ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEON. Abstract: The development of renewable energy is a key factor in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon

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2 ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEON Abstract: The development of renewable energy is a key factor in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon

3 Renewable energies: They occur on an ongoing basis and are considered inexhaustible a human scale. They respect the environment: Do not emit CO2 or gaseous pollutants Waste easily treatable Natural resources used are: Water (small power plants) Biomass Biogas Bioenergetic crops Special importance of wind and solar energies

4 Using extensive resources Character recent and dynamic

5 Annual evolution of installed wind power in Spain Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

6 Annual evolution of installed photovoltaic power in Spain Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Situación de la energía solar fotovoltaica Consultado 01/07/2008

7 Characterizing Castilla y León

8 The third largest region in European Union Fuente: Junta de Castilla y León. Consultado 01/07/2008

9 Plains and mountains as main physical features in the highest region of Spain: the Meseta

10 The region is characterized by low population density Fuente: CES, Situación Económica y Social de Castilla y León, 2006

11 The main land uses are rural agricultural and forestry

12 Natural and cultural heritage are one of the foundations of the future strategy of Regional Government

13 And, energy is one of the signs of identity of the region

14 Castilla y Leon produces 20% of the total energy produced in Spain Fuente: Ente Regional de la Energía de Castilla y León

15 And, Castilla y Leon produces 12% of the electricity produced in Spain Fuente: Ente Regional de la Energía de Castilla y León

16 Many resources are exploited: Coal Water Nuclear

17 This is the distribution of water plants, coal and nuclear. Fuente: Sánchez Zurro (2008): Geografía de Castilla y León, Ámbito.

18 And, this is the landscape impact of traditional energy: Concentrated on the edges of the region: peneplains and mountains

19 The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León Coal landscapes, mining landscapes, in North and Northwest mountains. By pits and By opencast mining Fotografías: E. Baraja

20 The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León The Duero system of electricty generation since the fifties Fuente: Junta de Castilla y León

21 The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León Nuclear Power Plant of Garoña (Burgos) and Uranium Plant of Juzbado (Salamanca) Fuente: Junta de Castilla y León

22 The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León There are also landscape impact on the central plains, caused by the Electrical Transmission Grid

23 The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León This is the electrical grid, between power plants of coal, water and nuclear, and the consumption centres Fuente: Red Eléctrica Española. Mapa del Sistema Eléctrico Peninsular. Consultado 01/07/2008

24 Fotografías: E. Baraja The old energy landscapes in Castilla y León

25 But, in recent years, renewable energies have taken an strong development. What are the factors of this change?

26 First, the Global context The fight against Global Warming, and energy as a key factor: responsible for 80% of CO2 emisions. And, Kioto Protocol: restriction of emisions of Greenhouse Effect Gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, PFC s, HCFC s and SF6)

27 Second, the european context The European Union White Book of Renewable Energies: 2010 Objective: 12% of total energy consumption, and 22,1% electricity produced And, Renewable Energy Plan: Directive 2001/77/EU

28 Third, the Spanish context We have an Renewable Energy Plan from 2005 to 2010

29 Objectives for 2010: 12% of domestic consumption comes from renewables And: 29,4% of electricity produced 5,75% of biodiesel

30 The case of electricity generation: Increase the installed power to Mw and production to Gwh, And, strong push to two renewable energies: Wind power Solar thermic and solar photovoltaic power

31 The National Government guarantees the legal and restorative stability for businesses and consumers through special laws: Régimen especial de generación eléctrica: Ley 54/1977 del sector eléctrico: Tarifas reguladas en régimen especial: RD 2818/1998 RD 661/2007

32 However, nowadays, renewables in Spain are only 7% of total energy produced

33 And 19% of electricity produced

34 The case of wind power

35 Stability regulations and investment incentives Strong growth in nineties Many untapped resources Legal and financial confidence Strong investments and big business Very important technological advances in wind turbines

36 Spain in the global context: the third world power in wind energy Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

37 Annual growth in Spain during the last ten years... Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

38 Comparison between annual real growth and forecasts in Renewable Energy Plan Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

39 The case of wind power in Castilla y León

40 Wind power in Castilla y Leon The third region in the country 2.281,46 Mw installed power on 01/01/ ,36 Mw installed power on 01/01/08 Forecast: Mw in 2010

41 The third region in Spain behind Castilla La Mancha and Galicia Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

42 Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

43 Wind energy in Castilla y León 137 wind plants in operation wind turbines 817 Kw of power 21 turbins by plant on average (67 max.) 135 wind plants (3.114 Mw) with administrative authorisation

44 The objective is to be the first producer on wind energy

45 Wind power in Castilla y León Regional Government has taken clear legal and administrative initiatives to support wind energy: Decreto 189/1997, de 26 de septiembre, por el que se regula el procedimiento para la autorización de las instalaciones de producción de electricidad a partir de energía eólica. Plan Eólico de Castilla y León, elaborado por el Ente Regional de la Energía de Castilla y León Apuesta por el desarrollo de la energía eólica Ordenar la instalación de parques en el territorio, compatibilizando el aprovechamiento de los recursos con su desarrollo sostenible, evitando impactos negativos de naturaleza ambiental y social.

46 The Wind Regional Plan takes into account environmental criteria, and defines the areas of environmental sensitivity. Fuente: Ente Regional de la Energía de CyL. http//www.eren.jcyl.es. Consultado 01/07/2008

47 Wind power in Castilla y León There is a financial framework that ensures profitability Real Decreto 661/2007

48 Wind power in Castilla y León The result has been a strong development in mountain areas, due to: High potential The morphology of ridges But, with a strong visual impact: The crucified mountains

49 This is the distribution of wind plants... Fuente: Asociación Empresarial Eólica. Consultado 01/01/2008

50 The distribution by Provinces... Fuente: Ente Regional de la Energía de CyL. http//www.eren.jcyl.es. Consultado 01/07/2008

51 Fotografías: E. Baraja

52 Wind power in Castilla y León The conflicts in the edges of region are of two types: With neghbouring regions less permissive on visual impacts; With mountain areas with a particularly rich natural heritage. Some examples...

53 Death of big birds caused by turbines... Fuente: El País, 21/06/2008

54 Troubles with sensitive species, as capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) Fuente: El País, 21 07/06/2008

55 Or conflicts with the government of Cantabria region...

56 Wind power in Castilla y León However, the enviromental impact is less on the plains, although the landscape impact is very strong. Some examples...

57 Fotografías: E. Baraja

58 Fotografías: E. Baraja

59 Luminic impact at night... Fotografías: E. Baraja

60 Conclusion: A very strong visual impact, and a key factor of a changing landscape Fotografías: E. Baraja

61 Solar energy

62 Solar energy in Spain High potential Very recent development Very strong technological impulse

63 This is the potential... Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Consultado 01/01/2008

64 In the European context Spain is second... Fuente: IDAE. La energía solar en España Estado actual y perspectivas

65 Two types of solar energy: Thermic» For domestic and industrial uses Electric» Thermoelectric» Photovoltaics

66 Solar thermic energy Little development until last year, but strong momentum now, with the new law of Technical Building Code, which requires that all new buildings have facilities for solar thermal hot water.

67 The forecasts... Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Situación de la energía solar fotovoltaica Consultado 01/07/2008

68 It focuses on populated places Urban landscapes There are municipal regulations on technical and aesthetics

69 Solar thermoelectric energy High potential There is a high investments in some projects There are facilities The Plan aims to install plants to increase, with 500 Mw, the 2005 installed power.

70 This is the distribution in Spain... Fuente: IDAE. La energía solar en España Estado actual y perspectivas

71 Solar photovoltaic energy High potential High increase since 2006 High technical development The Plan aims to 400 Mw of installed power on 2010

72 Forecasts...

73 There are facilities for investments: RD de Régimen Especial de la energía eléctrica 661/2007 Tarifas reguladas que representan entre el 300 y el 575% superior, dependiendo de la potencia y el número de años

74 The increase in Spain is very important... Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Situación de la energía solar fotovoltaica Consultado 01/07/2008

75 Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Situación de la energía solar fotovoltaica Consultado 01/07/2008

76 Solar energy in Castilla y León

77 Solar energy is less important than in the south But the potential is high, due to the higher altitude

78 Within the region the potential is higher in the south Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Consultado 01/01/2008

79 Castilla y Leon is the second region on installed power... Fuente: IDAE. La energía solar en España Estado actual y perspectivas

80 But forecasts are good for all the regions

81 Investors are small and medium There is little environmental restrictions, because they are small projects The Solar Plan of Castilla y Leon gives technical and financial support

82 ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN This is the localisation... Fuente: Asociación Industria Fotovoltaica. Situación de la energía solar fotovoltaica Consultado 01/07/2008

83 And some examples of distribution by provinces...

84 The landscape impact Is very important on plains...

85 The appearance is that of solar garden, or solar farm

86 There are important differences in size, from a small plot to the larger surface There are differences also in the type of promotion and investment...

87 Fotografías: E. Baraja Some examples...

88 There are also different types for his localisation and technology...

89 Fotografías: E. Baraja

90 Near the towns, both large and small...

91 Fotografías: E. Baraja

92 It is located on requalified old agricultural lands, both in irrigated or non irrigated lands, in bad lands or good lands.

93 Fotografías: E. Baraja

94 Fotografías: E. Baraja

95 Fotografías: E. Baraja

96 Fotografías: E. Baraja

97 Conclusion The strong development of wind power plants in mountain areas, and solar plants in the plains, makes this elements are the most dynamics in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon

98 Thank you The end Eugenio Baraja. Alipio García de Celis. Universidad de Valladolid (Sp) Departamento de Geografía

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