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2 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Workshop Agenda... 4 Acronyms and Abbreviations... 6 Goals, Dimensions and Challenges... 7 Section 1: Presentations... 9 Session 1: General Presentation of the Teacher Allocation Issue... 9 Session 2: Country Experiences in Teacher Deployment: Challenges, Lessons Learned and/or Promising Experiences Session 3: Tools to Support the Management of Teacher Deployment Session 4: Perspectives for the Improved Management of Teacher Allocations Session 5: Group Work Section 2: Challenges, Practices and Tools Challenges Practices and Solutions Tools and Success Models Section 3: Perspectives Annex: List of Participants International Institute for Educational Planning/Pôle de Dakar (IIEP - UNESCO) The IIEP/Pôle de Dakar is a platform of expertise in education sector policy analysis. Founded in 2001, it has been providing expertise to African governments for over 15 years. The Pôle de Dakar s activities contribute to UNESCO s support for the development of effective, feasible, equitable and endogenous education policies in Africa. The ideas and opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors; they do not necessarily reflect the points of view of UNESCO or IIEP. 2

3 Introduction The Regional Workshop on Teacher Deployment held in Nairobi in May 2017 is the second of its kind to be organized by UNESCO s International Institute for Educational Planning, in the context of its mandate and mission to support effective education policy development in African countries. It built on the success of the previous workshop, held in Dakar in July 2016, focused on teacher allocation and management practices in West Africa. The countries of Central, Eastern and Southern Africa were invited to this workshop. In all, sixteen GPE member countries were able to attend: (i) 8 francophone countries: Burundi, CAR, Chad, the Comoros, Djibouti, DRC, Madagascar and Senegal; (ii) 7 anglophone countries: Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe; and (iii) 1 lusophone country: Sao Tome and Principe. Several donors and development partners provided financial support for countries participation, and/or participated directly in the workshop: - Donors who sponsored the workshop and attended: GPE, who financed country participations through its partners, such as UNICEF (Burundi, Madagascar, CAR, Sao Tome and Principe), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC - Chad) and Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD - Malawi) - Donors who sponsored the workshop without attending: GIZ/Back Up (Comoros, Rwanda, Tanzania), UNICEF Djibouti, UNESCO DRC, UNICEF Zimbabwe and UNICEF Chad - Participating development partners: GPE, French Cooperation Agency, UNICEF ESARO, African Union, International Education. - UNESCO, through its Regional Office for Eastern Africa in Nairobi, its Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education in Bangkok, as well as its House for a Culture of Peace in Bujumbura. - Of note, Lesotho covered the cost of its participation wholly and directly. Proceedings The following African countries made or were covered by plenary presentations: Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda and Senegal; Sao Tome and Principe was also spontaneously given the floor. A presentation of practices in Asia further covered Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos PDR, South Korea and Japan. Following the panelists presentations, sometime was provided by moderators for participants to ask questions or discuss the themes covered, on the basis of their own accounts, exchanges and the comparison of country experiences. Note. Both the Dakar and Nairobi workshops were based on the findings of the same preliminary working paper, Teacher Deployment and Utilization in Africa, published by the IIEP/Pôle de Dakar in May 2016, and in both instances the countries invited to participate were offered the earlier opportunity to reflect on and share their experiences by completing the same survey. The organization, approach and agenda of the Nairobi workshop also mirrored that of Dakar. There is naturally a high level of convergence between the presentations given, issues raised and debates that took place as a result, which is in turn reflected in the two mirroring workshop reports. 3

4 Workshop Agenda This agenda reflects the effective sequence of activities, according to the adjustments made throughout the workshop, which took place in English, French and Portuguese. Wednesday 17 May h00 09h30 Opening Ceremony, with the Speeches of: - Gry ULVERUD Education Specialist, UNESCO Regional Office for Eastern Africa - Jean-Marc BERNARD Deputy Chief Technical Officer, GPE - Guillaume HUSSON Coordinator, UNESCO/IIEP/Pôle de Dakar - Simon KAVISI Cabinet Secretary representing the Minister, MINEDUC Kenya 09h30 10h00 10h30 13h00 14h00 17h30 Presentation of the Workshop Background, Rationale and Objectives, and Adoption of the Agenda (Beifith KOUAK-TIYAB Deputy Coordinator, UNESCO/IIEP/Pôle de Dakar) SESSION 1: Overview of the Teacher Allocation Issue in Sub-Saharan Africa (Moderator: Mamadou NDOYE, Consultant) - Presentation of the Working Paper (Patrick NKENGNE Education Policy Analyst, UNESCO/IIEP/Pôle de Dakar) - Presentation of the key findings of the analysis of the country questionnaires (Koffi SEGNIAGBETO Education Policy Analyst, UNESCO/IIEP/Pôle de Dakar) - Sharing and discussions - GPE and the Teacher Deployment Issue (Talia de CHAISEMARTIN and Jean- Marc BERNARD GPE) - Teacher Development in Agenda 2063 and CESA (Beatrice NJENGA Department of Human Resources, Science and Technology, AU Commission) - Sharing and discussions SESSION 2: Country Experiences in Teacher Deployment: Challenges, Lessons Learned and/or Promising Experiences (Moderator: Jean-Marc BERNARD Deputy Chief Technical Officer, GPE) - Madagascar s Experience in Teacher Deployment (Sandrot RABEANDALANA HR Director, Ministère de l'éducation Nationale) - Teacher Management in Kenya (Mary Rotich - Director of Teacher Management at Teacher Service Commission ) - Questions and Sharing Thursday 18 May h00 11h00 SESSION 2: Country Experiences (Continued) - Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region on Efficient Teacher Allocation (Akemi ASHIDA Programme Officer for Inclusive Quality Education, UNESCO/Bangkok) - Decision-Maker Experiences in Recruitment, Deployment and Utilization of Teachers: Example of Education Volunteer Project in Senegal (Mamadou NDOYE Consultant and Former Minister of Basic Education and the Promotion of Local Languages in Senegal) - Questions and Sharing 4

5 Thursday 18 May 2017 (Continued) 11h30 15h00 SESSION 3: Tools to Support the Management of Teacher Deployment (Moderator: Gry ULVERUD Education Specialist, UNESCO/Nairobi) - Teacher Management Information System - TMIS Rwanda (Claudien NZITABAKUZE Deputy Director General, Ministry of Education) - Integrated Management of Resources Based on Rational Allocations - MIRADOR in Senegal (Mamadou SONKO - MIRADOR Administrator, DRH/Ministère de l éducation nationale) - Questions and Sharing 15h00 16h00 16h00 16h30 SESSION 4: Perspectives on Teacher Allocation for Better Management (Moderator: Virgilio JUVANE Senior Programme Coordinator, UNESCO/IICBA) - Teacher Deployment and Utilization in Education Planning and Management: Challenges and Perspectives (Mamadou NDOYE Consultant and Former Minister of Basic Education and the Promotion of Local Languages in Senegal) - Questions and Sharing SESSION 5: Organization of Group Work (Beifith KOUAK-TIYAB Deputy Coordinator, IIEP/Pôle de Dakar) - Distribution of participants into two groups - Presentation of the theme for each group - Group 1: Information Systems to Support the Management of Teacher Allocations - Group 2: Governance Mechanisms and Transparency in the Teacher Allocation Process - Explanation of the instructions and guidelines Friday 19 May h00 12h00 SESSION 5 (Continued): Group Work - Retreat of the groups to carry out the group work - Finalization of the restitution by the groups rapporteurs and presidents 13h30 14h30 14h30 16h00 SESSION 5 (Continued): Restitution of Group Work (Moderator: Lynne SERGEANT, IIEP-Paris) - Restitution of each group s work by the rapporteurs - Sharing and discussions Proposals, recommendations and outlooks for the monitoring of the improvement of Teacher Deployment - Workshop Summary (Léonie MARIN, IIPE and Barnaby ROOKE, Consultant) - Final thoughts (Lucy NJURA BARIMBUI, Education International) - GPE Perspectives (Talia De CHAISEMARTIN and Jean-Marc BERNARD, GPE) - IIPE Perspectives (Guillaume HUSSON, IIPE) - Further thoughts (Beatrice NJENGA, AU Commission) - Closing remarks (Dinah MWAITA, Teacher Service Commission Kenya) 5

6 Acronyms and Abbreviations ADEA AFD ANP AU CESA CAR CONFEMEN CSH CSR DDC DPP DRC DRH EFA EMIS ENI GIZ GMR GPE GPI ICT IIEP MEN MINEDUC MOE PACTED PASEC PTR REB SACMEQ SDG SSA TMIS TTI UIS UNESCO UNICEF UPE Association for the Development of Education in Africa Agence Française de Développement Assembleia Nacional Popular African Union Continental Education Strategy for Africa Central African Republic Conférence des ministres de l'éducation des États et gouvernements de la Francophonie Centrale Syndicale Humanisme Country status report Direction du développement et de la coopération Direction de la prospective et de la planification Democratic Republic of Congo Direction des ressources humaines Education for All Education management and information system École nationale d instituteurs Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit Global Monitoring Report Global Partnership for Education Gender parity index Information and communication technology International Institute for Educational Planning Ministère de l'éducation Nationale Ministry of Education Ministry of Education Pan African Conference on Teacher Education and Development Programme d'analyse des Systèmes Éducatifs de la CONFEMEN Pupil-teacher ratio Rwanda Education Board South African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality Sustainable Development Goals Sub-Saharan Africa Teacher Management Information System Teacher Training Institute UNESCO Institute for Statistics United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation United Nations Children s Fund Universal primary education 6

7 Goals, Dimensions and Challenges The Main Goals of the Workshop - Inform about the need and relevance of paying particular attention to the teacher allocation issue (beyond the usual aspects of recruitment and training), with a view to improving equity and efficiency in teacher management; - Share country experiences and question teacher deployment/allocation systems/ mechanisms, highlighting strengths and weaknesses; - Exchange and capitalize on good practices and innovative tools for a better management of teacher allocations, considering national contexts; and - Disseminate innovative practices and tools to contribute to the development and enrichment of common public goods. Key Dimensions Covered The workshop focused mainly on the deployment of teachers; however, the teacher issue being central to education in general and to the quality of learning in particular, discussions broadened to encompass several issues in order to reach interrelated perspectives of a set of processes and parameters related to the topic. In this context, the following dimensions were covered in the course of the presentations, exchanges and discussions: - The projection of teacher needs, and the identification of staff gaps to fill - Recruitment and training - Deployment and transfers - Teacher utilization - Pedagogical management - Monitoring of attendance and performance - Intrinsic and external motivation, and the revalorization of the profession - Professional development and remuneration - Deontology - Attrition Challenges Identified A number of sector challenges related to the broader teacher issue were highlighted: - Equity. This dimension is two-faced, as on the one hand teaching must be provided to all children in comparable conditions, and on the other, all teachers, regardless of their personal characteristics, must be allowed to work in reasonable conditions. This implies a trade-off. - Quality. The multidimensional factors impacting learning quality include most of the dimensions mentioned above, from the learning environment (class size), to teacher profiles (training), as well as motivation, attendance, etc. - Efficiency in public spending. In Africa as elsewhere, teacher salaries represent the lion s share of education spending. In a context where enrollment numbers are exploding and many 7

8 countries are setting their goals in terms of universal basic education, the sustainability of salary spending necessarily implies an improvement in the use of teachers. - Credibility. The mid/long term process of education system planning, whose financing and implementation rely on multilateral partnerships, requires an unequivocal demonstration that optimal solutions are sought out in terms of teachers that represent the greatest expense item. Due to unavoidable budgetary trade-offs, the achievement of SDG4 and other international commitments are at stake. - Transparency. Transparency in the management of teachers is a challenge not only in terms of internal efficiency and outward credibility, but also in terms of teachers themselves, being a basic mechanism to combat demobilization and demotivation. In the light of these objectives, dimensions and challenges, this report s goal is to account for the workshop s activities, and the wealth of exchanges and discussions that took place. It may be used as an aide-mémoire by participants, not to find all the detail required for the technical and political management of teacher allocation processes, but to make available to them a thought-provoking document that constitutes a starting point towards a body of resources, documentary and human, that are relevant to the initiatives and experiences of the region. 8

9 Section 1: Presentations Session 1: General Presentation of the Teacher Allocation Issue Moderator: Mamadou NDOYE, Consultant Presentation of the Workshop Working Paper: Teacher Deployment and Utilization in Africa, May 2016, IIEP/Pôle de Dakar Patrick NKENGNE Education Policy Analyst, IIEP/Pôle de Dakar Several sector diagnoses highlight a common reality: an apparent shortage of teachers in some areas or subjects, and their inequitable allocation. The presentation reviewed the analyses carried out by the Pôle de Dakar, and common findings. The analyses carried out are based mainly on the following indicators, according to the cycle: - Primary, characterized by the one teacher-one pedagogical group binomial: the PTR, the degree of randomness in teacher allocation, the relationship between the two, or between the number of teachers and the number of pedagogical groups at the school level. - Secondary, characterized by a situation of several teachers, one per subject-several pedagogical groups: the ratio between theoretical and effective teaching times, and the availability of teachers per subject. These indicators, that reflect countries policy choices, enable an appraisal of the sufficiency of overall teacher numbers, national capacities to achieve set goals, disparities among countries, regions or schools, and some of the difficulties encountered. They also raise certain questions about the relevance of measurement tools, the criteria for the creation of a pedagogical group or its minimal size, about the definition of what constitutes a reasonable allocation, or about the criteria used to appraise the equity of deployment. Indeed, such indicators do not reflect the fact that some schools or areas are over or under-endowed in teachers, which is not equitable or efficient in terms of the use of public education expenditure, and will have an impact on quality, in particular in those schools that are under-endowed. Considering this reality, the term shortage should be used with care, as in fact it refers to localized situations of under-endowment, resulting from inefficient teacher deployment, with the exception of some secondary subjects that are particularly difficult to recruit for. 9

10 Presentation of the Key Lessons in Teacher Allocation Practices in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa Learned from Country Responses to a Survey Koffi SEGNIAGBETO Education Policy Analyst, IIEP/Pôle de Dakar A questionnaire on institutional/statutory frameworks and teacher allocation practices containing 28 questions was sent to 14 Central, Eastern and Southern African countries. The responses of 12 countries were compiled to extract key findings. The findings are that: (i) recruitment is highly centralized; (ii) the determination of needs is carried out mainly at the local level (schools) by school directors; (iii) almost all countries have standards for class size; (iv) commissions posting decisions are fragile, vulnerable and poorly respected, which appears to be related to the reality that few countries practice a post-based recruitment policy and to the absence of decision-making tools in a majority of countries; and (v) the uses of teachers reflect very diverse practices, in particular with respect to teachers workloads and pupils study times. The majority of countries would appreciate technical assistance in micro-planning (school catchment areas) and the implementation of software and online tools, and agree on the need to involve all players, political and legislative, civil, technical and financial in the allocation process. Exchanges and Discussions Participants contributions raised the following issues: The variable country situations outlined may be partly explained on the basis of demographics and economic trends that should be taken into account in education policy and planning. Regional variations in terms of teacher usage can be substantial within a given country, with some areas (or islands, as in the case of the Comoros that raised this issue) generously beating goals. Equity in teacher selection is central to quality. This first plenary was also the opportunity for several countries to highlight some specific aspects of their national experience: - Zimbabwe has a strict public service commission, ensuring all teachers are budgeted for. It also ensures that all primary teachers meet the key skills requirement, including in science and sport subjects. - Kenya lacks a guiding policy on staff, although there is a staffing norm for primary (provision for one extra teacher for every eight classes), secondary (curriculum-based establishments) and tertiary. - Rwanda identifies teacher needs centrally, and then apportions staff among districts. - DRC has a policy of competence-based school-level recruitment. Note: it was recognized that regional-level teacher deployment and gender equity are two areas where data is generally scarce, and clarified that the presentation of the key results of the survey will be updated in due course in the light of the late contributions of Zimbabwe, Djibouti and Malawi. 10

11 GPE Presentation on the Teacher Deployment Issue Talia de Chaisemartin and Jean-Marc Bernard Global Partnership for Education An overview of the partnership and its strategic outlook and functioning provided the context for a detailed explanation of the indicator used by GPE to measure progress towards the goal of equitable teacher allocation, and a reminder of the nature of the support offered to member countries. The presentation first offered an overview of the GPE, the meaning of the partnership, the role of the secretariat and the high-level goals and strategic objectives. These reflect the GPE s theory of change, that has identified four essential levels to ensure quality in education: (i) a sufficient number of teachers; (ii) their appropriate distribution; (iii) their presence in class; and (iv) the nature of the teaching offered. The learning environment is conditioned just as much by equity as by efficiency in the public spend. The strategic plan s results framework includes 3 goals and 5 strategic objectives, that are monitored through 37 indicators. Indicator 11 relates specifically to teacher deployment: Equitable allocation of teachers, as measured by the correlation between the number of teachers and the number of pupils per school in each developing country partner (DCP). This is measured by the proportion of countries where the R2 is deemed to reflect equitable allocation. Somewhat arbitrarily this level is set at 0,80 or above. In 2015, only 21/61 countries had this data, and just 6/21 met the target. The target is to reach 38% by 2018 and 48% by To achieve this goal, GPE support will focus on improving data availability, sharing good practices among countries, encouraging a comprehensive approach to teacher issues including teacher allocation, and raising political awareness around allocation. Teacher Development in Agenda 2063 and CESA Beatrice NJENGA Department of Human Resources, Science and Technology, AU Commission A detailed review of the African Union Commission s ambitious long-term vision for the continent ( Agenda 2063: The Africa we want ) was provided, of integration, peace, prosperity and citizenship. The focus of the Continental Education Strategy for Africa on teachers was then underlined. CESA has 12 strategic objectives. Due to the identified gaps in the quality, numbers and status of teachers, and the level of demand for qualified teachers at all levels to improve access, equity and the quality of learning a teacher study was commissioned by heads of state. It reached the following recommendations: - Overall: (i) to develop a teacher mobility protocol, managed by the AU, to move towards a teachers without borders workforce; and that (ii) member states take responsibility for teacher quality in all learning centers, including private schools. - Specific, in terms of teacher training and living and working conditions, including to: (iii) establish continental professional standards for teachers; and the (iv) systematic and regular review of TTI curriculum contents. - Implementation: the creation of a framework including a Teacher Development Cluster, with participation of ADEA, IICBA and PACTED. 11

12 Exchanges and Discussions The key point of discussion by participants was that of the GPE indicator of teacher deployment that was raised from several perspectives: - Again, the regional dimension, with significant variations often concealed, that yet require better understanding than is provided by statistical measures. - The difficulty of measuring adequate deployment where the relationship between numbers of pupils and teachers is not linear, such as with subject specializations. In Tanzania, teachers workload is used to determine effective usage. - As with other indicators, the lack of consideration of the private sector often implies that the basis for decision-making is skewed. Some advocacy for national data to be shared with UIS was made. - Concern that the achievement of a minimum R2 level is limiting in terms of analysis. For instance, where publicly-funded community teachers are included, the quantitative rating might be favorable, but fail to consider quality and equity issues. Also, the R2 interpretation would differ if it applies to the number of teachers by pedagogical group, or by classroom. The R2 can further be an inadequate measurement of effective teacher allocation in certain country contexts, in particular of a geographic nature. In Mauritania for instance, that covers a vast and scantly populated area, many zones are likely to have very low PTRs, which would deteriorate the R2 indicator, while not reflecting poor allocation decisions. Subtler issues of teachers professional development and perspectives are more difficult to monitor, but nevertheless important. - More specifically, countries voiced wishes related to their national context. Tanzania for instance is interested in an indicator to appraise teacher deployment based on a variable weekly workloads. - GPE clarified that the minimum level is not absolute, will not apply to all countries alike, nor simultaneously, and may lead to different strategies on the basis of background research. This underlined the fact that the GPE results framework is oft perceived as being highly technical, and as such counter-productive in terms of one of the stated goals, to strengthen country-level capacities. The secretariat s view of this point is that it is natural that countries require external technical expertise in the short-term, which GPE recognizes by making resources available, while encouraging such expertise to focus on capacity building and be accompanied by policy dialogue, to overcome the technical gap that may exist. Most countries are facing situations of greater resource constraints, giving all the more importance to those resources mobilized through the strengthening or creation of partnerships. Concerns were also raised about the risk of a growing gap between countries, as financing is conditioned to the existence of a credible sector plan, which in turn requires reliable data and sound indicators, that are particularly difficult to harness in fragile/vulnerable countries. This situation could provoke a downward spiral for the weakest education systems. A reminder was issued that the GPE has foreseen this risk and planned accordingly, with both funds and technical assistance that are earmarked for vulnerable states. 12

13 The need for values and life-skills to be taught to improve quality was suggested. It was further underlined that values education does not necessarily impose a greater workload on teachers. This can be achieved by redesigning the curricula of ongoing subjects. The moderator s summary conclusions to Session 1 focused on: - The growing divide between increasingly high aspirations (AU Agenda 2063) and ambitions (2030 Agenda for Education), and increasingly scarce resources. - The resource issue being all the more acute in relation to teachers, that represent the main expenditure item in education, requiring greater focus on efficiency. - At stake therefore, is improving efficiency, effectiveness and equity, and quality, on which teaching time has a direct impact. - This raises challenges in terms of policy, information systems, analysis and planning tools, legal frameworks and tools for management. Session 2: Country Experiences in Teacher Deployment: Challenges, Lessons Learned and/or Promising Experiences Moderator : Jean-Marc BERNARD Global Partnership for Education Madagascar s Experience in Teacher Deployment Sandrot RABEANDALANA Director, DRH, Ministère de l'éducation Nationale Madagascar s four-part presentation focused on the procedures for teacher deployment in a general context of weak management, low staff qualifications and a poorly developed civil service, as well as the challenges raised and lessons learned. The Madagascar teacher context is characterized by poor motivation, as career and salary prospects are unrelated to performance; weak management, due to regulatory measures, excessive centralization, a lack of predictive management and inadequate information systems to appraise school-level needs; low staff qualification levels, as upwards of 70% of basic education teachers lack the required qualifications or pedagogical training; and a high proportion of community teachers. Existing teacher management approaches are: - Needs are identified in bottom-up fashion, with schools/communities formulating requests to local education authorities, that the ministry consolidates, to compare to the school map and set quotas. - Recruitment procedures vary by status: (i) TTI graduates are selected according to subjectquotas set, on a first-qualified first-served basis, accounting therefore for seniority. Candidates may be no older than 45 years; (ii) Community teachers are recruited locally by parents. The Ministry of Education can therefore not intervene. Selection criteria include seniority, qualifications and age, but no age limit is set. - Deployment is to regions, each of which then uses school maps, pupil teacher, class and pedagogical group ratio bands as well as subject workloads for secondary, to post teachers at 13

14 the local level. The compliance level is of 80%, helped by contractual commitments by teachers, and the monitoring of placements through un-notified visits by instructors on motorbikes. The main challenges are the effective prevision of teacher needs, covering the costs of redeployment, obstacles to compliance with posting decisions, such as spouse proximity, and the insecurity and unattractiveness of certain rural areas. To address these, the need for a detailed pre-reform study has been identified, to be carried out by the Ministry in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance and that of Civil Service, to determine requirements in terms of: i) the legal framework, the status of government agents (civil servants and contract teachers), texts on the assignment and redeployment of official MoE staff; ii) approaches to and tools for the predictive management of the workforce according to positions and skills needed; iii) decentralization of the management of teachers and education staff; iv) incentives and strategies to encourage and protect rural and remote postings; and v) M&E systems to manage staff. Teacher Management in Kenya Mary Rotich - Director of Teacher Management at Teacher Service Commission Kenya s recent experience in teacher management highlights some good practices, in terms of the creation of a teacher service commission and its attributes, and the development of a teacher management information system. The Teacher Service Commission was created in 2010 with central and decentralized agencies, at the national, county, sub-county and zone levels, for the registration, recruitment, employment, promotion/career development, transfer and discipline/separation of teachers. All teachers must be registered, public or private, to allow the TSC to monitor and regulate standards. Registration hinges on minimum entry qualifications, in terms of title and grade. Recruitment is demand-driven, considering the budget. The steps taken are: i) identification of vacant posts thanks to TMIS data; ii) advertisement of posts at county and central levels; iii) short-listing and interviewing; iv) vetting, appointment and posting. The challenges noted include: recruitment has not kept pace with growth; teacher shortages in specialized subjects; lack of post-tti capacity-building; teacher absenteeism; teacher laxity, poor performance and low accountability; retention; decentralization of teacher management services to the county and sub-county level; and data management. TSC service automation online has however helped reduce teacher visits to administrative centers; and TSC has rolled-out performance contracting and a teacher appraisal and development program and enhanced supervision. Retention has been reinforced by post-based advertising and a minimum 5-year service requirement. A teacher management information system has also been created. 14

15 First Round of Exchanges and Discussions The interventions and debates focused mainly on the following points: - The status of community/contract teachers, the existence of state subsidies for them, and their consideration within deployment plans and indicators - The privatization of secondary education management - The issue of temporary teachers - The operating procedures of teacher deployment commissions, their understanding and effectiveness (issue faced by Djibouti). Related to this, questions about how such commissions can bring about relevant change for more reliable teacher deployment. - Sao Tomé and Principe shared its teacher recruitment experience as an archipelago state with 160,000 inhabitants, underlining the importance of establishing clear status for teachers, and strengthening the recognition of the profession. - The difficulty of dealing with school closures related to teacher shortages (Chad) - Country approaches to fulfilling specific teacher needs (a concern in Sao Tomé and Principe) Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region on Efficient Teacher Allocation Akemi ASHIDA Programme Officer for Inclusive Quality Education, UNESCO/Bangkok An overview of teacher practices in Asia Pacific provided some contrast with African approaches, based on UNESCO regional and country studies, focusing on Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos PDR, South Korea and Japan. The 2013/14 GMR identified four key strategies to achieve quality for all through teaching and learning, in particular that of Getting teachers where they are most needed. This relies on the effective planning of deployment needs, incentives to rebalance uneven allocations and local recruitment. A review of national PTRs underlined their comparatively low level in the Asia-Pacific region, where Cambodia has the highest, 50:1 and the majority are under 30:1. The effective management of deployment is based on: i) teacher policy reforms, including salary reforms and incentives; ii) the placement of new graduates to understaffed areas, thanks to targeted recruitments responding to bottom-up needs appraisals (School-District-Province-Ministry); iii) a rotation/transfer system, showing a commitment to equity but with mixed results by country; iv) positive discrimination towards hard-to-staff areas in terms of budget allocations; v) additional allowances and incentives, that have been particularly effective in Vietnam, including higher salary, bonuses for completion of contract, water allowance, etc. and vi) policies to encourage gender balance in school management. Local recruitment has been effective to ensure the equitable allocation of teachers, particularly in Cambodia and Vietnam. This can take several forms, including giving priority to candidates from disadvantaged areas (Cambodia), or subsidies for teacher training to local residents from difficult areas (Vietnam). Contract teachers, although not deemed sustainable, have been used to fill shortterm teacher shortages in certain areas, and help reduce double-shifting. 15

16 Second Round of Questions and Sharing A number of questions were raised by participants, including on the following topics: - The financial impact of incentive measures in Vietnam, and whether this had been modelized and budgeted for. - The impact of demographic growth on teacher deployment. - The potential to use local resident retired teachers in difficult areas - The issue of balancing the supply of teachers with the quality of teaching/pedagogy, particularly where young temporary and untrained contract teachers are concerned - The role of the ministry of home affairs in Vietnam, that is involved in needs assessments, macro-deployment decisions, teacher training - The criteria retained for the definition of disadvantaged areas: geographical environment, availability of services - The trade-off between teacher post stability in difficult areas (close to family) and motivation (quality) - The policy trade-off between teacher salary and class-size, as illustrated by the case of Cambodia, the only country in SE Asia where the PTR is significantly above 40:1. Decision-Maker Experiences in Recruitment, Deployment and Utilization of Teachers: Example of Education Volunteer Project in Senegal Mamadou NDOYE Consultant and Former Minister of Basic Education and the Promotion of Local Languages in Senegal ( ) This personal testimony provided the point of view of a politician rather than that of a technician. It detailed the volunteer teacher initiative undertaken by a minister upon assuming office to respond to a severe teacher shortage in a context of structural and economic crisis. In the early 1990s context of economic stagnation and structural adjustment policies, all recruitment in the civil service was frozen and many volunteers were leaving. Multigrade and double-shift classes represented 30% of the total, and over 1,500 classes had to be closed for lack of teachers. The GER was declining, PTRs increasing, regional and urban/rural disparities deepening and the GPI stagnating. The volunteer teacher project was launched in 1995, with the goal of reducing teacher needs, regional and gender disparities, improving quality and creating community classrooms. With a requirement of 1,500 volunteers, applications for a 4-year civic service were received. Indeed, it was perceived as the opportunity to learn the job, receive a stipend and access health coverage. Management was the responsibility of regional inspectorates, in terms of needs identification, recruitment, training and payment. The issues faced included cronyism in teacher management and different kinds of influence-peddling, at the administrative, political, family and union levels, leading to counterproductive decisions and action: biased recruitment, preferential postings or transfers, unnecessary dismissals, unfounded promotion, the illegal removal of legal disciplinary action... These outcomes were encouraged by secretive management practices at the political level, weak institutional and technical management capacities, a lack of transparency and accountability in procedures, the absence of rational rules and known criteria, and the neglect of existing rules. 16

17 Such practices were minimized through prevention including alert tools; compulsory supervised volunteer competitions; dialogue and consensus among all parties on the objectives, strategies, criteria, rules and procedures; public and strategic communication; and participative management through a relevant information system and annual survey/assessments. The outcome was particularly favorable in terms of access to school, the GER gaining three points from the very first year. The key lessons learned and shared evolved around approaches to making poor management impossible. The scope for discretionary political management can be eliminated by the adoption of strict, transparent and broadly-shared tools and procedures. Allowing the voicing of all grievances and particular interests, through open and ongoing dialogue, helps to reveal issues and resolve them. Teacher management should include implementation and M&E mechanisms that enable the identification of issues, as well as prevention and flexible responses. Participatory supervision guarantees transparency and mutual commitment. Third Round of Questions and Sharing The last round of questions and sharing focused on the following points: - The importance of broad stakeholder involvement in all reform to avoid later problems and issues; - The importance of analysis of the local context; - One of the project s critical success factors was the clear absence of entitlement. The initial 2- year volunteer arrangement could be renewed once, subject to negotiation, then converted into a temporary contract, subject to the favorable opinion of the volunteer service, and finally converted into a civil servant post, subject to qualifications and training conditions being met; - The contentious involvement of unions, that initially refused to enter into any dialogue about the project. Sao Tomé and Principe advocated for greater understanding of the relationship between governments and unions in each country, and for unions to be involved in the elaboration of career development frameworks; - The human dimension of teacher management, which must always be considered if effective and sustainable solutions are to be found; - Governance and transparency should be thought-out on the basis of countries social and political organization. 17

18 Session 3: Tools to Support the Management of Teacher Deployment Moderator: Gry ULVERUD UNESCO/Nairobi Teacher Management Information System TMIS Rwanda Claudien NZITABAKUZE Deputy Director General in charge of Teacher Management and Professionalization, Ministry of Education TMIS is a central teacher database, hosted by the Rwanda Education Board, with a plethora of different functions and user interfaces, currently being rolled-out after a three-year pilot in two rural districts, that streamlines many of the administrative tasks involved in ongoing teacher management. The functions of the tool include (See Box 1 in Section 2 for a more detailed review): - Teacher registration (unique number, for public/private, nursery/primary/secondary) - Initial teacher licensing, as well as license renewal, upgrade and suspension - Management of placements and internal/external transfers, based on school post demands and school structure, at the regional level - Reporting and generation of indicators - Identification of teacher training needs - Monitoring of teacher turnover It therefore provides valuable uses and information to/for Teacher Development and Management, Rwanda Education Board, MINEDUC, all teachers and education districts. Integrated Management of Resources Based on Rational Allocations (MIRADOR) in Senegal Mamadou SONKO - MIRADOR Administrator, DRH/Ministère de l éducation nationale MIRADOR addresses the need to manage increased teacher flows following the explosion of enrollment and efforts to achieve UPE, while reinforcing equity and transparency, according to a real strategy of rationalization. This modular system for the post-based management of human resources includes the following functions, among others (See Box 2 in Section 2 for a more detailed review, including its strengths): - The recruitment and posting of teachers according to needs, by region and subject; - Teacher training and career management; - The management of personnel transfers and redeployment thanks to dynamic school organization charts and an online request form; - The forecasting of retirement departures, thanks to a dynamic age pyramid; and - A warning system for temporary departures (for training for instance). 18

19 Comments, Questions and Concerns The comments by participants highlighted concerns about: - Database harmonization and system integration; - The timing, frequency and responsibility for database updates: one advantage of such systems such as TMIS is that they are maintenance-free in this respect, as the database is updated by each user, at each use; - Access for teachers in rural or remote locations. In the case of MIRADOR, a smartphonefriendly web-platform has been designed, to enable nationwide access; - Balancing teacher posting requirements with teachers human needs/concerns: MIRADOR incorporates a points system with credits for remoteness, by distance and duration, that can be used for later promotion or transfers; - The comprehensiveness of teacher data, where not all teachers are covered by the system (MIRADOR only includes civil servants and government-subsidized contract teachers), possibly skewing macro-level planning and decision-making; - The scope for such tools to consider the teaching force from a qualitative perspective; - The reliability and security of data; and - Resource mobilization for system development and maintenance. They also pointed at the future potential for such systems to evolve to include functions to monitor teacher efficiency and performance. This would provide scope to promote ethics/morality in the teaching service, through both meritocratic and disciplinary measures (failing to comply with minimum post requirements could entail a commission decision to bar an individual from applying to positions of higher responsibility for instance), having a knock-on effect on quality and equity. Some consensus emerged that such tools provide valuable information on different areas of teacher management, but that ultimately posting decisions should continue to be determined by human mechanisms. Tools will never achieve the level of balance between systemic requirements and human considerations that are provided for instance by a transfer commission that includes central and decentralized HR managers and unions (Sao Tomé), or be able to effectively address the inequity of systems where teachers are offered their preferred positions according to their TTI graduate ranking, leading to the best teachers consistently remaining in main urban centers (Madagascar). It was suggested that user guides should be elaborated for all such technical teacher management tools, to understand how they make posting proposals (in the case of MIRADOR, what factors do the algorithms take into account), and to facilitate implementation. 19

20 Session 4: Perspectives for the Improved Management of Teacher Allocations Moderator: Virgilio JUVANE Senior Programme Coordinator, UNESCO/IICBA Teacher Deployment and Utilization in Education Planning and Management: Challenges and Perspectives Mamadou NDOYE Consultant and Former Minister of Basic Education and the Promotion of Local Languages in Senegal ( ) Considering the current context and underlying ambitions in SSA, a number of uncomfortable questions are raised, that point to the issue of efficiency. Rather than offering prescriptive solutions, a number of questions aiming to guide country-level reflections on how to improve it are offered, in terms of planning and management. In the current SSA context, ambitions and needs appear to be oversized in the light of resources. It is estimated that 6.2 million teachers will need recruiting by So a first question is raised: how to achieve more, with less? A brief overview of the education results achieved by countries of similar resource levels, based on recent education sector analysis reports, point to significant disparities. The same reports underline the prevalence of inconsistent and inequitable allocations, as well as qualitative imbalances: - High degree of randomness in teacher deployment within countries - Geographic disparities in terms of teacher shortages - Inequitable allocations in terms of qualified/trained teachers, or by gender - Insufficient teacher utilization rates, high absenteeism These findings all suggest that scarce resources are being wasted, with a logical impact on the ability to fulfill the demand for education, and raise several questions: How to efficiently convert resources into outcomes? How to capitalize education systems primary investment, in teachers? How to collect relevant, accurate, complete and current data, and where from? How to correlate teacher deployment and utilization with efficiency and equity? What are the factors that explain disparities? On a management level, how to contain these factors of disruption and reduce the constraints? Some of the guiding questions countries may wish to reflect on in terms of planning cover the research of solutions to context-specific issues and their integration into education sector development planning; appropriate policy options and strategic goals; the use of simulation models in action plans; the choice of steering mechanisms and monitoring indicators; and the transfer of macro recruitment, deployment and utilization planning to the meso and micro levels. At the management level, the questions offered focus on the appropriate management model, quantitative and qualitative trade-off strategies, management guidelines for the rational recruitment, deployment and utilization of teachers, and the tools and mechanisms to guarantee transparency and the respect of procedures. 20

21 Questions and Concerns Participants interventions touched on the following issues: - The importance of the working environment; - The need for appropriate incentives, while simultaneously ensuring these are time-bound (that a teacher allocated a bonus for a remote posting ceases to receive it upon returning to the city), and coherent with those offered in other sectors. This highlights the need to reflect on management mechanisms before policies are determined; - The need to strengthen teachers vocational commitment, not least to reduce the need to provide expensive incentives. Health workers for instance do often not get the same incentives, due to the comparative weakness of their unions, but are more willing to endure hardship; - The weight of teacher unions in negotiations; - The need for transversal measures to compensate teacher shortages, addressing demographic trends as well as the supply of labor; and - The tendency to promote the best teachers to management positions. Session 5: Group Work Moderator: Lynne SERGEANT, IIEP-Paris In order to further reflections on the rationalization of teacher use and deployment, participants retreated into two groups, respectively mandated to focus on one of the following themes: - Information systems and tools; and - Governance, transparency and social dialogue. Group 1: Information Systems and Tools to Help Improve Teacher Allocations President: George BOADE (UIS Nairobi) Rapporteurs: Joseph CHIMOMBO (MoEST Malawi) and Talia de CHAISEMARTIN (GPE) Group 1 provided a detailed and structured presentation of their exchanges and debates around the proposed theme, according to four key questions: 1. What information do countries need to properly identify teaching post needs and to improve teacher allocations? The group identified two dimensions to the question: (i) how do systems determine schools needs; and (ii) how do systems make decisions to fill those needs. Eight countries shared their experience of how teachers are allocated to schools (Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe), highlighting the fact that countries have different practices. 21

22 Many countries identify needs at the decentralized school level. Head teachers/school directors send their needs to intermediate levels, which then relay them to centralized levels for allocation/recruitment decisions. This can raise a problem of false information being given by schools, meaning that a validation procedure is needed. In this scenario, different approaches by education level are common: at the primary level, needs are based on there being a teacher for each class; for secondary or above, teaching workloads by subject are taken into account. Some countries use the pupil-teacher ratio and national and provincial averages to prioritize districts in greatest need (Burundi, Comoros). Where needs are high, recruitment processes may be launched, or teachers may be asked to teach additional hours (Djibouti). Countries also use different mechanisms to verify teacher postings (Tanzania uses the payroll, whereas Kenya uses inspections). 2. Does your country have an information system to manage teachers? All countries have a system to manage teacher allocation, but it is automated in Burundi, Chad, Kenya, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. 3. What are the challenges faced in ensuring that existing teacher management systems meet overall governance expectations, for teachers and the education system? Three categories of challenges were identified: - All systems: lack of compliance with norms and standards; need for strengthened inspections or validation systems; need to enhance connectivity and integration of databases and tools to achieve coherent information systems (modules are rarely linked at the moment); lack of financial resources to create efficient systems; and lack of financial resources to fully cover school needs. - Manual systems: risk of them leading to an imbalanced distribution of teachers; hard to track teacher placements and transfers (Lesotho in particular); and school and district-level procedures to report on needs are time-consuming, especially to reach central levels where allocation decisions are made. - Automated systems: systems can be slow if many users connected simultaneously; internet connectivity can be problematic, in remote/rural areas in particular; computer literacy can represent an obstacle to effective use, and create a further burden in terms of system use training; delays in uploading data; and issues with collection of personnel data. 4. In your country, how are the existing national education-related databases connected to each other (EMIS, TMIS, Examinations, student assessments, public sector teachers payroll, etc.)? The interconnection of different systems/databases is a big challenge, that can be complicated where systems are housed in different ministries. In Rwanda for example, there are four different systems that are not interlinked - EMIS, TMIS, school data management systems and the integrated personnel information system. The group recommends that: (i) EMIS unique school code be used in all databases to facilitate the interlinkage; (ii) simple solutions be sought out, assuming there is willingness among technocrats to 22