# Predictive rate control for realtime video streaming with network triggered handover

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5 (a) Estimated bandwidth = 80% (300kbps) (a) Estimated bandwidth = 80% (300kbps) (b) Estimated bandwidth = 100% (384kbps) (b) Estimated bandwidth = 100% (384kbps) (c) Estimated bandwidth = 120% (460kbps) (c) Estimated bandwidth = 120% (460kbps) (d) Estimated bandwidth = 150% (576kbps) (d) Estimated bandwidth = 150% (576kbps) Fig. 5. Number of frames in playback buffer. Fig. 6. Cumulative number of frame losses. B. Simulation Results Figure 5 plots the transition in the number of video frames in the playback buffer when the available bandwidth was changed from 1 Mbps to 384 kbps by handover. Q was set to 5. When the proposed scheme was not used, there were a smaller number of frames in the buffer just after handover. When the rate control message was sent before handover, and the estimated bandwidth was smaller than the real value or much the same (Fig. 5(a), (b) and (c)), the number of frames returned to Q within a shorter time. The faster the rate control message was sent, the faster the buffer returned to the ideal state and became stable. However, when the estimated bandwidth was much larger than the real value (Fig. 5(d)), the number of frames did not return to Q for a long time. Note that even if the error in predicting the bandwidth is large, the number of frames in the playback buffer returns to Q faster than with the conventional scheme. Figure 6 plots the transition in the cumulative number of picture frame losses. These losses occurred because the packets making up the frame did not arrive before the frame played back. The simulation conditions were the same as in Fig. 5. When the proposed scheme was not used, more than 25 frames were lost for 2000 ms after handover. When the estimated bandwidth was not too large (Fig. 6(a), (b), (c)), almost no frame was lost 400 ms after handover though some frames were lost just after handover. The later the rate control message was sent, the more frames were lost. When the estimated value was larger than the real value, differences between the conventional and proposed schemes became small. Figure 7 plots the transition in the data transmission rate from the correspondent host. This value was calculated from the data size in transmitted frames. When the proposed method was not used, the data transmission rate suddenly decreased at 800 ms after handover. And it reached the minimum value defined in the simulation. On the other hand, when the estimated bandwidth was not too large (Fig. 5(a), (b), (c)), the data transmission rate decreased around the timing of handover IEEE Communications Society / WCNC /05/\$ IEEE

6 (a) Estimated bandwidth = 80% (300kbps) (b) Estimated bandwidth = 100% (384kbps) (c) Estimated bandwidth = 120% (460kbps) (d) Estimated bandwidth = 150% (576kbps) Fig. 7. Data transmission rate. and the value quickly approached the real available bandwidth. The faster the rate control message was sent, the faster the data transmission rate improved. When the estimated value was too large (Fig. 5(d)), even if the predicted bandwidth was sent to the correspondent host, the data sending rate decreased to the minimum value, because the too large data sending rate caused packet losses and decreased the number of the frames in the playback buffer. Once the data transmission rate become small, it took a long time to reach the real available bandwidth. Of course, this speed depends on parameter α to enlarge frame data size S(i). If this value is larger than the value we used in simulation, S(i) will become large sooner. However, as a larger α may create much larger transmission rate oscillations and more packet losses. α should be selected carefully. For example, in (Fig. 7(c)), when the rate control message was sent at 200 ms before handover, the data transmission rate decreased at 1800 ms after handover. This was caused by too aggressive augmentation and too large predicted value. Although the results are not shown, we simulated cases when the RTT between a mobile device and the correspondent host at the new AP was 200 ms on assumption that a mobile device handed over from a cell covered by a wireless LAN AP to a cell covered by a 3G AP. In the results, there was the same tendency as in Figs These results revealed that even if the estimated available bandwidth differed somewhat from the real value, our scheme, which could predict the available bandwidth quickly and accurately, could prevent picture frame losses and the playback buffer from being starved on mobile devices. However, too early or too pessimistic predictions will greatly decrease the application QoS of streaming video. Finding suitable timing and predictive values remains a serious problem that needs to be solved. V. CONCLUSIONS We evaluated the effectiveness of a predictive QoS control scheme for real-time video streaming on a mobile network with network triggered handover. In the scheme, application programs on a mobile device with the network and application cooperation scheme control the data transmission rate according to the estimated value of the available bandwidth after handover. This scheme is essentially have an ability to benefit not only mobile devices going to handover but also ones that has been associated with vicinal APs. This cannot be achieved with conventional-receiver report-based approaches. The simulation results revealed that fast and pessimistic rate control before handover works effectively. Additionally the proposed scheme could be said to be effective in real-time streaming video as compared with the conventional schemes. Although we neglected in the simulation, to investigate the behavior of devices other than the mobile device on handover is important. If these devices could know the handover and the effect in advance, they would be able to control their application s data transmission rate appropriately. Comprehensive study including this function will be our future work. REFERENCES [1] H. Lach, C. Janneteau and A. Petrescu, Network Mobility in Beyond-3G Systems, IEEE Communication Magazine, pp , July [2] H. Yumiba, K. Imai, and M. Yabusaki, IP-Based IMT Network Platform, IEEE Personal Communication Magazine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp , October [3] D. Wu, Y. T. Hou, W. Zhu, H-J. Lee, T. Chiang, Y-Q. Zhang, H. J. Chao, On end-to-end architecture for transporting MEPG-4 video over the internet, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 10, no. 6, [4] T. Turletti and C. Huitema, Videoconferencing on the Internet, IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 4, pp , [5] M. M. Krunz and M. Hassan, Adaptive rate control scheme for video streaming over wireless channels, in Proc. of the Data Compression Conference (DCC 04), [6] M. Kuroda, M. Inoue, A. Okubo, T. Sakakura, K. Shimizu, F. Adachi, Scalable Mobile Ethernet and Fast Vertical Handover, in Proc. of IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC2004), A27-3, Mar [7] P. Calhoun, B. O Hara S. Kelly, R. Suri, M. Williams, M. Vakulenko, Light Weight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP), internet draft draft-ohara-capwap-lwapp-00, Mar [8] ITU-T Recommendation G.711 (11/88), Pulse code modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies, IEEE Communications Society / WCNC /05/\$ IEEE

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