UNIT. fti TO THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF. GROW of: SOVIET FORCES IN GERMANY UN I E D $TAT $ MILITARY LIAISON MISSION REVIEW: 31 OH: 99

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UNIT. fti TO THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF. GROW of: SOVIET FORCES IN GERMANY UN I E D $TAT $ MILITARY LIAISON MISSION REVIEW: 31 OH: 99"

Transcription

1 L.. UNIT fti UN I E D $TAT $ MILITARY LIAISON MISSION TO THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF GROW of: SOVIET FORCES IN GERMANY 1979 QA$$IAED 8Y: PIAM 5811, E M 3 REVIEW: 31 OH: LI

2 D E I) I I: A T I O N 'I'his 1979 Unit Ilistory is dedicated tn the IISHLM administrntivc and logistical support personnel K ~ O art. trcly thc bxckhonc of this unique organization. I'hc tour ofziccr and the tour NCO, ht.h rccipients of this dedication in past ycars, can azhi cvc their often spsct acul ar c31 lectivn results only after thc support personnel have rr.adc thcir vital contributions. Slnce the support personnel do not share in the excitement and glaujou-r of touring, the cemands on their patience and understacding are great. In tic rapid pace of ]. i fe at. IWMLM, we sonetimes fail t.o acknowledge the efforts of thesc mainstays of our operation. Therefore, it sccns appropriate here to afford recog3ition to the contrihutions and services of each nf f.1~: sqport sections. '1%~ zorrmications- section is on duty OT on call xucnty-four hours a day to providc the esscntial comuni cations 1i:ik betwccn IJSMLV md h: ghcr headquartcts, as well as to the hllicd Missions and nthcr Berlin agencies. 'She naintenarice section kccps the caxs opcrational and rcpairs the damage which, mfortunatcly, is an 1nhsrer.t part o tuuri:ig. T5e mcnbcrs of this saal I but vital section deservc special recognition for thci r cxccpt ional dcvnt ion to duty in responding to culls fot xssist.ance and keeping thc: Mission on tkc road twenty four hours a day, seven days a wcck, 365 days a year. The personnel and administration section kceps us supflied with good gcople and keeps OUT records in order. Yroccssing of TDY orders, lcave requcsts, flag nr(lms, and promotion orders arc only a few of the vital semiccs provided by this very important section. The photo IahuraZory, one of the bey elements in mir reporting syqtm, pro ccsscs litcrally thousands of rolls of film ax3 hundrcds of thousands of pf.0togrtiph-i c Trints for distribution worj dvidc. I'he members o F this section enjoy the undying gratituke of tour personnel for producing high quality images from fi lm ofteri exposed under condittons rangi3g from marginal fo ispossihlc. The sccurity and distribntion section, wkich incluclcs the reproduction facility ar.d the mail rnm, is responsible for personnel. and information stcurity, receives and distributes all incorkin2 documents, prenaxs the daily Read Book, reproduces, collaaes, packages, addmssus, and mai Is all TTR's, and provides that very i mportant mail semi cc. Thc supply section provides us with thc cquipnent ncccssary to do our jobs, kcqs our buildings and offices in a high state nf repair, and rcscarches, reccrnmends, and a.icq1rire.u new equipmnt as it. becomcs available. To all OC thcsc dedicated profcssicnals goes a hearty "Thank Vou" for u joh nell done.

3 OFFTCE OF SfIE CHEF OF MISSZCN 1 May (C] 'his year's I;SMLI.I %it History hears the dcdication I!... to the 3SMt.M adminjslrative it~d lngistical support personncl who are tnly the backbone of this unique organization.. *'' Truer words could not be spoken. As bc departs this unit that "sipport troop" has also canled the title of "one who se,rved." For any fomer CSMI.M'cr, no woks could carry a greatcr maning. It is fitting that a sincere thank you here also be givcn to those providing personnel md logistical support fron the local Berlin area and from theater mnd r.ationa1 ager.cics. 'The year L979 witnessed a markcd increase in the qcaljtative and quantitative upgrading of seapons and equipment in both the Soviet ar.d kst German military inventories. The nerr 5.45 mm AK-71, sccn for thc first timc in ESFG in May 1979, ended up in all five am.ics before the eid of the year. me fact that, spxe wise, storage facilitics can now handle over twice thc previous nunbcr of rounds for the Soviet scldiey's individual weapon certainly is valua5:.e infomation for the Wcstem logistician, to say thc least. 'he increase from tf.rec to five CSPG based armed helicopter rcgimnts also tclis us something about thc air side nf' the picture. The deployment of the FENGFR A, FLOGGER G, and FITTER II aircraft also brouffbt cvidenix to the Western wnrla that great strides W ~TC bang made 07: the air side of the equation. As you read this history, rcalize tliar for every "col1ec:or's first" there wcre many hours qcnt In plwnirg, rehearsing, learning, ycs, even making mistakes. Also 3ear in mind that nost of thc hours ar.d most of thc tours did not make the headlip-es; howevcr, the systematic monitoring mil reporting of :kose normal, non-spectacular, 1ay-to-day activities of thc Soviet and Fast &man forces remain USM:.M's greatest vatue. LQ DO?l 0. STDVALL Colonel, GS Chief of Mission

4 U NCLASSl FI ED FOREWRD The purposo of this document is to provide an annual review of thc activities of the United Stat.cs Military Liaison Hission to the Commander in Chief, Group of' Soviet Forces in Germany. This review contributes to the Mili Eary History programs Qf thc mil itary services and is intcndcd to assist in the uridsrstanding of current opcrations, problcms, and trends, and in the developmcnt of future dact.rinc, plans, a d programs of the IISM1.M. iv U NCLASSl FI ED

5 'TAHLE CF COYTBhTS PAXT I. A. R. c. I). PART 11. A. R. c,. n. E. F. (;. PARI I I, A. H. c. PART Tt'. A. B. c. 3. P. AYNEXES h. R. c. n. E. ti. GE.VBRhl 1nt.rodiict.i no Rc fc rc? ces Organization Mission cc L LE LT 1 ox General Ground Col lection Activities Air Cc 1 lec t.i on Act. iv i t i cs Joint Collection Activities 'I'cmparirry Restricted Areas [)et en i i 011s and h c i dcn t s Inteiligcncg Trfomation Rcport Prnduction LlrZ1WN kyd REPRESENTATION Vi s i tors Relations with GSYG Social Events MrSSlON SUPPORT General Sov i ct Support Berl in Bri gadc Supper* Vok. i c I e 5 Photographic LahoTatory HueSner-Mal in in Agrement Touring Statistics 1979 Persoilriel Roster USPILM Personnel 1979 The Way It Was: L95l Graves of US War Dead in East Germuny XI-: ri J -49 t1-57 T1-64 1Y-1 1v-2 1v-3 1v-4 IV- 7 A- 1 R- 1 c-1 c- 1 E-1 1:

6 UNCLASSIFIED vi UNCLASSIFIED

7 W NCLASSIFI ED V l i U N C USS I F I ED

8 u NCUSSl F1 ED viii UNCLASSIFIED

9 A. (U) INTKDDlJCT'TON. USHLM aztivi ties associate:', with carrying aut it.? two nissions are dcscribed 5n detail in succeeding prtioxs of t.his Hjstury. A surrma-ry of thcse art.iv!ties aric results thercof fnllo~s. 1. (C) Intelligence Znformation CUI lcction. In 1979 USULM dispatched in excess nf 600 tours, targeted agains!. the Soviet and East Gemn military furzes. These OUTS tr~lveled apyoximately '118,000 ki:ometers within t1;c GDK; 970 1nt.r: Lllgencc Iiiformat i or. Reports, fomarding i nformnt ion acrpi rsd by thew tuurs and by those of m r colleagues ir. BRIXMLS and FKLM, WCT~ produced; in excbss of 287,003 Fhutographic pririts were funished to consim'ps. 'his eollcczion effort cvncmtrated on monitoring cf training and excrcise activi ty, coverage of ailitary installations, snd detection a3j rcportinl: sf thc ongn i ng s igni ficant irrlprovcmer.t in the Force posture of both thc Soviets a& the Hast tiemans. Sigrificant observations during thc YKLT included the jntroductim into CSPG cf t.hc AK-74 small arms family, the P3anya Rrcnade launcher, and the L)R-3 survcillance drone, the ContiriCinp, rcplaceacn? of the T-G2 by T-64 a11l of outnnoded.m systems by SAM's within CSFti divisions, and the introdcctton into S6th Alr Amy [lb AA) of tlic PLOGIXK C znd the F'IT2R C and fl reoonaaissmce aircraft and the ODU GRCUI' height finder racar, us wsll as t.hc assignment to 16 AA of twt: ncw attack he1 icoptcr regiments. The 'last ment ior.ed item mean :hat GSPG now ha4 five attack helicopter fc&mt.s, presurr.ddy one for each hny. The );LA recordcd a signifixnx increasc in coinbat capubi lity with t.tc introduction of die T-72, the 152m SP Gun, and the MTLR t=;s,kcc artillery prim mover jn 1979, while the jrtroluctiori of the FLXGEK U and the RACK TRAP carly warnirg radar povidcd. a cleu ir.dicat:ion 02 the CDR's inter.tion to ficid a mocczn air force "rth bot\ offensive and defensive capasilities. In July USMIA was afforded a3 oyyurtmity for bonus rollcction. During covcra~c of the FL~T powr denonstratior at Gadow-Kossow, tours nade u? of mmhers of a1 1 thtec operational divisions of the Miss; on argui red techi ca? quality phuiography of the FEYZEK A during its t'irs? e~er deplcrymnt ogtsidc the Soviet IJnior.. 2. (11) 'I'erqorary Restricted Areas:. After 11 wnths without a Til, LSYG ilrposed six wit3in 16 days in the priud.iij.*;-.jl'l 1378.?'he ~A'S, several of which overlapped both in duration and in ~eographical siea, were concentrated in, and coii~ccted elements of, thc comple% of Phl's in thc njc- u3d soutliuest GIN. 3. (U) ncter-tions and Trzidents. In 1979, IJSMLM experienced 24 detentions and fncidents, tu incl-dc one ramnine 05 8 tour cehicle resr:ltir!g i~ temp- - orary injury to a twir officer ) 1,i aisom and Represer:ta:i on. USMLM Lcl ivercd briefings to representatives nf local, theater, an+ service cmponent hcadquarten and agencies. 1JSMl.M reprcscntativcs net 54 times with reprcsnntatives of HQ, GSFG and the Soviet kxtexmi Relations Branch in carryir:~ out its 1 iaisun mission hstwccn USAKEIIR and GSFI:. Social events at the Potsdar Vission liou.;c rwntiniiecl to provide upprirturiti es For scninr tis officers to mect their n?posite numbers in GSFG. T I.

10 B ' (11) XFERENCES TIM kl KlhlJh4A E10179 USEUGQM DIRECTIVE 40-18, 30 Mar 78 IISAYE Regulatior 23-1 L, OX Y:f Special Activity Sqlxadron Kcgulution 23-3, 0: Hay 76 IJSX Table of Organirat ion b503, 17 Dec 76 CMC Lcttcr Order WA-1-F.M-17, 12 Apr 78 C. (E) ORGAKIZATLOK. 'The Huebner-Mal inin Agreement {Anncx A>, signed in April 1343, authorized tie exchange of MfLitary Lieisnn Missions between thc Soviet axi US 9i litary Hoadq-urtcrs in Gemmy and laid down gcrcral guidc- I ines for thc.:r activities and for the support tn he rcndcrcd by the headquarters to which they were accredited. The agrceaient provided for 14 accredited personnel, with conplctc freedom to travel except in ayeas of military dispositions; the I4 accredjtcd pcrsonncl "will include all necessary technical pcrsonncl, offi:.e clerks, personnel with spcciat qualifications, ant! pcrsonncl. required to operate radio stations. 'I Because of Berliri's special status, IlSMLM is able to employ all 14 passcs f3r operutior.al and liaison purposes, with a supnrt. hase ir. West Berlin. Iletails of pass utilization and of thc tri-service urganization are providci in succeeding sub-paragraphs: 1. Pass U ti 1 i zation: rhc 14 accreditations prolriricd for by the Huebner-Mulinin Agreerrent are noma1 ly held as follows: (:ljsml3 (Amy; I Ileputy Chi ef of Mi ssion (UCUSM1.M: LSAF) 1 Yavs 1 Representat.ive (1'SK) 1 OIC, Potsdam House (Amy: 1 Liaison Officers T.iaison SCQ*s 2. Amy Element: The TDA in effect on 31 Dcc 79 authorizcs 11 officers and 26 enlisted personncl. 5. Air Element: The air clcmcnt is composed DE five uffirerq and 10 enlistad psrsonml, organized DS netachnpnt 16, Ti1 3 Special Activities Squadror

11 4. Kava1 Zlcment: In 1978 r.1.c 2 additiwal USK spaces npprovcd 'n 1977 wrc filled. Tlie ;ISMLW naval e:cqgnt now consists of two of icersaad me Staff <.<* NO. P. [C] EIISSI3N. 1. The pr:lr.ary nission of WMLM is to carry 01: responsibilities for lidicon betheen (;INCUSARSUR, an khalf of US Commr.dcz in Chief Curopc (IJSCTNCCIJK), and CINCKSFC; and to serve as a point of ccntact for other XS departments <and agexios with C LKCCSFG, in accordance k'ith prorri sions of the Huehner-4lalini.n Agreeneqt. 2. The sccoridary and con:idential missior. of 2Sk!LY is to exploit its 1; aism status md attendant potential far CUI 1 cction of intelligence infornation in thc German Demcratlc UcpJblic. ( GN).

12 PART ir. COLLEMION A, [C) General. 1. 1JSMLY sollection divisions continued to monitor the modernizat.ion ddnd reequipping of tisf6, 16th Air Amy (16 MI, and the East tiarman Amy and Air Fcrcc (EGA) [ELW') during It was a fairly big ycar. Several new wcapons and pieces of equipment KCX intrndiiccd and subscqiiently photographed by the ever?rescat tour afficers. The hcd-rock Eoundotjon of any am.y--the j nfantrpan--was givcr, a R ~ Y individual wapon-- the AK-74-- First sccn in!d.y 1979 in Wittenberg within the 1st Guards I'ank Amy (1 GTA) arm and seen :n all five GSFG almics prior to yea?'^ el& Ihc fact that GSFG ray store mom than twice RS wxh ammition in the prcsent storage space kf..en t.he change ovcr uf weapons is complete ccrtainly gcts ahe attention of the Western Iogisticiav as well as the zomandrr. 2. An extremely impressive xew capability was added to the 36 A4 with the introductius of the FI.O(X;ER G. This new airxaft, althcugh not ii completely new zixplanc, 'has tko new ;R search and track systcm which will give it a formidable look-dou;n/shoot-down :apabbil i ty. 3. Beyond cyuipment whizh was seen ior the first time in the forward area, considerable oldcz equi2msnt was introduced into neh units. ';%e SA-R intro rtwtion into ttc 10 Wt) lcft ucly the 6 Klr) withnut. SA-6 or SA-9, and the introduction of the 7-64 ir.to thc 16 ktd completes thc roster of all dtvksions in 2 GT4. 'fie CGd madc giant strides with the introduction of the PI.LlC;fEP P, the 'i'-72, and the 152 SP gun. The introdtiction of the W1.B into EGh cnits at Hallc, Leipzig and in amphibiobs training at Brandenburg Briest broadcned their hauling zapahility. The modification of the PORK *XOUGIi to fit the URATa-37S and the int.roduction of tlie M-16 into Border Comund completc the picture for the East Geman mxiitary. 4. On the Air sidc, thc introduction of the FII1'E:R I; and H at Allstcdt gives t5at regimcnt a new tiinension I.n aerial recomaissancc. The ncw height finder, ODD GKOIJY, at Rihnitz and Emstedt a?peors to have a more soyhisticatod CCCM capability. 5. Older weapons systcas ir, ncw plnrcs also occuirscd on thc air sidc. Two new attack telicoptar regimnts, HlYD D at Keimar Nvhra and IIINU E at Mahlwknsel, gavc me attack he1 icopter rcgiment for each Crowd Army. Ihe ncw BACK T W radar at Kirch*oeser fij 1 s a.io1 e in the Warsaw Pact fomard Ek; radar 1 inc. 6.?n addition to t.hesc weapons system introductions and wider deployments, IlSMLM inst itutiorial kmwltdge atioct bor tte S0viet.s do husincss was cr.hanced by the start-to-finish observat'ocs of a 29th Guards Army PJ'X and 11y unusually complete l'r l-mi ssion obscrvat i nns of a Soviet ai T power demonstration. Good dctai 1 was also added til?.hc underst.andir.g of thc smj -urinual troop rotation and the harrest support cxcrcises. IISKM Air and tiround observations cf il ;ommicati ons depl nymer,t from Wittenberg Teuchel helped OUT undcrstunding of Sovict air defense comnd anli control.

13 7. Two vf aur most spectacular ohscrvations were of eq:iiprr.ent v;hich may or ray not remain in fhp forward area. me photography nf the I R!X:FK during the air powcr dcnonstration, and thc photography of thc DR-9 aerial drone tmrisperter gzve analyst5 a good look at some se1do.n seen ec-aiprrent. 8, 1ISMI.M s SAt4UL)tISt program came in for its sharc of kldos. This program actualiy led the m y to our detestirg the introduction of the AG?4 as well as the Plsnya grenade launcher. Other highlights of this pt.ogriim inc1t;de cnusually complete docxnents on tank mai ntcnancc records from the Ki rchmoeser repair dcpo:, artillcry training nuns, a syllabus of aerial reconnaissance equipmnt and extensive tech data on comunications j anmers!j. Ihc transfer 0: thc LARKSPllR program to ODCSI USCOB dld not lessen that grogran s succcs.scs xh I IC it was st ill under Joint lisilm//dcsi USCOB control, TIC plmtorra?hy of the THIN SKlK B and SPI-8 nissile canister transporters forcs3adowed thc introduction of the SA-8 ir.tu the fi WID. Further understanding of t3c SA-8 operations was developed by observations at Schoncrr Training Area d55. E1ect.roni:: wrfarc and coxnand m:d control achicvcmcnt.s inclilde tic photography of thc mdificd GRILL TWIST, the aodified SIDE NET and thc B?4P M-1976 (2). 10. Tn contrast to the myriad of ncw intrccuc:.inns and inprnvencnis arid tn be entirely fair to the Soviets (always give tv.e devil his due), it is necessary to point out that ir: respmsc to thc Icaricrship of Chajrnan BrcLhncv, a few tanks an2 men were wfthtrawn, with mch fanfare, frum Witccnberg. Five IISM1.M tours, as wcll as extensive BRTXMTS and rmlm coverage added to TTi-viSSiOn reportxg 011 this :NUS) event. 11-2

14 succeeding suj-paragrephs Uivtsion continued its policy of attempting to collect everything of possible intelligence value. Khi?c the general thrust. af the collecrion efenort is toward arqtiisition of jnformation satisfyigg requirements expressed in KRts and CTR's, the opfortunities for collection of other jnfomation inhemnt in the presencc of 5. team of IJS observers in the GDN are not ovcriooked. Exm?lcs of oppcrtunity collection 1 isted below indica'oc how raximlr. use can be made of tte minutes and kilometers between military targets to ncq:iirc uscful anc si ZniEicant information. Thc severe storm of January and February afforded an npportuniry for collection of this nature, ali.holgh LOUT personnel exposed to the hazarzs and discomforts of this period might not use t+at uurd t.c describe their experiences. Tntir cars were nftcn the first or only vehiclcs down roads t.kt snovqlows hai temporarllq' opened between three mcter-drifts. 'lhe blizzard winds and mlar tempcratures crippled a large portior. nf the GI)!? for over two uccks in Jamm y, aarl USPl1.M was ablc tu gain a first-hand hpression uf disaster relief procedures, to includc ohrervinj: 3?ilitary, paramilitary, civil defense, and youth nreanizations clearing roacs and rescuing strandcd motorists, as well as providing sup?lies to towns and villages cut off from normal xsupvly by tie heavy sncw. Cosprehensive reporting of areas experiencing power shortages and blackouts vas provided, alone with nmerous ribsenrations of Soviet and East German troops participating not only in disaster reltcf operations, but also in the nperation 0: thc nation's ccal nines. In conversatiox with snowbound civilians and workers, CSMLM was &le to acquire information as -to hm the pnpiilace was bearing rrp under the tlxrden

15 IJSYYW ground tvurs almost a1;rays Iriclude OTW perso~i, either gffixr cw KO, with fluency :n the Sernan language. This capability can be used in mny, often unforeseen. circmstaxes to gather additional picces :If infrima::ion [IeTtaining to how the individual citizen manages tc get by in his Sociat is: paradise. LTC Hi1t.m and SSG Leknke spent a narntho2 sebsiori with a Stam-ntiqch group in Halle, gaining insights :ntn ciui 1 im opinions of the Soviet and East German mil it.ary forms, inciidini: infomatinn on mil i t.ary pay scales and wnrkprs' morn:e. %%J lvlnitgomery and SSC Kea1 were able 20 gather other ia-?ressioris of life in some of tjlc norc out of the uay smll cities, to inzluk Auk 1 am arid 3aut z en. Some of: these get-togethers weye, as eviienced by the photagrapph belnw, rather enjojrdble encounters. The ''Class A, Shah; the Flag" tours concentrate upon increasing visihi lity among East German ~ktizeii~, gathcring information on avai lilbil ity and prices of goods, and on fomulatiog of impressions of 1 ifc in tie GI)K..-.,..-

16 Anot'ier sxmqle of thc IJSMtH Ground Xvfsicns's ability to collcct information on civ: 1 ian matters of militaq interest was t.l-c init i stive cowrage Iiy l#tc Kxet-ich and SFC Gcrmaine of the n w East German nuclear power plant under cmstructlon near Stendal. Taking advantaec of 8 lull in activity, thc tour obtained cxtcnsive coverage of' the fac i l ity, prnvi di ng a detailed portrayal cf thc plant to interested agencies. 3ther insights int3 ZechnicaL advances by Warsaw Pact nations arc obtained during the twice-yearly coverage of the :,eipziy Tmdc Fairs. 'me tmr officer mc NCO spend days at a time walking through the exhihit halls, photographing everything in s.ight. {us SSS Tiffany is doing in the photo on followinp; page) and ccllecting nmerous technical brnchures frm exhibitors for forwardinr tu int ercs ted cor.sw.ers Geman language fluency is inva luas1 e in this effort., as nary of the Pair exhibitors are cxtrewly reluctant to impart any inforratlo? to a uniformed Axcrican. Thjs ycar's Fairs were held during Ma~ch and (12-39 Septcmbcr. USMLH twurs stayed at the Park Hotel And used the exposure t~ the hst [;eman populace tc acqtlire additiunal inpressions of life in the tiim. The Leipzig 'Trade Fairs provide a good change of PHCC from normal toiiring and cantribute sigmficantly to the YyIsslon's uollectio~ effort.

17 Evidence of the contirmir.e hjeh level 0:' i:l wzzl between Soviets an3 Last Germans uas never TIOX plainly prescntcd than to FiAJ Goff and SSG Roberts after a detention by Fast Germans in Havclbcrg. The Soviet Komandatura officer grilled the East Gerwiln officer in the Frescncr! nf MAJ Goff and even required written answers to questions concerning tte East Gernian officer's name, rank, and unit {Yonton Battalion), tu ir::ludt: urit. LesiEnation (5 ''onton Regiment). W J Coff, of course, tried to show a complete lack of interest in this conversation. Xhile erlroute to thc Lclpzig Fall Trale 1;ai.r one carly September morning, %- Montgomery and SSC Neal were stopped at the Treuenbrietzen railroad crossing when t.hc tour car was suddenly surrumded hy dismounted Soviet Z mops. TheA Soviet officer in charge informed WJ Montgomery that be was allover: 1.a travel only on the autobahn. As W Hontgosery screamed h,s ~utrsge, the s:te was hcsiegec by curious ci v5 L i an on1 ookers, The axdience became engn~ed in goodnatured conver~ntinn ui th t-hc tour pcrsonnel. So~e of the3 even told the Soviet officer that thc tour was atlthorrzed to travel 011 Konte 2. :)'hen 1-M Mnntgomcry askcd thc crowd whether the Soviets were sluays so stuyid, the replies rangcd from ''Sometimes" to ''ll~uallytt to "Alwzys!'' After holding the tour on the scene for upp-uxinately five minutes, the Soviet Dfficer, with much embarrassment, final I y re1 cased them. An excellent exwiiple of how East Gcman civilians I t.o 1 ncl udc t3xe rsmmally cxpcctcd to be hostile, have assisted USMIN tours is afforded by :.he story told by onc of tfe Mission's new tour ot't'icers. 5IA.J Mercer. As part nf :he Tri-Mission zovcrage of the return of East German units from the East Berlin 07 October Farads, Mk1 Mercer and SSG Neal st:rbed orit a rail 1 ine near Grnsshchran. 13 6

18 After an a1 1 nigtt vigtl duriag which eig3t FR3C-7 and four SCUD B were 0-2- served returning to Earrison, the tour attempted to leave thcir wooded 01' and retu-rn to Yotsdam. Ihfortunately, Car 15 chose not tr: tocperare; it refused to statt. Faced with the prospect of ~irichjiig at :cast 100 mcters uct of the OP, the tour set to their task at 0353 hours. Three holm later, they still b.ad 130 meters to go and it was gettirig light. SSG Scal, jumper cable in hand, went to 7out.e 1Cl t.0 flag down help. The first vehicle to pass was, predictably, a V3PO. Fortunately, he d it not stup. The second vehicle was a T~;lbant 7-601, driven by a =orstme:ster who promptly rchiikcd the tour YCO for sleeping in ''my woods," but then surpri singly offmcd to tdw the car out to Koutc 101. Being in nq position :.o rcfusc, although very bkeptical nf thc scwingmachine engine-nnwercd Trahants's ahility tu tow the big 3pel niplomat, the tour acccptcd tte offer. The Forstmister, an obvious expert in such mattc-s, detailud Ais wife and son to help tte tour officer push thc tour vel-.icle. lncredibly, the TTa3ant pul l,ed Car 25 u? the hi 11 and out or.to 3mte :01. Fiou all that was neetied %as a 12 volt battery for a jump. "Like on a tractor?" asked the bocstmeister wid fiashed off tn get onc. A half hour ltiter he returned, accoxpanled by a nei&bnr and thc trsctor. A quick hookup and the tour was once more nobilc. h d only just iri time: As.W mercer and SS(; Neal fin i skcd saying tl..eir goodbyes, evpress inp; thcir thanks,, and passink out cjgarettcs and other ir.:mtive items, a Narc*$ complctc with cancra, afprarcd at the edge of t'nc woods they had just departed. "Curses, foiled again I *' It my he that the primary cmis~: of difficulties between :he Soviets a3d their kist Gemmi allies is the language prohlcm. TIC warning sign shown in the?hoto belou HBS spotted outsictc a Soviet small arms range mti bivauac site withi7 Werder '1'rainir.g Area 451. The Cyrillic writirig warns: ''Sto?! Firing!" The omission of ar. 'le'' In the Geman rcwltcd in a partial past participlp strnngly suggesting use of the area as a field 1bt~iii.t. >-!A P' *f; iciname aefection:itt?iy zppl icd Iiy Tri-Mission mcchcrs to persoanel of the Ministry for State Security.

19 Continued corrcragc by Ground Division personnel of CSFC harvest support activity provided further information on this progran'q impact. on GSFG conbat rcadiness. Periodic cuverage of the supporting rraictcnancc dcpot in Leipzig resuited in il realistic estimatc of the 1979 workload generated by the h.rvest support progran. Recovered materials yrwvided detailed listings of Provisional Motor 'Sransport 3iattalions. Although only a limited quantity of ncw Ind previously unreported equipment was introduced into the GSFG and FCA inventories during 1979, etaipfient reglacement and cpgrade continued at a high lcvcl throughout the year. The I6 LTD received its T-64 tanks during the Spring, coplcting rcplacemnt ef the T-62 Kithin all divisions of the 2 tta. USYIH aiso monrtorcd the continuing qgrdc of GSFG communications and clcstronics systems. to include providing numerous photographs ut" iiew mriifications to BTR-hOPA command vchiclcs anc box bocy vehicles. MAtip:c coverage of TWIN PAR and 'MI5 TLKl? deplopcnts provided insights into required sct-up and tear-down times. Thc TWIN ZAR nas first spotted or. R mast at tlc Auer Bivowc Si?e during thc late summer, and several TNIK EAR modifications Here noted throughour; tne year. Numerous sighttngs of the KilmAZ truck series have traced these vchiclcs to muny Front-level imnit.4 and firrt.ter down ta Army Motor Transport KeEineslts. No confirn.sd sigbtings have been acquired as yet of KawAZ series vehicles at division nr lowcr level. Air de fwsc continued to receive consfdcrahll: attentim sithin GSFG. The SA-8 systera was introduced into the 10 GTD in late Fall nf thc year. Leavirig only?.hc h Gl'D without either SA-6 or Sh-8.The 6 LTDair defcnsc ZaTrison in Wittenberg has been empty of S-60 hl\a guns s'nce early Smncr; despite the withdrawal of clcmm:s of thc 6 GTD from GSx(; durinj: the well- publicized Brezhncv initiative of lgte 1979, the fccling remains that this unit will 'Jc rc-cquipped with citl..cr the SA-G OT SA-8. The AK-74 fzmily of snal; arms and the DR-5 aerial rcconnaissance drone nr: a mdificc EIL-135 chrcsbis were the twq major items of equipiient whose introduction into GSE'ti was ubserved in In addition ta providing imgcsy of thc AK-i'A a d munitoring its ir.trocuction intn a nininum of ten GSI'C t.ivvisims, USW also recovered two live 5.45" rounds which werc forwarded to US agcncics for tech i cal exploitat; on. Phnt.0grupb.y of the new mchi ncgun, the RPK-74, was a150 obtained. During t.he 07 Octo5er parade, the 5ast ~er-nms unveiled both the T-72 tank and the 352m SP Howitzcr, as well as parading the SA-6 arc1?hc SA-I). The latter two systems had hccn mported In thc E A inventory during A aajor Tri-Mission effort following the parade idmti-ficd the home garrison fur virtually ell surade units. TT-R

20 The nominal raiscn dl ctrc for USMih! is, of course, the naintenance of liaison wit3 the Corfiander ir. Chief, Sroup of Soviet Forces Germany, on behalf of the Comander in Chief, Uai ted S tat.es Army E>rope. Although. USFILM dcvotcs rathcr less than five percent of i t s time :.o?.his missinn, cettain intelligence benefits are realized fron this activity. Since the Soviet penchant for secrecy extends to such mndane matters as t6uhl~'4e?lgth, sa3 aries, dependent facilities, and similar lnnoccous su:,j ects, the informati elicite:-l by USMIX?er sonnel at Tri-Hissioc social funct :oris arld other ccntacts with Soviet personncl is frequently uf intcrcst to theater and national intclligencc ager.::i.er;. Of part i cjlar intetest in 1979 were the hi'ograph: c repvrts ~)n GSFG serior Dff iccrs ani their fanilics compiled by LtCol Rejlly, L'K Kosevich, and L,TC Benr-ing. Routine operat..ions, however, eoncentrate priaarily on itcma of ni 1 j tary :nt crcsx., As in zrevious years, there were many o&)ortuni ti cs for coverage o this natrrc. LnoS fortune, naturally, is essential. The experience of M N Montgomery and SSI; Cornell j3 VAY of last year denonstrated once mre that sxcessful collection is often a case of being in the right place at the right tine. During the cou~se of a policr: of a Sovist trainine: area jxt south of 3uchenwald, they noticed a number of StTallgC Objects in t3: czrly morning fog. When the fog lifted, their eyes (and cmertl) were greeted by a brand-new Soviet. Air Assail1 t 3eRjment eciulpped with HIND D. USMIA tours covered major Ssviet and East German field exercises m detail, acquiring observations of exercise movement phases and B wealth of xder cf battle Information, to includc confirmation :)f thc AT-S SPANC)RRL. in the 2 GI'A i rmntory. Exercise covcragc also includcd mu1 t i pl e obser-mt. ions of a six day corhhed GSFGJECA field training exorcisc in Septmkr. During dune aad July, GSFC; imposcd a total of six TRA's, barring access to a consrdcrablc?ortion of the CDR, to include many areas xear the GDR/FRG border. Tri-Mi ssion coverage for i ndi sati nnb of hostilities curxentratcd 011 'I'M borders, known m0vemer.t routes, and major garrison.:. ParticiFLnts In exerciscs associated with the TW's were identified; and early reporting tc the effect that :his was riomal traicing rather than mobilization was submitted. Ground Division monitored troop rotation clvsely during both tf,c Spr'ng and Fall pibases. As a rcsult of past cxperimcc, *.ours were asle to look for specific units at specified places and tn confirm two-way troop rotation, as well as to report units involved. For the first tiac, IISM:.M was able to provid2 a7 estinate of the total numjer D rotating troops in a specrfic unit, the 35 MRD.

21 2. Significant Sighting5 a ZAK 79: Deta!.le?. coverage of a 1 (3'A opposed forces between the Jueterboe and Liebwost: PRh's. Participating units irxluded elerents of the 9 TD, 6 GTD, 27 GHRD, and GSK-subordinate units. Tour personnel; LTC RenningjSFC Rosch and MU Ynntgolr.ery/SSiC; Cornell. b. 01,02 FEB '19: Detailed sovcrage of a 2T GMKE FYXX, providing updated l-.igh counts of BKI)M/StIGCER, RU-21, il-30, and other items of equipmnt [see photo next page). '1x1~ personnel: l,tc 3enning/SSC T<ffany

22 c. 02 FF.3 79: Detailed coverage of a 94 GMRD field exercise, to include elcments of the new SA-8 equipped AI! Regimext, moving between the Tenplin and Wittstuck t'k4's. 'Tour persome1 ; LlC 3w.ilton/SSG Martin and LTC Bcr.ning/ SSK Tiffany

23 . I,,, , c.' 27 FEE 79: First time ground photographfc covcragc! of t11c SA-8 TKl. with LANn ROLf. radar in "knocked dowri" :ravel position, prc~ioii$ ly note:'. or.ly Cur in$ rail mvenent. Tour pcrsonne:: (XI. Steger/SNG Martin....'. f. 26 MhH 79: Detailed, ciose-up, technical quality photograp:ty of TWTN D'ISH, TWTK PLATE9 U4Lh EAR, and associated electronic equipment at. thc Wj ttenserg/'l'euchcl Sosj e t comnuni cations sit c. Tour personnel : L7 C Penning/ SSG Tiffany. i

24 g. 23 APR 79: i<irst,time observation axd FhotozrapFy of corner reflcc?or Lecepthn devices at an operatlonsl.soviet 3-6 site in Neustrelitz. Year Pe h K4Y i+n OCT 79: Covcragc of i:*ie s::~*::ar~i~ml Svvsct and East German rai 1 bridge training W ~ provided S Sy almost all tour perscnriel. The extensive training actj-vity at tbe?rettir. traini72 site inc1::del; estabiishment Q ar. elaborate tent camp, stockpiling of large quantities of railroad bridging material s, and the actual bridge constmction Its~11 F. Detailed pano-amic coverage of the site and technical qnality photography of a new East Gerrcan LOC hridge was acquired. Tour personnel: COL StQVall/SSG Neal.

25 i. 21 M,,Y 79: Technical quality photogrsphy of an EtiA WRK TROlJGII on a Urd-375, associated with the 1.WU in Potsdam. Tour personnel- LTC Kosevich/ SSG Cornell. j. 21 HAY SEI 79: LntroLuction of the AK 74 series of S.45m3-1 Soviet small zmns inlo GSW vis one of tp.e real highlights of A1t:lough the First indication of t h presence of this weapon in the foryard arua was rotec as early as J~ne 1978 on G training poster iii Haufeld Training Area 432, the first siehting of the weapon was made only on 21 MAY 79. On that. ciatc,,tc Renning and CbfSGT Bourassr phvtographed three new Soviet troops walking down the main street of h ittenberg wit6 the shiny new weapons slun~ over?heir sho2lders. On 04 JIFN 79, Capt Mathfs and SFC Gcrmairp photographed a group os Soviet trainees armed with the AK-74 and the KPK-7L at Zottbus Iiisl a1 2:ltion 282. Ihc best close up ptotograpky of t5e hk 74 to date was obtained on 35 SEP 19 by MAJ Goff mc: SSG Bc;ricr..lust twn weeks later, MAJ Goff and SSG Krcse obtained the first two Live 5.45 AK-74 rounds in the coarse nf a pol:?si?l: of thc Lncvsdorf river cmss<ng site. Recovered along wft.h the t a m rounds were docm.ents pertairing to mmrition inventories, lot numbers, and training with th= AK-!4 - The nzw family of weapons has been confirmed wit3in ten Soviet divisicns tu date, and rare are cxpcctcd to %,llow (see t cx photcs immediately following) TT-14

26

27

28 - - k. Oh JllY?9: Close. up coverage and?:iotop-aphy of EI;A persvnnal t-raining Kith the OM-2 rangefinder ard ot.hes unj duntified optical eq:iipmsnt. [our persumiel.. MA.1 Mon t.gomccy/lt Lundg:en/SFC Gemmi ne. I. 13.TUN 79: Fi rst t imc sjght ing and phctoyraphy of t.hc M-4h l50rrm field gurr with the East German Border :ommdnd. Tour personnel: Cap HnrriFonJ 'J'SGT Falco Y I...

29 TI. 20 JUN 79: First tim ground photogrnphy and all around photographic coveragc of an acria! reconr1alssan:e drone niumtcd on a modified ZlS- 135 being surveyed into pas i ti on by a UA%-452T tvpographi c YR:I ~cle at Redlin/ I'reytowsoe Training Area 428 ~ This is the vcl-.iclr: that caused considera5j.e spec-jlation within thc intell izence comunity when FMLY s?ottyd it coining intc cocntry on 05 APR 79. A mmker nf aralysts thought it was thc SS-2E replaciq thc FR[lC;-'/ in Sov:iet divisions. Subsequent analysis confined it as the DR-3 drone; in the interim, USMLV taok no charxs, referring to it as the "U/I Missilc/Drone TF.1:' (AXA"7he l'.?ing"j. Tour personnel: PLLl (;off/ SSG Revier. n. 21 JlJN 79: First timc sighting and imagery nf the Tatra-148 tracfor with pruhahlc 1IL.S 20U. 78/" Self-laading Contaj ner Semitrailer with the MA. "cur personncl: KAJ Goff/SSG Bcvjcr

30 0. 27 AIL 79: One of IJSMLYIs newest tour officers, LTC Stewart. had a frvnt seat as the entire SA-8 Regiment of t. 1 ~ 20 GW3D lined up in Farade furmation in lriurzen Training Area 401. This was the first ground observation of SA-% iri the 2(1 GVRU. 'I'nur personnel! LTC Stcwart/ST;T Raney. F. 06 AKG 7s: Fixst ti.nt! ground photography nf tie new TWIN CAR OJI a lattice nst, acqxi red ir: the Auer 3ivouac /iller? Slr.e, north of Uresden. Tour Ferso-tneI : Ll'C StewartJSSG Bevner

31 q SEF 79: Detailed, st.art-to-finish coverage of B major 211 GA FTX in the Lehnin, Jwtesbog, Bsiesen Brir.d, and T,iekcrosc PKA's. Althouzh Sa~reS. by YRA's from ohscrviq mny of tk.e exercise-assoziated activities, tnur personnel were able to identify exercisc partici?ants, estahllst the probable exercise scer.ario and pf.asing, and provide clnse-up QbSCrvat50nS of actual excrc'se play, to inclade commentrry 011 tile lack of realism in several aspccts of the overall exercise scenarin, pocr light discipline and sec1irit.y prwti ccti, apparent use Df tcmprary staging arcas as a countermeasure against NATO targeting, and preplanned ai : and nuclear attar.ks. Tnur p,eersonnel: MBJ C;off/SSG Hevier/ SSG Roberts r, 15,16 SEP 79: Detailed covcrage u? return to gsrrison by e1cmcnt.s nf thc 21 MR3 ar.d the 94 SyRD. A total nf 12 military trains, a USMLW single tnur rt'cord, was observed, to include owe train carrying T-64 equipped with turretmounted proka3le smkc gnnade proiect.ors [SCC?hot0 newt. page! - Tom pnrsnnnel: MAJ!.ft.rcer/SSG Neal

32 S. OCT 79: Acqulsiticx of a sectivn of iaproved, rchhcr-bushed, live track hlock us2d on Soviet arid East Geman 1'-55, '1'-62, 'L-72, and athe-r trackcd vchicles (see photo below and next page, top). Tour personnel: hw EwffjSSC; Rrusc,... ',-

33 t. 37, OX OC'i' 79: While 11SMLM WES not tbsked to cover the 1979 Zast Berlin paraie com"rati ng the annnivcrsary of the GDR, we were respmsihle, together with RREXMIS and FYLII, for monitoring the returr. to gaxison of prticipsting cnits. As tl resdt of carcfulzy planned and coordinated road and rail surveillance, Lxit-equipner:t assocj at ions ucrc made for almst slll?arade items, to include confirmation of the presexe of ',he '1' 72 and 152rrm SP 3owitzcr in the Y TD (Partide photos of the 'I-72 a:td 152m SP IIowitzcr below and 03 the next page, courtesy of FFILM) 11-22

34 ..-. :I t '. ii. 05 MOV 79: In one trf t k nost C5fficult ani chalienglcg EShW opcratjnns vf tte year, a?.our ndnaged to Jcnetrate zilc triple secucrity feaces surrourtdirtg the BlarikcnSurR underemand coq 1 ex and vbtain the first pkotmzraphic coverage nf thc constructiuri activity in progress at this location. This is a target that will continue ta rcceivc attentf-or, despite nassivc secllrity rteasineq iesigncd to disumrrnge curiobit y scckers Toiir personnel CTC HiltonJ SP4 Evcrct?. I

35 Pea.tures: 1) i;nr 1ISMI,H, 1974 was truly the "Ycax of SANDDUNE." Xat only r;ss it an ex~rernely productive year in terns of documents col:?r,t.ec, translated, and foruarded ;almost half of all IS3 pagcs pyqarcc during 137Y containsd translations of recovered dcumer-ts) * it was also the ycar in which the merits of the pwgram were clcar!y recngnized by higher headouartcrs and in whirl- the resources necessary for its more effect ivc utili Lation were providcd. Project SANDWN6 was,,at :F.c heginning of thc yea? essent.ially a ore man operation, in the person 3f MY. Gmff Giles [seer: on folluwiqg page,sifting t.3rough a ~ C H batch of goodies), witn support f ~om I!S Army Soviet Forcign Arcs Cfffccrs on :4-day 'IUY Exon the US Axmy Rcssian Institate in Garnisch, a handful of US Army Field Stattor. Berlin personnel, and translatinn assets of the 18!dJ Ha in knic.h. By year's end, it :?ad expanded to a worldwidc program, employing Army and Air Force linguists on both contract and T1)Y hasis; mthwixatior. for tf.e hire of three LIS civilians OR a tcmporary local hirc basiq had been obtained from US Cormand Berlin, and actinn was underway to convert t!ic pusi:ions to pcrmanent Civil Servicc slots, pcrrjtting future recruiting wnrl dwide for the hest 1 inguists arai Table. 2) Support: proviricd to USYM for Project SANXiliNE during t.hc year ixc luded: [a) hi ts prov id i ny cor t-ract. support : SNIT - * -.MAJOR -. COYMAND ~?8 MI 3n U;iXLUR, Munich USA 1T.K TNSCOPI, XiS YA XVIIX Abr. Cnrp!; FOWCiIM, Ft Rragg XC 172 lrif Bdc F3HSCM. Ft Richardso~i AL 142 MI Linguist Co USAWCi, Salt Lake Ci t.y I1T PAGES r'hk MCINTH Sll 3u :b) tln:tr prnvidirig pcrsonnej on a pericdic/tcvorary hasis: UN.- T'7 m"yor CObWND..-- US Amy Iiussian Institute lkscom, C;:irmisch 'iclc Sfst: c:n Eerl in INSCCY, Berli3 142 MT I,ir.guist Co [ISARNG, Salt I,ake City- ITT 6312 HSG LSAFE, Rerl in 11-25

36 3) T5e assistarce provided by three of the previous agencies mentioned dgring 1979 wits part.icularly noteworthy. First of all, the officers of the US Amy qussian Institute were a source of cxtremcly high quality, largr: volume translations for the progrw,. Many of these officers have been, or will be, assigned as USMLY ~ Q U C officers.?ccrsonnel of the US Army Field Statim Rerlin also provided, during thc first four months o 1979, several of the hest qiialifietl. linguists the prograrr. has had. These individlals were of irmense assistance ir. red3cir.g the backlog of materials a d produced the vast. major: :.y of cor,trast. :.rznslat.inn supprt. to USMIM arid tid a superinr jnh of dca: ing with the materials by mi I, even t.hmqh th.1 s 'IS by far the most difficult method for handling translations. Our sincere gratitude goes to all of then, for helping to make 1973 a SAKUDIJE vintage year. 1 T -26

37 4: Several ndditioaal soiirccs for futurc translation sup?wt have Seen i dcr.ti fi ed, and neptiatims arc presently imicrway to obtain this atdcd assistaxe. '1F.ese s01; CECS include : -- SNIT MAJOR COMMAND TYPE. ".-. SIIPPORT.- IJSA Reserve Affairs, Ear~pe USAX, fhnich Amy Kee ervi st s Field Station Augshurg USAIIEIIR, Augsburg Contract %?port IKSCOM Ags3ci cs In'SCO1.l, MlS VA Contract Sn?,post USAF lntel Svc CKcserve) USAF, Rolling AFB n2 IISAF!<e scr:g. s t s 5) 1\11 USMLM tour vfficers and NCO's partwipate ifi the ccilcctiuri of Sovjet documents, even thougb. primary responsibility Tor this effort riaturzlly rcsts wit.11 thc Russian linguists. Spac": :onsiderations pdiihit listing of all significar't finds ; tae short list below sc'rves BS an ixlicator of the scop? and value of the projirm.: (a; T-64 anti ai rcraft mnch i ncgun tadinical data and?.raining inf omat ivri. (b) SA-7 deploy" and *.raining data. (c) Mi - 2 f 1 ight records and maintenance logs, provid j ng a complete hi s t.ory of twn EOYLITL he1 i copters. I

38 Id; 'I'ec:lnic.al data un various conmunications jarr.ming devices. (e) datu. Radio call signs and frequencies, to include sensitive cudword (E) 16 Air Army comar.d and staff biogray3,:lic data, to include names, ranks, and positicns, and order of hattlc information, to include?py1s and VRV'S. Cg) G bicgra_oaic data ;md w2er cf Sattle information, sirr*i:ar to that Cor 16 Air Amy. [h) Cparats'sJmachani:t s manualls on nmexous Soviet trucks, to inul ride nat.eria3 on the newest ZTI,-series: vehicles. [i) Largc quantities of h'3c tcchnisal and trainiqq mtarials, to include cun-?lete sets of FrDtective clothirg and ecuipment.

39 ( j) Medical ar-d 'naspital records. (k) 12 cnnplete training syllabus on aerial photoaraphy equipment and training methods. (1) Largc quar.tltics of discarded cnvclopcs and cther docuner.t.s con- Lairing FPN's cscd to Lcsignatc military units. SFC Germaine preparec a report covering on1 y newly di scovered FPh" s. (n) A manud of artillery trainlng norms, providing Letailed inform t ion on t!mes required tn prepare mrious arti 1 lery weqxms for firing and ~ t operations. h ~ (n) Detai led infornabi on nn regimental ai P clcfcnsc cq::ipent ization. and organ- (0) The first factmy markings for the 152mn SP Houitzer. (p3 T-62 tsnk factory markings, mileage statistics, rsintenanzc rccords, end related records for tuc tank battnliuns

40 (q) Detailel production maintenance recozcs, to incluze scores af r'actury narkings, serial numbers, and other vita; records from a major GSTG tank naintenance facil ity at Kircheo.,. ascr. (r: l'he first indication of the prcsence of the ACS-17 (Pla-nyaj grenade 1 kunc'rer in the (;SF(; i nvcntory. [s: Complete unit. records for a GSFG maintenance rompany, providing what anounts tu the TOEF and mornirig report for that wit.

41 .,

42 b. EXP'IEISES: Major Soviet ar.d Ezst Gcrnan CPX/FI'X activity, including at least one major mmhined excrci st:, proviccd pl cnty of oppportim ities for Grcunrl Division tour pcrsomcl tn study Harsaw?act tactical do::trine at firs:. harid. Virtually all tour pcrsoancl had thc chancc to monitdr troop movements, observe exercise scccari os t1,~fo 1 d, i nuentory eqkii pent involved, evaluate rainlenawe problem, document interoperabbllity, and providc ntbr nbwrvxtions rclated to tl-.ese tactical eperations. Excrrisc :hctivitics at Xrmy Ict-cl, conducted between major PKA's, providci cxtensive 1mks at several PRA-bused divisions, ixluhng the Soviet T GTn and 9 GTD. During June and Luly, uheri the only six Soviet 'Tltr\'a 3f thc year were inpsed, several tours were able to identify participatinz units, spot [iew cquipmcnt. and ccver much of the seer-ario simply by patroliing the Fcrimcters of thc TRA's for iminence of hosti:ities factnrs. 'Ihc mnth of September proviced a wea1t.h of exerc:se-rclat.cd ossanations, ir;cluling coverage of a major 20 GA excrcise bctwcc~ the Lchnin, Jueterbog, Briesen Brand, ard 1 ieberose YM's, as wtll as extensive coverage by numroas tours 3f a major combined dovie?/f,m E X. That cxcrcisc prozuced some nf the best evidence seen to datc of Sovict/EGA intexonerabbility at the trnop Icvel, a~ aspest of iya~aw Pact operations which is nuch heralded in prnpapndn, h t seldom encour t ere2 i 3 practice. c. IKSTRLTAT13X COViWGE: As aiwnys, considerzble time and effdrt rcnt irta tf.c coverage of %viet and East Gsrman installations, trainina &.reas, kit-ou~c/ alert sitcs, field command ps:s, rivcr Erossing sites, and nthcr nil i tary faci 1 it ics during Thesc facilities art! covered nct. only :I> keep tl close March on imminence of hostjtjt'es factors, but ~L~SQ simply t:, nonitor additims, deletions, Ghanges, or other indications 3f abnornalities which might surface. A perfect. example was thc sadden departure of a: S-bC 57nm A M Lxns and associated equipment from thc 6 GTD in eatly Sumcr 1979, leading to speculation that the SA-6 or SA-X umld smc re?lacc the S GO la the division's Ai4 regiment. Jhe failowing exm?les provide somc indicatio9 of thc variety of installation and facility coverage iwolved. (1) 19 JAF1 79: DctsiLed ccvcragc of WolfedBitteTfeld Training Area 411, to i nr 1 ude extensive photography of training posters pertaininr to mal 1 ur.it tactics, NBC defensive training, preprat lons OF defensivr: ynsitions, use of night vision md other devices, and addi t ima 1 squad- Ievv81 trai.r:ing and tactics [see ~boto rex: rage). Taus personnel : 1,X Bcnnhg/SSG Ya-t.in

43 , I..:., I,,, 12) C6, 07 FFA 79: First time observation of '1-64 in h'eustrelitz Installation 221 and Neustrelitz l'rzining Area 146, confirming introduction of' the T-64 into the 16 GTD. Tuur personnel: I,TC Hwnilton/SFC Roach (31 26 MAR 79: Firat 'hi-mission sighting of T-62 in Wurzen TraininR A~ea 401, indicatinr pos-sihlc reequipping of the PRA-based 73 LYWI Lank cl ements with the 'I' 62. Tour personre: : LTC Bennixg/SSG 'Tiffmy. [4) 01 AIW 79: Hetailed and ext.cnsivc wvci the wall coverage UT the GSFL harvest vehicle maintenaxe support facility at Lcipzig lnstallation 554 [see photo next page). TOUT pc?snnnci : MAJ Goff/SSS Martin, MU Hont);onery/ MA1 YercerJSSG Ti fan y, Cspt ht3i s/ssg Sctiatz.

44 (5) 24 APR 79: First tine observation of '1-62 at 1Iillersleben Tn5ta;l.ation :!81/2$7, indicct1r.e replacenen: of T 55 in the lndependent 'I'ani Kegirnent/ 3 SA. Tour personnel: COL Stovall/Capt Vathis. [h) 16 MAY 79: Over ti.e w&l: cnverage 3f IiaLlc Installation 006, us:ng the added 5eight advan%gc o tke Dodge Ramcharger, resalting in first obscrvation of WLR and 7' 12 at this insta: lation and confisning prcsencc of thc 17 AT Ball1 MRD. Tour?ersonnel: Kk.J Montgamery/SSG Tiffany. '* Q x. -...,..,-...., I. Xi-34

45 [SI 11,12 tjun 79: First time photoi;rapiic sovcrage of EGA hlt1,.3 variants involvcd in amphibious trgining at arandenburg, jriest Training Area 4: 0. Tux persomel: Capt XathislSFC RoachjSSS Brvier. IT I

46 [9j 27,XlN 79: Detailed rmvcragc of night firjnnff cxcrcises Sy T-64 turretmounted anti aircraft madiiriewuns at Jaennersdorf Training Area 4C1, incl idin,: a complete description of range prozedures, coritrol nethock, targets, and sequence nf f!.ring. The tour confirccd the T-fi4's capbi 1 I ty to engage gruurid targets with the tutrct-mounted machinegun with all hatches closeti. Tau: pcrsonnel: LTC Rcnning/SSC Neal a d K4.T Morccr/SSG Hevier. (10) 04 SE? 75 : Comprehcssivc informati on on Soviet harvest support aztivi?.ics was again ohtained in 1979 through a carepi1 and thoroxgh police of the Neustral itz harvest support staging area subsequent to the departure of?he M? Rn (Yrov)[Barvest Support) for duty i.r. thc Soviet Unicm. Recovered documents provided a wealth of infcrrnation on thc tinit, to include: unit designation; cui.warder; vch: clc harvest support narking systen; length of time spent in unit organization and prepnrztion in the staging arua; the GSFG parent imits whlch flmishcd vehi:les, equipment, and peyso~ncl to the butta 1 ion; nechanical condition OF, and naintenance required for, assigned vehicles; squawd, platorin, and company 'ro&eis; natiuntlity, party/komsoxnl Lffiliation, educational level, date of birth, date of conscription, duty?ositi.cn, and assibmtd vehicle for personnel assignec to the battiil ion; and the sc3eduled departure date, di rcetion of travel, and transshipmen: poirlt-s for the unit. 'I'h is infomat inn should pernit add1 t<onal ref'ilenmt: of existirig data on the nature and extent of this ar.nuaz Sorrowing of trwp and vehicles and its overall impact cn GSFG [see photo below), Tour?ersonriel MA.! Gnff/SSG Bevier.

47 (llj 2 3 1)F.C 79: First reporting of occjpar.:y by an ETA engineer clement of the ai 1 itary facility uindcr construction at Up.lLt.7.sch since Recently completed vekiclc storage sheds and vehicle ;>arks were fi llcd wj th CSP, PTS-M, PMP, and assorted sr:?part vclzicles; the 1:xal trainir-g area wross thc road from the installaairin uas nearly coqleted md rcady Cor use.?our personnet: NU Montgume ryjssc; '1 i ffany/sgt h'oodrur,f. i