oong Athye, Ong At Tye, was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid-19th century to the end-19th century in Penang. He was a leader of the Cantonese community and his business interests spanned across revenue farms, trading, and planting. His ancestral origin was in Xiu Qi Luo Tao Hua Lang ( 修齊洛桃花朗 ), Ning Yi ( 寧邑, 新寧 ), Guangdong ( 廣東 ). He founded the firm of Boon Eng and Co. (Chop Loon Hong, 綸豐號 ) in In 1858, the original partnership of this firm was dissolved, and the business was carried on as Thean Chee and Co. located at 21, Beach Street. This new firm operated as ship chandlers, commission agent, and general storekeepers. The partners were Ng Ah Thye, Ng Thean Chee, Ng Ah Yaik, and Chew Sin Yong ( 周興揚, Zhou Xingyang ). Ah Thye was a nine years lessee of the Penang opium and spirit farms and owned some of the business premises in Beach Street. He also owned large coconut estates outside Penang. Such was the confidence placed in him by the Straits Government of the day that he was appointed one of the few Asian Commissioners in sifting and inquiring into all the circumstances attendant on the Penang riots of He was held in great esteem by the merchant community, both European and Chinese. In 1881, he became one of the fourteen founders to establish the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ). When Lam Wah Ee Hospital ( 南華醫院 ) was established in 1883, Ah Thye became one of the trustees. In 1889, he was one of the assistants in management of the Guangdong Gumiao ( 廣東古廟 ) in Teluk Anson ( 安順, Teluk Intan). Of a very generous nature, he was known to subscribe liberally to all charitable institutions and was ever ready to help the distressed and poor of all classes, without distinction. In 1860, he donated $30 for the establishment of Fu De Ci ( 福德祠 ) and a resthouse in Kwantung and Tengchow Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ). In 1862, he made a 135

140 donation of $10.50 for rebuilding the Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ). In 1874, Ah Thye together with three other Chinese towkays donated a wooden altar to the Tokong Thai Pak Koong (Ng Suk) ( 檳榔嶼海珠嶼五屬大伯公廟 ). In order to relieve the shortage of burial ground in the Kwantung and Tingchow Public Cemetery, he donated a piece of land for that purpose in In 1886, he donated $100 to the Tian Heng Shan Chao Yuan Dong Qing Guan Si ( 天衡山朝元洞清觀寺 ) at Ayer Itam for its restoration. A year later, he donated a pair of inscribed stone lions to Loo Pun Hong ( 魯班古廟, Carpenters Guild Temple). Ah Thye passed away on 20 January 1900 at his residence, 87, Bishop Street. He left behind three sons, Pak San ( 百山, Baishan ), Pak Hoey ( 百海, Baihai), and Pak Theen ( 百田, Baitian); four daughters and a surviving wife, Nonya Tan Kean Koo. He was laid to rest at the family burial ground at Mount Erskine. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (11 Apr 1900); WS (27 May 1911); Franke & Chen, pp.540, , 694, 965; Lee & Chow, p.129; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997 p.68; 2002, p.59. Ng Pak San, 伍百山, Wu Baishan ( ) Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Community Leader. Ng Pak San was one of the prominent social and business figures from the late-19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He succeeded his father as a leader of the Cantonese community and had business interests in trading and revenue farms. His ancestral origin was in Xiu Qi Luo Tao Hua Lang ( 修齊洛桃花朗 ), Ning Yi ( 寧邑, 新寧 ), Guangdong ( 廣東 ), China. Pak San was the eldest son of Ng Teik Thye ( 伍積齊, Wu Jiqi ) and was educated at St. Xavier s Institution ( 聖芳濟書院 ). He founded his own firm, Pak San & Co. at 25 Beach Street. In 1892, his firm took over the business of Boon Tek & Co. at 27 Beach Street. He also became a senior partner of Thean Chee & Co. after his father s death. He materially improved and strengthened the position of the firm. In 1901, however, Thean Chee sustained a heavy loss, and as their premises collapsed, the partners continued operating in temporary premises in Beach Street. In 1904, Thean Chee & Co. met another misfortune; its new premises were destroyed by fire. Being uninsured, the firm suffered a great loss but the partners managed to purchase other premises in Bishop Street and rebuilt the business. Pak San had interests in several business concerns in Penang and Singapore including the Opium and Spirit Farms and pawnshops. He was a revenue farmer of the Chop Chin Moh Hin, a syndicate that controlled the Opium and Spirit Farm in Singapore for the period of Besides that, he was also manager of the Spirit department of the syndicate. Pak San was very generous in making donations to charitable institutions and to many public and sporting movements. A sum of $1200 was given to Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺, Temple of Supreme Happiness). In 1891, he was one of the secretaries that managed Kwantung and Tingchow Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ). He was well known not only in Penang but in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor. His intimate friends were Loke Chow Kit ( 陸秋傑, Lu Qiujie), Loke Chow Thye ( 陸秋泰, Lu Qiutai), Lam Kam Thong, Wong Choo Keng, and Khoo Guat Cheng. He had been ailing for some months and passed away at his residence in Penang Street on 22 February 1903 at the comparatively early age of 39. His youngest son, Kok Hee, married Chew Cheok Young, the third daughter of Chew Boon Hean and a niece of Chew Kwo Hsien ( 周國賢, Zhou Guoxian), who was Consul-General of the Republic of China. Wong Yee Tuan TST (24 Dec 1920); SIPC (27 Apr 1892); SFP (4 Feb 1898); PGSC (25 Feb 1903); Trocki, p.192; Franke & Chen, p

141 Noordin, Habib Merican ( ) Merchant, Shipping Agent, Public Figure. Habib Merican Noordin (also known as H. M. Noordin) was the third son of Mohamed Merican Noordin, a wealthy merchant and the founder of the Noordin family in Penang in the early 19th century. He was born in May 1847 and educated at St. Xavier s Institution. In 1862, he entered his father s business. He spent several years in one of the firms, sailing ships and trading with Burma. He also assisted in his elder brother s company, Nina Merican Noordin, which was established in Upon his father s death, Habib was appointed executor and trustee of his estate. While managing the family business, Habib Merican Noordin had started his own business specializing in the export of local products. His business premises was in Chulia Street. He was also an agent for several lines of steamers which plyed between Penang and Aceh, Deli, Langkat, and West Sumatra. He was also a managing director of the Indian Merchant and Steam Navigation Company. He retired from business in His business was taken over by his nephew and son-in-law. As a wealthy man from an influential family in Penang, Habib Merican Noordin s contribution to the community was substantial. He enjoyed an excellent rapport with British officers in Penang. His name was listed as one of the principal inhabitants in the Penang Directory of He was the only Muslim who was appointed to sit on the committee for the Penang Centenary Celebration in August 1886 to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of Penang. In 1899, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace for the Settlement of Penang. He died in August 1909 at his residence Noordin Hall, Hutton Lane. Mahani Musa PAD, 1876, pp.28, 64; PGSC (Nov 1871); STWI (30 Jan 1886); TST (26 Jul 1909); Salina Zainol, p Noordin, M. M. ( ) Import-export Trader, Land Owner, Municipal Commissioner, Juror, Philanthropist. M. M. Noordin, a short form of Mashoruddin Merican Noordin (also known as Mohamed Noordin), inherited the business from his father, Mohamed Merican Noordin, a business that had found stability in Penang since They were wealthy Indian-Muslim businessmen throughout the 19th century and early 20th century. M.M. Noordin was successful in expanding his family s business empire in the second half of the 19th century. He was educated at the Penang Free School and later was involved in the importexport trade of locally produced raw materials to be exported to major European trading ports. M.M. Noordin Company (Penang and Singapore) also owned a big estate known as Noordin Estate in Seberang Prai. His business partner was in Singapore. The company was on a decline as a result of World War One and was foreclosed in On 2 May 1922, the partnership between M. M. Noordin and Abbosbhoy Mohamed Ali Nakhoda in Singapore under the style of M. M. Noordin and Co. was dissolved. Among the Penang merchants community, M. M. Noordin was known to have a deep concern for their rights and future. He often participated in discussions on tax matters and suchlike. His great wealth was evident as M.M. Noordin also owned several bungalows and warehouses. Some of these properties were rented out. He could also afford to go on a spending spree in major European cities and employed a staff of both locals and Europeans. A prominent mansion named Clifton at the junction of Larut Road and Northam Road (Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah) belonged to him. Some of M. M. Noordin s properties were sold after his death. The auction sale of the residuary real estate of the late Mohamed Noordin began in November 1924 and collected the sum of $216,000. It resumed in February 1925 with two more properties which were sold for $46,800. Clifton was put for auction and finally changed hands, sold 137

142 to Yeap Chor Ee for $43,500. In November 1925, three large properties which were part of the M. M. Noordin estate were sold to Lim Cheng Teik. The properties were Marble Hall, at the corner of Kelawei Road-Pangkor Road and Burmah Road, with an area of 722,000 sq. ft.; Babington estate located at Perak Road with an area of 440,000 sq. ft. and Suffolk House, located at Ayer Itam Road which was on an area of over a million sq. ft. M.M. Noordin was well-known for his philanthropy. His contributions did not go unnoticed. In recognition of his good deeds, the government appointed him a Municipal Commissioner and a Justice of Peace. He was among the first Muslims to be accorded such an honour. He was also listed as juror in He died on 14 January 1924 at the age of 75 and was buried on the grounds of Kapitan Keling Mosque, being the older generation of Merican Noordin family. The funeral was well attended. His business empire was inherited by his family members. Mahani Musa of the grand jurors, honorary magistrates, Municipal Commissioners, a Justice of Peace, a member of the Free School Committee, and a member of Penang Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture in 1870s. Nina Merican Noordin was appointed as one of the arbitrators to settle the problems which caused clashes between the secret societies during the Penang Riots of He was also appointed as one of the Commissioners to enquire and report on the root causes of the Riots to the government. He died on 27 May 1880 after a long illness. His funeral was well attended. Mahani Musa STOJ (27 Feb 1873, 14 Jun 1880); PAD, 1876, pp. 30, 64; PAD, 1869, pp.12, 25, 38; 1876, pp.30, 64; PD, 1874; PRCR, p Noordin, O. M. ( , Kuala Lumpur) Merchant, Philanthropist. SFP (5 May 1922, 20 Feb 1925); TST (15 Jan 1900, 28 Aug 1911, 23 Mar 1922, 29 Aug 1922, 15 Jan 1924, 16 Nov 1925) HPP, p.124; Personal Communication (A.M. Noordin). Noordin, Nina Merican (b.unknown-1860) Merchant, Magistrate, Justice of Peace, Juror, Municipal Commissioner. Nina Merican Noordin or N. M. Noordin was the son of Mohamed Merican Noordin, a prominent merchant in Penang during the early 19th century. His name was listed together with his brother, Vapoo Merican Noordin, as one of the principal inhabitants in Penang in the Penang Directory 1869 and Like his brother, Nina inherited his father s businesses. In 1863, he formed a company under the name of N. M. Noordin. His business headquarters were at King Street. He was also one O. M. Noordin (or Omardin Merican Noordin) was born on 4 March He was the youngest child of Mashoruddin Merican Noordin (or M. M. Noordin). M. M. Noordin was a prominent member of a well-known family which played a leading role in the commercial history of Penang since the early 19th century. Besides inheriting his father s wealth, he was a businessman in his own right. He had businesses in the rice mills which operated at 26, Northam Road and 85, West Jelutong Road. He also owned a motor firm and was a race horse owner. He was very much involved in the social activities of the Muslim community in Penang. He was a committee member for the celebration of the King s Silver Jubilee in He even had his luxurious car decorated and joined the decorated vehicles procession representing the Malay community. When the government declared the emergency in 1948 as a result of communist terrorists threat, O. M. Noordin joined the Home Guard to defend the New Villages. 138

143 O. M. Noordin s interest in horse racing encouraged him to be an agent in the horse business in The company was called O.M. Noordin Sdn. Bhd. He bought and sold horses which he imported from Australia and England. His business was based at the Penang Race Course. Later he moved to Singapore, and in the 1940s, it was based in Kuala Lumpur. He was also the first Muslim to be involved as a horse trainer in Penang. He was a horse trainer for Tunku Abdul Rahman s (Malaysia s first Prime Minister) race horse in Penang. From 1958 to 1975, he was President of the Racehorse Trainers Association. O. M. Noordin contributed daily necessities such as food, tools, prayer mats, Quran and suchlike to the needy community in Penang. He died in Kuala Lumpur on 15 February Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah & Muhammad Syukri Bin Abu Samad SFP (25 Dec 1936, 22 Feb 1940); TST (10 Apr 1935); Silver Jubilee of King George & Queen Mary; MDCRR, p. 253; Personal Communication (A.M. Noordin); Website (Noordin Street). Noordin, Vapoo Merican (b.unknown-1884) Merchant, Municipal Commissioner, Headmen of the Red Flag Jumaah (Societies). Vapoo Merican Noordin or V. M. Noordin was a merchant in Chulia Street and resided in Acheen Street. He was the eldest son of Mohamed Merican Noordin, a prominent merchant in Penang during the early 19th century. As the eldest son, Vapoo Merican Noordin was trained by his father to continue the legacy of the family business. He was once sent by his father to Bombay to await the building of a vessel of 700 tons intended for the use of Mohamed Merican Noordin s trading activities. He established his own company under the name V. M. Noordin in In 1861, Vapoo was one of the headmen of the Che Long s Jumaah known as the Red Flag Societies. The Red Flag allied with the Chinese secret society, the Toa Peh Kong during the 1867 Penang Riots. George Town was in chaos resulting from the fights between the secret societies. Vapoo was called as witness no. 39 before the Penang Riots 1867 Commission of Enquiry formed by the government to investigate the origins of the riots. Vapoo claimed that he had left the Red Flag Societies in December The accusation did not affect his social position in Penang. His name was listed as one of the principal inhabitants in the Penang Directory of 1869 and He was also one of grand jurors, honorary magistrates and Municipal Commissioners and a member of Penang Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture in 1870s. After his death in 1884, L. Huttenbach was appointed a Municipal Commissioner in August 1884 in place of him. Mahani Musa PGSC (27 Nov 1847); STWI (3 Sep, 5 Jan 1884); SMH (5 Jul 1855); PD, 1874; PAD, 1869, pp. 12, 25, 38; 1876, pp. 30, 64; PRCR, p O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff (1908, Ramnad, South India-1973) Textile and songkok (Malay hat) Merchant, Philanthropist. O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff sold textiles and songkok. He came to Penang in the early 1920s while still a teenager with the intention of finding a business opportunity. He had no problems migrating to Penang where he already had relatives and friends from his village who had settled here and who were already small time businessmen. O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff married Jumeelah, an Indian Muslim, in India. They had three children, Sahul Hamed, Haja Mohideen and Najmunisah. In Penang, he took another wife, a Malay lady named Fatimah. With Fatimah they had six boys, Abdul Rahim, Mohamed Mydin, Iqbal, Hussain, Jailani and Ismail. In 1921, O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff started a small business selling garments, fabrics, batik sarongs, pelikat sarongs, men s attires, songkok, and others. 139

144 He sold them from a rented stall on Pitt Street (Jalan Kapitan Keling). Unfortunately, at the break of the Second World War, his stall was looted and he lost everything. The stalls along Pitt Street were then demolished by the authority. As he did not have a stall anymore, he moved to King Street in On 1 October 1948, he acquired a shop at 157 King Street where he revived his business, selling garments and songkok which he sewed himself. His business improved as the demand for the songkok increased because it was popular among the Malays in Penang to wear songkok at that time. O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff continued trading until his demise in 1973 when he was 65 years old. The business was then taken over by Haja Mohideen, his son by his first wife. Haja Mohideen concentrated on making and selling songkok only. In his lifetime, O.S.M. Mohamed Shariff made donations to the Penang Muslim community through Muslim associations in George Town to build mosques, help orphans, fulfilled the obligatory tithe (zakat) and was charitable in the month of Ramadan. Omar Yusoff BERNAMA (2 Aug 2012); Star (5 Aug 2012, 29 Aug 2012) MPG, 1964, p.22; 1965, p.14; Personal Communication (Haja Mohideen). Padday, Jonathan (c ) Merchant, Prominent Citizen. Jonathan Padday was born in Birmingham, Warwick, England in 1805 to parents Thomas and Ann, and was christened on 7 June that year. On 11 January 1822, at the age of just 16, he was officially licensed to reside in the East by the East India Company s Court of Directors. The date of his arrival in Penang is unknown; however it is apparent he was subsequently employed in the mercantile business of William Hall, who arrived in September 1823 and commenced trading in Beach Street. The company operated as general merchants and agents, advertising intermittently in the local newspaper. Padday still being young, Peregrine Butler Downes was admitted a partner as of 1 January 1827 when Hall planned a trip to England to be married; the firm then becoming Hall, Downes & Co. Padday also became quite involved in Freemasonry in Penang. The original Neptune Lodge 344 founded in 1808 had fizzled out by 1819 and in July 1822 a Lodge for military personnel, designated Humanity with Courage was established under the auspices of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal. When it was realised in 1825 that the inclusion of civilians on the register was irregular, application was made for renewal of the original warrant and as a result Neptune Lodge 441 was established on 8 February Jonathan Padday was secretary of both the Humanity with Courage Lodge and the subsequently re-established Neptune Lodge, which held meetings at the Lodge Room, Beach Street. Hall arrived back at Penang in June 1828 accompanied by his new wife and his sister, and Downes withdrew from the firm on 30 November that year. The firm then became known as William Hall & Co. and Jonathan Padday was admitted a partner the following day. When Hall died in July 1829 Padday took on the business as sole operator under the same trading name. On the 29th of the following month he married William s sister, Emma Christie Hall, and their first child, William, was born in May He also played a prominent public role, being elected Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce (formed in 1837) in September 1838, serving on the jury and sitting on numerous committees. Padday admitted William Anderson a partner on 1 January 1844, but Anderson died in December the following year. Showing a great respect for his original employer, Padday would retain the trading name of William Hall & Co; the firm continuing to be run by his sons. He also played prominent roles in Penang society. The Straits Times of 8 May 1884 notes the suspension of one of the oldest houses in Penang, if not the oldest, Messrs. William Hall & Co. The failure is attributed to losses in sugar. 140

145 Alfred Cecil Padday and Reginald Padday were declared bankrupts on 22 September 1884, and although discharged by the Court on 29 June 1886 the firm was not continued. Perkins, Thomas (b.unknown-1816/17) Merchant, Auctioneer, Ship Owner. During an address to the departing Governor Colonel Butterworth in August 1851, Jonathan Padday is noted as being the oldest resident European merchant at Penang, but appears to have departed the island the following year, leaving his eldest son William in charge of the business. The British Census for 1881 finds him widowed, aged 75, living at 65 Inverness Terrace, London with his unmarried adult children William, by then also retired; Emma, Clara, Emily and Edith. Jonathan Padday died in March Children of Jonathan Padday and Emma Christie (née Hall): William Charles Spencer Padday b. 14 May 1830 at Penang Henry James Duncan Padday b. 13 Apr 1832 at Penang Reginald Salmond Sheriss (or Sheriff) Padday b. 28 Jan 1834 at Penang Emma Anne Padday b. 10 Apr 1836 at Penang Arthur Charles Padday b. 6 Jul 1838 at Penang Clara Padday b. 12 Mar 1840 at Penang Emily Padday b. 23 Jan 1842 at Penang Percy Clement Padday b. 15 Sep 1846 at Penang Alfred Cecil Padday b. 17 Nov 1849 at Penang Edith Blanche Padday chr. 18 May 1853 in London. Marcus Langdon SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); PWIG (3 Feb 1827); GGPWISM (3 Jan 1829, 29 Aug 1829); PWGSC (15 Sep 1839); SFP (18 Jan 1844, 18 Mar 1847); TST (9 Sep 1851, 23 Jul 1886); LMF; Webiste (IGI). Little is known of the background of Thomas Perkins other than that he was described in a return of residents taken in early 1808 as being English and had been granted permission to reside in Penang by Sir George Leith, who was Lieutenant Governor between April 1800 and January On 2 August 1806 Perkins placed an advertisement in the Prince of Wales Island Government Gazette advising that he intended to practice as an Auctioneer at his large godown on Beach Street. This property lay on the western side of Beach Street over two large allotments from the Bishop Street corner towards Light Street. It is likely that he initially leased the corner property but purchased it in June 1807 when the estate of the original owner, Captain John Hull, was sold up. The allotment between his and Light Street was owned by Abel Mackrell. Directly opposite, in the godowns of James Scott, the firm of Capes & Carroll (Capes, Edward Essex ; Carroll, Daniel ) began business the same day Perkins did. In April the following year he purchased the Company s schooner Albina for Sp$650, presumably to utilize in the country trade, and is one of four other mercantile firms Court & Bone, McIntyre & Snadden, Carroll & Scott, and John Ogilvie who met to agree on common commission rates, which were then published in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 21 November 1807 (Court, Thomas Watkin ; Bone, Andrew Burchett ; McIntyre, Anthony ; Snadden, Richard ; Carrol, Daniel ; Ogilvie, John ). Perkins took James Scott s executors and George Hill Elmes to court in July 1809 over administration of the estate of John Perkins. John Perkins was mentioned in December 1788 in a list of inhabitants of George Town as being a British shipbuilder who had come from China, and he had died in May 1801 naming Thomas as one of the beneficiaries of his estate. The relationship has not been established but could possibly be that of father and son. The Court found in Thomas s favour and ordered property and goods seized from the executors. 141

146 Perkins was an active advertiser in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette, and is regularly found offering for sale horses from Pegu and Aceh; various ships; and the regular fare of property and trade goods. He apparently operated out of one of his two premises and leased the other; Peter David advertising in December 1811 that he had set up a tavern in the well-known House, belonging to Mr. Perkins, Beach Street, which was subsequently known as the Navy Tavern. In March 1811 Perkins tendered two 120-ton vessels, the ketch Java and the brig Admiral Drury, to Government for use during the invasion of Java; however both tenders were unsuccessful. William Revely was admitted a partner in his mercantile business on 15 November 1812 which thereafter traded as Perkins & Revely. The firm owned the 90-ton brig William to facilitate local trade and continued to be a regular advertiser in the newspaper; particularly for auction sales of property, and appears to have been favoured for property sales on behalf of the East India Company government and the Court. Following a disastrous fire in September 1814, government ordered all timber and attap buildings be replaced with brick and tile. Perkins, though not directly affected by the fire, applied for and received a Government loan of Sp$3,100 to improve his buildings. A notice in the Gazette of 25 February 1815 advises that James Pratt had set up a tavern in the new premises of Mr Perkins, Beach St ; which had obviously been rebuilt as a result. In February the following year Perkins departed for Rangoon to take possession of a new ship he had ordered. Named the Governor Petrie the 250-ton vessel is noted arriving in Penang from Rangoon on 2 September 1816, but it would appear that Perkins may have over-extended his capabilities to repay his debts and the partnership ran into trouble, ceasing on 1 October that year. His mercantile goods and the two vessels were put up for sale the following month by order of the Court in satisfaction of creditors, including merchants David Brown, Robert Scott and David Powell. In December William Revely was ordered by the Company to sell Perkins s premises in Beach Street, including the tavern which was by then run by Anthony Brunoe. Revely then leased godowns opposite and continued to trade as a Shopkeeper and Auctioneer under his own name. Although there is no indication in the Gazette of his death, administration of Perkins s estate was awarded to David Brown in February 1817, and a letter from Council to the Court of Directors in July 1817 notes that Perkins had been lost at sea. No further detail has been found, but interestingly the ship Governor Petrie was sent with the Volage on 15 December 1816 to assist shipwreck survivors from the transport ship Frances Charlotte which had struck rocks near Preparis Island. Perhaps this is the voyage on which Perkins disappeared. Apart from the loan debt to Government, Perkins had also mortgaged his property to the wealthy Acehnese merchant Tunku Syed Hussain to the extent of Sp$4,000. When the Sheriff had ordered the sale of all of Perkins s landed property it was to cover the total debt of Sp$7,100; however as no offer exceeded $6,000 the East India Company became the purchaser, paying out the loan from Syed Hussain. The property was then sold to William Weightman in April 1817 for $7,400, who undertook to purchase it in three instalments; the last on 1 April However, when Weightman too died in late 1817 the Company again foreclosed on the property, at which time William Revely took the opportunity to purchase the northern lot for Sp$2,900 and relocate his business there once again. Parish registers indicate that Thomas Perkins produced at least three children at Penang; the first, John William Perkins, on 21 September 1805; the second, Thomas Perkins on 2 September 1808 (both to a woman noted only as Jessy, possibly a local woman); and the third, George Perkins, in early 1814, the mother not noted. Interestingly one of the claimants in the Sheriff sales of his property in 1816 was a Charlotte Perkins, but the relationship is unknown. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R3 V3, 25 Aug 1788; R10 V19 3 May 1808; R23 V60 6 Mar 1817); PWIG (2 Aug 1806, 25 Apr 1807, 29 Jul 1809, 7 Dec 1811, 28 Nov 1812, 12 Oct 1816, 2 Nov 1816, 14 Dec 1816); BL (IOR/N/8/1); Website (IGI). 142

147 Phuah Hin Leong, 潘興隆, Pan Xinlong ( ) Rice and Oil Miller, Merchant. Phuah Hin Leong was one of the first modern ricemillers and oil-mill owner in Penang. He arrived in Penang as a young man in the 1860s and found work ferrying passengers from ships anchored at sea to shore. His given name at birth was Lim Choo Guan ( 林資源, Lin Ziyuan) in the village of Hor Khiew ( 虎丘 ) in Fujian Province ( 福建省 ). Village troubles drove him to find refuge in the village of Phua Choo ( 潘厝 ) where he was adopted by Phuah Bong Yew. In gratitude, he assumed the name Phuah Hin Leong. From his savings, he established Gim Bee ( 錦美 ), a sundry shop in the Tanjong Tokong area and earned a good reputation as a small-trader. Eventually, he teamed up with Choong Chiat Thor to supply sundry products to the newly-established tobacco estates of North Sumatra in the Bindjei area. It was a natural progression from sundry goods to rice milling as Phuah now had access to the networks and markets of Dutch Sumatra and British Malaya. As rice-milling was labour intensive, he spear-headed its modernization by using steampowered mills. He formed a partnership with the leading Chinese businessmen of the times including Lim Leng Cheak ( 林寧綽, Lin Ninchuo ), Cheah Joo Jin and Cheah Ewe Ghee to form Khie Heng Bee rice mills ( 開恆美米較 ). His first mill was beside the Prangin River but he soon expanded and built a modern mill at Sungai Pinang on land that once belonged to Khoo Tiong Phoe Khoo Tiong Poh, 邱忠波, Qiu Zhongbo ). The 183,769 sq ft of land housed Khie Heng Bee s modern rice and oil mills processing rice from Kedah, Perak, British Burma, Siam and Indo- China. Copra was imported from Sumatra. He also invested in an 8,000 acre tapioca and coconut estate in Padang Serai, in Kedah where he had made a successful bid for the Sultanate s rice monopoly. At the time of his death at the relatively young age of 57, he had amassed a great fortune and the Lim family in Penang was among the wealthiest, owning not only rice mills but also godowns in Beach Street. The family house was aptly named Millview as it looks out on the first rice mill located next to the Prangin river. He also built a Chinesestyle courtyard house with curved roofs and several courtyards in his native Hor Khiew. A similar ancestral house was built for his family in Phua Choo village. Phuah Hin Leong was also a benefactor of Penang s enduring charitable and educational institutions. He donated generously to St. Xavier s Institution where all his sons had their primary and secondary education. He left a $5,000 endowment to St. Xavier s, the Penang Free School and the Anglo- Chinese School. He also donated $ 10,000 each to the Indian Famine ( 印度飢荒基金 ) and Amoy Famine Funds ( 廈門飢荒基金 ) respectively. Other recipients included the Confucian Chung Hwa School, the Maternity Hospital and the Chinese Quarantine Camp in Jelutong. Phuah Hin Leong had four wives. Ong Teng Neo ( 王亭娘 ) of Penang was his primary wife. On his return visit to China, he took a wife in his native Hor Khiew and Phua Choo villages according to the standard practice of that time. Wives were necessary to take care of his parents in both those villages. His fourth wife, Lee Choey Neoh, was from Penang. Reverting to the Lim tradition, all his children were given the surname Lim. His eldest son by Ong Teng Neo died in childhood whilst Lim Cheng Teik ( 林清德, Lin Qingde ), his second son, went into business with him and eventually succeeded him as the head of the firm. From his Penang wives, he had three other sons including Cheng Law ( 清露, Qinglu ), Cheng Kung ( 清江, Qingjiang ) and Cheng Ean ( 清淵, Qingyuan). He also had three daughters with Ong Teng Neo, Saw Ean, Saw Gek and Saw Boey. In recognition of his charitable acts, the government named Phuah Hin Leong road ( 潘興隆路 ) after him. It links Northam Road (Jalan Sultan Ahmad 143

148 Shah) to Burmah Road; which houses governmental quarters newly turned into trendy restaurants. Neil Khor Jin Keong Lim Phaik Gan, pp.3-9; Wright, pp ; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp.92-93; HPP, p.133. Pillai, N.T.S. Arumugam (1915, India 1989) Landowner, Politician, Philanthropist N.T.S. Arumugam Pillai was born on the 20th February 1915 in Thirupatthur, Ramnad District, Tamil Nadu, into a family who owned farms. Even though his education was only up to Standard 5, he taught Standard 1 and 2 students in India prior to coming to Malaysia. Arumugam Pillai came to Penang in 1928 at age 13. His elder brother Sivasamy Pillai arranged for his journey to Malaysia. He was given the idea that he was going to do Tamil accounts in Penang, and/or some teaching job. But when he arrived he was given an office boy s work in a Chettiar s Kittinggi (Tamil for `work premises ) in Bukit Mertajam at 46, Cross Street. (This street was later renamed to Jalan Arumugam Pillai). Disappointed, he left the job within a year and tried to get a better job elsewhere. He did freelance work -writing letters for people especially to India, and doing accounts in Tamil. In 1932 he went to Gurun at 17 years of age where he worked for a cigar company for two years. In 1937 at the age of 22, he went to India where he worked for a family partnership which operated a grocery store for a year. While in India, he married Seethai Ammal in He returned alone to Malaysia in 1939, to resume working in Gurun. The boss who was leaving for India, asked him to manage the company. He built up the business and it flourished. Upon his return, his boss was not happy with his prowess, and fearing he might take over the business, Arumugam Pillai was asked to leave. At that time, Arumugam Pillai s son was born in India, and the war had begun. His brother advised him to go to India but he refused because he had a dream to become a millionaire first before he set foot on Indian soil again. His family did not have any communication with him during the war. He dabbled in real estate brokerage during the war. Arumugam Pillai soon came to realise that most people had only enough money to acquire a small piece of land while the available land were in acre parcel lots. He decided to fragment the land. He bought large European-owned estates, subdivided them into small sublots and resold them to Indian, Chinese and Malay buyers. He was the first Indian individual to implement such an ingenious idea. The common people thus were given the dignity of living on their own property. In this way, 250,000 hectares of land were transacted in Arumugam Pillai s lifetime. The present Taman Ria in Sungai Petani was then called United Petani Estate and belonged to Europeans. When it was up for sale, he attempted to buy it but was abused by the Europeans who could not swallow the idea of an Indian owning their property, and was chased out. Undaunted, he persisted and managed to acquire the land. He even re-employed the European who had been working there under the previous owners to manage the estate. Later, between 1959 and 1964, he sold half of the estate and replanted 6000 acres of rubber the biggest Indian-owned rubber estate in Malaya. Mr. Hugh, the European manager he had hired, was ostracised by the other Europeans because in their eyes, he had demeaned himself by working for an Indian. But apparently he did not mind and his investment paid off, as upon his retirement, Arumugam Pillai gave Hugh an axe made of solid gold, weighing one kilogram, and a brand new Rover in appreciation for his service. Arumugam Pillai had a close rapport with Tunku Abdul Rahman. With such influence and being MIC chairman, he managed to get Thaipusam declared a public holiday in Penang. In 1958, having achieved his dream of becoming a millionaire, he returned to India. He saw his son, already 14 years old, for the first time. 144

149 Arumugam Pillai was not only a business tycoon but also a philanthropist. He donated vast amounts of money for charity, built temples, schools and donated land for charitable causes. Among his donations were two acres of land worth RM1.2 million to Jawi Tamil School in Jawi, Seberang Perai, one acre of land for a Hindu Cemetery, also in Jawi and another two acres for a Hindu Cemetery in Juru. He built a multi-purpose hall at the hilltop for the Arulmigu Balathandayuthabani Temple. Another multi-purpose hall was built and donated to Sri Sithi Vinayagar Temple in Nibong Tebal. In Bukit Panchor, Krian, he donated one acre of land to a Temple and a Tamil School, and another two acres to the Transkrian Tamil School and Temple. He also built and donated a community hall for the Sri Vinayagar Temple in Kepala Batas. Two acres of land were donated to the Bagan Serai Tamil School and Temple. It was his dream to provide higher education for Malaysians. He built the Arumugam Pillai Seethai Ammal College in his home district of Thirupatthoor, Ramnad District. It offers free courses to needy students, requiring them only to pay examination fees. Many Malaysian Indian students have benefited from this generous gesture of his. About 50% of the members of Indian Graduates Association of Malaysia are the students of this college. Interestingly, there have also been Malaysian Chinese who studied at and graduated from, this college. Till today 500 Malaysian students graduate every year, after pursuing their course, which is provided free. A road in Bukit Mertajam was named in his honour, Jalan Arumugam Pillai, and is now one of the main thoroughfares of Bukit Mertajam, Penang. The main hall of the Maha Mariamman Temple in Bukit Mertajam was built with his donations and is named Arumugam Pillai-Seethai Ammal Mandabam. When the government dissolved the South Indian Labour Fund, it built a new skills training institute in Nibong Tebal and named it the N.T.S. Arumugam Pillai Training Institute in recognition of his contribution to the country in general, and to Penang in particular. Fourteen acres of the land on which this Institute is situated, was contributed by Arumugam Pillai himself. When the land belonging to the Brown Estate in Sungai Ara, Relau, Sungai Nibong, Sungai Kluang, Sungai Tiram, Bayan Lepas was sold to settle the owner s (Helen Brown) estate duty, Arumugam Pillai bought most of it. Later the land was reacquired by the Koperasi Tunas Muda Sungai Ara Berhad and redistributed to the poor Malays who inhabited these areas. Arumugam Pillai passed away on 27th April Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Vasantharajan); Website (Hist- KTMSAB). Porter, George ( ) Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, Schoolmaster, Parish Clerk, Merchant, Auctioneer. George Isaac Porter was born on 16 March 1800 in Beddington, Surrey, England, to parents George James Porter and Elizabeth Alfrey. He joined the East India Company Army on 27 February 1817, signing on for 12 years, and sailed for Calcutta on the William Pitt to Calcutta, arriving 9 September the same year, where he ranked as a Gunner based at Fort William. He married sixteen-year-old Esther Bryden in Calcutta on 14 June 1819 and their first child, Esther, was born a year later. In 1819 he was appointed Head Overseer at the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta under the celebrated Danish botanist, Nathaniel Wallich. Porter named his next child, born in early 1822, George Wallich Porter in respect to his employer. Wallich would later return the compliment, naming two species of plants after his overseer Dracaena porteri and Pleomele porteri. In August 1822 Wallich sailed for Penang taking George Porter with him; both men suffering severe illness (probably malaria) for which a sea voyage was often considered a cure. Wallich proposed a 145

150 small botanical garden in Penang and sailed on to the new settlement of Singapore, leaving Porter to collect botanic specimens and commence the garden. He was soon appointed Superintendent, and as the Free School was seeking a Schoolmaster due to the resignation of David Churcher he accepted that position too, along with the co-appointment of Parish Clerk at St George s Church. He was then 22. Porter resigned as Superintendent of the Botanic Garden in November 1824 citing ill health and in August 1826 he also resigned his appointment at the Free School where he had been teaching 100 boys, but he retained his position as clerk at St George s Church until at least the abolition of the presidency government in June It would appear that he left the school to try his hand in the potentially lucrative private sector, becoming a partner in merchant John Revely s retail, auction and commission business on 20 September The business traded as Revely & Co. from premises at 1 Beach Street on the western side, about the site of today s Standard Chartered Bank. The firm was a very active advertiser in the Prince of Wales Island Gazettes of the day and one of the prominent firms at that time. George Porter took over the business on 15 February 1827 when Revely left Penang, trading from the same premises under his own name. On 20 April that year Porter s good friend and chaplain at St George s Church, Reverend R. S. Hutchings, died at his new residence on Mt Elvira. As registrar George entered his death in the records, and just ten days later entered the death of his own eldest daughter, Esther, aged 6 years 9 months. Her grave can still be seen in the old Protestant cemetery in George Town. Porter continued to be one of the most prolific advertisers in the newspaper, generally auctioning imported goods, land, houses, livestock, and household goods and chattels of estates or of persons leaving the island. A popular way to sell specialty items was to hold a public lottery and this mechanism was regularly employed by Porter. The largest advertisement ever placed in the newspapers from their inception in 1806 to closure in 1830 was placed by him in the Government Gazette of 13 December This was very nearly a full page advertisement offering a detailed array of imported goods for general sale. Revely returned to Penang in early August 1829, recommencing business at 1 Beach Street. Porter had recently purchased part of James Scott s old godowns opposite and continued his business there. With the demise of the presidency government in June 1830 business conditions deteriorated dramatically, but Porter seems to have survived the downturn, and when the Prince of Wales Island Gazette was revived in July 1833 he is again found placing advertisements. But apparently having made his fortune he then decided to try new pastures altogether. In February 1834 the family left Penang for Calcutta where they departed for England aboard the Hindostan on 25 March 1834; however their stay was only for seven months before the family all boarded the Alexander for Australia. Arriving in Sydney in August 1835, George immediately established the firm of George Porter & Co. and in 1837 he purchased the barque Regia and a 226-ton brig named the Alice, with which he traded goods from Mauritius and the Indian Isles. The new town of Melbourne was first surveyed in 1837 and some of the land was sold in Sydney in September 1838 and February At these sales Porter purchased two 800 acre properties and several town allotments and moved his family there in September The wealth he had attained during his years in Penang gave him the status of a gentleman about town. He held a position as one of the first Market Commissioners, as well as serving on several public committees; e.g. for the first Anglican churches in Melbourne (St James and St Peters), and he advocated a school along the lines of the Free School in Penang, but it was never built. George died aged 48 on 7 July 1848 at his farm Cleveland, leaving the fruits of his life s labour for his children to build upon. The cause of death is not known, but it is evident he regularly suffered the effects of malaria from his life in the tropics. His sons participated in Melbourne business life; George joining the Bank of Australasia; John becoming Registrar of the Supreme Court when it was first formed. John added to and improved upon his father s property holdings, so much so that on his 146

151 death in 1882 at the age of 59 from heart failure, he was an extremely wealthy man. Children of George and Esther Porter: Esther Porter b. 7 Jul 1820, Calcutta d. 30 Apr 1827, Penang. George Wallich Porter b. Apr 1822, Calcutta d. 26 Aug 1906, England. John Alfrey Porter b. 28 Jul 1824, Penang d. 14 Sep 1882, Australia. Elizabeth Charlotte Porter b. 9 Apr 1826, Penang d. 22 Mar 1860, Australia. William Edward Porter b.14 Dec 1827, Penang d. 18 Mar 1857, Australia. Mary Ann Porter b. 27 Jun 1829, Penang d. 7 Jun 1891, England. Flora Adelaide Porter b. 16 May 1831, Penang d. 11 Jul 1914, Australia. Marcus Langdon BL (IOR/L/MIL/10/29; IOR/L/MIL/10/142; Ecclesiastical Returns; IOR/N/8/1); SSR (A16, 12 Sep 1822; H11, 21 Oct 1824, A28, 28 Sep 1826); SSFR; PWIG (23 Sep 1826, 24 Feb 1827, 8 Aug 1829); AJMR (V15, 1834) SH (31 Aug 1835); Lloyds Registers; PPG (2 Oct 1839); Hanitsch, pp.40 41; Boroondara Cemetery records, Melbourne; Birth, Death & Marriage certificates. Note: Marcus Langdon is a descendent of George Porter and has thoroughly researched his life and family. Quah Beng Kee, 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ( ) Shipowner, Merchant, Planter, Community Leader, Public Figure. A prominent figure in Penang in general, Chinese social and business circles in particular. This is evidenced by his positions in leading state and societal institutions, and subsidiary bodies in fields of his involvement in both the public and private spheres. Born in Penang in 1872, his ancestral origins can be traced back, via his father, Quah Joo Moye, ( 柯汝梅 ), an early Hokkien community leader in Penang, to Zhuangjiang ( 莊江 ), Dingwei Houke ( 鼎尾后柯社 ), Tong an district ( 同安 ), Fujian province ( 福建 ). The family residence was at 95 Bishop Street. Quah received his education at the Penang Free School and at Roberts College, Calcutta. After working for two years in Behn Meyer & Co., he established, together with his four siblings, a shipping firm, Beng Brothers, which was reputed to be the first to provide a regular ferry service between Penang and the mainland from In 1897, the company was dissolved and Quah bought all the steam launches to continue the service under his firm, Guan Lee S.S. Co. In 1904, the firm advertised to carry passengers and cargo in its nine steamships to Burma, Sumatra and Singapore. This company was subsequently incorporated into the Eastern Shipping Co. in 1907, the registered office in Beach Street, with Quah as the managing director. Reflecting the business norms of the times when entrepreneurs sought opportunities beyond their base, together with partners Khaw Joo Tok ( 許如琢, Xu Ruzhuo ) and Tan Soon Ee, their firm, Taik/Tek Lee Guan & Co. were shipping and commission agents in Singapore from One of their six ships, Glenogle, carried coolies on the China-Singapore route. The demise of Tan Soon Ee in 1911 resulted in the firm being dissolved. Quah also ventured into the plantation industry. He owned coconut estates in Glugor and Sungai Nibong, and exported copra. He also owned a 3,000 rubber plantation in the same area. Another business, the Pinang Foundry ( 檳榔嶼鑄造廠 ) produced equipment for tin mining, the factory was set up in the Weld Quay and Beach Street area, with J. Leith Wemyss, as the manager. In the newspaper line, he was director of the Criterion Press ( 點石齋印字館 ) and chairman of the Straits Echo ( 亦果西報 ). That he was well regarded by his peers, European and Chinese, can be seen from the role accorded 147

152 him on various instances, e.g. Quah gave the address on behalf of the Penang Chinese to David Beatty, Secretary for Chinese Affairs, upon the latter s retirement. As Quah s ability was acceptable to the colonial state, he was often called upon to serve and was appointed to a variety of tasks, as member of: the Penang Committee of the Tanjong Pagar Dock Board in 1913, the Committee to administer a general relief fund in 1915, Straits Settlements, Chinese Marriage Committee in 1926, the Advisory Committee of the Volunteer Force in Quah was also the Government Rice Mill agent at Penang from 1919 to 1921/2, Director of Government Rice Mills at Bagan Serai and Kuala Kurau, Perak. Worthy of mention is the route upwards, beginning with his service as Municipal Commissioner ( ), Penang Harbour Board member ( ) as well as its first General Manager in 1924, Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) member in 1917, Licensing Board member ( 執照局諮詢委員 ) and eventually, the sole Chinese representative from Penang to the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements ( ). As for his participation in social affairs, Quah held positions in almost all the significant Chinese organisations in Penang plus a few beyond his own community, namely as Vice-President of the Old Frees Association, member of the Penang Turf Club s election committee, member of the District Hospital Committee, Fellow of the Royal Society of Art and Royal Meteorological Society. That Quah was willing to shoulder responsibilities across ethnic and sub-ethnic lines can be seen from the list of social and charitable institutions he was involved with, viz., from the organisations supplying the most basic facilities, to the apex, representing public interests to the state. His role in the latter set of organisations was considerable. He took on the posts of Chairman and Trustee at the United Hokkien Chinese Cemeteries ( 檳城聯合福建公塚 ) after his father s death. Other positions include being Trustee of the following: Chinese Quarantine Camp; Confucian Chung Hwa High School, Lam Wah Ee Hospital, Swee Cheok Tong Seh Quah Kongsi ( 柯氏瑞鵲堂 ), Hu Yew Seah ( 輔友社 ), Hu Yew Seah Girl s School ( 輔友女學校 ). Quah also served as Treasurer of the Po Leong Kuk ( 保良局 ) Committee for Protection of Women and Girls and as Vice-President of Chinese Merchant Club in Quah was a co-founder of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, its Vice-President ( 中華總商會 ) ( ) and President (1912-6). In the Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ), he began as a committee member in 1906, then president ( ), thereafter trustee of ( ). He served as the second President of the Straits Chinese British Association ( 海峽英籍僑生公會, ). His contributions were first recognised when he was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1917, thereafter the highest possible accolade of the time, the OBE for services in connection with the shipping industry of the port. In 1895, he married the daughter of Chew Choo Inn ( 周祖蔭, 音譯 ), a Kapitan of Deli. He had 5 sons, Zhaojing ( 昭景 ), Zhaofu ( 昭福 ), Jinjing ( 金經 ), Zhaoxing ( 昭興 ), Zhaocai ( 昭才 ), and 2 daughters Cuihua ( 翠華 ) and Cuiyun ( 翠雲 ). Loh Wei Leng PCTH, p.185; Cushman, 1991, pp.66-67; Lee & Chow, pp ; Lin Bo ai, V2b, p.414; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2007, p.207, Wright, pp.742, 755, Rawther, P. K. Shakkarai (1880, India , India) Cargo Boat (tongkang) Owner, Landing and Shipping Agent, Philanthropist. Penang port became an entrepot for the northern section of the Melaka Straits since the end of the 19th century. Ships from various parts of the world stopped at the port bringing their myriad cargoes for trade. However, due to the shallow water, cargo boats (tongkang) in the harbour area were indispensable in transporting goods from ships to the godowns and vice versa. One of the more successful Muslim owned firms involved in this transport 148

153 system was P. K. Shakkarai Rawther & Co., owned by P. K. Shakkarai Rawther. Shakkarai Rawther came from India. He travelled to Penang in his early teens and gained invaluable experience in the shipping business by working for a European trading company which was involved in shipping. After years of experience and with sufficient capital, he started his own cargo boat (tongkang) business which offered cargo handling services to foreign ships that called at the Penang port. His business flourished and P. K. Shakkarai Rawther & Co. was formed in the early 1930s to meet the increasing demand in cargo business. In 1936 he advertised his business as follows: P. K. Shakkarai Rawther & Co. 4, Kampong Kolam Land, shipping, forwarding & commision agents Boat owners, suppliers, builders & repairers Ship s-chandlers, stevedores & dubashes At the height of his commercial success, Rawther owned 44 lighters. He also owned a Cadillac which was beyond the reach of many in those days. As a wealthy individual, P. K. Shakkarai Rawther was also a well-known philanthropist. He bought a piece of land located at the Jelutong seafront, part of which became a yard to repair his lighters while the rest was used to build 240 kampung houses which were offered free to the locals. He also donated a large sum of money for the construction of the Pykett Methodist School and donated money to orphanages and old folks homes. Shakkarai Rawther contributed significantly towards social improvement of the Malays. He was president of the Muslim Mahajana Sabha in The association was established around 1914, and consisted mainly of shipchandlers and shipping agents who were involved directly in the trade with India. He was also one of the committee members for Al-Mashoor School and the President of the Darul Aihsan Football Club in , , , and The Darul Aihsan Football Club was formed in 1921 to promote sports and friendship among Muslims in Penang. In 1931 and 1933, he was also a member of the Penang Mohamedan Advisory Board. He was actively involved in Muslim business affairs. In 1946, Rawther and 31 other tongkang owners applied to the high court for an injunction restraining movement of the lighters by the Penang Boatmen s Union and three of its officers, for damages for breach of contract, and for a mandatory order to hand over the lighters. Soon after Rawther went to India to visit his extended family but he fell sick and died in Mahani Musa SFP (21 Sep 1934); TST (29 Aug 1922, 18 Jul 1931, 12 Mar 1933, 22 Dec 1946); A. Shukor Rahman, pp.58-59; MDCRR; Al-Mashoor p.6; Badriyah Haji Salleh, 2012, pp.38-51; Khoo Salma, 2012, pp ; Jubilee DAFC Rawther, S.M. Mohamed Yusoff (b. end 19th century in India, d. Second World War) Ship s-chandler, Stevedore, Boat Owner. Mohamed Yusoff Rawther was a successful businessman in Penang in the early 20th century. He started business in Penang when he arrived here with his friends from India. In 1915, he opened a shop at 67 Ah Quee Street, naming it after himself, S.M. Mohamed Yusoff Rawther. He owned junks (Chinese sailboats), sampans (small boats), and tongkangs (cargo boats). He was also a shipping contractor, stevedore, supplier of labourers, and an agent for loading and unloading ships. His tongkang service was important for loading and unloading cargo from the ships to the godowns and vice-versa because very big ships could not dock at the wharfs as the sea there was not deep enough. He was also a supplier of daily necessities for estate workers as well as a sail and flag maker. Mohamed Yusoff died during the Second World War at 67 Ah Quee Street. Thereafter, his business premises moved to 127 Pitt Street. His son, S.M. Mohamed Idris inherited the business. Today, since tongkangs are not in use anymore, they have been sold. Mohamed Yusoff was a well-respected businessman in Penang because he helped to provide jobs in his company. 149

154 Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah MDCRR, p. 307; MPG 1964, p.16; Personal Communication (S. M. Mohamed Idris, Chandrasekaran a/l Sinnian). Rawther, Seene (1882 Ramnad-1964) Lighter Owner, Merchant, Philanthropist. Seene Rawther was born in 1882 in the district of Ramnad in South India. Seene was seven years old when he came to Penang. When he was 11 years old, he returned to India. A year after that he worked with his cousin, P. K. Shakkarai Rawther, a businessman in India from whom he learnt to be a businessman. When he reached adulthood, he returned to Penang and settled in Kampung Kolam. After getting married, he moved to Patani Road. Seene Rawther had two wives. The first wife was his cousin who was P. K. Shakkarai Rawther s sister. They had three children. His second wife was Maharom Bee, a Jawi Peranakan from Penang. They had seven children; Zaiton Bee, Abdul Rahman, Abdul Jalil, Zainab, Abdul Aziz, Abdul Wahab and Abdul Hamid. Five of the children have passed away leaving only Zaiton Bee and Abdul Aziz. According to Abdul Aziz, he and his sister are still in touch with their siblings in India. Seene Rawther was a successful Indian-Muslim trader throughout the 20th century. His business dealt with the transport of workers from India to Penang, bringing in merchandise, such as flour, sugar, cooking oil and other kinds of Indian foodstuff, to be sold in Penang. He also went into the business of lighterage. He also had a few houses for rent. Initially, he shared his business with P. K. Shakkarai Rawther. When the latter passed away, the business broke up with their shares going to their respective children. Towards the end of his life until he passed away, he supported himself with proceeds from the rentals of his houses. In his lifetime, he contributed to the welfare of Malays and Indian-Muslims in Penang. Among his contributions was sharing the cost of a piece of land with his friends to build the al-mashoor School, an Arabic school. He also contributed 100 sets of crockery to a mosque to be used by anyone who needed them for functions. He helped sponsor needy students for further studies at universities. He also helped the poor, to feed, clothe and educate their children until the children were adults and married. He was also the President of the Darul Aihsan Football Club in , and He lived to a ripe old-age of 82 and died in 1964 in Patani Road, Penang. Omar Yusoff Reference: Badriyah Haji Salleh, 2012, pp.38-51; Khoo Salma, 2012, pp ; Jubilee DAFC 1971; Seeni Naina Mohamed, pp.1-6; Personal communication (Abdul Aziz bin Seene Rawther). Revely, John (b.c ) Merchant, Auctioneer. John Revely arrived in Penang at the end of 1821 following the death of his brother William, a prominent merchant and auctioneer who had died on 15 April that year. Records suggest he was aged about 19 on arrival and he was granted permission to stay by the Penang Government on 11 January 1822, being described as a European. He advised in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette of 16 January that he had opened a Coopering, Auction and Commission business in his brother s godowns at 1 Beach Street. Revely slowly built the business over the following years, regularly advertising trade goods and increasingly to auctioning goods and property, even on behalf of other merchants. A son, John Bernard Revely, was born on 9 December 1824 with the mother listed only as Mary, but died on 19 April On 20 September 1826 Revely admitted the late Free School headmaster, George Porter, as a partner in the business, which subsequently traded as Revely & Co. This arrangement ended only months later when John Revely withdrew and the firm was dissolved. Porter then continued business, operating 150

155 as a General Merchant, Auctioneer and Agent in the same premises and trading under his own name. Revely s goods and chattels were sold up by Porter, and Revely departed Penang. Although his destination and intentions are unknown it is evident he did not go far as he appeared in Court on 21 November 1827 charged with an assault on Gregory Lucas; of which he was found not guilty. In early August 1829 John Revely returned to Penang and recommenced his Auction, Commission, and Coopering business in the 1 Beach Street premises. George Porter had recently purchased part of James Scott s old godowns opposite and relocated his own business there. In September 1829 Revely again left the island, leaving Charles Rodyk in charge of his business, but perhaps for other reasons, as on 8 June 1830 he married Sarah Thompson in Calcutta. Their first child, Augustus Catchatoor Revely was born in Penang on 21 May the following year. Shipping movements often report a John Revely arriving or leaving the settlement, possibly the same person. One report notes John Revely, owner and commander of the brig Johanna, taking the Phoenix Insurance Office to Court for non-payment of a claim for repairs made in Calcutta to the vessel when it grounded in the Amherst River. Revely won and was awarded 1,700 Sicca Rupees. On 22 July 1836 John Revely advised that from that date the business would be conducted under the name of Revely & Co. once again. There is also evidence that John Revely became the Consular Agent of the United States at Penang around 1838, though the American connection is unknown. In February 1840 he took on a partner, 35-year-old Charles Chase Currier, who was indeed American. Currier settled his affairs in Calcutta, where he had previously carried on business, and quickly returned to Penang. Revely and his whole family departed for Britain aboard the 335-ton barque Ambassador shortly afterwards. The vessel, along with all its passengers and crew, was never heard of again. Revely s Will, dated 23 March 1840, records that he and Sarah had produced at least another five children; sons William John Revely, Samuel Revely and John Revely, and daughters Adelaide Jane Revely (born 8 February 1836, died January 1837 in Calcutta) and Ellen Mary Revely born at Penang on 9 September All these surviving children perished at sea along with their parents. Under the partnership deal Currier inherited the business. He also became the new Consular Agent of the United States. Newspapers announced that George Lovell was admitted a partner on 1 Nov 1843 and a journal of 1860 noted that The principal house of business in Penang is that of Revely & Co., American merchants, of which Mr Currier is the head, and a gentleman well known to eastern travellers for his hospitality. This later business was well known for exporting Straits tin in ingots branded Revely & Co. Currier returned to the United States in September 1859 and died from measles only six months later. Marcus Langdon SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); PWIG (16 Jan 1816, 23 Sep 1826, 24 Feb 1827); PRM (5 Dec 1827); GGPWISM (8 Aug 1829); AJMR (V3, 1830); SCCR (9 Jun 1831); SFP (18 Aug 1836, 20 Feb 1840); NAK (Prob 11/1980); LMF; Hurd (414); HMMCR (V42, 1860, 65); Website (IGI). Revely, William (b. unknown 1821) Merchant, Auctioneer. William Revely was an Englishman who arrived in Penang on 27 May 1812 aboard Carnegy & Co. s (James Carnegy ) brig Tweed from Jakarta. On 15 November that year he was admitted a partner in Thomas Perkins s mercantile business on the western side of Beach Street, which henceforth traded as Perkins & Revely. The firm, which owned the 90-ton brig William, was a regular advertiser in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette; particularly for property and often on behalf of Government or the Court. In February 1816, Perkins departed for Rangoon to collect a new 250-ton vessel, the Governor Petrie, however he was apparently lost at sea and the partnership ceased on 1 October that year. Perkins s property was sold up by order of the 151

156 Court the following month. Revely then leased godowns opposite and traded as a Shopkeeper and Auctioneer under his own name, continuing the same line as previously. In May 1818, he purchased half of Perkins s old godowns which were being sold in two lots by government in satisfaction of a mortgage to a subsequent owner, William Weightman, who had also died. Records suggest that the price paid was Sp$2,900 for a Brick dwelling House and Godowns, with Compound & a Brick dwelling House detached from the House which was located on the northern side of the other lot. That lot had previously been leased as the Waterloo Hotel, which moved to Bishop Street and later became the Navy Tavern. Revely s lot was subsequently listed as 1 Beach Street on the western side, north of the Bishop Street junction, and he relocated his business to that address. This was approximately the site of today s Standard Chartered Bank; however Union Street, which now runs between and parallel to Bishop and Light Streets, did not exist at the time. Revely s business continued to flourish, vying only with McIntyre & Co. (McIntyre, Anthony ) for prominence as auctioneers of everything from miscellaneous goods to landed property, until his death on Sunday 15 April Indeed, McIntyre & Co. were charged with selling his property, goods and chattels, however the godowns did not sell and when William s brother John arrived, he re-established the business. William Revely left a daughter, Charlotte, who was born 6 September 1818, but as no mother is listed it is possible she was born out of wedlock. Marcus Langdon Haji S. Abdul Wahab was a well known jeweller in Penang. He was the founder of Haji S. Abdul Wahab. He migrated to Penang with his father to study here. In the beginning, his father sold flowers in Penang Road. After completing his studies, S. Abdul Wahab worked with the Penang Port Commision. He took over his father s business after the latter s demise. Then, in 1946, S. Abdul Wahab opened his own jewellery shop at 95, Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling (Pitt Street), naming it Haji S. Abdul Wahab after himself. He started his business on a small scale and soon he was able to attract many customers. His business began to improve although he had to compete with other jewellery shops that converged in the area. After his demise, his children inherited the business. S. Abdul Wahab did not just sell jewellery locally but was also a jewellery supplier in Kelantan. In 1981, another shop was opened at Komtar but the business did not last long, and a new one was opened at 96, Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling, next door to the first business premises. Although S. Abdul Wahab was not active in any association or political party, he was very charitable and often helped the poor in Penang. In 1948, S. Abdul Wahab married Mariam Bee who was from Penang. They were blessed with seven children, three girls and four boys. S. Abdul Wahab died at the age of 57 years old. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah Peduman Bakal-bakal Haji; Buletin PERDASAMA, p.45; Personal Communication (Abdul Waheed, Syed Ahamed Basheer). PWIG (30 May 1812, 28 Nov 1812, 12 & 16 Oct 1816, 27 Jun 1818, 1 Aug 1818, 21 Apr 1821); SSFR (R24, V66, 18 May 1818); Website (IGI). S. Abdul Wahab, Haji (1921, India- 16 Feb 1978) Jewel Merchant, Philanthropist. S. Mohamed Ismail, Haji (1907, Madras-1969) Ship-chandler, Stevedoring Contractor, Bakery Operator, Philanthropist. Haji S. Mohamed Ismail was a successful Muslim trader in Penang in the mid-20th century. He was the principal managing director of S.V.K. Patchee Bros at 15, Bishop Street. The company, which was 152

157 established in 1837 by his father, S.V.K. Patchee and uncle, dealt in several kinds of services such as loading cargo and ferrying passengers bound for India, Middle East, Europe and other western countries. Haji S. Mohamed Ismail and his brother, Shaik Abdul Rahman ( ), had inherited the shipping business from their father in Their shipping company was involved with vessels owned by big names in the international maritime trade. Among them were the Blue Funnel Line, British India Steamship Co. and Bogart Shipping Lines, which dispatched no less than 100 ships a month to Penang. There was such a demand in the shipping business that S.V. K. Patchee Bros. engaged many workers to load cargo from the ships to the barges and lighters, to be taken to the jetties. Haji S. Mohamed Ismail also tried his hands at another business. In 1928, he and a group of friends opened a bakery, Ismalia Bakery at 114, Transfer Road. Their bread was called Roti Benggali, meaning shareholder s bread ( Benggali is a corruption of the Tamil word penggali, which means shareholder ). In 2005, the bakery changed hands and was renamed Maliia Bakery (M) Sdn. Bhd. The managing director is Siti Suhailla Mohd Yusoff. Haji S. Mohamed Ismail marrried Shaharom Bee, the daughter of A.P. Sultan Mydin. A. P. Sultan Mydin was a rich and well-known textile merchant in Penang in the early 20th century. Shaharom Bee bore him eight children. His marriage into a rich merchant s family strengthened his influence on the Muslim merchants community in Penang. As a wealthy merchant, he contributed substantially to the Penang Muslim community. In 1941, he bought A.P. Sultan Mydin s family bungalow at 167 Argyll Road, Penang. The trial of Nadra Hertog in 1951 caused a lot of anger among Muslims in Penang. It was said that the former British Resident Commissioner, R.P. Bingham, had asked Haji Mohamed Ismail to persuade Penang Muslims not to revolt against the British as a result of the trial. Haji Mohamed Ismail died in He was appointed Justice of the Peace. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah & Muhammad Syukri Bin Abu Samad BH (10 Apr 2011); Star (10 Apr 2011); TST (14 Jul 1969); UM (11 Mar 2009); SFP (9 Aug 1938); A. Shukor Rahman; Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin; Websites (Chin Christina, Varusay vs SVK Patchee Brothers); Personal Communication (Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin). S.M. Mohamad Hussain bin A.P. Sultan Mydin ( ) Cigarette Merchant. S.M. Mohamad Hussain was a well-known cigarette merchant in Penang in the mid-20th century. He was A. P. Sultan Mydin s seventh child. A.P. Sultan Mydin was a well-known textile merchant in Penang in the early 20th century. S.M. Mohamad Hussain had worked for several English firms including Sandilands Buttery where he was employed until he was 60 years old before starting his cigarette business. Sandilands Buttery and Co. Ltd.was among the first firms of British traders in Penang. The firm was a general importer and exporter and agent for rubber, sugar, spices, tapioca and tobacco estates and tin mines in Malaya and the East Indies, trading with Europe and other parts of the world. During the Japanese Occupation ( ), S.M. Mohamad Hussain started a cigarette factory named the Sun Tobacco at his house, 70, Jalan Yahudi (now Jalan Zainul Abidin), Penang. It was set up as a family business with workers from his own family members. S.M. Mohamad Hussain was born in His early education was at the Chowrasta Malay School, Hutton Lane (Sekolah Melayu Chowrasta, Jalan Hatin). He continued his education at the Penang Free School up to the School Certificate level. After that he went into business. He married Aishah Bee binti Patchee with whom he had six children. In his younger days, S.M. Mohamad Hussain joined Pasukan Sukarela Pulau Pinang (Penang Volunteer Force). He was in service until he was promoted to the post of lieutenant. He was also active in politics. He died in Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah & Muhammad Syukri Bin Abu Samad 153

158 BH (1 Dec 1972); Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin; Personal Communication (Haji Zainul Aziz bin Haji S.M. Zainul Abidin), Website (Sandilands Buttery and Co). S.V.K. Patchee (b. 1800, India - d. 1883, India) Shipping Supplier, Philanthropist. welfare of the Muslim community in Penang. His financial contributions were given to Islamic welfare organizations because he wanted to see Penang Muslims live a better life. He also gave financial contributions towards the building of mosques, and in support of orphanages in Penang. S. V. K Patchee died in India in Omar Yusoff S.V.K. Patchee was born in early He was from South India. As a young man, S.V.K. Patchee worked on a British East India Company ship. He was the supply officer, providing shipping supplies, such as food and drinks, necessities for crew members, replacement material, tools and equipment and suchlike to ships that anchored at the Penang port. Thereafter, S.V.K. Patchee decided to settle down in Penang. S.V.K. Patchee had a wife and three children; two boys and a girl, in India. In 1837, S.V.K. Patchee started a shipping supplier company with his brother, S.V.S. Maniam as his business partner at Bishop Street. After his death, his brother S.V.S. Maniam and later, S.V.K. Patchee s son, Haji S. Mohd. Ismail JP Justice of Peace (Jaksa Pendamai) took over the company. The business flourished and became well known in Penang. As Haji S. Mohd. Ismail was getting old, his son, Dato Haji Shaik Allaudin replaced him. Dato Haji Shaik Allaudin was managing the business until In 2002, the business which S.V.K. Patchee founded was temporarily closed due to the transfer of assets to shareholders. After the transfer of assets was completed, the business resumed under a new name, Syarikat Kasifa Holding Sdn. Bhd. It was managed by Shaik Ismail Allaudin, a 4th generation to S.V.K. Patchee. Apart from the business which they inherited, S.V.K. Patchee s children also started a bakery which was named S.V.K. Patchee Bakery. It was established in The bakery not only sold several types of bread but also became the distributor of roti Benggali (a type of bread, native of Bengal) in Penang. Today, the shipping supplier business is still being run by S.V.K.Patchee s descendants. S.V.K. Patchee contributed a lot towards the TST (14 Jul 1969); A. Shukor Rahman, p.80; Khoo Salma, 2012, pp ; MDCRR, p.306; MPG 1964; Personal Communication (Shaik Ismail bin Dato Shaik Allaudin). Scott, James ( ) Merchant, Landholder, Prominent Citizen. No dictionary of biography of early Penang merchants would be complete without the inclusion of James Scott. But his long history must of necessity be brief here. Born in Scotland to parents William Scott and Barbara MacDougal, he was baptised on 6 October Scott initially served in the British navy where, as a young lad, he first met Francis Light during the Seven Years War in India. Like Light he afterwards became a country trader, also basing himself in today s Phuket in Thailand. They were firm friends, but at the same time, competitors. Both had an intimate knowledge of the region, and both had espoused the qualities of Penang as a potential East India Company settlement for many years prior to its acceptance. After settlement was approved Scott soon made himself at home, first arriving on 3 September 1786 aboard his ship Drake. He and Light formed a partnership, though Scott was the driving force behind the business. At first this partnership was something of a monopoly, and although Light states he never enforced this privilege, the fact was that Scott and Co. was the first and largest British agency on the island and few could compete. This is emphasised in a document Light produced in 1793 when urging Cornwallis not to abandon the island, in which Scott and Co. are shown to own or hold 60% of the total value of buildings, ships, goods and 154

159 merchandise owned by Europeans on the island. The firm s assets included seven trading ships. With this apparent capital behind him Scott became the main money lender on the island. Through defaults and acquisitions he also became the largest property owner on the island. His first residence was on Light Street, near Light s government house, but by the early 1790s, after he acquired a grant of land covering 475 acres at the foot of the hills, he built a house he named Scotland (the location of today s racecourse) which became his principal residence. The old Malay-style bungalow in Light Street was replaced with a brick building he named Ossian Hall, which was completed in October 1795 and later leased out. He also held vast areas of agricultural land and other town properties. Scott and Co. s extensive warehouses occupied 293 feet of prime sea frontage at the northern end of Beach Street. Scott is also well known for the founding in February 1796 of a village immediately opposite Pulau Jerejak which he named James Town. At the time this was the principal pepper-growing region in Penang and promoted by Scott as an alternative location for the main town in preference to the low, marshy situation of George Town. It was also anticipated that a naval dockyard would be built on Pulau Jerejak, and had this occurred Scott s speculation in acquiring the two grants comprising James Town, totalling about 167 acres, would have paid off handsomely. After Light s death in 1794, Scott purchased Government House from his estate, which he later leased to the Company at $250 a week. His knowledge of the people and trade of the region was equal to Light s and he remained an active proponent for the retention of Penang, but his strong personality and dominant standing amongst the mercantile population caused many a clash with subsequent administrators of Penang. For a time Scott and Co. held a monopoly over the sale of pepper and tin in Penang, but this revenue farm was given up on 30 June James Scott closed down Scott and Co. on 15 June He died at 11:30pm on 19 September 1808 at his house, Scotland, after a short illness, just short of his 62nd birthday. His son James had died only two months earlier and it is perhaps significant to note that both had incurred the wrath of the new presidency government earlier the same year. James junior had been threatened with expulsion from the island for an alleged assault and in March James senior had likewise been given four months to leave the island on a surety of $10,000 for alleged defamatory comments to the government. Following his death it was discovered that his apparently vast estate was in fact bankrupt. The unenviable task of administering the estate was initially granted to his son Robert, but he later withdrew in favour of his elder brother and heir, William. After encountering various difficulties, in September 1810, William filed a petition with the Court of Judicature to order the sale of the remaining assets in satisfaction of creditors. James Scott had died with debts totalling an incredible Sp$333,618, which included mortgages to the value of $68,500 to Fairlie, Gilmore & Company of Calcutta and $20,000 to Colonel Norman Macalister; offset by assets of about $273,000, which included legacies in his Will amounting to $70,000. The Court had little choice but to order the remaining assets sold. Sales of the innumerable grants of land, houses and shops appeared in the pages of the Gazette for several years thereafter, and it was not until 31 July 1820 that the last creditors meeting was held to deliver the final dividend payout, the outcome of which is unknown. Little is known of the ladies in his life, though it is understood that he had children to more than one woman. These children include: William, the eldest son, b. 3 May 1780, d. 18 December 1861, Singapore. Elizabeth, b. c. 1783, m. John Stewart Bremner, 2 June 1806 in Edinburgh. Sophia, b. c. 1784, Kedah James, b. c. 1786, Penang, d. 22 July

160 Robert, b. 1788, Penang, d at Semarang, Java. Caroline, b. c. 1791, Penang Harriet, b. c. 1792, Penang Marcus Langdon SSFR (R1 V2, 13 Dec 1786; R4 V5 30 Aug 1793; R9 V16 Appendices 1806); SSR (I 7, 10 Mar 1808); GG (3 May 1806); PWIGG (20 Jun 1807); PWIG (24 Sep 1808, 12 Nov 1808, 3 Nov 1810, 24 Aug 1811, 26 Jul 1820); SME (V68, 1806, 485); personal communication (Roger Scott Lewis); Website (IGI). Shaik Dawood Sahib, M.M. (1900, India-1961, India) Restaurateur, Philanthropist. M.M. Shaik Dawood Sahib was the founder and owner of a well known nasi kandar restaurant in Penang, known as Dawood Restaurant. M.M. Shaik Dawood came to Penang on a British ship from Keelakarai, Southern India when he was twelve years old, with the intention of finding a business opportunity. When he reached Penang, he stayed in Market Lane. Shaik Dawood Sahib had a wife in India. They had four children, two sons, M.S. Syed Aliar and M.S. Kamarudeen, and two daughters, Madar Bevee and Zainambu Gani. In Penang, Shaik Dawood sold fancy goods in Chulia Street. His supplier was Gulam Hussein Jamal, the grandfather of Dato Haji Ameer Ali Mydin (owner of Mydin Supermart). When his business improved, he rented a building at 61 Queen Street. He sublet the rooms in the building to ships and port workers at the Penang port. As the number of tenants increased he opened a mess in the building for them. He shared his idea with his younger brother, Kader Meera Sahib, who was then in Singapore. In his effort to help Shaik Dawood start a nasi kandar mess in the late 1930s, Kader Meera Sahib sent M.S. Syed, a cook, and M.N. Mohamed Yusoff, Shaik Dawood s nephew, to be his assistant. When the mess was opened, Penang port workers and sailors came in droves to eat the delicious food at the mess. This mess eventually became Dawood Restaurant. In the 1940s, Dawood Restaurant was thriving and the name became well known. This led to Dawood Restaurant being registered in At that time, besides getting local patrons, Dawood Restaurant was also patronized by the British army personnel, Australians, Africans, and even Europeans. In 1954, M.N. Mohamed Yusoff married Shaik Dawood s daughter, Madar Bevee. They had two children, a son and a daughter. The son was named Shaik Dawood (after his grandfather) while the daughter was named Sarabunnisa.After the marriage, M.N. Mohamed Yusoff became a partner instead of being just an employee. Shaik Dawood and his son-in-law, M.N. Yusoff, took turns to manage the business when the other partner went back to India. Dawood Restaurant also catered food for functions. In the 1950s, Shaik Dawood bought the building which he was renting. In 1959, he bought three more neighbouring buildings. He had a plan to build a new building on the location and then move Dawood Restaurant into this new building. However, he did not live to see his plan materialise as he passed away in 1961 while on a visit to India. He was 61 years old. His son-in-law, M.N. Mohamed Yusoff saw through Shaik Dawood s plan, and engaged a reputable architect in Penang, Lim Soo Loon, for the new building. Subsequently, it was declared opened by Tan Sri Wong Pow Nee, Penang s first Chief Minister, on 13 December Shaik Dawood s two sons, M.S. Syed Aliar and M.S. Kamarudeen came from India to help M.N. Mohamed Yusoff in the opening. Since then, Dawood Restaurant operates from the new address, 63 Queen Street, Penang. In the 1960s, Dawood Restaurant ordered their crockery with their logo, Dawood Restaurant from J&G Meakin, London, a famous crockery factory. M.N. Yusoff died in He was 48 years old. The business was then managed by Shaik Dawood s two sons, M.S. Syed Aliar and M.S. Kamarudeen. Today, the business has moved back to its original 156

161 premises, 61 Queen Street as the new building had been sold. M.S. Syed Aliar, who is 72 years old now, continues to run the business. In his lifetime, Shaik Dawood was active in his community. Shaik Dawood was the founder and president of Indian Muslim Restaurants Association, Penang. He was also charitable and donated towards the welfare of Indian Muslims in India and Malaysia. His contributions also reached the Madrasah Anjuman Hithayatul Islam in Chulia Street and Madrasah Ghazali in Kuala Kangsar, Perak. Omar Yusoff or the Tamil English School in George Town. The Tamil English School was run by Penang s Indian merchants. T.M. Shaikh Mohammad married a Penang Indian-Muslim girl (Jawi Peranakan). They had eight children. When his wife died he married his late wife s younger sister, Che Kalsom bt. Mohd. Salleh and they had eight children too. Upon his father s demise, T.M Shaikh Mohammad continued the barge business which his father started in early 1920s. He had workers who were mostly Indian-Muslims, either Penang born or from India, most of whom were related to him. He also owned barges. TST (8 Mar 1918); MPG, 1967, p.24; 1970,; Personal Communication (Shaik Dawood). Shaikh Mohammad bin Teena Maidin (T.M. Shaikh Mohammad) (1890s, India, d. after the Japanese Occupation) Barge Owner, Landing and Shipping Agent, Philanthropist. The end of the 19th century saw the port of Penang as an important entrepot. Merchant ships from Europe, India, China and Southeast Asia came, bringing with them essential goods not just for the people of Penang and the Peninsula but also to trade with countries like Sumatra, Java, Burma and West Asia. These merchant ships also imported products from Peninsular Malaya and other Southeast Asian countries. However, many ships could not anchor at the port because the sea there was shallow. They needed the services of barges which would help to transfer goods to and from the ships. The barges operators were usually Indian-Muslims and T.M. Shaikh Mohamad Company was among the early formed companies in the early 20th century. T.M. Shaikh Mohammad s family originated from Periyapattinam, South India. In the beginning his father came about the end of the 19th century when he was still a child. Shaikh Mohammad was schooled in Penang at either the Penang Free School His business thrived and made him a wealthy man. He had a big double storey bungalow with eight rooms in Seang Tek Road, the architecture of which was colonial as well as Asian. It was a brick bungalow with a tiled roof. The windows were handcarved with engravings, evident of a wealthy owner. He also had two cars and a lorry to transport his goods. A trishaw was used to send his children to school and Quran classes and nearby places while his boat carried passengers in addition to cargo. There were also three doctors to attend to his family and workers. His other property was a pretty timber house by the sea at Lorong Kota Giam, Jelutong. This house was used as a holiday chalet and a picnic ground. The family s life was quite westernised where spoons, forks and knives were used. Their tableware was imported from China and England. Shaikh Mohammad encouraged his children to speak in English. As with other Indian Muslim merchants, T.M. Shaikh Mohammad contributed towards social activities, particularly in the education field in Penang. He provided funds for the administration of al-mashoor School which was run by Syed Sheikh al-hadi. Together with friends and the Rawther family, he provided funds to furnish the school and pay the school staff. Every Friday, prayers were held in the compound of his house, after which donations were collected. During the fasting month he would sponsor the cost for the preparation of food for breaking fast at various mosques and before the feast of Id which marked the end of Ramadan, he would give away yards and yards of material towards 157

162 charity. These practices ended with the Japanese Occupation. The Jelutong area was bombed. Shaikh Mohammad and his family had to evacuate to Balik Pulau. His business saw a decline after the war although it was still sustainable. Upon his death (soon after the Japanese Occupation), his son, Abdul Jalil Shaikh Mohammad, took over the reins of the business which finally ended when Abdul Jalil died in Badriyah Haji Salleh MDCRR, p.307; Personal communication (Ustazah Mah Bee Shaik Mohammad). Shaikh Sulaiman bin Bakar Rafee (1916, Mecca ) Publisher, Printer, Bookshop Owner, Thinker and Islamic Educator. Shaikh Sulaiman bin Bakar Rafee was a successful Muslim businessman in Penang in the third decade of the 20th century. He was born in Mecca in 1916, and migrated to Malaya with his six siblings when he was still young. He married the daughter of Ghulam Sarwar, a millionaire in Penang at that time, when he was just 18 years old. They had two children. In 1950, he took a second wife, Mariam binti Salleh, in Thailand. Mariam was from Bangkok. Together, they had seven children. One of them, Taufik, went on to manage the Sulaiman Press business when his father fell ill. Shaikh Sulaiman was first involved in business at a young age when he delved into the tin ore business in Ipoh, Perak. However, that business did not last as his business partner played him out. This caused him to move to Penang, and in 1930, he became a teacher at al-mashoor School. There he taught al-quran and the Arabic language. Later, he opened a sawmill in Butterworth. Again, he was cheated and the business folded. In 1950, he started a business making printing blocks at the back of his house at 235 Penang Road. The blocks were used in the printing process, such as making symbols for stamping purposes. At that time, there were only three people who made blocks from glass, and he was one of them. His next business venture was in selling batik from his house. He printed the batik himself in Teluk Bahang on materials imported from Thailand and Indonesia. This business, too, did not last long as his premises was burgled. But this episode did not deter him from starting all over again. Next, he was in the business of binding books; binding the al-quran and books taken from Persama Press, which belonged to Muhammad Ali bin Muhammad Idrus Sulaiman ar-rawi. He proceeded to sell the Quran and the bound books. In 1970, with the help of his brother from Terengganu, his interest in book binding and the sale of books culminated in his negotiating with Hassan Rawa, Muhammad Ali s son, to take over Persama Press. Persama Press sold its shop of books and al-quran lock-stock and barrel to Shaikh Sulaiman. Persama Press was renamed Sulaiman Rafee Press. Later, the name changed again to Sulaiman Press and Paper Sdn. Bhd. Thus, Shaikh Sulaiman took the opportunity to repair and rebind the books and the Quran, before selling them. He worked on this venture until his business was successful. Among the books were the translated works of the Quran, question and answer books on religion. In the beginning, he was only able to buy a small printing machine, but as his business thrived he was able to buy machines which cost RM96,000 and RM104,000. Shaikh Sulaiman would personally follow the process of producing the Quran and books which began with photographing the pages, producing the pages on films, making the plates and finally printing and binding them into books. He was assisted by his son, Taufik bin Shaikh Sulaiman. In 2003, Sulaiman Press and Paper Sdn. Bhd. closed down and was taken over by the Penang Islamic Council. Shaikh Sulaiman was a business figure who gave meritorious service to the Penang community. He was always intent to upgrade the Muslim community. As a teacher, he taught his pupils with a firm hand and dedication so they would become successful. His book business allowed Penang residents, especially those from religious schools 158

163 and madrasahs, easy access to books. He also gave monetary aids. He died in 2004 at 363P, Jalan Glugor, Penang. Siti Amirah binti Abdullah Amini Amir bin Abdullah, pp.29-49; Badriyah Haji Salleh, 2012, pp.38-51; Jelani Harun, 2005; Personal Communication (Taufik bin Shaikh Sulaiman & Mohamed bin Yahaya). Sharma, T. N. ( ) Merchant, Community Leader. Born in Punjab, India in the year 1900, T.N. Sharma came to Penang in the 1930 s, during the Depression to start up and manage the overseas operations for a large commodity company, Jankidas Shubkaran, based in Calcutta (Kolkatta). In 1924, he married Raj Rani Jetley in Punjab and when he came to Penang in 1930 he was accompanied by his wife and his son Raj Kumar Sharma who subsequently became a prominent lawyer in Penang. He managed the business for nine years. Prior to the Japanese Occupation, T.N. Sharma closed down the business and left for India with his family, on the last boat to Calcutta in In November 1946, after the war ended, he returned to Penang. This time, he was sent by another Calcutta firm to set up their overseas operations, based in Penang. His wife and two younger children accompanied him (Krishna Kumar Sharma born in 1940; Sudha Rani born in 1943). His eldest son, Raj Kumar Sharma, remained in Calcutta to continue his tertiary education. His youngest son, Basant Kumar Sharma, was born in Penang in The family stayed in pre-war houses in King Street and Malay Street. In 1953, T.N. Sharma started his own business, T.N. Sharma Ltd., in partnership with a prominent businessman in Penang/Singapore, Makhanlal Mahawar, who was then known as the Clove King. Makhanlal also owned the Star Cinema in Dato Kramat Road and Glory Cinema in Ayer Itam. T.N. Sharma Ltd. dealt in the export of betel nuts, mainly grown in Province Wellesley, known as Seberang betel nuts. He also imported betel nuts from Siam. A large quantity of betel nuts was also imported from Aceh, Langsa, Loh Samawe and Pulau Nias. These Indonesian and Thai varieties were imported into Penang by Chinese merchants who mainly traded along Victoria Street and Acheen Street. He bought the betel nuts from them, dried, regraded and then exported them to places such as Calcutta, Bombay, towns in Pakistan and Burma, to name a few. T.N. Sharma became one of the largest exporters of betel nuts in the world. Being a Punjabi himself, he was also one of the few non-gujaratis in this trade. His other products were copra and coconut oil, exporting them mainly to India. T.N. Sharma was very active in the Penang Indian Chamber of Commerce, and held the post of President from He was a very helpful individual, teaching people who came to him for advice on how to run the import/export business, even to his rivals. Such was his character that he came to be nicknamed Master ji (venerable teacher) by one and all. He passed away in 1957, from a heart attack. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (K.K. Sharma); Website (Tyebkhan). Snadden, Richard (b.unknown; d.unknown) Merchant, Shipwright. In an 1808 census of British inhabitants in Penang not indentured to the East India Company, Richard Snadden, from Scotland, states that he was verbally granted permission to reside at the island in 1796 by Superintendent Major Forbes Ross Macdonald, and granted permission to practice as an auctioneer 159

164 by Governor Philip Dundas, which would have been about On 1 March 1807 Richard Snadden was admitted to Anthony McIntyre s business as a partner and the firm became McIntyre and Snadden, trading from 230 Beach Street. The company was active and advertised in the Gazette regularly, but on 1 March 1809 the partnership was dissolved. Both men then carried on business separately. In October 1808 the Gazette carried an advertisement for the lease of a two storey house on the south-east corner of Penang and Church Streets, which had been valued at Sp$4,500 earlier that year and was owned and occupied by Snadden. In a census of February 1810 he is listed as Assistant to the Marine Storekeeper, but continued his mercantile concern, being listed as a trader in East India Company returns for the next several years. From around 1818 up until his departure from Penang in 1827 he is listed as a shipwright. It has not been proven that this is the same person; however most evidence suggests it is. The IGI records that Snadden married Maria David on 8 February 1827, but no report of their marriage appears in the newspapers of the day. It is possible that this marriage was in order to legitimize their relationship prior to departure for Britain, as it is clear from birth records that they had co-habited for many years, producing at least eight children. Snadden and his family departed Penang aboard the Lalla Rookh on 21 February His house and godowns, located on Beach Street between the Customs House and Brown and Co., were advertised for sale by Anthony McIntyre at the time, but sales being slow were still being advertised in May The children of Richard Snadden and Maria David, all born in Penang, were: Caroline Snadden b. unknown, d. Calcutta, 3 May 1843 Harriet Snadden b. 4 Sep 1815 Barbara Snadden b. 11 Mar 1817 Eliza Snadden b. 19 Sep 1818, m. 30 April 1840, Claud Davidson, Merchant, Edinburgh Isabella Snadden b. 23 Jun 1820, m. 21 Nov 1843, Calcutta, Joseph Rose, EIC surgeon Margaret Snadden b. 12 Mar 1822 Richard Snadden b. 17 Jan 1824 Walter Snadden b. 25 Dec 1825, d. Calcutta, 2 Nov 1854, Merchant Marcus Langdon SSFR (R11, V20, 3 May 1808); PWIG (22 Oct 1808, 1 Aug 1821, 24 Feb 1827); GGPWISM (16 May 1829); AJMR (Vol. 32, 1840, 186); IM (Vol. 1, 1843, 85); Website (IGI). Soetan Mohd Issa bin Dato Hidjou (b. end of 19th century, Singkil - d. between , Penang) Merchant, Philanthropist. Soetan Mohd. Issa bin Dato Hidjou came from Singkil, West Sumatra. He was among the successful Muslim businessmen in Penang before the Second World War. He was a merchant, importer and exporter of goods. He had several business premises in Acheen Street. Soetan Mohd. Issa migrated to Penang and started his business there with his second wife, Syarifah bt. Teuku Md. Ariff, from Kampung Hilir, Tapak Tuan, South Aceh, and her brother, Boerhaddoeddin. They lived at 51 Acheen Street. Soetan Mohd. Issa used the ground floor of the building to run his business. He imported and exported marine products, copra, spices, oil, and suchlike, which were mostly from Sumatra. His company was called Soetan Mohd. Issa & Sons. His company also imported and exported rubber, and was a supplier of the milk brand, Two Birds, a product of Denmark. As his business developed, he had to open two more premises; at

165 Acheen Street and 49 Acheen Street. He occupied these premises temporarily. Soon, with the profits he reaped from his business, he bought a shop house at 89 Acheen Street. The family lived upstairs while the ground floor of the shop house was his office. As with all other wealthy businessmen in Acheen Street, Soetan Mohd. Issa was also a philanthropist, paying the obligatory zakat (tithes) to the locals in the area. He was also involved in the religious and community activities which were sponsored by the Acheen Street Malay Mosque. He was responsible for the building of a fence around the mosque. He passed away around 1950/1951 and was buried at the Perak Road Muslim Cemetery. Mahani Musa Izrin Muaz Md Adnan, p.35; Personal communication (Haji Mohd. Adnan bin Boerhaddoeddin & Mohamed bin Yahaya); MDCRR, p.257. Stuart, George (b.unknown d.unknown) Merchant, Planter, Prominent Citizen. George Stuart was the son of George Stuart, MD, of Duns, in Berwickshire, Scotland. He proceeded to Penang to work in Brown and Co. with permission from the Court of Directors, arriving on 11 August 1824 aboard the HCS General Harris. Also aboard was his 19-year-old cousin George Wilson Brown returning to Penang following his schooling, and they may well have been about the same age. On 8 March 1827 he joined this cousin in a mercantile and agency business under the name Brown and Stuart; reviving the name of a firm his uncle William Stuart had formed with David Brown nearly 17 years earlier. The firm did not advertise in the Gazette and for unknown reasons it was dissolved on 1 November 1830 by mutual agreement ; George Stuart being left to balance the accounts. Although he did not advertise it is apparent from his later reputation as a merchant that he continued to trade alone for a time. Stuart s brother James was also in Penang as a surgeon, and in a cruel twist of fate both he and George Wilson Brown died in 1833 during a particularly bad malarial season. On 15 October 1832 Stuart married Caroline, youngest daughter of Major General Durand, and soon begun to purchase large tracts of land, primarily for nutmeg plantations. In early 1833 he purchased a large portion of James Scott s old property Scotland, which had been sold to Government in 1827 by G. W. Brown, and by the end of that year he is noted as leasing Suffolk House for his residence at $40 per month. He would also acquire the grounds of the second Botanic Garden in late 1834, plus around 100 acres adjoining Scotland in late In April 1834 he admitted Lawrence Nairne as a partner, the firm then being called Stuart and Co. An 1843 table showing the extent of spice plantations on Penang lists Stuart as co-proprietor of Scotland estate with a Mr Speirs, and although only about half the 16,000 nutmeg and 5,000 clove trees in cultivation were in bearing, as growers they were second in size only to the extensive Brown estates. When Suffolk House was sold to Resident Councillor James William Salmond in October 1835, it is possible that George and Caroline went to live with her mother, who had purchased the beach front property on Northam Road called San Souci from John James Erskine s estate around this time. By the time a daughter was born on 17 July 1836, Stuart was a prominent settler on the island and known for his leadership qualities. The same year he is noted as foreman of the jury at the Court of Judicature and in February the following year he chaired a meeting to form Penang s first Chamber of Commerce & Agriculture. In 1838 he was one of five men on the management committee to print the first Pinang Gazette & Straits Chronicle on 7 April 1838, but withdrew the following month. A second daughter was born on 14 March 1838 and a third was born on 17 December 1840, however their names are not recorded. When San Souci was sold by Mrs Durand to Forbes Scott Brown on 25 February 1842 for the sum of Sp$3,500 it was noted that George, his family and Mrs Durand were leaving Penang. Brown family recollection is that Stuart s speculation in spices did not pay off and that he lost most of his money. 161

166 He then became one of the early proponents for growing sugar cane. A court case held in London in May 1852 enlightens us further: At some stage in the 1830 s he took on Stuart Herriot as a partner. Herriot was perhaps a cousin as his mother s name was Barbara Stuart. Herriot was born on 25 April 1812, also at Berwickshire, so was certainly younger. This partnership in Penang was called Stuart & Co. In London Stuart set up a parent company, George Stuart & Co., appointing Gledstanes & Co. agents on his behalf in November 1847 to accept goods shipped from Stuart & Co. in Penang. The court case involved a dispute over entitlement to goods shipped from Penang in April 1848 on the 350- ton ship Lallah Rookh, which included sugar and rum produced on estates owned by Stuart and by others, and spices grown on the Scotland estate, of which he still owned a ¾ share. It would appear that with a fall in the sugar market, Stuart & Co. were left indebted to Gledstanes & Co. for some 10,000 and George Stuart was obliged to mortgage his share of the Scotland estate to that company. It is clear from notices in The Straits Times and the Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser in 1850 that the firm had by then run into trouble. Herriot applied to the Court for Relief of Insolvent Debtors in Penang for protection in January 1850 and was granted a personal discharge on 20 July that year. He died in Penang on 21 February As a result of his debts, Stuart s estate appears to have been locked up in a trust by the Chancery court. In a notice published in The London Gazette of 15 July 1856, all creditors claims were to be finalised at a hearing on 28 November that year. Stuart was noted then to have been late of No. 6 Nicholas Lane, London, and of Penang. Brown family records indicate that George Stuart went to live in Toulouges, France, at which place he died, date unknown. Marcus Langdon SSR (C5, 28 Jan 1824); PWIG (14 Aug 1824, 10 Mar 1827); SC (30 Dec 1830); AJMR (V10, 1833, 164; V11, 1833, 38); SSR (U3, 25 Jul 1834); SFP (11 Aug 1836, 3 Sep 1836, 16 Mar 1837, 23 Aug 1850, 13 Sep 1850);TST (12 Feb 1850); Kyshe (V1, 43 51); J. Scott 1854 (202 22); Website (IGI). Tan Kang Hock, 陳江福, Chen Jiangfu ( ) Sugar Planter, Landed Proprietor, Community Leader. Tan Kang Hock or Tan Kang Hok was a prominent business and social figure from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He was one of the largest Chinese land proprietors in Northern Perak and Penang. Kang Hock was born at Batu Kawan, Province Wellesley and his ancestral origin can be traced to Chaoyang ( 潮陽 ), Chaozhou ( 潮州 ), China. His family was one of the rich Chinese planting families owning the Poh Seng Estate, near Bagan Serai in northern Perak. This laid the foundation of his fortune. At the turn of the century, his kongsi, Ban Hock Hin ( 萬福興 ), owned about 2232 acres of estates located at Krian and Kurau, which were mainly planted with sugar cane. He had his eldest and second sons, Soon Poh and Ah Choo, living on the estate to help in the management. However, Ah Choo was later killed by a coolie in the estate. Kang Hock was also a manager of Jin Heng Estate, which was owned by Heah Swee Lee ( 連瑞利, Lian Ruili ). Besides sugar estates, Kang Hock also owned over one hundred houses in Penang, which brought in a large rent roll. Kang Hock s philanthropic deeds include donations given to the Chinese temples in Penang and northern Perak. In 1893, he donated 30 yuan under his kongsi s name Ban Hock Hin to the foundation of Shengu Miao ( 聖古廟 ) at Bagan Serai, Perak. In 1903, he was one of the principal donors of the subscription fund for purchasing 6¼ acre land for the Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ). In 1906, he generously contributed 1000 yuan to Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ) at Ayer Itam. In March 1890, he was appointed by the British to represent the Teochew community as a member of the first Chinese Advisory Board. In 1891, he became one of the secretaries for the Kwangtung and Tengchew Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ) and in 1901, he served as an assistant secretary of the same 162

167 organization. In 1903, he became a trustee of the Victoria Green land which was acquired for sporting activities of the Chinese Recreation Club. In July 1915, Kang Hock, who had been ill for over a year, succumbed to cirrhosis of the liver with acute jaundice supervening at his residence located at Love Lane. He left behind six sons and eight daughters. His remains were shipped to Batu Kawan in Province Wellesley for burial. Wong Yee Tuan SIPC (16 Apr 1890); MDC (16 Apr 1913); SFP (22 Oct 1915); CRC, 1969; Franke & Chen, pp ; SE-ME (8 Jul 1915); Tan Kim Hong, 1997, p.126; 2010, p.40. Tan Kim Keng, 陳錦慶, Chen Jinqing (b. unknown 1904) Merchant, General Store-keeper, Community Leader. Tan Kim Keng alias Tan Kim Kheng alias Tan Kim Keang was born in Penang. His ancestral origin can be traced to Fengjiang ( 豐江 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). He was the second son of Tan Hap Swee ( 陳合水, Chen Heshui), an established merchant and community leader. Hap Swee migrated to Penang at the age of 18 and after working for a few years he established Kim Keang Leong & Co. in 1846, located at 127 Beach Street. On 14th August 1871, Hap Swee had his firm Kim Keang Leong & Co. (Chop Kim Chang, 錦昌 ) transferred to Kim Keng. Since then, the firm was managed by the partnership of two brothers Kim Keng and Kim Leong. The firm did an extensive business in hardware and kerosene, and held the agency in Penang for several lines of steamers, notably the Seang Line owned by Lim Chin Tsong of Rangoon. Apart from the family firm, Kim Keng was also involved in other businesses, such as insurance. He was one of the founding directors of the Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 乾元保安公司 ), the first non-western insurance enterprise in Southeast Asia. He remained on the board of directors until Kim Keng was also actively involved in local Chinese organizations. In 1886, Kim Keng became one of the directors of the board of the Penang Chinese Town Hall. In March 1890, he was appointed a member of the Chinese Advisory Board by the Governor and he continued for six terms until In 1886, he served as a board member of the Batu Lanchang Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ) and Batu Gantong Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ). In 1890 and 1893, he sat on the board of the directors of the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ). Kim Keng passed away at his residence at China Street ( 大街 ) in 1904 and a grand funeral costing $10,000 was held before his burial at the Batu Lanchang family cemetery. Wong Yee Tuan SE (21 Oct 1904); PAMA (26 Aug 1871); Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2007, p.68; Feldwick, pp Tan Lo Heong, 陳羅雄, Chen Luoxiong ( ) Planter, Tin Miner, and Rice Miller. Born 1881, in Province Wellesley, the second son of Tan Weng Cheang ( 陳永昌, Chen Yongchang, ), a pioneer sugar planter, Lo Heong was a second generation Teochew-Malayan. His ancestral origin can be traced to Jieyang district ( 揭陽縣 ), Chaozhou ( 潮州 ). In 1899 he converted part of his father s sugar plantations in Sungai Krian and Simpang Lima to experiment with rubber planting. Beginning in 1923, he tried his fortune in tin mining in Perak. Through the Kwang Heng Rice Mill, founded by him, he joined the Central Mining Agency to monopolize the rice milling industry in Parit Buntar, Perak. His venture ceased to exist after his 163

168 death when the FMS Government bought it over in September Being a representative of Jieyang District to the Board of Directors of Han Jiang Ancestral Temple ( 韓江家廟 ), Tan Lo Heong had been a bona fide Penang Teochew leader since He helped in the foundation of Han Jiang School ( 韓江學校 ) in 1919, and was mainly responsible for the registration of Associated Teochew Associations of Malaya ( 馬來亞潮州公會聯合會 ) in His social status and influence in the Chinese community was well attested to with his official appointment as a member of the Perak Licensing Board in 1919, membership in the Perak Chinese Advisory Board in 1922, and trusteeship and directorship in the Penang Chinese Town Hall, Elsewhere, he had served in various capacities as Deputy Chairman of Chung Hwa Confucian School ( 孔聖廟中華學校 ), Penang, a visiting member of Penang General Hospital, and a trustee of Chinese Corner s Club. He passed away on Saturday 22nd August, at 16, Anson Road ( 安順路 ), Penang and left behind a wife, two sons, Swee Teong and Swee Chin, three daughters-in-law, and fourteen grandchildren. Tan Kim Hong TST (28 Aug 1936); Tan Kim Hong, 1981, p.33; 2010, pp.41, 68, 79, 110; Wu Xiao An, 2003, p.148; Chang Eng Bee, 1998a. Thevar, M. Doraisamy (b. Tamil Nadu 1914 d. 1976) Merchant, Industrialist, Community Leader, Politician. Doraisamy Thevar was born in 1914, in Ramanathapuram, Ramnad District, Tamil Nadu. His parents, Muthukaruppan Thevar and Muthurakamal, and the young Doraisamy came to Penang in the early 1920 s. His father worked with the Penang Municipality as a road construction worker. At the tender age of about 10 years, Doraisamy helped his mother with her breakfast stall. As a teenager, he worked as a peon in the court house. At the age of about 19, Doraisamy ventured into business. He started a labourers pool, supplying labour to stewarding companies, importers and exporters, mainly to Muslims, Punjabis and Gujaratis, firms such as Purushotamdass & Co., Makhanlal, etc. Apart from taking charge of the existing labourers and adding them to the labourers pool, Doraisamy also brought in labourers from India to work as stevedores, coolies and porters. There were other such Thandals who kept such a pool of labourers, but Doraisamy and two other thandals had the most number of workers under them. When the companies he supplied labour to paid low wages, he fought on their behalf, demanding higher wages in default of which he would stop supplying labour to these companies. He also told other labour suppliers not to supply workers when the ships carrying goods docked at the port. Work came to a standstill with no labourers available to load, unload and transport the goods. The company owners had no choice but to raise wages. In this and other ways, he helped to improve the lot of the port workers. In the early 1950 s, he played an active role through the Hindu Mahajana Sangam and its members to form the Waterfront Workers Union, specifically to officially negotiate with the companies for higher wages and improved working conditions for the workers. Doraisamy Thevar also served as Chairman of the Hindu Mahajana Sangam from 1954 to In his capacity as chairman of the Queen Street Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Doraisamy was actively involved in renovating the Temple, and carried out its 2nd Maha Kumbabishegam (consecration ceremony). Doraisamy came to know practically all of the waterfront workers, traders, businessmen and other Indian residents in the inner city of George Town. Involving himself in the religious, cultural and welfare activities of the Indian population in George Town he became a well-known and respected figure. During his frequent trips to India, he also brought 164

169 back Indian goods such as household items, toiletries, accessories and textiles, primarily to cater to the needs of workers and their families, and the rest of the Indian population in general. Initially, he supplied these articles from his residence at 39 Church Street until 1938 when he opened up a shop, Doraisamy Thevar & Sons, at 38 Market Street. There was a big demand for cigars among the Indian population in Penang. This motivated Doraisamy to venture into the cigar business. He started buying small quantities of tobacco from Perak and hired people from India to process the tobacco and roll them into cigars. When his cigar business succeeded so well, he had to expand his business and needed additional capital. He therefore took on three partners to join him namely, Thangavelu (a retailer from Kuala Kangsar), Thangavelu Chettiar from India (jeweller/goldsmith), and Letchumanasami (now Datuk) of Jothee & Co. (printers / stationers) In the early 1950 s, the partnership acquired a double storey building at Seang Teck Road, off Anson Road to be used as a cigar factory. A major section of this factory was devoted to manufacturing long, tapered cigars, also of the Rose Brand, but longer than the standard thick cigars that he originally made. As these tapered cigars required delicate attention, about 25 Chinese workers were hired. Another batch of about 40 Indian employees produced the standard thick cigars of varying qualities. All these cigars were the famous Rose Brand cigars and were marketed through their office/wholesale /retail outlet at 33 Market Street. The cigars were supplied throughout the length and breadth of the Malay peninsula, from Perlis in the north, to Johore in the south, using the company van. Also in the 1950 s, Doraisamy set up another shop at 71, Market Street, called Karuna Provision Store, selling mainly general provisions and merchandise, and three years later, expanded it to include the premises of 71-A as well. In the early 1950 s Doraisamy acquired a shophouse at 103 Penang Street, adjacent to where the Silver Chariot is housed. In 1957, he purchased a double storey house in 31 Birch Lane opposite Gurney Drive. He was an active member of the Indian Association, and in 1949, served as Joint Hon. Treasurer. He was a Protem Committee Chairman for MIC when it was first formed in Penang. Tun VT Sambanthan used to come to Penang to visit him and discuss matters pertaining to the MIC at his home. Once the Penang MIC had been officially established, he served as Treasurer for several years. After World War II, he was involved in reestablishing the Indian Chamber of Commerce, under the leadership of H.E. Tyebkhan. In 1957, he served as vice-president. Being a well-known and respected member of the Indian Community, he often was called upon to act as Panchayat (similar to village headman), to solve problems within the Community. An active member of the Hindu Sabha, Doraisamy used to solve problems related to the Sabha which were brought to his attention. He was also Hon. Treasurer at the Ramakrishna Ashram, prior to NTS Arumugam Pillai (a very close friend), taking over the post. The land on which the present Temple/Shrine of the Ramakrishna Ashram was actually land that belonged to Doraisamy Thevar which he had earmarked for building a bungalow for the family. But because the Ashram needed a piece of land to build its Shrine, he generously parted with it for a token sum. He was also actively involved in the Tamil Youth Bell Club, (a major Indian association those days), which was located at Macalister Road, rendering his services as advisor and supporter. During the Hindu and Muslim clash in 1947, he was a key person who acted as mediator between the two opposing groups and was instrumental in resolving the potentially explosive situation. In 1957, Doraisamy was appointed Justice of Peace, an honour conferred upon him by Queen Elizabeth II through the British High Commission. As JP, he was very concientious and generous hearted, never charging for his services, especially when the poor sought his help and endorsement. He even used to endorse the character of some prisoners who were really genuine cases. He was also awarded a PJK. Doraisamy married Ratnamal d/o Pachyappan and 165

170 had eight children, 3 sons and 5 daughters. His wife is now 91 years old. Doraisamy Thevar had many health problems, and he contracted cancer. On 17th September 1976, Doraisamy Thevar passed away. He was 64. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Krishnamurthy Doraisamy, Leela Ramu Shanmugam, Ramu Shanmugam); Records-Indian Ass; Website (Tyebkhan, Hist-Hindu Mahajana Sangam); HPP, p.52; TST (29 Apr 1957). Thio Tiauw Siat, 張弼士, Zhang Bishi (1841, China ) Entrepreneur, Mandarin-capitalist, Philanthropist. Thio Tiauw Siat alias Zhenxun ( 振勳 ), Zhaoxie ( 肇燮, 兆燮 ) was better known as Cheong Fatt Tze or Thio Tiauw Siat in British Malaya and Dutch East Indies, and Chang Pi Shih (Wade-Giles in some publications) in China. Born on 21 December 1841 in Huangtang Village ( 黃堂鄉 ) of Dapu District ( 大埔 ), Chaozhou Prefecture ( 潮州 ), the son of a poor private tutor, he rose to become an influential wealthy planter, trader and revenue farmer after emigrating to Java to seek new fortune in He started work in Batavia as a peon in a rice shop and soon won the trust of his employer. He was promoted to the position of an accounts clerk a few years later. His diligence also won him a wife who was the only daughter of a neighbouring paper factory owner. With the properties inherited after the demise of his father-in-law, Thio Tiauw Siat was thus enabled to commence his own rice trading company. He soon expanded his business enterprises to pawn broking, opium revenue farming and agricultural cultivation, with the encouragement and collaboration of Dutch colonial officials in Java and Sumatra. He initiated the foundation of Yu He Plantation Company ( 裕和獨資無限公司 ) in Kelapa, in 1866, to experiment with coconut and rice cultivation on a commercial scale. In 1877, he further established Yu Xing Company ( 裕興公司 ) concerned with pepper planting. This was followed, the next year by a large-scale agricultural enterprise named Li Wang & Company ( 笠旺公司 ) in Sumatra. With Tjong A Fie ( 張鴻南, Zhang Hongnan) as his partner, several hundred millions of Dutch dollars were invested to plant coconut, rubber, coffee and Chinese tea in North Sumatra. There were eight rubber plantations covering an area of thousands of acres. In the 1870s, his economic empire began to extend across the Straits of Melaka to British Malaya. With the setting-up of Wan Yu Xing & Company ( 萬裕興 ) in Penang in 1886, three ships, namely Hock Canton, Pegu and Rajah, were thrown into operation to facilitate the maritime trade between Aceh and Penang. A large tin-mining company, Dong Xing & Company ( 東興公司 ), was founded in Bentong, Pahang in 1898, which subsequently paved the way for the rise of a new township there. His profits in sixteen years of operation were indeed phenomenal. As a partner in the Penang Opium and Spirit Syndicate of the early 20th Century, he also took part in revenue farming in Penang and Perak with contemporary leading Penang Hokkien merchants and later, branched off into pawn broking and the Chinese medicine supply network with his Hakka counterparts. Together with Tjong Yong Hian ( 張煜南, Zhang Yunan) and Tjong A Fie, Thio Tiauw Siat established a bank in Deli specializing in deposittaking and oversea remittances to China. With his trusted relative-cum-aide, Teoh Soon Keng ( 張舜卿, Zhang Shunqing), in full charge of all business operations, Thio was by then the wealthiest overseas Chinese capitalist in Southeast Asia. His pioneering introduction of western technology and management techniques was instrumental to his success story. On the recommendation of Ambassador Gong Zhao ai ( 龔照瑷 ) to Marquis Li Hongzhang ( 李鴻章 ), and the support of Chinese Consul-General Huang Zunxian ( 黃遵憲 ) in Singapore, Thio Tiauw Siat was appointed as the Qing Vice-Consul of Penang on May 24, 1893, and promoted at the end of the following year to become the Acting Consul- 166

171 General in Singapore. He served in his post until the beginning of His official appointment by the Chinese Government and the many titles bestowed upon him later by Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi (Chixi 慈禧 ) and Emperor Kuang Hsu (Guangxu 光緒 ) greatly enhanced his court influence and economic power. His involvement in Late Qing s modernization programme was significant. In 1892 he founded the legendary Zhang Yu Winery ( 張裕釀酒廠 ) in Yantai ( 煙台 ), Shantong ( 山東 ) followed by other major investments in gold and silver mining, salt manufacturing, brick and glass making in southern China. With his appointment as Imperial Commissioner of Commerce and Industry, he made visits to Southeast Asia and campaigned for China s industrialization. In 1905, he appealed to Penang Chinese to change the name of the Chinese Bureau of Commerce to the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, and in 1906 assisted in the establishment of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce with a cash donation of $3,000 to start off a foundation fund. His devotion and commitment to the cause of a Modern China with parallel industrial and agricultural developments eventually heralded his unanimous election as the President of the All-China Chamber of Commerce. After being successful in his economic endeavours, Thio Tiauw Siat began to contribute vastly to education and religious causes overseas as part of his corporate culture. Between 1895 and 1896, he had donated generously towards the renovation and extension of the Penang Free School. In 1904, in his capacity as the Imperial Commissioner of Penang Education, he became the principal founder and benefactor of Chung Hwa School ( 中華學校 ), and a Confucian Temple ( 孔聖廟 ) later attached to the school in Prangin Road to serve as a platform of the Confucian Revival Movement in the second half of He also donated generously towards the opening and completion of Kek Lok Si Temple ( 極樂寺 ) in Ayer Itam in 1905 and was named one of the six Major Directors in posterity. Being a main benefactor of the foundation of Hong Kong University, his contribution was also duly appreciated and recognized by the British officialdom in the colony. Thio Tiauw Siat died in Batavia in 1916 and his remains were sent back to his home village in Dapu for burial via Penang, Singapore and Hong Kong where thousands of people paid their last respects at those ports. Tan Kim Hong Godley, pp.9-13; Tan Kim Hong, 2002; Tsai Pei-Yung, pp.70-71; Chong Siou Wei, 2002, pp ; Zheng Guanying, pp Tye Kee Yoon, 戴喜雲, Dai Xiyun (1849, China 1919) Druggist, Revenue Farmer, Property Owner, Chinese Consul, Philanthropist. Tye Kee Yoon alias Chunrong ( 春榮 ) alias Xinran ( 忻然 ) originated from Dapu ( 大浦 ), Guangdong province ( 廣東省 ). In 1873, at the age of 24, Tye Kee Yoon came to Penang to make a living as a worker. Later, he went to Perak and opened a letter-writing and fortune telling stall in Taiping. A medicine shop owner noticed his talent and hired him as a secretary. At age 36, Tye bought over the shop and changed its name to Chop Heng Choon Tong ( 杏春堂 ). He opened more branches in Penang and Ipoh and joined others in opium, spirit, gaming and pawnbroking farms in Perak. As a wealthy businessman, he became the one of the largest owner of properties in Penang and emerged a philanthropist with donations to education activities, hospitals and temples. He was the main funder of Chung Hwa Confucian School, founded by his son Chee Teng ( 芷汀 ). Among his other donations were those to the Penang Free School, St. Xavier s Institution, Shih Ching School ( 時中學校 ), King Edward VII Memorial Hospital (later known as the Maternity Hospital). He was one of five leading benefactors of the Kek Lok Si temple ( 極樂寺 ). He also founded an endowment fund, Chung Yi Tang for education and welfare. Lam Wah Ee hospital ( 南 167

172 華醫院 ) benefited from this fund. For his donations in China, he received Dao Xian, a first class title of a Qing official in 1895, and the title of salt-shipping officer in On December 10, 1907 he was appointed the fifth Chinese Vice- Consul of Penang, a post he held till In 1911, he was the Acting Chinese Consul-General of Singapore when the Consul-General went on vacation. In March 1911, he was promoted to Chinese Consul in Penang, a post he held until the founding of the People s Republic of China. He had six sons, of whom Chee Teng ( 芷汀, Zhiting) and Shook Yuen ( 淑原, Shuyuan or 培元, Peiyuan ) were more well-known. Shook Yuen took over as Chinese Consul of Penang. In recognition of his philanthropy, Tye Kee Yoon Road ( 戴喜雲路 ) was named after him. Goh Leng Hoon SFP (29 Sep 1908, 7 May 1930) Lee & Chow, p.173; Lin Bo ai, V2a, p.10; HPP, p.155; PCTH, p.172; Tan Kim Hong, 2007, p.107; C.S. Wong, 1963a, p.93. Tye Shook Yuen, 戴淑原, Dai Shuyuan (1887, China-1944) Miner, Planter, Philanthropist, Chinese Consul, Public Official. Tye Shook Yuen alias Peiyuan ( 培元 ), the second son of Tye Kee Yoon ( 戴喜雲, Dai Xiyun ) was born in in Wenshang ( 汶上 ), Yonxing Jia ( 永興甲 ), Dapu County ( 大浦 ), Guandong province ( 廣東省 ). He was educated at the Anglo-Chinese School in Penang, later going to Dapu to further his studies. Shook Yuen was a leading player in Penang in the early twentieth century, serving not only his community but also the society at large. In 1906, at age 20, he worked in the Ministry of Justice ( 法部 ) in Beijing. He later resigned and went back to Penang to help in his father s business. He also worked as an interpreter in the Qing Consulate in Penang. In 1925, he turned to tin mining in Kampar and to planting, owning 500 acres of rubber land in Tapah. He was founder and the first chairman of the Penang Khek Association ( 檳州客屬公會, Persatuan Khek Pulau Pinang), the chairman of the Penang Taipu Association ( 檳榔嶼大浦同鄉會, Persatuan Taipu Pulau Pinang, ), the president of Chung Ling High School ( 鐘靈中學 ) Board of Directors, chairman of Shih Chung School ( 時中學校 ) and committee member of Penang Chinese Town Hall ( 平章會館 ) ( ). In 1918, he sent a letter to the Penang Chinese Town Hall, advocating the founding of the first Chinese high school in Penang, Hua Chiao Secondary School ( 華僑學校 ). Other than his donation to it, he also made donations to Chung Ling School and gave $50,000 to Raffles College, Singapore. In mid-1919, there was a shortage of rice. Most businessmen were worried about their own business, hence unwilling to deal with the problem. Tye Shook Yuen persuaded many of them to help. While negotiating with Straits Settlements officials, he donated $50,000 for the purchase of rice. His generous move helped him to reach agreement with the Straits Settlement Government to purchase rice. In 1940, he was appointed Justice of Peace. Tye Shook Yuen was the Deputy Vice-Consul of China in Penang after the founding of The People s Republic of China. He became Chinese Consul in 1917 and retired in He had two sons, Shu Quan and Shuchang ( 庶昌 ). Goh Leng Hoon Lee & Chow, p.174; Lin Bo ai, V1, pp.31-32; Goh Leng Hoon, pp.72, 106; PCTH, p.172; Website (Biog-TKY). Tyebkhan, H.E. (1918 Surat 1989) Merchant, Philanthropist, Community Leader, Public Figure. 168

173 Hyder Esmail Tyebkhan was born in January 1918, in Surat, India. His parents were Esmail Tyebkhan and Namatullah Tyebkhan. He completed his matriculation education in Surat. In October 1935, H. E. Tyebkhan came to Penang to join his uncle, H. A. Tyebkhan, in his business. H. A. Tyebkhan & Co. was set up in 1914 and dealt with the import and export of betel nuts, patchouli leaves, sago, tapioca and coconut oil. He worked as manager, though he was also involved in the sorting, grading and cleaning the betel nuts. In 1941, during World War II, H. E. Tyebkhan had a narrow escape, when his uncle s business premises was bombed. Hearing the sound of aeroplanes he had crossed the road from the building to look at the planes. It turned out to be providential, for, just at that moment, a bomb exploded on the H. A. Tyebkhan & Co. premises, killing all who were inside. His uncle was away from Penang on that occasion and thus escaped as well. No trade took place during the war; whatever was available was bought and re-sold locally along the five-foot-way. Dhall brought in by Burmese ships was bought and resold locally. In 1942, a shop was set up in Penang Street, selling mainly rice from Kedah. In 1946, Penang lost its free port status. At that time, H. E. Tyebkhan was President of the Indian Chamber of Commerce (ICC). In his capacity as President, together with the Chinese Chamber of Commerce President Ng Sui Cam, they strove to get back Penang s free port status. A petition was sent to the House of Commons in England; it was published in the London Times together with the story of how Penang was founded by Captain Francis Light and its growth as a trading post. In May 1946, Penang s city area was declared a customs-free area. But there were still two customs check-points in Ayer Itam and Green Lane/Dato Kramat junction. After much effort, the two Chamber Presidents managed to establish the whole island as a customs-free zone. In 1947, his uncle s firm became affiliated with Indo-China Trading and ventured into the textile and garment trade. After his uncle passed away in 1954, H. E. Tyebkhan set up his own business, H. E. Tyebkhan & Co. which was later incorporated as Syarikat H.E. Tyebkhan Sdn. Bhd. Later, his business premises was relocated to King Street. His partners were Gulam Husein Degani, a Gujarati, and Abdul Wahab, a Chulia. He started his business with a capital of only $10,000, but in those days, integrity and trust were collateral enough; thus not much capital was needed then. Made-in-England goods such as clothing, socks, handkerchiefs and leather shoes were in great demand. Tyebkhan also imported crockery from England. Later, the business became the sole agents for GQ, a Thai brand of clothing, in the 1980 s. H. E. Tyebkhan, together with a few partners, also opened up a shop in Alor Star (M. Mohamed & Co., which was later incorporated as Syarikat M. Mohamed Sdn. Bhd.,) and another shop, M. Mohammedi Textiles, a sister concern of M. Mohamed & Co., in Sungei Petani. Yet another business concern, Syarikat Murtaza, Penang was set up to deal with the import and export of betel nuts, spices, copra, etc. Another firm, Perniagaan Gaya Edar, was similarly involved in that trade. In Kuala Lumpur another partnership was entered into and a shop opened in the 1980 s. H.E. Tyebkhan also had businesses in Pulau Langkawi (Langkawi Silk Store, which later was incorporated as Langkawi Silk Store Sdn. Bhd.), and in Singapore, Mehraj Enterprise. Apart from these, H. E. Tyebkhan was also into real estate, buying and selling properties in Penang. H. E. Tyebkhan had contributed greatly to the community during his lifetime, and was a pillar of society. He was Head of the Dawoodi Bohra Community in Penang for some 40 years or so. A generous hearted gentlemen, he contributed to many charities and was ever willing to help friends and acquaintances. In 1945, in the very same manner that his uncle H. A. Tyebkhan had been one of the initiators of the Indian Chamber of Commerce in the 1920 s, H. E. Tyebkhan, along with P. V. Parekh and Ratilal 169

174 Narechanial, spearheaded the task of setting up the ICC once again, after the War destroyed all its previous records, assisted by two prominent lawyers, Sir H. H. Abdoolcader and N. Raghavan to draft the Constitution. H. E. Tyebkhan became the first postwar President of the ICC from , again in , and from He became a life member of the Indian Association in Penang. H. E. Tyebkhan was responsible for organising the Muslim League in He was one of the founders of the Young Muslims Sports Council. As Chairman of the Milad Finance Committee, he organised a visit to the Leper and T.B. Camp on Pulau Jerejak on Milad-Thu-Nabi (prophet s birthday). He was appointed Justice of Peace in He was Hon. Secretary of the Council of the Justices of Peace from 1973 to He held the post of Deputy President of the Council of JPs around 1987/88. As JP, he used to visit the prison and the leper colony. He was also elected Municipal Councillor from 1953 to In 1979, he was awarded the Pingat Kelakuan Terpuji (PKT) by His Excellency the Governor of Penang. He was Chairman of State Election Committee in 1955; it was he who founded Tanjong UMNO in H. E. Tyebkhan married Fatema Mohammadi Vasi in 1949, and after acquiring 154 Kelawai Road in the early 1960 s, he and his family took up residence there. H. E. Tyebkhan died in 1989, (on the anniversary of his birthday). He was 71. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Fatema H. Tyebkhan, Mr. & Mrs. Taizoon H. Tyebkhan); Website (Council of JP). Vermont, James Montague Bent (25 Jan May 1904) Planter, Merchant, Landowner, Statesman. Born on the island of Jamaica, the son of Thomas Robert Vermont, James was educated in London at Stock s Boarding School. He arrived in Penang in 1845 where he lived and worked until his death almost 60 years later, and spoke Malay well enough to make speeches in that language. While he is more strongly associated with Province Wellesley on the mainland, he will also be remembered for his home, Marble Hall, at the corner of Kelawei Road, Pangkor Road and Burmah Road, with an acreage of over 722,000 sq. ft. It was later was acquired by Mohamed Noordin (or MM Noordin ), and Lim Cheng Teik. James was first, and foremost, a planter and sugar man. He was President of the Malay Peninsula Sugar Industry Association from the time of its formation at the beginning of June 1901 up till the time of his death three years later. Upon his arrival in Penang he was apprenticed as an overseer of a nutmeg plantation. He then became manager of the Batu Kawan Estate Sugar Plantation in Province Wellesley, originally established in 1846 by F. S. Brown and Law Nairne, when Thomas Braddell vacated that position. From there he became part proprietor and in the late 1880s was appointed Managing Proprietor of the estate. In January of 1896 he hosted Mr. E. Spencer Pratt, the United States Consul-General at Singapore, whom he ferried across from Penang in one of his own steam launches. Later the Consul-General praised this model sugar estate in his Consular Report on Sugar Cultivation in Province Wellesley. At the time of his death he was one of the proprietors of the Prye Sugar Estates. When sitting as a member of the Legislative Council he consistently championed the plight of planters who, in his opinion, were an oppressed and struggling body. In 1910, when rubber started to take off, Batu Kawan Rubber and Coconut Plantations Ltd. was formed, taking over the land originally used for sugar production and in 1958 the company decided to convert the areas used for rubber cultivation and most of the coconut plantation to palm oil cultivation. In April 1904, shortly before his death, Wellesley (Penang) Estates Company, Ltd. was formed by him and others with a share capital of 160,000 for the purpose of acquiring and developing the the Alma Estate, the Prye Estate and the Batu-Kawan Estate, all three of which were owned by him. 170

175 His long years in the management of estates employing hundreds of coolies provided him with a thorough knowledge of the issue of demand and supply of labour. His knowledge and insights were shared when he, literally, wrote the book on that subject, Immigration from India to the Straits Settlements, first published in In 1897, he opposed a Bill which was eventually pushed through related to a sudden demand of labour in the Straits Settlements, saying, it came from the unexpected interest in coffee planting by short-sighted and unprepared entrepreneurs who plunged in before first securing their own labour needs, and then later complained they could not get labour. He further supported this by pointing out that in all his enterprises in the Colony and in Sumatra, the first thing he did, was to secure his labour, unlike the coffee planters. He noted that he had attended and consulted with the Government on three other Indian Immigration Bills, in 1875, 1884 (still in force in 1897) and 1892, the last of which was so objectionable, that it was to be amended by an ordinance, more drastic in its operation than any bill that had ever been before Council. James was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1862, and Honorary Police Magistrate in He was first appointed Member of the Legislative Council in 1875 but resigned a few months after. He was reappointed in 1883 and every term after, until February 1903 when he resigned and announced he would not be accepting further nomination. His resignation was accepted with regrets by the Governor. He was noted for taking an active part in the debates, and, over time, as senior member of Council his speeches, on the estimates and in other important debates were always listened to with the attention which his long knowledge of the colony warranted. One newspaper, quoting another, reported that, the Hon. J. M. B. Vermont, C.M.G., who has for so many years represented the planting interest upon the Legislative Council, will retire at the conclusion of his present term of service, not accepting another nomination. Everybody will be sorry to lose sight of so well known a figure in the Council, for Mr. Vermont has put in a very long period of service and has done well by the public which he represents. By then he had served the public in that capacity for 20 years and was the most senior member of the Legislative Council, and was allowed to retain the title of Honourable even after his retirement. He was a member of the Select Committee of the Legislative Council on the Coco-nut Tree Preservation Bill, Penang, 23rd December, 1889, which presented the feedback gathered from many experienced planters on the problems caused by beetles and the provisions of the Bill. He was a trustee of the Presbyterian Church, Penang, a Member of the Botanic Gardens Committee and one of the earliest members of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society founded in And while he was not prominent in sports, he did breed racehorses that were noted to have worked hard till they were nearly a quarter of a century old, such as Wellesley I, Wellesley II, Bowie Knife, Penang, and Sunghei Bakap. He contributed much labour and money over the course of thirty years to the Province Wellesley Mission Institution, of which he was the oldest committee member and the Tamil schools it set up. In 1870 when it was decided to make the roads in the Province more enduring, it was discovered that metal and labour were hard to get. James stepped up to assist and induced Chinese landed proprietors to take out contracts to make and maintain for five years, certain portions of the 1st Class roads. A description of the gentleman exists in the words of a newspaper correspondent in I delight in Mr. Vermont. To me he is no mere man. He is the living embodiment of the planter of literature. By a trivial accident, his actual abode is the Malay Peninsula, a place that was only a geographical name until the Straits Times persuaded Mr. Swettenham and Mr. Clifford to make it appear as a real country of real men and women. But, in truth, Mr. Vermont is of the West Indies, or of the Isle of Palmiste, the planter of the older novelist or of Mr. Besant s stories. Of massive weight and rotund frame, rubicund of countenance and with a merry eye, autocratic of mood and kind of heart, a theoretical father to a thousand Asiatics, 171

176 wielding a patriarchal sway and sparing not the rod (as Court records testify), he lives to show that the novelists have not lied. And above all Mr. Vermont is the spirit of hospitality. With beaming smile he compounds strange drinks. You cannot sit beside him at table and fail to be a-hungered and a-thirst. Mr. Vermont has the simple heart that fails to see any side of a question save one. He knows no good in anything that hinders, or any ill in anything that helps, the interests of sugar-planting in Province Wellesley. Thus one-idead were the patriarchs of old; and so is Mr. Vermont to-day. It is the true condition of happiness. Here I lie on the Verandah knowing of no conduct that is absolutely good, of no course that is absolutely evil, of no virtue that is free from a redeeming vice, of no vice that is without its aggravating virtue. Yonder is a veteran of thrice my working years who, in simple honesty of heart, can test the strife of diplomacy and the clash of arms by asking how they affect the price of cane sugar and the rate of Indian labour. It is a quaintly old world nature: and if there arise a Governor who omits to put Mr.Vermont in Legislative Council, I will beg you, Mr. Editor, to revile that Governor till the Colonial Office refuse him his harmless necessary G.C.M.G. He may not have spared the rod, but he appears to have been someone much esteemed, if not loved, as another passage appearing almost four months after, attests. The scene at the Penang Jetty on the 15th instant, when the Hon. J. M. Vermont and Mrs. Vermont left for Europe in the s.s. Pekin, is described as one that had never been witnessed before in that port. Both Europeans and natives thronged the jetty, including labourers from Mr. Vermont s estates, whose headmen decorated him with a garland of flowers besides presenting several bouquets. The labourers - men, women, and children - crowded around Mr. Vermont, and bade him farewell in a way that showed kindly feeling and mutual confidence between master and man. On board the steamer a large crowd of Mr. and Mrs. Vermont s friends assembled, and cordially wished him a happy holiday and speedy return. Earlier, on Wednesday 29th April, a farewell ball was held in their honour, subscriptions having been raised for that purpose. Towards the late part of July 1896, at a council meeting of the London-based Royal Colonial Institute (now known as the Royal Commonwealth Society), James was elected a Fellow of this educational charity and a private members club formed to support and promote the culture and core values of the Commonwealth. On the 21st April 1901 he was part of the deputations who travelled to Singapore to present addresses to their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of York and Cornwall, at the Town Hall on the 22nd. He spoke as the Penang member of the Legislative Council and as a representative of the General Community of Penang. Later, at a reception at Government House in the evening, the Duke decorated him with the symbol of Ordinary Members of the Third Class, or Companion, of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (C.M.G.). After his departure he was handed a letter addressed to him by the Duke, expressing thanks for the kind address and regrets for not being able to comply with the request to visit Penang but acknowledging his confidence that his reception there would have been as warm as it was in Singapore. At the end of March of 1904 he made bookings for himself and his wife to depart for England on Sunday, 8th May, on the P. & O. Palawan, but on Friday, 6th May, 1904 he took seriously ill. A few days later, at 1.30 p.m. on the 10th, one of the oldest Straits residents in the Colony, at that time, had passed over, his death having been related to a carbuncle at the back of his neck. There were conflicting reports as to whether his death came suddenly and swiftly or whether he had been ill for several weeks. Upon his demise, the papers announced, Wide felt regret will be felt at the news of the death of Mr J. M. B. Vermont. He was a sugar planter of long standing in Province Wellesley. For many years he represented the planting community in the Legislative Council where his speeches and remarks received marked attention. In January that same year he made a speech at the opening of the first of the factories of the Straits Sugar Company and remarked, I have been connected with the sugar industry in this Colony for upwards of fifty-five years, and comparing things as they were then with what they are at present, it is wonderful what progress and improvements have taken place. It can 172

177 be said that James Montague Bent Vermont played a large role in bringing about that progress and those improvements. Although his funeral took place the very next day, there was a large attendance made up of Government officials and people of all ranks, creeds, and races in the Settlement. Three years after his death it was proposed to raise a monument in his memory. Penang Municipal Commissioners raised $ in subscriptions of which $800 went to the purchase of the fountain and the rest given over to its installation. It was originally intended to situate it at China Street Ghaut near the Railway Jetty, so that it would be clearly seen by people coming over from Province Wellesley. After discussion it was felt that that might obstruct traffic and an alternative site at the Esplanade was identified where it would not interfere with games being played there. By late August 1908 the memorial was completed. The beautiful structure, manufactured by Walter MacFarlane and Co. of Glasgow, now only exists in pictures and postcards prior to the World War II that saw its destruction. His memory is kept alive in Vermont Road, named after him when it was newly laid down around May Jeffery Seow ( 南安 Nan an), Fujian, Yeap Chor Ee was a 113th generation Yeap whose ancestors originally hailed from Ye Province in present day Henan, China. The third son of Yeap Tong Mei and Chen Qing Niang, Chor Ee s parents passed away when he was only 3 months old. He grew up under the care of his grandmother in a war torn country. Like many of the young boys in his village, Chor Ee never had the opportunity to attend school. At the age of 17, Chor Ee migrated to Penang, in 1885, and found a job as an itinerant barber, plying the streets of Georgetown with his tools on his back. His deft hands at shaving and plaiting the towchang (queue) earned him the nickname Thi Thau Ee (Barber Ee). After working for five years as a barber and at the age of 22, Chor Ee started a small provisions shop called Chop Ban Hin Lee along Prangin Road. The firm initially sold goods sourced on consignment from a British importing house. It was around this time he met a young man of similar age named Oei Tiong Ham ( 黃仲涵, Huang Zhonghan). Chor Ee s association with Tiong Ham eventually lead him to control a significant share of Malaya s sugar market. Chor Ee was believed to have made his first million by the turn of the 20th Century. The occasion was marked by the purchase of a 1908 Daimler, the first car in Penang. STOJ (1 Feb 1871, 27 Jul 1878); TST (10 May 1875, 27 Jul 1878, 7 Jan 1896, 1 Feb 1896, 8 May 1896, 20 May 1896, 21 May 1900, 7 Sep 1900, 12 Jan 1901, 23 Apr 1901, 8 Jun 1901, 22 Nov 1901, 12 Feb 1903, 19 Feb 1903, 5 Apr 1904, 10 May 1904, 11 May 1904, 14 May 1904, 15 Jun 1904, 15 Apr 1908, 22 Aug 1908, 24 Aug 1908, 24 Nov 1908, 16 Nov 1925, 6 Aug 1966); SO (28 Jul 1897, 10 May 1975); STWI (12 Jul 1883, 14 Jan 1890); MDH (8 Jan 1896); SFP (20 Jul 1896, 30 Apr 1897, 30 Apr 1901, 1 May 1901, 10 Mar 1904, 7 May 1907, 10 May 1904, 11 May 1904, 18 May 1904, 25 Aug 1908, 19 May 1914); LG (30 Apr 1901); Mercury (7 May 1901); SE-ME (29 Jan 1904); TGM, p.77; SSL, p.31; Orsler, pp.1, 7, 22; Khoo Su Nin, 1993, p.84; Cheah Jin Seng; Website (Hist-RCS). Yeap Chor Ee, 葉祖意, Ye Zuyi (18 Oct May 1952) Merchant, Banker, Philanthropist Born in a small village called Sia Tua in Nam Aun Chor Ee initially confined his business to the sugar trade but eventually engaged in the trading of other commodities including rubber, rice and tin. As a natural fit to his mercantile business, he set up a banking arm in 1918, and by 1935, incorporated it into the Ban Hin Lee Bank, Ltd. ( 萬興利銀行 ) Till today, Chor Ee remains the only individual in Peninsula Malaysia and Singapore to single-handedly fund the establishment of a bank. In addition to Ban Hin Lee Bank, he was also a significant shareholder of the Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation. OCBC, as it is known today, was founded in 1932 as a merger of three banks - the Ho Hong Bank, The Chinese Commercial Bank and the Oversea-Chinese Bank. The later part of 1920s and early 30s was a prolific period for Chor Ee. Not only did he invest heavily in the banking sector but he went into a large-scale property development project, building modern offices and godowns along China Street Ghaut 173

178 (1930s). A note in Pinang Gazette of 12 February 1934 states that The erection of these modern offices and godowns, adjoining the Yeap Chor Ee Building facing the Railway Station were started when the depression was at its zenith but it showed Mr. Yeap Chor Ee s complete confidence in the future of this country and in Penang in particular. Mr. Yeap Chor Ee is now easily the largest land-owner in Penang. As he developed his land interest, he also began branching into a series of related ventures including the acquisition of a rice mill in Burma (1935) and an oil mill in Penang (1935). He sought to control his supply chain and to widen his distribution network. At this point, he dealt mainly with three major commodities (sugar, rice and oil) between three major trading ports in the region (Penang, Singapore and Rangoon). Since he had a great deal more liquid capital than his competitors, he was able to provide funding at competitive rates, thereby assuring him dominance in the field. Perhaps his most well known acquisition during this period was Homestead, a Georgian styled mansion along Northam Road from Lim Chin Guan. Homestead was one of Penang s most imposing homes designed by the architects firm Messrs Stark & McNeil (1919). Despite his wealth, Chor Ee did not actively participate in public service work nor was he involved in politics. His significance in the history of Penang business lies through his role as a financier and his contributions beyond day to day banking. At a time when there were no central banks or regulatory bodies to supervise the activities of banks, Chor Ee s impartiality to politics and straightforward approach to business saw him taking on roles beyond pure commerce. Ban Hin Lee Bank was collectively appointed a clearinghouse to settle inter-bank payments during the anti-japanese boycott period just before World War II. During the war years itself, the Bank s services extended to that of a barter exchange platform. Circulation of money dwindled and barter became the only mode of exchange. After the war, Chor Ee turned to philanthropy with a particular interest in education. For a self-made man who learnt what poverty meant at a very early age, he detested idleness and wastage. In his mind, if he were to give money away, it would be in aid of supporting institutions that help others help themselves. In 1948, the Carr-Saunders report recommended the immediate establishment of a University in Malaya for self-government. It was to be a key instrument in the construction of a new Malaya. Challenged by the lack of resources, the founders sought support from the business community, including Chor Ee who became a significant donor to the University Endowment Fund. He established several charitable trusts just before his death in A social history gallery was set up in Penang in 2008 as a tribute to him. The Gallery tells the plight of immigrant Chinese through Chor Ee s life. Chor Ee was married four times. His first wife was a China born girl (Lee Han Nyoh) who continued to stay on in China while Chor Ee attended to his business in Penang. He took a second wife (Gan Geok Siew) in Penang around late 1890s. She was the sister to Gan Ngo Bee ( 顏五美, Yan Wumei ), a wealthy Penang merchant. The marriage however, was short lived and ended in separation. Not long after, he took two other wives in Penang (Ooi Kim Suan and Lee Cheng Kin). After giving birth to a son, Kim Suan died of tuberculosis and Cheng Kin, a young girl thirty years his junior, became his life partner. Chor Ee had 6 sons and 4 daughters, of which 4 were adopted. Daryl Yeap PDIE; Lee Sheng-yi; TST (3 Dec 1949); PGSC (12 Feb 1934, 26 May 1952); SE (22 Jul 1950, 2 June 1952); Private collection of Yeap Leong Huat; Doc Yeap CE. Yegappan, Dr. M.P.L. ( ) Medical Practioner, Merchant, Community Leader, Politician. Born in Mahipalanpatti, a village in Karaikkudi, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 1916, Dr. Yegappan, was also known as Dr. Yegappa Chettiar. His parents, M. Muthupalaniappa Chettiar and Madam Muthukaruppi Achi, came to Malaya to seek their fortune. His father 174

179 ran a thriving business as a licensed moneylender and rubber estate owner in Kulim, Kedah. Having completed his primary education in Mahipalanpatti until the age of 14, the young Yegappan came to join his father in Kulim where he started his education all over again from Standard One, this time at Ibrahim Primary School, an English-medium school, in Sungai Petani, Kedah. His secondary education was at Saint Xavier s Institution in Penang. Because of his initial education in India, he was able to advance to higher classes by leaps and bounds such that by the time he completed secondary school, he graduated at the same age as the rest of his classmates. In 1937 he enrolled as a medical student at Madras Medical College in India, graduating in He was the first chettiar (Nattukkottai nagarathar) to qualify as a doctor, others before him having pursued the arts and liberal sciences at a time when it was still the norm for them to be moneylenders and businessmen only. True to tradition however, for a while he continued with his father s business of moneylending and as a landowner. He married Lakshmi, eldest daughter of S.N.K. Nagappa Chettiar in 1937, the same year that he had enrolled as a medical student. Having served his internship in Madras, he returned to Penang in 1946 with his wife and two young sons. Three more children were born in Penang. Dr. Yegappan worked as a doctor at the Penang General Hospital from 1946 to In 1947 he was posted to the Bukit Mertajam District Hospital. There he pioneered the District Hospital s Blood Bank. When he was given another posting in Jasin, Melaka in 1949, not wanting to be separated from his wife and children who were already well settled in Penang, he declined and resigned his post. He set up practice by opening up his own clinic in Bukit Mertajam (BM) and later opened another in Butterworth, with much success. Wanting to unite the fragmented Indian community, he founded the Bukit Mertajam Indian Association in 1949, with the help of some other prominent people. The Association was registered officially in Dr. Yegappan was elected fund-raising chairman as well as building committee chairman, to raise funds to construct a building as the Association s headquarters. They managed to start construction in 1954, completing it in In 1955 Dr. Yegappan became the first president of the BM Indian Association. Dr. Yegappan was Chairman of the Penang State Red Cross, a post he held for many years. In addition, he was also very active, serving in numerous other societies and associations. In recognition of his contributions to society, he was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1951, this honour conferred on him by King George VI of England. In 1955 he was one of the principal organisers of the visit of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India, to Penang. He was elected the first Town Council Chairman in Bukit Mertajam. In 1959 he was elected to the Penang State Assembly after the country s first General Elections, and appointed as Executive Councillor and Assistant to the then Chief Minister, Tan Sri Wong Pow Nee. He was given the Education portfolio and served as Chairman of the State Education Board for several years. In his capacity as Executive Councillor, many schools were built in Tasek Glugor, Sungai Bakap, Juru and Nibong Tebal. He also did much to improve the water supply in Bukit Mertajam. However, dismayed and disillusioned by the way Malaysian politics was changing, he declined reelection in 1964 and returned to medical practice. He passed away in 1972 at the age of 56. Anjalai Devi Nadarajan Personal Communication (Vengadasalam M.P.L. Yegappan); HPP, p.163. Yeoh Cheng Tek, 楊清德, Yang Qingde ( ) Merchant, Community Leader, Philanthropist. 175

180 Yeoh Cheng Tek was one of the prominent social and business figures from the mid-19th century to the late-19th century in Penang. His business interests were mainly in trading and insurance. His ancestral origin was in Eh Yeoh (Xia Yang) Village ( 霞陽村 ) of Sam Toh ( 三都 Shandu) in Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He was born in Penang in By operating Chop Hong Thye, he was engaged in the tin and pepper trade. In 1885, he joined other Hokkien and Hakka towkays and established the first non-western insurance company in Southeast Asia, Khean Guan & Co. Cheng Tek became a director of the company until his death. Alongside business, Cheng Tek was also actively involved in social and community organizations. In 1864, he served as a trustee/director of the Su Ti Tong Yeoh Kongsi ( 植德堂楊公司 ). In 1886, he was one of the directors who managed the Batu Gantong Cemetery. In 1890, he became a director of the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery. Two years later, he was re-elected to the same position. Cheng Tek made generous donations to the major Hokkien temples and cemeteries. In 1886, he donated 36 yuan to rebuild Cheng Hoon Giam ( 清雲巖 ) or Snake Temple. In the same year, he donated 220 yuan for repairing the cemetery rest house and reconditioning the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ). In addition, he made a donation of 4200 yuan for the establishment of Batu Gantong Hokkien Cemetery ( 峇都眼東公塚 ). In response to the call for restoring the Hokkien cemetery at Pulau Tikus, Cheng Tek topped the donor list by giving 1530 yuan in Two years later, he made another donation of 250 yuan for the reconditioning of the same cemetery. In December 1893, Cheng Tek fell ill and succumbed to death after four months at his own residence at Carnarvon Street. He left behind three wives, four sons and three daughters. His body was laid to rest at the family burial ground at Perak Road (Kampung Pulau) near Ee Ho s plantation. His estate was valued at $200,000. Wong Yee Tuan PGSC (28 Mar 1894); Franke & Chen, pp.580, 623, 727, 733, 745, 748, 751, 754; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, pp.65-67; Wong Yee Tuan, 2009, p.65. Yeoh Guan Seok, 楊元續, Yang Yuanxu ( ) Lawyer, Municipal Commissioner, Community Leader. Yeoh Guan Seok was one of the prominent social and intellectual figures in the early 20th century in Penang. He was the first Penang Chinese lawyer who obtained honours both for his degree and in the final examination for the Bar. He was also the first to serve as a member of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements. The only son of Yeoh Heng Goo, Yeoh was born in Penang on 16 April He first received his education at a private school run by Mr. Rozario for two years. Later, he was sent to the Penang Free School where he started in the Fifth Standard. He became one of its most distinguished pupils, passing first in almost every examination he sat. In 1901, he won the Queen s Scholarship and entered St. John s College, Cambridge. He specialised in Law and History and won the special prize for Constitutional Law given by the Inns of Court in In the same year he was called to the Bar at Gray s Inn, London. He returned to Penang and was admitted as an advocate and solicitor of the Straits Settlements on June 6, He first joined the legal firm of Messrs. Logan and Ross as an assistant and later became a partner. He devoted his time chiefly to conveyancing and soon became widely known as one of the best conveyancing and title lawyers in Penang. As a lawyer, Yeoh Guan Seok quickly came to the fore in local Chinese public and social affairs. He was associated with the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, serving as a committee member for thirteen years ( ). He was also a committee member of the Chinese Town Hall ( ). In addition, he also served as Honorary Secretary of the Seh Yeoh Kongsi, the president of the Chinese Merchant Club ( 小蘭亭俱樂部 ), the patron of the Chinese 176

181 Volunteer Club, and the vice-president of the Straits British Chinese Association ( 海峽英籍華人公會 ) and the Chinese Benevolent Association. In 1911, he was appointed a municipal commissioner and served continuously till A year later, the Straits Government appointed him to be a member of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements. In 1920, he was appointed to be a member of the Rent Assessment Board for George Town. He was a keen promoter of education. From 1906, he was a member of the Penang Free School Committee until the Government took over the school. He took a leading part in the revival of the Queen s scholarships. Yeoh s wife was Khoo Kooi Lean ( 邱桂連, Qiu Guilian), daughter of Khoo Cheow Teong ( 邱昭忠, Qiu Zhaozhong ), J.P., Kapitan Cina of Asahan, and sister of Khoo Sian Ewe ( 邱善佑, Qiu Shanyou ). They married in 1908 and had four children, two sons and two daughters. He had been suffering from Bright s disease and died at his residence at Pangkor Road in the early morning of 16 April He was buried at the Batu Lanchang Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). Wong Yee Tuan SE-ME (26 Dec 1922, 28 Dec 1926); Lee & Chow, p.193; Diana Ooi, p.164. Yeoh Sew Beow, 楊秀苗, Yang Xiumiao ( ) Scholar, Revenue Farmer, Merchant, Community Leader. Yeoh Sew Beow was one of the prominent business, social, and intellectual figures from the late 19th century to the early 20th century in Penang. He first worked as a teacher and public servant and later moved into business. Sew Beow was born in Penang in His ancestral origin was in Fujian province, China. He received his education from the Penang Free School. As a brilliant student, he completed his study in a comparatively short time and rose to become a pupil-teacher. Seeing no bright prospects in this position, he entered the government service. In 1861, he became a clerk in the Public Works Department. He worked for several years before resigning. In 1874, he rejoined and finally retired on pension in After leaving the government service, he joined the local Spirit and Opium Syndicate and served as prosecuting agent. He represented the syndicate in the local Halls of Justice in Union Street up to January of Due to old age and illness, he resigned from the position. Apart from business, he was a keen writer and contributed articles to the Straits Echo on Balik Pulau, the products of Penang, and Chinese feasts and festivals. He was a keen participant in religious affairs. He not only raised funds but also donated a piece of land for the construction of Kek Lok Si ( 極樂寺 ), the Buddhist Temple at Ayer Itam. Together with other prominent towkays, he actively participated in state affairs. On 30th August 1874, he held a meeting at his residence to discuss the Lieutenant Governor of Penang, Sir Thomas Francis Wade s circular concerning the costume to be worn in China by British subjects of Chinese descent in Penang. Proceedings of the meeting were adopted and forwarded to Sir Thomas Wade, the leading British subjects of Chinese descent in Melaka and Singapore, and the several seaports of China. On social affairs, Seow Beow had not only initiated the founding of some clubs but also assumed leadership positions. In 1877, together with other six Chinese (Lim Hop Lip, Choong Kew Ho, Ong Pang Tek, Lim Pek Lean, Lim Khie Hee, Koh Seang Keng) founded the Cheng Hong Kok ( 清芳閣 ) and served as a committee member of the club. The Chinese Club was located at Richmond House, 102, Penang Road. In 1884, he became the auditor of the club. In September 1882, Sew Beow together with other prominent Chinese established the Anglo-Chinese Reading Room located at 81, Muntri Street and he served as vice-chairman. On 28 July 1904, Yeoh Sew Beow passed away at his residence, Bonanza, located at Love Lane, George Town. He was buried at the Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ) on 31 July. He left behind two sons, one daughter, and four grandchildren. Wong Yee Tuan 177

182 STOJ (16 Sep 1879); SE-ME (29 Jul 1904, 5 Aug 1904); Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2005, p.222; SSD, 1881, p.83; 1896, p.163; D&C, 1884, p.626. Yusof Rawa bin Haji Abdullah, Haji ( ) Book Dealer, Bookshop Owner, Publisher, Printer, Writer, Politician. Haji Yusof Rawa bin Haji Abdullah, also known as Haji Yusof Rawa, also known as Pak Yusof, was born in Lebuh Acheh, Penang, on 6 May, His early education was at the Malay school in Carnavon Street, and later at the Chowrasta Malay School before moving on to the Government English School, thence, to the Penang Free School where he obtained his Junior Cambridge School Certificate. After this, his father shipped him off to Mecca in 1938 to study Islam at Ma ahad Al-Fatah. He obtained a diploma from Thaqasur Al-Deeni. Yusof Rawa s exposure to the business world began in 1945 when he started working with Hosni Gamal in Mecca, an export-import company. He returned home between to resurrect his father s business which had been wrecked during the Japanese Occupation of Malaya. His father, Haji Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi, who came from Rawa, Indonesia, owned a printing company. He took over the firm, expanded it and became a well-known businessman by the mid 20th century. Haji Yusof sold books which he wrote and printed himself. He set up his own printing company, The United Press, while his father s company was still the distributor and publisher of his books. Besides printing books in Arabic and Jawi (Arabic alphabet) for religious schools and madrasahs throughout Malaysia, the Education Ministry had awarded him a contract to print religious books for schools throughout the country. With this new contract, he managed to buy new premises for United Press at 238 Dato Kramat Road, Penang. His business progressed with more books which he wrote and published such as Tafsir Ar-rawi (1950) and al-islah magazine (1969). The al-islah magazine was managed together with Ustaz Talib Azmi and Pak Abu. Today, the business is run by one of his sons, Mujahid. The new premises is at Lorong Kampung Jawa, Bandar Bayan Baru. Religious books are sold here. The shop is called Safir Ilmu. The former shop at 55 Lebuh Acheh has been given to the Islamic Council of Penang (Majlis Agama Islam, Pulau Pinang). In his lifetime, Haji Yusof was socially and politically active. In 1959, he was appointed the Penang Commissioner of PAS ie. Parti Islam SeMalaya (Malayan Pan Islamic Party). He was also a central committee member of PAS. In the mid-1970s, there was a merger between PAS and Barisan Nasional. In 1973, he was appointed to the post of Deputy Minister for Primary Industries (Perusahaan Utama). That brought him his next appointment in 1975, as the Malaysian Ambassador to Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey. It was also during this period that he had the opportunity to represent Malaysia at the United Nations. On 29 April 1983, he was elected as the 4th President of PAS, a post which he held till 31 March 1989 when his health began to decline. Haji Yusof was a businessman in Penang during the mid 20th century, well-known for his contributions and support towards community development. His contribution was given through services in politics, religion, writing, publications, business, and education. The books which he published were used in religious schools in Malaysia. He also contributed towards the development of Al-Mashoor School, an Arabic school in Penang. His mother was Asmah binti Haji Salleh. Haji Yusof married Che Kalsom Ali. They had eleven children; five boys and six girls. He passed away in his house in Glugor, Penang on 28 April 2000 after being ill for sometime. Siti Amirah binti Abdullah Al-Mashoor; Amini Amir bin Abdullah, pp.29-49; Doc-H. Abdullah B. M. Noordin Arrawi; Personal Communication (Khairi Rawa); Kamarudin Jaafar, pp.3-11; Mujahid Haji Yusof Rawa, pp ; ANM-SP 63/4; Forum Nusantara Siri

183 BRIEF ENTRIES As mentioned in the Introduction, the coverage in this volume is by no means comprehensive. It is a small start on a biographical database of personalities who have played a role in the growth of Penang. Much more research remains to be done with the brief entries providing examples of individuals who merit inclusion in the history of Penang, to illuminate the multifaceted dimensions of Penang s past. 179

184 Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi (b. unknown, Indonesia ) Bookshop Owner, Publisher, Printer, Writer. Haji Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi was a successful businessman in Penang in the early 20th century. He began as a businessman, coming to Penang from Sumatra to sell al-quran, books on Islam and paraphernalia for undertaking the Haj such as prayer beads, prayer mats and suchlike. He started a small business at 55 Lebuh Acheh, together with a few other traders, selling religious books sourced from Indonesia. His hard work paid off as a supplier of religious books deemed important at the time when in 1910, he was able to acquire business premises, a shop he named H. Abdullah BM Arrawi. He expanded into printing and publishing. He wrote his own books when he took over United Press Company at 238 Jalan Dato Kramat. Other than books, he also made and sold songkok, a common Malay velvet hat. His business thrived and customers from as far as Kedah and other places patronised his bookshop, especially during the Haj season. At that time, Lebuh Acheh was the focal point where Haj pilgrims gathered. This has been the practice since the mid-19th century as Haj pilgrims would sail from the port of Penang. Later, the business was inherited by his son, Haji Yusof Rawa. Haji Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi was born in Sungai Ranyah Rao Pasaman West Sumatra, Indonesia. He was descended from Rawa (Rao). He married Hajjah Asmah binti Haji Salleh Rawa, also a descendant from Rawa, who was born in Penang. Together they had eight children. Later, he married two more wives from Rawa Sumatera. He was said to have migrated to Penang when he was in his teens. He died during the Japanese Occupation of Malaya about Haji Abdullah bin Mohamad Noordin Arrawi was a well known and well respected businessman, especially in Penang. In spite of his wealth, he was always down-to-earth, ready to help the needy. His fine demeanour brought him a lot of customers from various communities. Siti Amirah Binti Abdullah Reference: Kamarudin Jaafar; Mujahid Haji Yusof Rawa; Personal Communication (Khairi Rawa). Al-Attas, Syed Ahmad (1848, Yemen 1945, Indonesia) Cloth Trader, Philanthropist. Syed Ahmad Al-Attas was an Arab from Yemen. He came to Penang when he was still young to do business. He built his house at 110 Malacca Street and stayed there for some years before moving to 196 Kampung Syed, Kelawai Road, Penang. He married Sharifah Khotimah al-aidid binti Syed Abbas. They had thirteen children. All but one of his children have passed away. Syed Hamzah, the ninth child, is his sole heir. Syed Ahmad al-attas business was in the batik cloth trade, and was well known by the end of the 19th century. He would bring batik from Indonesia and sell the cloth in Penang. According to Syed Hamzah, the batik business started in his own house because it was hard to acquire a shop then. His business thrived and made him a well known wealthy man in Penang. He contributed to the Arab community in Penang morally and financially, and helped in the building of the Arab mosque (Masjid Arab) in Seang Teik Road. He died in 1945 in Indonesia when Malaya was overrun by the Japanese army. Omar Yusoff Reference: Personal Communication (Syed Hamzah al-attas bin Syed Ahmad al-attas). Carroll, Daniel (b. unknown; d. 1809) Merchant. In a Return of Residents taken in Penang in March 1808, Daniel Carroll states that he is from Ireland, an auctioneer, and was given permission to reside at the island by Lieutenant Governor Sir George Leith 180

185 on 6 August On 1 August 1806, he entered a co-partnership with Edward Essex Capes, trading as General Agents and Auctioneers under the name Capes & Carroll, and operating from leased rooms in godowns on the eastern side of Beach Street belonging to James Scott & Co. They announced their commission fees in the Gazette of 2 August to be 2½% on vessels, houses and lands; 5% on plate, household furniture and piece goods. The firm advertised heavily during 1807 but when Capes withdrew in August that year Carroll teamed up with James Scott s son Robert to form Carroll & Scott, trading from the same premises with the same rates and charges. In November that year they were one of five prominent mercantile firms which agreed to standardise commission rates Court & Bone, Thomas Perkins, McIntyre & Snadden, and John Ogilvie being the others. The company grew from strength to strength and in September 1808, Archibald McKinnon was admitted as a third partner; the name being altered to Carroll, Scott & Co. to reflect the change. But at the height of business, Daniel Carroll died on 3 June Probate of his Will was granted to his executors, David Brown and Edward Essex Capes, who offered Carroll s house on the north side of Bishop Street, next to the Police Office for sale the following week. The firm of Carroll & Scott was dissolved as of 15 August 1809, Robert Scott carrying on as an agent and auctioneer in his own right. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R10 V19 3 May 1808); PWIGG (2 Aug 1806, 8 Aug 1807); PWIG (21 Nov 1807, 3 Sep 1808, 10 Jun 1809, 8 & 22 Jul 1809). Chua Yu Kay, 蔡有格, Cai Youge ( ) Rice Miller, Shipowner. 江發, Cai Jiangfa), was a Penang shipowner. Yu Kay established the Sin Khye Bee Rice Mill ( 新開美米較 ) in The mill caught fire in 1892 which resulted in a loss of $170,000. However he was able to start anew moving to temporary premises. Chua Yu Kay together with Lim Leng Cheak ( 林寧綽, Lin Ningchuo ), Cheah Joo Jin and Cheah Ewe Ghee joined Lim Choo Guan, also known as Phuah Hin Leong ( 潘興隆, Pan Xinglong ) in starting the first rice mill business in Penang. He moved into other fields. In shipping, he was managing owner of Chong Moh and Kong Hock Steamship Company. In 1895 the latter firm bought a vessel, s.s. Vidar. The 1902 sale of Kong Hock s eight vessels to Koe Guan began his association with the Khaw family. Chua participated in the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Co. Ltd ( 檳榔嶼乾元保安公司 ) and the Eastern Shipping Co. In addition, he was also a managing partner of Khye Ho Foundry Co., a boiler-making company at 40, Weld Quay. He became the leader of Chooi Bee Keong ( 水美宮 ), a clan temple of the Cai (Chua) clan, established in 1862; and a trustee of the Literary Association at 2, Duke Street, which later moved to Muntri House, 54 Penang Road. His philanthropic contributions to society included a donation of $440 to Batu Gantong Cemetery ( 峇都眼東福建公塚 ) in 1886 and $70 for reconditioning the Pulau Tikus Hokkien Cemetery ( 浮羅池滑公塚 ) in Chua Yu Kay passed away on 21 April 1903, at aged 42. He was buried in the Batu Lanchang Cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). He left one son and three daughters, the son Kee Ee ( 其意, Qiyi) continued his business. Tan Kim Hong & Hung Bee Ling Chua Yu Kay was born on 18 August 1861, his family origin was from Zhongshan village ( 中山社 ), Sandu ( 三都 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). His father, Chua Kang Whuat ( 蔡 TST (11 Jul 1898, 27 Apr 1903); SFP (18 Jul 1898); Tan Kim Hong, 2007, pp.66, 105; Wright, p.828; Franke & Chen, pp.733, 751; Cushman, 1989, p.82; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 1997, p.226; D&C, 1899, pp ; 1894, p.391; 1902, pp.581, 583; Lee & Chow, p.37; Wu Xiao An, 2003, p

186 Clark, Patrick (b.unknown d.unknown) Mariner, Merchant. In a census return of 1808 Patrick Clark, from Britain, is noted as having been permitted to travel to Penang as a free mariner by the East India Company on 13 March 1802 aboard the Aurora. There is reference to a Captain Patrick Clark of the ship Anne on a voyage from Bengal to England in , which is possibly the same person on an earlier trading voyage. Once he settled in Penang around he joined James Carnegy and David Brown in the mercantile firm Carnegy, Clark & Co., though the exact date of this partnership is not known. Following the closure of James Scott & Co. in June 1807, the firm became perhaps the most prominent on the island. In February 1808 Patrick Clark and David Brown withdrew from the partnership, leaving James and Patrick Carnegy to continue operations as Carnegy & Co. Patrick Clark then moved to Malacca and established himself there as a merchant but maintained his ties with David Brown, making Brown and Stuart his Penang agents after that firm s establishment in July Little else is found about the life of Patrick Clark after this date. Marcus Langdon (R10 V19 3 May 1808); BL (IOR/L/MAR/B/292C); PWIG (20 Feb 1808, 7 Jul 1810). July that year, he became a partner in a mercantile business with Anthony McIntyre which was known as McIntyre and Fritz and operated from godowns at 250 Beach Street. When illness forced Fritz to return to Calcutta the partnership was dissolved in August 1811 and it was not until April 1813 that Fritz returned from Calcutta to Penang aboard the Portuguese ship Luz. On 6 June 1813, he married Eleanor, daughter of the Military Storekeeper, Thomas Robinson, at Kelso House. The following month he advertised his intention to commence business as Fritz and Co. in premises formerly occupied by Abel Mackrell in Beach Street. This connection proved useful, as the same day Fritz advertised a forthcoming sale of condemned military stores in Fort Cornwallis. Fritz did not stay long in business, transferring his interest in Fritz and Co. to John Jackson at the end of October 1813, after which his activities are unknown. Note: The Asiatic Annual Register for 1802 notes the marriage of a John Fritz to Sarah Brothers on 1 June 1801 at Calcutta, however it is not known if this is the same person. Marcus Langdon PWIG (15 Apr 1809, 29 Jul 1809, 18 Aug 1811, 24 Apr 1813, 15 May 1813, 19 Jun 1813, 30 Oct 1813); AAR, 1802, p.100. Haja Mydin (b, early 1930s India, d. 2002) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. Fritz, John (b. unknown; d. unknown) Merchant. The first reference to John Fritz is found when he arrived in Penang on 15 April 1809 from Bengal. Fellow passengers included merchants David McCulloch and Jonathan Burke McHugo. In Haja Mydin was a well known proprietor of a textile store called Haja textile store. Haja Mydin migrated to Penang in 1945 when he was in his teens with the intention of continuing his education up to the Junior Cambridge level and stayed with a relative. After the end of his schooling, he sold textiles imported from India. He used a four wheeler cart to carry his textiles and stationed himself on 182

187 Campbell Street. In 1948, he applied for a business licence and was able to acquire a store in a bazaar at 255TA Campbell Street. His relatives helped him with the initial capital to start his business. He sold fabrics, batik and pelikat sarongs, shirts, T-shirts, Malay bajus (attires), and children s garments. His business thrived. Haja Mydin married Savroo Fatimah, a Penang born Indian-Muslim woman. They had seven children, five daughters and two sons. He died in 2002 when he was in his early 70s. Today his son-in-law, Mydin bin Sida Madar, husband of his eldest daughter Zarina, inherits the business. Following the tradition of other businessmen, Haja Mydin also contributed to Islamic associations which needed financial help to build mosques and gave help to orphans. He also fulfilled his Islamic duty in the month of Ramadan by giving his zakat (obligatory tithe). Omar Yusoff Personal Communication (Mydin bin Sida Madar, Muhammed Yunus) surname in Malaysia. Much like other leading entrepreneurs, Hassaram was a well known personality in Penang and was involved in the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Gurdwara in Brick Kiln Road, and was also a committee member of the Sri Kunj Bihari Temple. His son, Murli studied in the Penang Free School and then joined his father in the business until he left in about 1952 to set up his own business called Vogue. Hassaram s other son Valiram took over the business after Murli left. Hassaram passed away in 1953, having suffered from diabetes during the Second World War. Pishu Murli Hassaram NST (7 Nov 1989), David, p.15. Herriot, Stuart ( ) Trader, Municipal Commissioner. Hassaram (b. unknown 1953) Merchant. The first Sindhis from Hyderabad Sind (now Pakistan) came to Penang as one of the northern ports of entry to the region in the mid 19th century. Hassaram s grandfather, Tolaram Surtani, one of those who arrived in the 1860s, operated a general merchant firm in Beach Street, which was later moved to 13 Bishop Street in 1925 by Hassaram. The firm which went by the name R. Hassaram (the R stood for either his father Rijhumal, or after his wife Rukmani) moved into the textile business. Although the clan name is Surtani, which is that used outside of Malaysia by the family s relatives; since the time of Hassaram s appearance on the business landscape of Penang, Hassaram became the Stuart Herriot began trading in Penang in the 1830s. Together with founding member of the Penang Chamber of Commerce, George Stuart, he was a partner in Stuart and Company. He was, at one time, declared insolvent but was eventually discharged from this in Along with Philip Mathieu and Jerome Boudville, he was elected to Penang s first five-man Municipal Commission in 1857, the remaining two being Government appointees, a body he served on for many terms into the 1870s. He was outspoken about a great many things, sided with the Acehnese in the Aceh Conflict and the Chinese Merchants in the 1857 Penang disturbances, helped translate documents including an agreement for Sultan Mahmud and Tuanku Ibrahim and a petition for Chung Keng Quee. 183

188 He was a shareholder of the Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle and often wrote to the press about things he felt strongly about, like the Aceh Conflict, his last effort probably being about a Frank Oliver, Emigration Agent at Negapatam, published shortly before he passed on. He was a Justice of the Peace, member of the Grand Jury, and secretary of the Straits Association. On 5 May 1877, Stuart Herriot, died at the age of 65, in his adopted home, Penang, where he was buried. Further research is needed to determine whether Kampong Harriot and Herriot Street were named in his honour as well as his involvement, if any, in Herriot and Co. and its sugarcane plantations in Province Wellesley, Juru and Simpang Ampat. Jeffery Seow PGSC (26 Sep 1863); SO (10 Mar 1876); STOJ (9 Apr 1874, 19 Apr 1877); TST (26 Aug 1856, 17 Feb 1872, 28 Mar 1874, 21 Apr 1877); SFP (16 Mar 1837, 22 Feb 1850, 13 Sep 1850, 23 Aug 1850); N.H.Wright, p.155; Harfield, p.77; Reid, 1969, p.134; 2005, p.205; Turnbull, pp.344, 355; C.S. Wong, 1963a, p.102; Kawilarang, p.62. Kee Lye Huat, 紀來發, Ji Laifa (1834, Guangdong ) Planter, Trader, Community Leader. ( 紀寶發公司 ) in Sungai Bakap ( 爪夷 ). Thereafter, he became an independent sugar planter and owner of Valdor Estate. Together with Lau Kuang Mia ( 劉光名, Liu Guangming) and Tan Ah Pao ( 陳亞苞, Chen Yapao), he developed Sungai Bakap into a small township. He was well known as the founding patriarch of the Kee Family of Sungai Bakap. On 27th March 1890, he was appointed a member of the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ), representing Teochew interests. In 1885, Lye Huat donated $50 for the construction of a hall for funeral ceremonies in the Kwantung and Tengchow Public Cemetery ( 廣東暨汀州義山 ). The Hock Teik See ( 福德祠 ) in Sungai Bakap grew into a temple of modest shape and size under the support of Lye Huat s Kee Poh Huat Kongsi. He passed away in Sungai Bakap, but his remains were returned to China for burial. He left six sons: Tek Thye ( 德泰, Detai), Tek Kooi ( 德貴, Degui), Tek Phang ( 徳攀, Depan), Tek Kow ( 德高, Degao), Tek Seng ( 德成, Decheng) and Tek Leng ( 德隆, Delong). His sons, Tek Thye, Tek Kooi and Tek Phang as well as his grandsons, Hup Keng and Hup Hor were appointed Justices of the Peace, carrying on the family tradition of public service. Tan Kim Hong & Hung Bee Ling Tan Kim Hong, 1981, p.31; 2007, pp.100, 217; C.S. Wong, 1963a, pp.83-84; Franke & Chen, p.696. Kee Lye Huat alias Ki Lai Hoat, son of Kee Cheoe Im, was a leader of the Teochews in Penang. He came from Fulongwei village ( 浮隴尾 ), Chenghai district ( 澄海 ), Guangdong province ( 廣東省 ), arriving in Penang in He started out as a coolie under Khaw Loh Hup ( 許栳合, Xu Laohe), father of Khaw Boo Aun ( 許武安, Xu Wu an ), a Ghee Hin Kongsi leader. After marrying the only daughter of Khaw Loh Hup, Mooi Gek ( 許美玉, Xu Meiyu), Lye Huat prospered as a sugar planter and trader. In 1872 with financial backing from his father-in-law, he founded the Kee Poh Huat Kongsi Khaw Joo Ghee, 許如義, Xu Ruyi (b. unknown d. 1932) Ship Owner, Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Public Official. Khaw Joo Ghee was the son of Khaw Sim Kong ( 許心光, Xu Xinguang). Both father and son continued the strategy employed by patriarch, Soo Cheang ( 泗漳, Sizhang), to combine business ventures and administrative positions with the Thai state, viz., Through a combination of luck, talent and hard 184

189 work Khaw Soo Cheang steered the family to the top of the peninsular bureaucratic hierarchy during the nineteenth century. Cushman, 1986, pp.63-64, 77; Cushman, 1991, pp.22-24, 67, ; Lee & Chow, pp.37, 58; Wu Xiao An, 2003, pp.89, 108. Joo Ghee became governor of Ranong as did his grandfather and father. From that base, in the 1890s, he bought a few small steamships to service, and eventually monopolise the trade route between Penang to Moulmein or Rangoon. In 1902, a next step was to purchase the Kong Hock Steamship Co. s fleet of eight vessels from Chua Yu Khay ( 蔡有格, Cai Youge ), whose father, Chua Kang Whuat ( 蔡江發, Cai Jiangfa) had ventured into shipping. Joo Ghee, together with uncle, Khaw Sim Bee ( 許心美, Xu Xinmei ) and cousin, Joo Tok ( 如琢, Ruzhuo ), managed the Penang-based Koe Guan Steamship Co. ( 高源船公司 ), at 63 Beach Street, the largest shipping firm by It expanded in 1907 into the Eastern Shipping Company formed together with the shipping firms of leading entrepreneurs of the time, Quah Beng Kee ( 柯孟淇, Ke Mengqi ) and Thio Tiauw Siat ( 張弼士, Zhang Bishi ). Working with leading Chinese merchants, Joo Ghee participated in the syndicates to win the Penang opium farms, and served as a director in the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Co. ( 檳榔嶼乾元保安公司 ), founded in Another significant device of the Khaws was the promotion of close ties through marriages. Joo Ghee had six wives, two of whom were from the politically dominant Thai Na Nakhon family; another two were to strengthen ties with the Lims who managed the Takuapa revenue farms. Lim Shaihong from Penang was deemed the principal wife, her cousin was the other wife from the Lim family. Into the fourth generation, from Joo Ghee s business partnership with Tan Mah Seang of Phuket, the way was paved for a number of Tan-Khaw intermarriages, Joo Ghee s daughter, Kiew Sien to Tan Joo Eow and the sons of brothers, Joo Ley and Joo Piu marrying sisters, Suat Chit and Suat See of the Tan family. Further research will undoubtedly determine his participation in Penang social circles. Loh Wei Leng Khoo Beng San, 邱明山, Qiu Mingshan ( ) Merchant, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Khoo Beng San also known as Che Beng, was a prominent figure from the Hokkien community in the early 19th century. He is said to belong to the sixteenth generation of the Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi ( 龍山堂邱公司 ) at Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling). His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Sin Aun Village ( 三都新垵村 Sandu Xinan Cun), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ). There is no information as to when he arrived in Penang, and the earliest mention of Khoo is from his participation in the Opium Farm syndicate of until that of Additionally, he was a member of the syndicate for the Arrack Farm of Besides revenue farms, Beng San operated a trading company, Beng & Co., which chartered a 350-ton bark, Angelica, sailing between Penang, Melaka, and Macao. As a revenue farmer and merchant, Khoo was able to afford a donation of 160 yuan to Kuan Yin Ting temple, its other name, Kong Hock Keong ( 廣福宮 ) in 1824 for rebuilding and extending the back hall. He served as one of the principal directors of Kuan Yin Ting in the same year. Beng San passed away in 1843 and was buried at Batu Lanchang Hokkien cemetery ( 峇都兰章福建公塚 ). He had three wives, Xu Yu Niang ( 許玉娘 ), Zhou Han Niang ( 周漢娘 ), and Xie Yin Niang ( 謝蔭娘 ) and six sons. Loh Wei Leng & Hung Bee Ling PGSC (16 Feb 1839); Wong Lin Ken, p.85; Franke & Chen, pp.532 & 533; Teoh Shiaw Kuan, 2005, pp.21-25; Genealogy of Khoo and Chan clans, V12, p

190 Lim Soo Chee, 林士志, Lin Shizhi (1880 d.unknown) Tin Miner, Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. Lim Sun Ho, 林山河, Lin Sanhe (b.unknown d.unknown) Merchant, Dyer, Planter, Community Leader. Lim Soo Chee was a leader of the Hokkien community, succeeding his father in business and in key social organisations. Lim Soo Chee was a son of Lim Kek Chuan ( 林克全, Lin Kequan ), a prominent Hokkien merchant and community leader of Penang. His ancestral origin was in Sam Toh Lin Tong Seh village ( 三都林東社 ), Haicheng district ( 海澄縣 ), Zhangzhou prefecture ( 漳州府 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. He received his education at the Penang Free School. After his studies, Soo Chee joined Messrs. Behn Meyer and Company. Later he invested in the mining business in Perak and various parts of the Federated Malay States. He was not only a partner of the Penang opium and spirit farm, but also of other farms in Perlis and the Siamese-controlled Malay States. Soo Chee became one of the directors of Penang opium and spirit farm during the period of In addition, he was also a director of the Eastern Shipping Co. and Criterion Press, the first Chinese-owned printing and publishing enterprise in Penang. Apart from his business activities, Soo Chee was also actively involved in some social clubs and associations. He was a member of the Society of Arts (London), the Penang Turf Club, the Cycling Club, the Penang Mutual Improvement Association, the Chinese Merchants Club and the Chinese Recreation Club ( 中華體育會 ). In 1901, he married a granddaughter of Khaw Sim Choah (Chua), Raja of Luan Suan in Siam. He had three sons and one daughter. His residence was located at 4, Penang Street. Wong Yee Tuan and Chee Lee Yoon Lee & Chow, p.115; Wright, p.757; Wu Xiao An, 2003, p.108; SSC, 1909, p.246. Lim Sun Ho was a leading Hokkien merchant from the late 19th century. He had business interests in cloth dyeing and trading, planting, and insurance. Lim Sun Ho s family originated from Haicheng ( 海澄縣 ), Fujian province ( 福建省 ), China. His father, Lim Chye ( 林猜, Lin Cai), a dyer and merchant, migrated to Penang in Lim Chye was a partner of Hong Moh and Co. ( 恆茂公司 ), located at Beach Street. Sun Ho inherited his father s business and enlarged it by increasing the number of workers from 6 to 120. Later it branched out and became one of the leading dye works establishments in Penang. He moved the dye works to MacAlister Road and opened branches in Ipoh Lane and Bridge Street. In addition to local trade, he expanded his business networks into Rangoon, Sumatra, Singapore, and China. It was reported that his exports of textiles reached ¾ million yards of cloth. In 1891, Sun Ho joined the Penang Khean Guan Insurance Company ( 乾元保安公司 ) as a partner. He was on the board of directors of the company till He also went into partnership with Foo Eang Seang in Victoria Estate, Kedah. In 1884, he founded the Penang Drapers Guild. Sun Ho was also active in social affairs. He was a committee member of the Poh Choo Seah ( 寶珠社 ), a Chinese association in King Street in 1918 and also one of the Hokkien representatives on the Chinese Advisory Board ( 華人參事 / 諮詢局 ) in Loh Wei Leng & Hung Bee Ling Wright, p.820; Lee & Chow, p. 115; Lin Bo ai, V2b, pp.94-95; Franke & Chen, pp.672-3; PGSC (28 Nov 1891). Low Ah Chong, 劉亞昌, Liu Yachang (b. unknown-d. unknown) Revenue Farmer, Community Leader. 186

191 Low Ah Chong alias Lowe Achong was also known as Achong in official records, Son of Lowe Ammee, also known as Low Mei ( 劉美, Liu Mei), a flour miller, baker, materials and building contractor. His mills mainly produced flour from wheat brought from Bengal, from which he baked bread, ship s biscuit etc. He even made plum puddings for Christmas! Apart from numerous other properties he also owned a bakery in King Street. Captain (later Colonel) James Welsh, husband of Sarah, the eldest daughter of Francis Light, paid a visit to Ammee s mill in 1818 and described it in his `Military Reminiscences reporting that Ammee milled corn and rice too. Ammee had a hand in many things, including the manufacture of bricks, soorky and chunam, as well as contracting to the EIC to construct numerous public buildings. His son Kong Meng, who became a very prominent citizen of Melbourne, also spelt his surname Lowe. Achong, a Hai San triad society leader, was allegedly in cahoots with the Raja of Ligor, appointed Governor of Kedah after Siam s invasion in 1821, to pursue the Kedah ruler who had sought asylum in Penang. In another incident, he reportedly was prepared to transport, although unsuccessfully, 2 or 300 Chinese from Penang to join the Chinese at Perak. Following in the footsteps of his father who had owned the licence for the pork farm in 1807, Achong was also a revenue farmer, securing the licence for the arrack farm in and Much work remains to throw more light on Low Ah Chong. Loh Wei Leng and Marcus Langdon C.S. Wong, 1963a, p.67; Wong Lin Ken, pp. 85, 122; BL (IOR/G/34/ , ff.72-85); PWIGG (R9 V18, 25 Aug 1807); PWIG (17 Dec 1808, 18 Mar 1809, 4 Jul 1812); SSFR (R16 V35, 24 Dec 1812; R16 V40, 23 Sep 1813); PRM (12 Jun 1830); TA (24 October 1888); Welsh. Mansor Sanusi ( ) Printer and Publisher. Mansor Sanusi was born in 1909 in Kampong Seronok, Penang, the owner of the printing and publishing firm, Sinaran Brothers, established in Together with his brother, Jaldin, Mansor started publishing books and other literature in 1953 with a start-up capital of RM1, Sanusi had the idea of publishing books as he felt dissatisfied with the quality of text books of the day which he found to be outdated and had been used in schools since the early 1950s. As a Malay language teacher at that time, he aspired to produce books with more up-to-date content which were less influenced by colonialism. He wrote and published more than 200 books while his brother, Jaldin, wrote and published 50 books. In 1957, Sinaran Brothers used RM12,000 of the profit from the sale of the books to buy a used hand printing press. Since then, their business focused on printing. In 1959, Mansor left his teaching job to concentrate fully on his business. Jaldin followed suit in 1962, while Syed Ahmad bin Syed Ali, their brother-inlaw, injected the capital into the business. Presently, Sinaran Brothers is still operating and has branches in Butterworth and Kuala Lumpur. Mahani Musa Holbert, pp.42-44; Darwis Harahap Mohamad, pp Merican, Kader Saiboo (b. unknown, India - d. unknown, Penang) Merchant, Philanthropist. During the early 19th century, Kader Saiboo was a successful import-export spices and pulicat sarongs merchant in Penang. With his business success, he enjoyed a luxurious life and was able to contribute a lot towards the activities of the Muslim community, particularly in George Town. Kader Saiboo Merican came from South India. His wife was also from India. He was still in his teens 187

192 when he came to Penang in a sailing boat which he built himself, to expand his business. He had three children; Dalbadal Merican, Zakaria Merican and Yahya Merican. Kader Saiboo Merican had been involved in business in India since the early 1800s. In addition to the import-export of spices and pulicat sarongs (sarong for men), he also dealt in perfumes and suchlike. Among Indian traders, he was known for his business acumen. With capital from his business in India, he set up business in Chulia Street, dealing in the same things as he did in India, i.e., spices and sarongs. He was its sole proprietor. His business thrived and became known as Kader Saiboo Traders, with a big storehouse. As a successful merchant, Kader Saiboo Merican was involved in the Jawi Peranakan Association, contributing towards the development of the association s socio-economic activities. Mahani Musa Reference: Personal Communication (Yusoff Azmi Merican) Mohammed Syed (b.18th century, India - d. unknown) Textile Merchant, Philanthropist. Mohammed Syed was among the more successful Chulia merchants from the late 18th century until the early 19th century. He was involved in the cloth business and became wealthy from that trade. Mohammed Syed came from the Coromandel Coast, India in 1787, with his partners, Mucktoon Saib, Boojoo Mohammed and Ismail Mohammed. They settled in Penang as textile merchants, plying the trade between Penang and the Coromandel Coast. He and his partners owned brick shophouses in Chulia Street and godowns to store their goods. In 1814, their business revenue was valued at Sp$112,000. This figure excluded goods which were stored in their godowns, shops and bazaar which were valued at Sp$35,000. Mohammed Syed and partners also owned four brick shophouses which were valued at Sp$77,000. As wealthy traders, Syed Mohammed and his partners regularly contributed financial support for social activities among the Muslim community, especially within the town area. Unfortunately, in 1814 all the properties were destroyed in a fire that destroyed much of George Town. This fire destroyed 136 houses and brick shophouses and 758 attap shophouses and houses. Mahani Musa Reference: Nordin Hussin, p.151. Mohd Noh bin Shafie, Haji (1880s ) Jermal Owner, Philantropist. Haji Mohd Noh bin Shafie was a successful operator in his field during his time. He was a major owner and operator of jermal, (a method of fishing using a fishing trap, at the end of which was a big net which could be lifted). At its height, he was said to have owned many jermal. Haji Mohd. Noh was born when Tanjong Tokong was prosperous with marine catch. It was at the threshold of modernization in the fishing industry. During his era, pukat benang, (a big fishing net made of yarn) was just going to be introduced. At that time, fishermen were still using environmentally friendly traditional method of fishing. Haji Mohd. Noh was the son of a fisherman who grew up to be a rich and successful jermal operator. A jermal cost thousands of dollars to build. They were built in the middle of the sea. Many small boats were used to transport building material out to sea. Many workers were involved to build and operate them. Haji Mohd. Noh was one of the suppliers of quality fresh fish to the Chowrasta Market. As he was an influential rich man, he was recognized as the penghulu (local headman) of Tanjong Tokong. As he was wealthy, Haji Mohd. Noh gave a lot 188

193 of assistance to the locals. Since banking was not popularly used yet, Haji Mohd. Noh gave out loans. He also sponsored functions, and boria (traditional song and dance play), which was the Penang Malays favourite entertainment of the day. During the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese used his house as a food distributing centre, During the Emergency ( ), the government used his house to issue identity cards. Haji Mohd. Noh died in 1956 and was buried in the Muslim Cemetery on the hill in Tanjong Tokong. To commemorate his good deeds, the government named a road in Tanjong Tokong after him. Mohd Salleh Bin Yahaya Reference: Personal Communication (Zakaria bin Haji Mohd. Noh). Ogilvie, John (b. unknown, d.1816) Merchant. Bruce, which was sold to Captain Court, governor of the Moluccas, for Sp$12,000. He then sold it to the East India Company for Sp$20,000 in May This deal would later cost Court his job. In July 1813 Ogilvie is found administering his brother Andrew s estate following his death at Bangka. The partnership ceased as of 1 August 1816 following the death of John Ogilvie (date unknown). His estate was administered by Thomas Hutton. Francis Hutton later challenged the administration of the estate and as a result it was not until August 1823 that one of Ogilvie s properties, Clove Hall, off the southern side of Northam Road, was sold by the Sheriff. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R11, V20, 3 May 1808); PWIGG (22 Aug 1807); PWIG (9 Dec 1807, 3 Sep 1808, 31 Dec 1808, 5 Aug 1809, 12 Jan 1811, 11 May 1811, 3 Jul 1813, 31 Aug 1816, 9 Aug 1823). In an 1808 Penang census return John Ogilvie described himself as British and stated that he was licensed as an auctioneer and permitted to stay in Penang by Governor Philip Dundas, which places his arrival from late 1805 to early He established a mercantile business on 24 August 1807, trading under his own name as an auctioneer and agent. This was initially in a godown owned by Tuanku Syed Hussain at 11 China Street, but three months later he moved to a more prominent location at 230 Beach Street. Francis Hutton, possibly a brother or relation of merchant Thomas Hutton, joined the firm as of 1 September 1808, trading under the name Ogilvie and Hutton. In January 1809 they moved to an even better location at 4 Beach Street, which was a large godown owned by Thomas Halyburton. In August that year the firm became Ogilvie, Hutton and Co. when Alexander Robertson joined as a partner. Robertson withdrew as of 1 January 1811 leaving the remaining partners to trade as Ogilvie and Hutton again. The firm owned a large ship called the Governor Stuart, William (b.unknown, d. 1811) Merchant. William Stuart was the son of Robert Stuart of Duns, in Berwickshire, Scotland, (also home to the Brown family) and in 1805 joined the East India Company s military establishment at Fort St George, Madras, as a cadet. Illness however forced his resignation on 29 September 1807 and he resorted to Penang for his recovery. Initially he had planned to return to Britain but was unable to procure passage and instead applied to remain in Penang; permission being granted on 11 August On 2 July 1810 he formed a mercantile partnership with his cousin David Brown to act as General Agents under the name Brown and Stuart. The firm advertised infrequently in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette and Stuart s bad health continued to plague him. Records of the Freemason s Neptune Lodge No.344 in Penang show that he joined on 16 February A notice in the Gazette of 30 November 1811 advises that in consequence of the 189

194 death of William Stuart the firm of Brown and Stuart ceased as of that date. The exact date or cause of his death is unknown. PWIG (17 Jul 1824, 1 Oct 1825, 7 Jan 1826, 13 May 1826, 5 Aug 1826, 30 Dec 1826, 6 Jan 1827, 17 Feb 1827); SSR (I 35, Feb 1828); AJMR (Vol. 17, 1835, 140); LMF. Marcus Langdon Dodwell and Miles (1838, 162 3); SSFR (R11, V20, 3 May 1808); PWIG (7 Jul 1810, 30 Nov 1811); LMF. Willson, John Grant (also spelt Wilson) (b. unknown d. unknown) Merchant, Accountant, Attorney. Tanner, Edward (b. c ) Merchant, Juror, Member of the Committee of Assessors, Sheriff. Edward Tanner was born in England about It is not known when he arrived in Penang, but he was issued a license to reside on 22 July 1821; then aged around 17. He first worked in the mercantile firm of Balhetchet and Co. before joining William Boyd Kerr in a mercantile partnership called Kerr and Tanner, which commenced business on 1 August From 1824 he was a regular member of the jury of the Court of Judicature, and both he and Kerr became members of the Committee of Assessors for the year Both men were active freemasons. Tanner served as sheriff for the United Settlements of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, and Malacca for the year commencing 20 September Kerr and Tanner remained an active mercantile firm, and when Kerr withdrew from the firm in 1830, his brother, Mathew Boyd Kerr, continued the partnership up until Tanner s death on 19 October His gravestone can still be seen in the old Protestant cemetery in George Town, Penang, and informs us that it was erected by his family in England, private friends and members of the freemason s Neptune Lodge in Penang. No evidence has been found of a marriage or of children. Marcus Langdon John Grant Willson described himself as English in an 1808 census in Penang. He had been a Calcutta merchant and accountant prior to coming to Penang in 1805/6 on the request of James Douglas to become a partner in his new mercantile venture. The partnership, called Douglas and Willson, ended acrimoniously on 4 October 1806 when the former claimed Willson failed to contribute his share to the partnership. This apparently left Douglas with a financial mess which would result in several years of litigation by both parties. Nevertheless, Willson obtained an official permit, dated 18 December 1806, to reside in Penang and began his own mercantile firm on the west side of Beach Street. But by late 1808 it would seem that judgements against him caused the sale of his godowns, house and household goods between December 1808 and June Willson was admitted as an attorney to the Court of Judicature on 24 February 1810 and married Mary Ann Strongitharm in Penang on 16 May the same year. He seems to have also continued to carry on business and is found in October the same year advertising the auction on site of a subdivision of land on the western side of Church Square owned by George Caunter. Little is known of his further movements. Marcus Langdon SSFR (R11, V20, 3 May 1808); GG (4 Oct 1806); PWIG (10 Dec 1808, 10 Jun 1809, 19 May 1810, 20 Oct 1810; Kyshe (V1, cxiii) 190

195 Wilson, William Muir (b. unknown ) Merchant, Juror. William Muir Wilson was born in Kilmarnock, Scotland to parents John Wilson, a surgeon, and Agnes née Muir, probably in the 1790s. His arrival in Penang is not clear, however it is possible he arrived aboard the Isabella on 7 April 1817, as the passenger list includes James Carnegy Jnr and Mr. A. Wilson. On 1 May the same year Wilson was admitted as a partner in Carnegy & Co. He became an active community member and regularly sat on the jury of the Court of Judicature. He was also made an executor in James Carnegy s will of 6 May It appears that he owned the well known property called Kelso on Scotland Road, once belonging to James Scott, but in September 1820 he offered it for sale. Illness was the reason and he departed for Calcutta the following month aboard the Hero of Maloun to seek a cure, only returning to Penang in February 1821 aboard the Gloucester. He again advertised Kelso for sale or rent in March the same year. Perhaps Wilson never regained his health and he died in Batavia (Jakarta) on 29 April Marcus Langdon PWIG (8 Apr 1817, 10 May 1817, 4 Oct 1817, 6 Sep 1820, 18 Oct 1820, 7 Feb 1821, 27 Mar 1821, 2 Aug 1823); SME (V92, 1823, 511). 191

196 BEGINNINGS OF A COSMOPOLITAN PORT CITY The establishment of a British East India Company (EIC) settlement in Penang in 1786 set in train an influx of peoples from the neighbouring region and beyond, attracted by the prospects of commercial growth. Within two decades, with the main ethnic groups in place, the population was estimated at 12,000 in Prominent mercantile personalities were the acknowledged leaders of their own communities; among them were those endorsed by the colonial authorities who appointed a Kapitan Kling, a Kapitan Cina and a Kapitan of the Malay community. POPHAM PLAN Although published in 1798, Captain H. B. Popham was in Penang in 1791 surveying a southern channel and undoubtedly this plan was drawn then. SIR GEORGE LEITH'S 1803 MAP Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Leith ( ) s plan for the township, supplies the street names in the grid of early George Town, the names reflecting the location of the original settlement of Malay, Chinese and Indian communities. (Courtesy of Cornell University Library, Making of America Digital Collection) Francis Light memorial, constructed in 1824 and still standing today in the grounds of St. George s Church (Courtesy of Timothy Tye, [ = current photo ] Koh Lay Huan was the first Kapitan Cina. China Street was called the `big street in hokkien (toa ke, 大街 ), an indication that it served as the location for early Chinese settlement and business activity. His tomb (Courtesy of Ooi Bok Kim) I

197 Early EIC administrative building at the junction of Downing Street and Beach Street. (Arkib Negara Malaysia, hereafter ANM) Batu Uban area and Jelutong Mosque see Nakhoda Kechil. (Courtesy of Timothy Tye, `Gudang Aceh' at 322 Beach Street (corner of Beach and Acheen Streets) is called `Rumah Tinggi'. It belonged to Tunku Syed Hussein, founder of `Acheen Street Mosque'. (Courtesy of Timothy Tye, Government House was constructed by Light c It is now part of the Light Street Convent. (Courtesy of Timothy Tye, Government offices, built in 1889 and destroyed in the bombing during World War 2 (NA, UK). CXCIII

198 ALONG ASIAN MARITIME PATHS EASTWARDS Long exposed to intra-asian trade from earlier centuries, greener pastures east were sought by various peoples. When traversing the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia Penang became the first port of call in the northern Strait of Melaka and successor to the preceding landfalls in Kedah for ships from the west. Jagat Singh (Punjab) Hassaram (Sindhi) Punjab N.T.S. Arumugam Pillai (Tamil Nadu) Sindh Gujerat INDIA YEMEN Hadramaut H.H. Bhatt (Gujerati) Kerala Tamil Nadu A.P. Sultan Mydin (Ramnad, Tamil Nadu) Badjenid, Sheik Mohamed Badjenid Sheik Ahmad (Hadramaut, Yemen) A. Balakrishnan (Kerala) S. V. K. Patchee (South India) Rawther, Seene (Ramnad, Tamil Nadu) Doraisamy Thevar (Tamil Nadu) CXCIV III

199 SETTING UP BUSINESS (BEACH STREET) A.B. Bone Capes & McHugo T. Perkins Perkins & Revely Wm. Revely John Revely Revely & Co. G. Porter Wm. Anderson Balhetchet & Anderson Armenian Street Chulia Street Market Street China Street Church Street Bishop Street Union Street Light Street A. McIntyre McIntyre & Fritz McIntyre & Snadden Ogilvie & Hutton Note: All locations are approximate only T. Halyburton Ogilvie & Hutton F. Ferrao J. Scott Brown & Co. A. McIntyre E.E. Capes Capes & Carroll Carroll & Scott Carroll, Scott & Co. Hugh Carroll Wm. Cox McIntyre & Co. G. Porter Balhetchet & Anderson Balhetchet & Co. Early Penang Mercantile Advertisements (Source: PWIG, GGPWISM) IV

200 MEETING SOCIAL NEEDS The many organisations formed in a new settlement to assist newcomers to adjust in an unfamiliar environment included those of a religious nature. Kong Hock Keong Chinese temple, founded by people from Guangdung and Fujian in 1800, is the oldest in Penang, also known as Kuan Yin Ting after its principal deity. (Courtesy of Tan Kim Hong, reproduced from his book, 'The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History') Masjid Kapitan Kling, built in 1801, was named after Cauder Mohideen Merican. The title on this contemporaneous postcard named it Malay Mosque, the name more commonly attributed to the Acheen Street Mosque. (Source: David Ng, p.63) CXCVI V

201 RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS St. George s Anglican Church, built in 1818, was named after the patron saint of England. (NA, UK) The Acheen Street mosque built in 1808 to serve the early Acehnese community. (ANM) CXCVII

202 RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS Gurdwara Sahib Sikh temple c. 1905, on 87 Jalan Gurdwara, previously known as Brick Kiln Road as there was once a brick kiln before a Sikh settlement emerged. (Source: David Ng, Major (Rtd) Penang, The city and suburbs in the early twentieth century 1986 (p.66) The Sri Mahamariamman Temple on Queen Street began as a shrine and developed as a temple in 1833 to serve the Hindu community living in the Little India area of today. (Courtesy of Timothy Tye, VII The Sri Kunj Bihari temple, the oldest Northern Indian temple on Penang Road, was built in 1835 to serve the Punjabi, Gujarati and Sindhi communties living in the vicinity. (Courtesy of Timothy Tye,

203 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Al-Mashoor in Tek Soon Street, the earliest Islamic school, currently located at Dato Kramat Road. (Source: Al-Alam Al- Islam i magazine, 19 April 1981) The Chung Hwa school began in 1888 in the Chinese Town Hall and was registered in The Chinese Town Hall, built by 1886, functioned as the apex Chinese body with equal number of Guangdong and Fujian representation, replacing the Kong Hock Keong. (ANM) The Chung Ling school was founded by supporters of Dr Sun Yat Sen in Originally located at 18 Malay Street, it moved to 65 Macalister Road in 1918, the Penang Philomatic Union s building. (Courtesy of Sim Jin Tang) Penang Free School was the first non-denominational English language school in Penang. First established in 1816 it moved to this site in 1821, being replaced by this grand building around the end of the century. (ANM) CXCIX VIII

204 TRADE The rise of Penang as a port to meet the EIC s objective of a base in Southeast Asia (at the northern Strait of Melaka) meant that the harbour, jetties and the commercial centre nearby on Beach Street were hives of activity. The first Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture was established in 1837 to represent mercantile interests vis-à-vis the East India Company government. Map of Penang and the region. (Courtesy of Loh Wei Leng) Penang Port (NA, UK) Weld Quay (NA, UK) CC IX

205 MAJOR MERCANTILE ORGANISATIONS The Penang Chamber of Commerce & Agriculture at the corner of Downing Street. Note that this is not the 1837 location as at that time this area was still the sea. (ANM) Members of the Cheng Hong Kok Club (Qing Fang Ke 清芳閣 in 1897), formed by merchants of Beach Street in early 19th century as a social club. (NA, UK) The Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1903 with Lim Kek Chuan as President and Leong Lok Hing as Vice-President, serving till The latter took over as President with Quah Beng Kee as Vice- President from 1907 to This building is on the corner of Light and Penang Streets. (Courtesy of Penang State Library) CCI X

206 SOME STREETS WHERE MERCANTILE FIRMS WERE LOCATED Campbell Street Chetty Street was the name once commonly used for the southern section of Penang Street, where the Chettiar money-lenders were concentrated. Chulia Street (also known in the early days as Malabar Street). CCII XI

207 MUSLIM BUSINESS PREMISES AROUND ACHEEN STREET A: 145 Acheen Street Chong Cheng Kean s residence ( ). It became the premises of the Fukien Girls School in B: 2, 4, 6 Lumut Lane Zachariah Basheer & Sons s company. C: 89 Acheen Street Soetan Mohamed Issa s business premises. D: 83, 85, 87 Acheen Street Syed Ahmad Almashoor s Jeddah Pilgrim Ticketing Agency at No.87. Persama Press of Haji Mohamed Ali Rawa at No E: 55 Acheen Street Publishers and distributors of H. Abdullah B.M. Noordin Arrawi. Later the business was carried on by Haji Yusof Rawa. F: Tunku Syed Hussain s Mausoleum and Muslim Cemetery Tunku Sayyid Hussain Aidid, founder of the Malay Mosque. H: 69 Acheen Street Sheikh Omar Basheer Al-Khalidi s town residence. I: 67 Acheen Street The residence of Sheikh Zachariah Basheer. J: 25 Acheen Street Townhouse and store of Goh Say Eng. K: 322 Beach Street A spice store of Tunku Syed Hussain. It was called Rumah Tinggi (tall house). L: 128 Armenian Street Syed Mohamed Alatas s bungalow, which was built c M: 120 Armenian Street Formerly the premises of the Penang Philomatic Union. The daily newspaper Kwong Wah Yit Poh was first published from here. It is now the Sun Yat Sen Museum. G: Malay Mosque, Acheen Street The Acheen Street Mosque is also known as Masjid Melayu, which was established by Tunku Sayyid Hussain Aidid in XII

208 MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES While trade was the driver of the economy of the Straits port, related services such as sea and land transport, and banking were equally necessary. Early agricultural efforts included attempts to produce spices such as nutmeg, cloves and pepper. When tin developed in Perak, smelting facilities were established in Penang, which became the export outlet for the northern region of Southeast Asia. Mr Ammee s House and Mill (painting by James Wathen, dated 1811) (Courtesy Penang State Museum) The Chinese Mills: Engraving by William Daniel (1821) after Robert Smith (1818). (Courtesy of Penang State Museum) Glugor House and its spice plantations. Engraving by William Daniel (1821) after Robert Smith (1818). (Courtesy of Penang State Museum) CCIV XIII

209 LAND AND SEA TRANSPORT Penang Harbour (ANM) Electric tram (ANM) CCV XIV

210 TIN SMELTING The Eastern Smelting Co., Ltd's office in Dato Kramat Road dressed up for the Coronation of King George VI, (NA, UK) Seng Kee, later Eastern Smelting. (ANM) CCVI XV

211 BANKING Ban Hin Lee Bank Ltd (Courtesy of the House of Yeap Chor Ee) HSBC on Beach Street. (ANM) XVI

212 INTERRACIAL COLLABORATION The Penang Riots of 1867 is a showcase of alliances which transcend ethnicity. Mahani Musa s article, Chinese and Muslim societies as natural allies (2011) documents the close cooperation between Muslims (including Hindus) and Chinese despite religious and cultural differences in the nineteenth century. Before the riots, Chinese organisations such as the Ghee Hin, Hai San and Toa Peh Kong were not considered secret societies, and were regarded as general clubs or hui by the colonial administration. Next, there were the Red and White Flag societies, formed in the 1830s by the Indian-Muslim and Jawi Pekan (a hybrid community which resulted from the marriage of Malays and Indians) communities, to carry out various religious and social functions. The clash of business interests saw the Ghee Hin and Hai San team up with the White Flag society to compete with the Toa Peh Kong and the Red Flag society. Syed Mohamed Al-Attas, whose house at 128 Armenian Street is currently the Penang Islamic museum, was the leader of the Red Flag. (Courtesy of Penang Islamic Museum) King Street in Chinese associations were located here as well as an early Cantonese and Hakka Toa Peh Kong temple which is located at Nos 32, 32A and 34. (ANM) The Hokkien Toa Peh Kong temple, built in 1845, known as Hock Teik Cheng Sin, is located in Armenian Street. (Courtesy of Tan Kim Hong, reproduced from his book, The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History) CCVIII XVII

213 Khoo Thean Teik Khoo Thean Poh Khaw Boo Aun Chung Keng Quee The leaders of Kian Tek Tong ( 建德堂 ) in 1867 were Khoo Thean Teik and his brother Thean Poh as Vice President. Formed in 1844, the organisation built the Hock Teik Cheng Sin temple to worship the Toa Peh Kong ( 大伯公 ) deity. Hence, it was also known as the Toa Peh Kong society. (Courtesy of Wong Yee Tuan) Khaw Boo Aun was the Ghee Hin leader (Courtesy of Tan Kim Hong, reproduced from his book, The Chinese in Penang: A Pictorial History) Chung Keng Quee was the Hai San leader. The society was allied to the Ghee Hin. (Courtesy of Tan Yeow Wooi) Lorong Takiah 1867 map (Mahani, Malay Secret Societies, p. 69, map adapted, Penang Museum). Tuan Chee alias Shaik Omar Abdul Rassul who lived in Lorong Takiah was the White Flag leader. XVIII

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