CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP RESEARCH. A large and growing volume of literature has been produced on leadership, and a distinct body of

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP RESEARCH. A large and growing volume of literature has been produced on leadership, and a distinct body of"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP RESEARCH 2.1. INTRODUCTION A large and growing volume of literature has been produced on leadership, and a distinct body of knowledge can be discerned on the subject. Even so, there are still confusions and misunderstandings of several concepts, and there is a need for adequate illustration and explanation. Leadership research appears to have been detained by the repetition of studies on a few topics, the application of a few methods and frameworks, and the discussion of a small number of ideas. In this chapter, the first part of the literature review is presented. The review focuses on an effort to cover the history of leadership research REDISCOVERING LEADERSHIP What is leadership? Many works on leadership start with this question. Many have lamented that the construction of leadership lacks a common and established definition by which it can be evaluated, no dominant paradigms for studying it, and little agreement about the best strategies for developing and exercising it (Hackman and Wageman, 2007; Barker, 1997; Higgs, 2003). Bennis (2007) laments that it has almost become a cliché, that there is no single definition of leadership. In view of others, there are as many definitions of leadership as the number of people who have attempted to define leadership (Bass, 1990). The bulk of literature available on leadership makes it difficult to present the concept of leadership in a single definition (Goethals et al., 2004). However, a few definitions in the literature are: Leadership may be defined as the behavior of an individual while he is involved in directing group activities (Hemphill, 1949, p. 4). Leadership behavior means particular acts in which a leader engages in the course of directing and coordinating the work to his group members (Fiedler, 1967, p. 36) 20

2 Leadership is the reciprocal process of mobilizing by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political and other resources, in context of competition and conflict, in order to realize goals independently or mutually held by both leaders and followers (Burns, 1978, p. 425). The capacity to create a compelling vision and translate it into action and sustain it (Bennis, 1989, p. 65) Leadership involves influencing task objectives and strategies, influencing commitment and compliance in task behavior to achieve these objectives, influencing group maintenance and identification and influencing the culture of an organization (Yukl, 1989, p. 253). The principal dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives (Bass, 1990). Leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader and his or her followers (Gardner, 1990, p. 1). Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes (Rost, 1991, p. 102). Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. The main points of this definition are that leadership is a group activity, is based on social influence, and revolves around a common task (Chemers, 1997, p. 1). Leadership is a process a dynamic process in which the leader(s) and followers interact in such a way as to generate change (Kellerman and Webster, 2001, p. 487). A process of motivating people to work together collaboratively to accomplish great things (Vroom and Jago, 2007, p. 18). However, these definitions over different points in time do show that the understanding of leadership has travelled from behaviors to actions to eventually a social process that involves the leader, followers, and situations. Despite the overabundance of leadership definitions, Burns (1978) argues that leadership is the most observed but least understood phenomenon. It is a field which has both fascinated and perplexed the researchers and practitioners, creating a significant amount of research 21

3 and theories to conceptualize and explain this phenomenon (see: Ayaman, 2000, cited in Goethals et al., 2004). Other researchers have also talked about the complexity and elusiveness of leadership (see: Chemers, 1997). The abundance of literature on leadership is reflected by the increase in the number of articles in its bible, Stogdill s Handbook of Leadership. Only 3,000 studies were listed in the earlier publication and the number increased to 5,000 within seven years. However, the authors of Stogdill s Handbook of Leadership concluded that the endless accumulation of empirical data has not produced an integrated understanding of leadership. Despite this assertion, DuBrin (1995) claims that about 30,000 research articles, magazine articles and books had been written till the mid nineties of 20 th century. Goffee and Jones (2000) observe that nearly 2,000 books were published on leadership in the year This depicts the pace of publications on subject leadership with lesser outcomes. Sometimes, it seems as if researchers are over researching a single topic and repeating each other in various journals and magazines. Occasionally the new reader or researcher of leadership gets confused with so many leadership theories. Nevertheless, new arenas and horizons keep arriving in the study of leadership and researchers are now more interested to break the confinement of social science laboratory experiments to observe real leaders in action. This is essentially because leadership has become much more relevant and even more complex in the global world of today. Various fields of knowledge such as political science, psychology, education, history, agriculture, public administration, management, anthropology, medicine, military sciences, philosophy, and sociology have all contributed to an understanding of leadership. These tell how leadership has attracted the attention of scholars and researchers in numerous research areas. With development in technology and better availability of research facilities, resources and infrastructure, leadership researchers of this age are more interested to integrate various concepts of leadership instead of studying them in isolation in the domain of a single subject. This trend is flourishing and imparting steady health to leadership understanding. 22

4 2.3. HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP RESEARCH Leadership is one of the topics in modern research which originated long back in history when people started understanding the importance of leaders role in various facets of life such as politics, governmental issues, foreign policy and war. Philosophers, historians, warriors and rulers in the past have paid much attention to this subject to bring improvement to leadership practices of their times. Based on the literature available, leadership research can be divided into seven categories: 1. Ancient Approaches to Leadership 2. Classical Approaches to Leadership 3. Transactional Approaches to Leadership 4. Transformational and Charismatic Theories 5. Integrative Theories 6. Miscellaneous Approaches to Leadership 7. Recent Developments 2.4. ANCIENT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP Social and political scholars have recognized the importance of leadership throughout human history (Chemers, 1997). Ancient leadership approach comprises the writings of early philosophers and thinkers who put together their thoughts on leaders, leadership and necessity of leadership development. Encyclopedia of Leadership (Goethals et al., 2004) lists Confucius and Sun Tzu, Aristotle, Plato, Niccolo Machiavelli, Pareto, Thomas Hobbes, Mary Parker, Bertrand Russel and several other philosophers and thinkers who have contributed their thoughts to development of leadership theoretical base. These efforts and other philosophical approaches constitute a rich and ongoing normative approach to understanding leadership and seek to provide ethical and constructive views of good leadership. Many of the modern theories of leadership also borrow some ideas from classical thoughts on leadership. Though these theories mostly discuss leadership in very general terms at government, regime and military levels, modern theories of leadership try to implement these ideas in modern business and organizational leadership. 23

5 The Republic by Plato appears to be the first attempt to shed light on the theory of politics and leadership and was written over 2,000 years back. Nichomachean Ethics and Politics are two of Aristotle s books which shed some light on politics and leadership among the early most writing on the subject. The other famous writings come from Sun Tzu (The Art of War), Niccolo Machiavelli (The Prince) Vilfredo Pareto (The Treatise on General Sociology) and so on. These are only some examples of ancient approaches to leadership. Many modern scholars of leadership have written about the wisdom these ancient approaches offer for a deeper understanding of leadership. Several ideas offered by these approaches still hold. However, increased complexity of business world due to industrialization of early 20 th century rejuvenated the interest in scholarship of leadership. The following sections are dedicated to the theories that were presented after the dawn of 20 th century CLASSICAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP Early analyses of leadership, from the 1900s to the 1950s the classical management period, differentiated between leader and follower characteristics. Frederick Winslow Taylor who is considered to be the founder of scientific management published his book The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911 which opened up the horizons of modern management research and development. He explained that the best way to increase efficiency was to improve the techniques and methods used by workers. People were seen as instruments or machines to be manipulated by their managers. Also, the organization was seen as a bureaucratic, well planned and structured big machine. Taylor initiated time and motion studies to analyze work tasks to improve performance in every aspect of the organization. In the 1920 s Elton Mayo and his colleagues developed the human relations movement which emphasized that it was beneficial for management to look also into human affairs. In the famous Hawthorne studies they were able to demonstrate the effect of human factor to efficiency (Mayo, 1933). The scientific management movement emphasized a concern for task (output), and the human relations movement stressed a concern for relationships (people). The recognition of these two concerns has characterized the discussion about leadership ever since. 24

6 Robert Tannenbaum is famous for his continuum of leader behavior, the extremes of which are authoritarian and democratic leader behavior (Tannenbaum and Schmidt 1958). Kurt Lewin with his colleagues extended this continuum beyond the democratic leader behavior to include a laissez-faire style. Rensis Likert (1967) proposed four management styles on a continuum from system 1 through to system 4. System 1 is a task-oriented, highly structured authoritarian management style. System 4 is a relationships-oriented management style based on teamwork, mutual trust and confidence. Systems 2 and 3 are intermediate stages between the two extremes. Likert s theory is quite close to McGregor s (1960) classic theories (Theory X and Theory Y). These two theories represent pure archetypes of managerial beliefs about nature of people that, in turn influence their managerial and leadership behavior (Goethals et al., 2004). According to Theory X, most people are passive, dislike work, avoid responsibility and need to be closely supervised and told what to do. They prefer to be directed, want safety above all and are not interested in assuming responsibility. Theory X argues that people are self-centered, prone to resist change, and not very clever. Theory Z is yet another perspective from the classical approaches of leadership and management. As a matter of fact, several researchers designated their theories as Theory Z. These theorists include Abraham Maslow and William Ouchi. Abraham Maslow was the presenter of Hierarchy of Needs Theory (see: Maslow, 1954) which is considered as a classical work in management sciences. He later posited a transcendent Theory Y leader who epitomized what Maslow called B-values. These values include truth, beauty, wholeness, dichotomy-transcendence, aliveness-process, uniqueness, perfection, necessity, completion, justice, order, simplicity, richness, effortlessness, playfulness, and self efficiency (Maslow, 1971). Such leaders are very rare, almost exceptional. They can easily scan the full potential of people for transforming them into ideal, but they are frustrated by the mediocre, the shortsighted, the fearful, and the unimaginative. William Ouchi s Theory Z was presented in 1981 in his book, Theory Z: How American Companies Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Theory Z essentially advocates a combination of all that is best about Theory Y and modern Japanese management, which places a large amount of freedom and trust 25

7 with workers, and assumes that workers have a strong loyalty and interest in team-working and the organization. Theory Z also places more reliance on the attitude and responsibilities of the workers, whereas McGregor s theories (X and Y) are mainly focused on management and motivation from the managerial and organizational perspective Motivation Theories Many classical motivation theories form a foundation of management approaches. Abraham Maslow s (1954) hierarchy of needs and Frederick Herzberg s (1966) motivation-hygiene theory are the most famous. David C. McClelland s achievement motive is also very important when describing the behavior of leaders (McClelland et al., 1953). These classical approaches were the start to study management and leadership scientifically. One of the main distinctions was the concern for task vs. people Trait Theories The underlying assumption of trait theory was that leaders have certain characteristics that are utilized across time to enhance organizational performance and leader prestige. The idea was that traits affected behaviors and behaviors affected effectiveness. Traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as physical characteristics, aspects of personality and aptitudes. Early research on leadership in the beginning of 20 th century examined the leaders who had achieved a level of greatness, and later on, this approach became famous as Great Man Theory. The underlying idea behind this approach was that some individuals are born with certain characteristics and qualities which make them leaders eventually. Bass (1997) argued that leaders during the early twentieth century were considered to be superior individuals different from the others around them because of skills, capabilities, inherited money and social standing. The aim of trait theories was to prepare a master list of traits which would eventually result in an ideal leader. Stogdill (1948) studied 124 trait studies conducted in the first half of twentieth century and observed that the pattern of results was consistent with conception of a leader as an individual who acquires 26

8 leadership role through demonstration of ability to facilitate the efforts of the group in attaining it goals. In research of Stogdill (1948), relevant traits included intelligence, alertness to the needs of others, understanding of the task, initiative and persistence in dealing with problems, self confidence and desire to accept the responsibility and occupy a position of dominance and control (Yukl, 2002). However, he asserted two problems with this master-list approach to leadership. He further argued that no traits were universally required for leadership which varied extensively according to the characteristics, activities and goals of the followers. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) explored a number of traits which distinguished between leaders from non-leaders, including some of those found by Stogdill. Traits like emotional intelligence, social intelligence, self awareness, capacity to be optimistic and hopeful despite obstacles, the ability to empathize others and strong social and interpersonal skills have found a place in the list of some significant leadership attributes. Nevertheless, the criticism to this approach is that it does not tell when selected traits are critical or can be omitted without extensive situational analysis (Van Wart, 2005). This is because two leaders can use different sets of traits to attain a goal. Even a similar set of traits may be beneficial under one situation and disastrous under the other conditions. Till today trait theories have been unable to present that very much aspired master list for ideal leader and this quest still persists (Goethals et al., 2004). Trait approach to leadership has regained some attention in the most recent literature on leadership (Lim and Daft, 2004). Stephen Zaccaro has championed the field all over again by adding more depth and thoroughness to the understanding of traits. In his recent works with his colleagues (see: 2001, 2003, 2007), Zacccaro has brought in notable perspectives to understanding of traits. He argues that the prior rejection of trait-based approaches is not justified through empirical evidence in the literature. He asserts that traits are significant precursors of leadership effectiveness and combinations of traits and attributes, integrated in conceptually meaningful ways, are more likely to predict leadership than are independent contributions of multiple traits. Zaccaro (2007) also observes that individuals have different patterns of traits that reflect an individual s stable tendency to lead in 27

9 different ways across different organizational domains. He also argues that traits of some leaders have more distal influences on leadership processes and performance while some others have more immediate effects. This is essentially mediated by situational parameters, as Zaccaro (2007) explains. According to the modern understanding of traits, a combination of distal attributes (personality, cognitive abilities, motives, values) and proximal attributes (social appraisal skills, problem solving skills, and expertise or tacit knowledge) combine to engender leader emergence, effectiveness, advancement and promotion (see: Zaccaro et al., 2004). Luthans et al (2007) also furthers the discussion on traits and argue that there are two types of traits: trait-like-traits and state-like-traits. Trait-like-traits are more rigid and difficult to learn. Examples: intelligence, coping, interpersonal needs, and so on. State-like-traits are malleable and therefore can be developed and hence learnt through interventions. Examples: Hope, optimism, resiliency, self-efficacy, and so on. These developments show that traits are still important as far as leadership is concerned. However, there is need to focus on traits that can be learned through interventions TRANSACTIONAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP After classical research in leadership which started during first half of 20 th century, a new era of explorations started in the remaining second half. Most popular theories of leadership literature were presented in this second half which deserves to be reminded as golden period or modern period of leadership research. During this period, which continues up till today, numerous concepts and theoretical frameworks of leadership were presented. Trait studies, behavioral studies, contingency studies came up during the golden period. Wart (2005) establishes that basic research at Ohio State University and University Michigan and other settings during 1950s started challenging some of the implicit leadership assumptions of the early management and trait theories. During 1960s, the development of leadership theories was later known as transactional approach. In the following sections, discussion will be made on well-known theories which fall under the category of transactional approach. The discussion has been divided into behavioral and situational approaches Behavioral Theories 28

10 According to this approach, anyone who adopts an appropriate behavior can become a good leader. Behaviors can be leaned more readily than traits emphasizing the importance of behavioral approaches in leadership studies. As the notion of inherited or inherent leadership was dispelled, behavioral scientists turned their attention to the measurable behaviors of leaders. The idea was to see what leaders actually do rather than what they actually have in form of traits and attributes. The criticism which behavioral approaches received was that they emphasized on behaviors and not situation. That is why some individuals are leaders under one situation but totally non-leaders in the other. The Ohio State Leadership Studies (see: Halpin and Winer, 1957) laid the foundation for understanding the difference between successful and unsuccessful leaders and led to modern conception of leadership styles. The research identified two leadership dimensions of leadership behavior: consideration and initiating structure. Consideration means that a leader acts in a friendly and supportive manner, shows concern and consideration for subordinates and looks after their welfare. The leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness and trust for the followers. On the other hand, initiating structure means that the leader defines and structures his/her own role and role of subordinates for attainment of formal tasks and goals. Leaders scoring high on this dimension define the relationship between themselves and the staff members. They are critical to poor performance of subordinates, strict to the deadlines, maintain certain standards of performance, offer new approaches to problem solving and coordinate the activities of subordinates. A group of researchers at University of Michigan (see: Katz and Kahn, 1952) also conducted a major program of leadership research almost at the same time as of the Ohio State leadership studies. Researchers at Michigan presented their classification of leaders which consisted of productioncentered leaders, employee-centered leaders and participative leaders. This classification is quite similar to that of Ohio State studies. Production-centered leaders are those who emphasize more on planning, scheduling, coordinating the activities of subordinates, provide necessary resources and support for achievement of goals. While on the other hand, employee-centered leaders are more 29

11 inclined to their relationship with subordinates. Participative leaders use group supervision instead of micromanaging every single subordinate. They encourage participation of employees in decision making, problem solving and other activities at work place. One of the first theories that tried to make sense of the new behavioral orientation to leadership, the managerial grid was proposed by Blake and Mouton (1964). It is called Grid theory as it places five leadership styles on a grid constructed of two behavioral axes. It is a framework for simultaneously specifying the concern for production and people dimensions of leadership. The five leadership styles which are located on the grid are: authority-compliance, impoverished management, country club management, team management, and middle of the road management. Grid theory was the first highly popular theory of leadership that utilized the task-people duality for effective leadership. Many researchers criticize the Leadership Grid for dictating one best style, yet the team style includes adapting to the situation Contingency Theories Contingency theories were primarily championed by those who started thinking about leadership in relation with situation. In empirical sense, contingency theories guided research into the kinds of persons and behaviors who are effective in different situations. Fred Fiedler was the first to introduce contingency in leadership in through his contingency model. Later, many others contributed to the field. Discussions on situational aspect of leadership are omnipresent in the leadership discourse. For example, Vroom and Jago (2007), in their recent discourse about role of situation in leadership note that viewing leadership in purely dispositional or purely situational terms is to miss a major portion of the phenomenon. The task confronting contingency theorists is to understand the key behaviors and contextual variables involved in this process. (p. 23). This shows that interest in the contingency or situational approach remains alive, although modern literature has embraced a broader term of context (Avolio, 2007). It is plausible to believe that contingency, situation, or context will always be a relevant consideration in any discussion, framework, or theory of leadership. The following 30

12 sections highlight some frameworks presented under the broader label of contingency or situation approach. Fielder (1963) was the first one to respond to Stogdill s (1948) call to formulate trait contingency models (Goethals et al., 2004). He developed the most widely researched and quoted contingency model which advocates that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation. His model was the first in leadership research to integrate leader, follower and situational characteristics. More specifically, Fiedler s model predicts that those leaders who are more relationship oriented are more effective in medium situational control and that those who are more task oriented are more effective in high- and low-control situations. Leader s orientation determines if he/she is in match with situation or out of match with situation. If leader s orientation matches with the situation, he/she is predicted to perform more effectively and vice versa. Some criticisms to this theory are on its conceptual weaknesses and methodological controversy (see: Yukl, 1970; Schriesheim and Kerr, 1977). However, despite the controversies and criticism hurled against this theory, Fiedler was undoubtedly a pioneer in taking leadership research beyond the purely trait or purely situational perspectives that preceded his contribution (Vroom and Jago, 2007). Heresy and Blanchard belong to the group of researchers who advocated a contingency approach in which different leadership styles hinged upon different factors, mostly situational. Heresy and Blanchard s (1982) model explains how to match the leadership style with readiness of group members. Readiness of situational leadership is defined as the extent to which a group member has the ability and willingness or confidence to accomplish a particular task or activity. Based on follower capacity, ability and motivation, situational leadership model prescribes four different leadership styles: directing, coaching, supporting and delegating. Some authors have used the words like: telling, selling, participating and delegating. Here the key point is that as group member readiness increases, a leader should rely more on relationship behavior and lesser on task behavior. For example, followers who are low in competence but high in commitment, such as new employees, are eager for instructions and structure but do not need much supportive behavior. A directive style would be more 31

13 useful in such situation. Moderate competence and low commitment calls for a directive and supportive style. On the other hand, competent subordinates need less specific direction than do less competent subordinates. These illustrations make this model much useful for training and development of leadership. The Path-Goal theory emerged and further developed in 1970s (see: House, 1971; House and Dessler, 1974; House and Mitchell, 1974). The Path-Goal theory illustrates how the behavior of a leader influences the satisfaction and performance of subordinates. It describes what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation. In general, a leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that he of she receives personal payoffs. The theory went through a refining process by a number of researchers in the subsequent years. The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the team members and requirements of the task. The Path-Goal theory actually has been expanded to leadership substitute theory. Kerr and Jermier (1978) first introduced the concept of leadership substitutes and neutralizers. Their theory identifies the aspects of certain situations when there is almost no need or importance of leadership. Substitute of leadership is beneficial in terms that formal leaders have limited time; less leadership allows them to concentrate on more critical issues and thus to enhance the effectiveness in certain crucial areas. At the same time, reduction in leadership allows the subordinates to be self-reliant, more responsible and innovative in the tasks. According to this theory, neutralizers are the characteristics, which make it effectively impossible for leadership to make a difference. In their study, Kerr and Jermier (1978) proposed 13 different dimensions which they hypothesized to neutralize the effectiveness of leaders on followers. This theory has generated a considerable amount of interest (see Howell, 1997) because it offers an intuitively appealing explanation for why leader behavior impacts subordinates in some situations but not in others. However, some of its theoretical propositions have not been adequately tested. The theory continues to generate empirical research. 32

14 Another popular theory in leadership research, mostly known as LMX theory, leader-member exchange theory was first presented in early 1970s in reaction to the dominant behavioral and contingency models of leadership. It was originally called as Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) and suggested that leaders adopt different leadership styles with different subordinates. Leaders also develop different dyadic exchange relationships with different specific subordinates. Such relationships can be the ones that treat the subordinate as in close relationship with the leader or the ones that treat the subordinate as more distant and secluded individual. The LMX theory focuses on the ongoing relationship that leaders and members of their group experience as they negotiate and exchange mutual perceptions, influence, types and amount of work, loyalty and prerequisites, and so forth (Van Wart, 2005). An advanced version of LMX advocated the notion that good leaders create as many high-exchange relationships as possible. Good leaders need loyal, committed, hardworking, productive, flexible and competent subordinates to advance the group goals and achieve higher level of accomplishments and innovations. Though originally developed earlier (Vroom and Yetton, 1973), the theory of decision making went through some refining process at later stages (see: Vroom and Jago, 1988). This is why the model is known as Vroom-Yetton-Jago model in today s management studies. The theory is much narrower in its focus and it deals with the form in and degree to which the leader involves his or her subordinates in the decision-making process (Vroom and Jago, 2007). Leaders perform the task of decision making on regular basis and they have to set certain parameter for this in the organizational setup. Therefore, leaders must choose a style that elicits the correct degree of group participation while making decisions. Vroom-Yetton-Jago model perceives leadership as decision making process. The effect of decision procedures on decision quality and acceptance depends on various aspects of situation. This is natural that a procedure which is very effective and efficient in one set of conditions and circumstances may prove to be a complete failure in another set of conditions. This theory has a number of strong points. It delimits the aspects of leadership it endeavors to elaborate. It does not over simplify the conditions for phenomenon as complex as decision making. Vroom and Jago (2007) 33

15 gladly admit that their theory is not the one that encompasses all or even most of what a leader does. However, they believe that the sharpness of their focus in their framework allows a great degree of specificity in the predictions that are made. The Multiple Linkage Model was presented by Yukl in 1981 and then further refined by him in It is also called an ambitious integrative theory by Chemers (1997). The model includes four types of variables: managerial behaviors, intervening variables, criterion variables, and situational variables. The model suggests how different variables join together and affect each other to determine the organizational performance. The emphasis in the multiple linkage model is on the intervening variables and the leader behaviors that affect them. The weakness of this model is that these linkages are not very comprehensive. The strength of the model is that it considers the intervening process considerably as link between leader behaviors and group outcomes. This model successfully brings the leader, situation, process, and outcome together. Fielder s scientific curiosity was once again aroused when he came across some empirical findings that agreed with neither common sense nor with accepted scientific wisdom. Therefore, as an extension of his contingency model, Fiedler presented the Cognitive Resources Theory in 1986 and further refined in 1987 with his colleagues. This theory examines the conditions under which cognitive resources such as intelligence and experience are related to job performance. This theory argues that group performance is determined by a complex interaction among two leader s traits (intelligence and experience), one type of leadership behavior (directive leadership), and two aspects of leadership situation (interpersonal stress and the nature of the group s task). Briefly, Fiedler and Garcia presented a causal chain in which a leader s cognitive resources have a profound impact on group performance when the leader actively directs follower activity. This impact is positive for intelligence under low stress conditions and experience under high stress conditions. 34

16 2.7. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES One of the most influential leadership developments of the leadership research is the concept presented by James MacGregor Burns, first ever presented in 1978 under the title of transformational leadership. Writing from the political science tradition, Burns discusses various types of leadership, especially contrasting transactional leadership, which largely appeals to self interested motivations of followers, with transformational leadership, which attempts to raise followers consciousness to reform and improve the institutions (Van Wart, 2005). Burns (1978) makes a central distinction between what he calls transactional and transforming leadership. Transactional leadership takes place when one person takes the initiative in making contact with others for the purpose of an exchange of valued things. This type of leadership is best described as the politics of exchange, in which, for example, a public official bargains jobs for votes. Transformational leadership, in contrast, has a moral dimension. It may be said to occur when one or more persons engage with each other in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. Burns defines transformational leadership as a dynamic, two-way relationship between leaders and followers. Leaders must connect with the needs and wants of the followers and establish motivation to accomplish collective goals that satisfy the needs of both the leader and the followers. Mutual need and empathy are key characteristics of transformational leadership. He also believes that every person is engaged in the leadership process in one way or another at different times and in different situations (Burns, 1978). In 2003, James MacGregor Burns published a follow up book, Transforming Leadership, to explore and expand his theory nearly thirty years later after his infamous book Leadership in He believes that all leaders have a social responsibility to empower people to pursue their own happiness by affecting social change. He states, leaders working as partners with the dispossessed people of the world to secure life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness - happiness empowered with transforming purpose - could become the greatest act of united leadership the world has ever known (Burns, 2003). Burns views that a transformational leader not only speaks to immediate wants but elevates people by vesting in them a sense of possibility, a belief that change can be made and that they can 35

17 make them. Motivation, according to Burns, is what powers leadership. Creativity is another key element of transformational leadership. Transforming leaders have the ability to see possibility and innovation and to share that vision with others. He believes that leaders seize opportunities, overcome obstacles and change how the rest of the world acts, thinks and lives. In some cases, Burns believes that crisis can often be a source of creativity. He cites examples of skillful leaders including military commanders, presidents and Chief Executive Officers who have applied creativity in times of crisis to affect great change. Burns (1978) believed that leaders were either transactional or transformational. However, seven years later Bernard Bass (1985) proposed that both types of leadership are necessary and that transformational leadership actually enhances transactional behaviors. Bass conceives the leadership as a single continuum. It progresses from non-leadership to transactional leadership to transformational leadership. Non-leadership provides haphazard outcomes; transactional leadership gives improves and better results which are mostly conventional; but transformational leadership provides the best outcomes. Bass (1985) is of the view that transformational leadership is a widespread phenomenon across levels of management, types of organizations, and around the globe. He characterizes the transformational leaders as having four significant attributes: charisma or idealized influence - they have conviction and values and they emphasize the importance of purpose, commitment, and ethical components of decisions; inspirational motivation - they articulate an appalling vision of future, challenge followers with high standards, talk optimistically with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done; intellectual stimulation they push followers to consider new points of view, to question old assumptions, and to articulate their own views; and individualized consideration - they take into account the needs, capacities, aspirations of each individual follower in the effort to treat followers equitably. Among all transformational leadership theories, Bass s is the most highly researched and has a good deal of positive support. His approach is more appealing as well as relatively elegant, considering the large number of styles that it incorporates. Nevertheless, fuzziness 36

18 and overlap of the transformational concepts are problematic. To measure transformational leadership, Bass and Avolio s (1995) multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) became the most popular tool for leadership assessment. Presented by Tichy and Devanna (1986), and refined later (Devanna and Tichy, 1990), this point of view about transformational leadership asserts that transformational leadership is about change, innovation and entrepreneurship. Proponents of this view advocate that managers can be found more commonly but transformational leaders are rare and they engage in a process which includes a sequence of phases: recognizing the need for change, creating a new vision, and then institutionalizing the change. Leaders that are transformational type leaders are individuals who create new approaches and imagine new areas to explore; they relate to people in more intuitive and empathetic ways, seek risk where opportunities and rewards are high, and project ideas into images to excite people. They must bring a change in organizations in three stages. First is the recognizing the need for revitalization followed by second stage where leader should create a new vision. In the third and final stage, institutionalizing the change is imperative as new vision is understood and accepted, new structures, mechanisms, and incentives must be in place. The levels of leader effectiveness in behaviors leading to transformational change are the intervening variables; the moderating variables are the triggers for change. Like most other transformational leadership styles, they seem less interested in specifying a particular leadership style. Rather they are more interested in articulating the general ser of behaviors that has universal utility. Kouzes and Posner (1987, 1988) adopted an interesting approach to formulate their ideas about transformational leadership. They asked the leaders what leads to excellent leadership based on their personal experiences? They collected responses from over thousand leaders using a critical incident methodology and focusing on personal best experiences of respondents. They found five major practices of transformational leaders. They found that transformational leaders: challenge the process, inspire a shared vision, enable others to act, modeling the way, and encourage the heart. Kouzes and 37

19 Posner also developed the instrument known as leadership practices inventory (LPI) to measure the practices of transformational leaders. Despite the recognition that the transformational leadership theories have gained, there have been criticisms as well. Yukl (1999) presents a strong case in this regard and makes several points to illustrate conceptual weaknesses in transformational and transactional leadership. He believes that the underlying influence processes for transformational and transactional leadership are still unclear. He further argues that each transformational behavior includes diverse components, which makes the definition more ambiguous. The partially overlapping content and the high inter-correlation found among the transformational behaviors raise doubts about their construct validity. Moreover, some important transformational behaviors (such as inspiring, developing and empowering) are missing in the Bass (1996) version of the theory and in the MLQ, which was designed to test the theory (Bass and Avolio, 1990). The transformational leadership also fails to identify any situation where it can prove to be detrimental. Extending his critique on transactional leadership, Yukl (1999) argues that transactional leadership includes a diverse collection of (mostly ineffective) leader behaviors that lack any clear common denominator CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP THEORIES The credit of introducing the word charisma goes to German sociologist Max Weber (see: Weber, 1968). Charisma is a Greek word meaning divinely inspired gift which imparts an extraordinary quality to charismatic individuals by which they can influence others hearts and souls, perform miracles or predict the future. According to Max Weber, charisma is a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. Max Weber believed that charismatic leaders were more likely to emerge during times of crisis and social upheaval. In organizations, crisis may be some major reform, financial problem or even poor performance causing damage to organizational reputation and prestige in market. The other definition of charismatic leadership is in terms of the degree to which the leader engages in the following 38

20 behaviors: articulating a captivating vision or mission in ideological terms; showing a high degree of confidence in themselves and their beliefs; setting a personal example of involvement in and commitment to the mission for followers to emulate; behaving in a manner that reinforces the vision or mission; and communicating high expectations to followers and confidence in their ability to meet such expectations (see: Conger and Kanungo, 1987; Shamir et al., 1993). So far, several premises of charismatic leadership have been presented. The first effort in this regard was made by Robert House in 1977 who was the first to present a fully developed theory of charismatic leadership. House believed that charismatic leaders were strongly influential on the followers. He posited that charismatic leaders have their major effects on the emotions and selfesteem of followers - the affective motivational variables rather than the cognitive variables (House et al., 1988). Once followers are convinced about the ideology of leader, they follow him/her willingly, become fully involved in the task, obey the commands of leader entirely, feel emotional attraction towards the leader, consider leader s goals as their own, and believe that they are a part of mission which must be accomplished under the guidance of their beloved leader. The limitation about House s initial theory was the ambiguity about influence process. In their next version, House et al. (1991) refined House s (1977) original theory of charismatic leadership and presented a more complete conceptualization of the theory. They defined charismatic leadership in terms of three constituents: (1) effects on followers, (2) leader personality and behavior, and (3) attributions of charisma to leaders by followers and observers. Charismatic leadership is described as an interactive process between followers and their leader in the first constituent. This interaction results in the attraction of followers to the leader and strong internalization of the leader s values and goals by followers. Over time, the followers develop unquestioning acceptance of and commitment to the leader. The followers trust fully in the correctness of the leader s beliefs and are willing to obey the leader. The next constituent involves specific leadership traits and behaviors that give rise to charismatic leadership. The traits that distinguish charismatic leaders from non- 39

The Evolution of Leadership Theory

The Evolution of Leadership Theory 1 The Evolution of Leadership Theory Although the practice of leadership has changed considerably over time, the need for leaders and leadership has not (Bass, 1990a; Kouzes & Posner, 1995). Already in

More information

BASS & STOGDILL'S Handbook of Leadership

BASS & STOGDILL'S Handbook of Leadership BASS & STOGDILL'S Handbook of Leadership THEORY, RESEARCH, AND MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS Third Edition by Bernard M. Bass?] Y THE FREE PRESS New York London Toronto Sydney Preface to the Third Edition PARTI

More information

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness in Recreational Sports/Fitness Programs The Sport Journal

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness in Recreational Sports/Fitness Programs The Sport Journal United States Sports Academy - "America's Sports University" The Sport Journal - ISSN: 1543-9518 Transformational Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness in Recreational Sports/Fitness Programs Submitted

More information

Leadership Theories and Styles

Leadership Theories and Styles Leadership Theories and Styles IAAP 2009 Administrative Professionals Week Event April 28, 2009 Development of Leadership Theory Until approximately 1930, there was not much academic interest in the area

More information

Leadership --- What s your style as a leader? as a follower?

Leadership --- What s your style as a leader? as a follower? Leadership --- What s your style as a leader? as a follower? Compiled by S. Cramer January 2008 Leadership What s your style as a Follower? As a Leader? Jan 2008 1. What does leadership look and feel like?

More information

The Research Basis of Employee-

The Research Basis of Employee- RICHARD J. VORWERK Dean of Special Programs and Instructional Services Governors State University Park Forest South, Illinois The Research Basis of Employee- Centered Supervision As supervisors in libraries,

More information

Summary Chart of Leadership Perspectives/Theories/Models

Summary Chart of Leadership Perspectives/Theories/Models Summary Chart of Leadership Perspectives/Theories/Models Prepared by: Virginia Harwood The intent of this summary chart is to keep me organized during the course so I can easily consolidate my learning

More information

Concepts of Leadership

Concepts of Leadership Concepts of Leadership Leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education,

More information

Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness. Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz

Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness. Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz Leadership, Change, and Organizational Effectiveness Martin M. Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz What is leadership? Most organizational theorists agree that effective leadership is one of the

More information

BUS 255 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN BUSINESS

BUS 255 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN BUSINESS COURSE DESCRIPTION: BUS 255 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN BUSINESS Prerequisites: ENG 090 and RED 09 or DRE 098; or satisfactory score on placement test Corequisites: None This course covers the impact of

More information

Power and leadership. Goals. Sources of power. Identify sources of power, key influence tactics Review major findings about

Power and leadership. Goals. Sources of power. Identify sources of power, key influence tactics Review major findings about Power and leadership Goals Identify sources of power, key influence tactics Review major findings about How leaders emerge What makes them effective Sources of power French & Raven (1959) sources of interpersonal

More information

What Drives Your Leadership?

What Drives Your Leadership? What Drives Your Leadership? Leadership Advance Online Issue XVIII by Marcus L. Streater Horsepower. Torque. Crankshaft speed. These are just a few of the performance specifications upon which racing engines

More information

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Reviewed by Chelsea Truesdell Introduction The Leadership Challenge serves as a resource for any

More information

Police Organization and Administration. CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 6

Police Organization and Administration. CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 6 Police Organization and Administration CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 6 Leadership The police leader is responsible for three equally important but essentially different broad responsibilities:

More information

Running head: LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Leadership Styles of Master s Students in Counselor Education. Alexis Rae, PC. The Ohio State University

Running head: LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Leadership Styles of Master s Students in Counselor Education. Alexis Rae, PC. The Ohio State University Running head: LEADERSHIP STYLES 1 Leadership Styles of Master s Students in Counselor Education Alexis Rae, PC The Ohio State University December 2010 LEADERSHIP STYLES 2 Leadership Styles of Master s

More information

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical

More information

This historical document is derived from a 1990 APA presidential task force (revised in 1997).

This historical document is derived from a 1990 APA presidential task force (revised in 1997). LEARNER-CENTERED PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES: A Framework for School Reform & Redesign TABLE OF CONTENTS: Background Learner-Centered Principles Prepared by the Learner-Centered Principles Work Group of the

More information

Chapter Leadership 9 1

Chapter Leadership 9 1 Chapter 9 Leadership 1 9.1 Leadership theory Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish aims or objectives, using their capacity to motivate, inspire and influence others.

More information

QCF Syllabus. Organisational Behaviour. Unit Reference Number H/502/4794 Guided Learning Hours 160 Level 5 Number of Credits 18

QCF Syllabus. Organisational Behaviour. Unit Reference Number H/502/4794 Guided Learning Hours 160 Level 5 Number of Credits 18 QCF Syllabus Organisational Behaviour Unit Title Organisational Behaviour Unit Reference Number H/502/4794 Guided Learning Hours 160 Level 5 Number of Credits 18 Unit purpose and aim(s): This unit aims

More information

The Seven Levels of Organisational Consciousness

The Seven Levels of Organisational Consciousness The Seven Levels of Organisational Consciousness By Richard Barrett All human group structures grow and develop in consciousness in seven well defined stages. Each stage focuses on a particular existential

More information

Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations

Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations Notes Critiques Gestion de Ressources Humaines MBA HEC Lausanne 2003 2004 By Rute Fernandes Index I. INTRODUCTION... 3 II. AVOLIO

More information

Aspects of Leadership

Aspects of Leadership Aspects of Leadership Mark T. Green MEd, MBA, MS, PhD Chair, Leadership Studies Our Lady of the Lake University http://business.ollusa.edu/leadership www.drmarkgreen.com GreeM@Lake.Ollusa.Edu 210.434.6711

More information

Human Resources Management Philosophy JAGODA MRZYGŁOCKA-CHOJNACKA PHD 1

Human Resources Management Philosophy JAGODA MRZYGŁOCKA-CHOJNACKA PHD 1 Human Resources Management Philosophy JAGODA MRZYGŁOCKA-CHOJNACKA PHD 1 Human Resources Management Philosophy The HR Management Philosophy is not mainly about Human Resources Function. It is more about

More information

The ins and outs. of successful. leadership. Helping you to be a more effective leader

The ins and outs. of successful. leadership. Helping you to be a more effective leader The ins and outs of successful leadership Helping you to be a more effective leader What does your team expect from their leader? Someone who high-fives everyone from the post boy to the CEO on his way

More information

MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1

MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1 MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1 MGT 202: Business Professions 1. Describe and use the elements of effective decision making research, assessment and consequence. 2. Apply elements of effective

More information

Stepanova Elina EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PhD economic science Siberian Federal University Krasnoyarsk

Stepanova Elina EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PhD economic science Siberian Federal University Krasnoyarsk Stepanova Elina EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP PhD economic science Siberian Federal University Krasnoyarsk Leadership styles demonstrated their contribution to leadership effectiveness. Leadership styles is dependant

More information

EXHIBIT CC. Identifying Management Level Knowledge, Skills and Abilities. Executive Core Competencies (ECCs)

EXHIBIT CC. Identifying Management Level Knowledge, Skills and Abilities. Executive Core Competencies (ECCs) EXHIBIT CC Identifying Management Level Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Executive Core Competencies (ECCs) ECC One: Leading Change ECC Two: Leading People ECC Three: Results Driven ECC Four: Business Acumen

More information

BC Public Service Competencies

BC Public Service Competencies BC Public Service Competencies Competencies that support LEADING PEOPLE For Executive and Directors: Motivating for Peak Performance Motivating for peak performance involves knowledge and skills in using

More information

CHAPTER 1: The Preceptor Role in Health Systems Management

CHAPTER 1: The Preceptor Role in Health Systems Management CHAPTER 1: The Preceptor Role in Health Systems Management Throughout the nursing literature, the preceptor is described as a nurse who teaches, supports, counsels, coaches, evaluates, serves as role model

More information

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND APPLICATION TO SPORTS

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND APPLICATION TO SPORTS 2 A. Rui Gomes Chapter TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND APPLICATION TO SPORTS A. Rui Gomes * University of Minho, School of Psychology. Portugal ABSTRACT Analyzing the influence of coaches

More information

CAHRS ResearchLink CAN FIRMS PERFORM WITHOUT GOOD HR PRACTICES AND INSPIRING LEADERS? Key Findings. Topic: The Concept of Fit as Multi-Faceted

CAHRS ResearchLink CAN FIRMS PERFORM WITHOUT GOOD HR PRACTICES AND INSPIRING LEADERS? Key Findings. Topic: The Concept of Fit as Multi-Faceted No. 4 August 2013 CAN FIRMS PERFORM WITHOUT GOOD HR PRACTICES AND INSPIRING LEADERS? Key Findings A positive match between leadership behaviors and HR practices produce the best organizational outcomes.

More information

School of Social Work

School of Social Work MSW Core Curriculum for Generalist Practice St. Catherine University/University of St. Thomas Core and Advanced Competencies of the MSW Program The SCU/UST MSW curriculum prepares its graduates for advanced

More information

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT COACHING AND PERFORMANCE GEORGIA PERIMETER COLLEGE

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT COACHING AND PERFORMANCE GEORGIA PERIMETER COLLEGE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT COACHING AND PERFORMANCE GEORGIA PERIMETER COLLEGE Module 2 Coaching and Performance with the GPC Strategic Plan Agenda 1. Performance Management Process The Next Plateau 2. Aspects

More information

Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction

Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction Chapter Seven Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction 7-2 Motivation Defined Motivation: Psychological processes that cause the arousal direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that

More information

Leadership Framework and Competency Model

Leadership Framework and Competency Model Leadership Framework and Competency Model Introduction The KIPP Leadership Framework and Competency Model describes the competencies and behaviors considered most important to the performance of KIPP Executive

More information

Strategic Leadership and

Strategic Leadership and Chapter 11 Strategic Leadership and Change Management Chapter 11 Learning Outcomes Discuss the role of strategic leadership in the strategic management process. Describe the relevance of analyzing the

More information

Ph. D. Program in Education Specialization: Educational Leadership School of Education College of Human Sciences Iowa State University

Ph. D. Program in Education Specialization: Educational Leadership School of Education College of Human Sciences Iowa State University Ph. D. Program in Education Specialization: Educational Leadership School of Education College of Human Sciences Iowa State University The purpose of the doctoral program in Educational Leadership is to

More information

College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs)

College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs) College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs) College of PHS Learning Goals PsyD Program Learning Goals

More information

Contact Center LeaderPro. Candidate Feedback

Contact Center LeaderPro. Candidate Feedback Contact Center LeaderPro Candidate Feedback Contents Page Recommended Selection Criteria 1 Ideal Ranges for: Team Leader Go 2 Snapshots Management Profile 3 Management Style 4 Orientation & Coaching Factors

More information

Kotters Eight Steps of Change

Kotters Eight Steps of Change We are often asked the question, What should I do to improve our staff engagement? Culture change is a difficult task to achieve for any leader. Leaders we work with to help transform their organizational

More information

UCR Core Competency Model Behavioral Indicators

UCR Core Competency Model Behavioral Indicators UCR Core Competency Model Behavioral Indicators Rev. 03/20/2013 COMMUNICATION Shares and receives information using clear oral, written, and interpersonal communication skills. Behavioral Indicator-Operational

More information

Leadership Style Leading versus Managing Dr. Robert Hurley

Leadership Style Leading versus Managing Dr. Robert Hurley Leadership Style Leading versus Managing Dr. Robert Hurley Copyright 2001 Dr. Robert Hurley (203) 431-1877 USA 2 Leadership versus Management Chinese Government Personnel (From W. Warner Burke) Leader

More information

INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUBJECT INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Subject: Introduction Industrial Organizational Psychology Session 1 What Is Industrial

More information

Organizational Behavior and Organizational Change Leadership & Power. Roger N. Nagel Senior Fellow & Wagner Professor.

Organizational Behavior and Organizational Change Leadership & Power. Roger N. Nagel Senior Fellow & Wagner Professor. Organizational Behavior and Organizational Change Leadership & Power Roger N. Nagel Senior Fellow & Wagner Professor 1 Topics This Presentation What Is Leadership? Leadership Traits Grid Management Styles

More information

Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership. Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership

Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership. Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership Transactional Leader: approaches followers with an eye to exchanging one thing for another Burns pursues a cost benefit, economic exchange to met subordinates

More information

o and organizational data were the primary measures used to

o and organizational data were the primary measures used to The Role of Relevant Experience and Intellectual Ability in Determining the Performance of Military Leaders: A Contingency Model Explanation Patrick J. Bettin United States Military Academy Abstract A

More information

SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report

SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report SigmaRADIUS Leadership Effectiveness Report Sample Report NOTE This is a sample report, containing illustrative results for only two dimensions on which 360 performance ratings were obtained. The full

More information

DoD CIVILIAN LEADER DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK COMPETENCY DEFINITIONS. Leading Change

DoD CIVILIAN LEADER DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK COMPETENCY DEFINITIONS. Leading Change DoD CIVILIAN LEADER DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK COMPETENCY DEFINITIONS Leading Change Definition: This core competency involves the ability to bring about strategic change, both within and outside the organization,

More information

Bachelor of Arts in Leadership

Bachelor of Arts in Leadership Bachelor of Arts in Leadership LEAD ON A NEW LEVEL You work hard, but now you re ready for something more. A promotion, a new way to approach your work, or a new career altogether. You re ready to take

More information

Women in World Athletics Seminar

Women in World Athletics Seminar Women in World Athletics Seminar 12 th 15 th April 2013 Presentation prepared by: Ryan Murphy Supporting partners Presentation to: Claire Furlong Date: XX/XX/XX Presentation prepared by: Ryan Murphy. Date:

More information

8. Organizational behavior

8. Organizational behavior 8. Organizational behavior Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization for the purpose of applying

More information

GUIDANCE. Rocky River City School District. Globally Competitive Exceptional Opportunites Caring Environment Successful Students

GUIDANCE. Rocky River City School District. Globally Competitive Exceptional Opportunites Caring Environment Successful Students GUIDANCE K 12 Rocky River City School District Globally Competitive Exceptional Opportunites Caring Environment Successful Students DISTRICT GUIDANCE PROGRAM PHILOSOPHY Our philosophy is to be pro-active,

More information

Leadership Theories: Toward a Relational Model

Leadership Theories: Toward a Relational Model France ST-HILAIRE Leadership Theories: Toward a Relational Model Retrospective Exam (Examen rétrospectif) EXD-66909 presented to the Faculté des études supérieures de l Université Laval for the Ad Hoc

More information

THE LEADERSHIP ASSESSMENT THAT ILLUMINATES LEADER EFFECTIVENESS

THE LEADERSHIP ASSESSMENT THAT ILLUMINATES LEADER EFFECTIVENESS THE LEADERSHIP ASSESSMENT THAT ILLUMINATES LEADER EFFECTIVENESS CONNECTING PATTERNS OF ACTION WITH HABITS OF THOUGHT The Leadership Circle Profile (LCP) is a true breakthrough among 360 degree profiles.

More information

Leadership: Management Lessons from McDonald's

Leadership: Management Lessons from McDonald's Student Self-administered case study Leadership: Management Lessons from McDonald's Case duration (Min): 45-60 Organizational Behaviour (OB) Principles of Management (PoM) Leadership in organizations Motivation

More information

Performance Factors and Campuswide Standards Guidelines. With Behavioral Indicators

Performance Factors and Campuswide Standards Guidelines. With Behavioral Indicators Performance Factors and Campuswide Standards Guidelines With Behavioral Indicators Rev. 05/06/2014 Contents PERFORMANCE FACTOR GUIDELINES... 1 Position Expertise... 1 Approach to Work... 2 Quality of Work...

More information

Police Organization and Administration. CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 4

Police Organization and Administration. CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 4 Police Organization and Administration CJ 3600 Professor James J. Drylie Week 4 Organizational Theory To better understand organizations it is important to ask the question cui bono, or who benefits Blatt

More information

Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by the leaders

Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by the leaders and It is important to distinguish the difference between leadership and management, both of which are considered necessary. and management are often used interchangeably, but they are two distinctive

More information

17. The one personal skill that may be the most important to leadership success is the ability to perceive the needs and goals of others and to

17. The one personal skill that may be the most important to leadership success is the ability to perceive the needs and goals of others and to Ch09 Student: 1. An outstanding leader needs good strategic substance but does not need interpersonal skills. 2. Leaders serve people best when they help others become better contributors to organizations.

More information

ETHICAL GUIDELINES AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND GROUP PROCESS CONSULTANTS

ETHICAL GUIDELINES AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND GROUP PROCESS CONSULTANTS ETHICAL GUIDELINES AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND GROUP PROCESS CONSULTANTS A Foundation for Professional Values Organization development and group process consultation emerged

More information

Maslow Holistic Dynamic Theory

Maslow Holistic Dynamic Theory Maslow Holistic Dynamic Theory Holistic Dynamic Theory assumes that the whole person is continually being motivated by one need or another and that people have the potential to grow toward psychological

More information

Overview of Leadership Theories By Sue Panighetti

Overview of Leadership Theories By Sue Panighetti This is a discussion on various different leadership theories and how they apply to leading others. Use the Leadership Points for Dialogue to help explore each of these theories and how they may or may

More information

why happiness is good for business

why happiness is good for business why happiness is good for business Martyn Newman Ph.D. Randstad consulting psychologist In today s business world, driven by competitive advantage, success and wealth, happiness can easily be relegated

More information

Leadership and Management Competencies

Leadership and Management Competencies Leadership and Management Competencies 0 The Saskatchewan Public Service Vision: The Best Public Service in Canada Our Commitment to Excellence Dedicated to service excellence, we demonstrate innovation,

More information

Empowerment and Organizational Change

Empowerment and Organizational Change International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 4 (1):1-5 Science Explorer Publications Empowerment and Organizational Change

More information

Principles of Supervision MGT 2220 Chapter 8 The Supervisor as Leader

Principles of Supervision MGT 2220 Chapter 8 The Supervisor as Leader Principles of Supervision MGT 2220 Chapter 8 The Supervisor as Leader If people see you looking out only for your own best interests, they will not follow you. - Carlos Gutierrez, U.S. Secretary of Commerce

More information

EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT

EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT Empowerment Defined Webster dictionary defines empowerment as : giving the means, ability or authority To empower someone is to give the individual authority To make decisions To contribute

More information

1. Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and managers.

1. Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and managers. Chapter 12 Leadership and Followership s Learnin ng Outcome 1. Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and managers. 2. Explain the role of trait theory in describing

More information

Transformational Leadership: How Do We Get There?

Transformational Leadership: How Do We Get There? Introduction Transformational Leadership: How Do We Get There? Dr. Rhonda Pennings, Dean of Arts & Science/Business and Health, Northwest Iowa Community College The word transform, derived from the Latin

More information

Level 1 Articulated Plan: The plan has established the mission, vision, goals, actions, and key

Level 1 Articulated Plan: The plan has established the mission, vision, goals, actions, and key S e s s i o n 2 S t r a t e g i c M a n a g e m e n t 1 Session 2 1.4 Levels of Strategic Planning After you ve decided that strategic management is the right tool for your organization, clarifying what

More information

Refining Your Leadership Philosophy & Style

Refining Your Leadership Philosophy & Style DRINON'S LEADERSHIP EXPRESS Refining Your Leadership Philosophy & Style Defining Leadership Over the past century much research has been conducted on the topic of leadership. These studies have produced

More information

Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession

Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 12 Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 1 Teachers understand student learning and development and respect the diversity of the students they teach. Teachers display knowledge of how

More information

Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals

Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals Section Three: Ohio Standards for Principals 1 Principals help create a shared vision and clear goals for their schools and ensure continuous progress toward achieving the goals. Principals lead the process

More information

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of learning help us understand individual change? The behavioural approach to change how can we change people s behaviour? The

More information

FOUNDATION YEAR Student Evaluation

FOUNDATION YEAR Student Evaluation FOUNDATION YEAR Student Evaluation I. Cover Sheet Student Name Home Phone Work Phone Cell Phone Email (Please Check) Full-time Part-time Field Instructor Work Phone Email Agency Cell Phone Site Address

More information

Leadership Development Handbook

Leadership Development Handbook Leadership Development Handbook Presented by: Langara College Human Resources Prepared by: Jackson Consulting Group Aim of the Handbook is to provide: Leadership Development Handbook - Introduction help

More information

The IIA Global Internal Audit Competency Framework

The IIA Global Internal Audit Competency Framework About The IIA Global Internal Audit Competency Framework The IIA Global Internal Audit Competency Framework (the Framework) is a tool that defines the competencies needed to meet the requirements of the

More information

Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors

Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors Social Work Field Education Core Competencies and Practice Behaviors The School of Social Work Field Education Program addresses each of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Core Competencies and

More information

Leadership vs. Management Kristina G. Ricketts, Community and Leadership Development

Leadership vs. Management Kristina G. Ricketts, Community and Leadership Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 ELK1-103 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR Leadership vs. Management Kristina G. Ricketts, Community and Leadership Development

More information

The American College of Greece: Academic Vision. David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013)

The American College of Greece: Academic Vision. David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013) The American College of Greece: Academic Vision David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013) Before presenting my recommendation for ACG s future academic

More information

These Paradigm Shift within the Successful Change Management

These Paradigm Shift within the Successful Change Management These Paradigm Shift within the Successful Change Management Andrea TAKÁCS Istvan Szechenyi University, Doctoral School of Regional-and Economic Sciencesepartment andrea.takacs23@gmail.com In a change

More information

Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University

Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University Daniel Ndudzo Zimbabwe Open University, Harare, Zimbabwe ABSTRACT This study assesses employee satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University.

More information

An organization consists of individuals with different tasks attempting

An organization consists of individuals with different tasks attempting 2 Chapter Organizational Behavior An organization consists of individuals with different tasks attempting to accomplish a common purpose. (For a business, this purpose is the creation and delivery of goods

More information

Reviewed by Anna Lehnen. Introduction

Reviewed by Anna Lehnen. Introduction 1 Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2010). The truth about leadership: The no-fads, heart-of-thematter facts you need to know. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Reviewed by Anna Lehnen Introduction James M.

More information

TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN THE SERVICE OF MILITARY TRANSFORMATION

TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN THE SERVICE OF MILITARY TRANSFORMATION TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN THE SERVICE OF MILITARY TRANSFORMATION Ecaterina Livia TATAR Lecturer, Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania The magnitude and challenges

More information

The Role of Leadership for Environment and Sustainability. Guest lecture Perspectives on Environment and Sustainability, Monash University

The Role of Leadership for Environment and Sustainability. Guest lecture Perspectives on Environment and Sustainability, Monash University The Role of Leadership for Environment and Sustainability Guest lecture Perspectives on Environment and Sustainability, Monash University Dr André Taylor, 18 April 2011 Outline Brief explanation of my

More information

LEADERSHIP ROLES, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY, PROFESSIONALISM AND EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION

LEADERSHIP ROLES, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY, PROFESSIONALISM AND EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION 187 LEADERSHIP ROLES, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY, PROFESSIONALISM AND EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION Elham Shahmandi 1 *, Sayed Akbar Hosseini 2 1 PhD in Human Resource

More information

LEADERSHIP COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK

LEADERSHIP COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK LEADERSHIP COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK 1 Introduction to the Leadership Competency Framework The Leadership Competency Framework focuses on three levels of management: Team Leaders/Supervisors responsible for

More information

An Exploration of Followership. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of followership. The research

An Exploration of Followership. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of followership. The research An Exploration of Followership The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of followership. The research questions investigated in this paper are what are the different models of followership,

More information

Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees

Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees Client Company Performance Appraisal Review for Exempt Employees Employee Name Department Title Date Started Current Position Date of Review Current Supervisor Instructions Review employee s performance

More information

How often do projects fail? According to

How often do projects fail? According to Vol. 40, No. 2, March April 2010, pp. 159 162 issn 0092-2102 eissn 1526-551X 10 4002 0159 informs doi 10.1287/inte.1090.0473 2010 INFORMS People Skills: Ensuring Project Success A Change Management Perspective

More information

Winning Leadership in Turbulent Times Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leaders

Winning Leadership in Turbulent Times Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Working Resources is a Leadership Consulting, Training and Executive Coaching Firm Helping Companies Assess, Select, Coach and Retain Emotionally Intelligent Leaders; Emotional Intelligence-Based Interviewing

More information

CHAPTER 1 ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER 1 ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CHAPTER 1 ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Concept and Definition of Organisational Behaviour Organisational behaviour (OB) is concerned with the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour in organisations.

More information

Organisational Inoculation. Chris Phillips Manager People & Performance

Organisational Inoculation. Chris Phillips Manager People & Performance Organisational Inoculation Chris Phillips Manager People & Performance Leadership The only way to safeguard your organisation from the diseases that can break it apart from within and without is through

More information

Personal Performance Commitments: Setting Individual Objectives for Continuous Improvement

Personal Performance Commitments: Setting Individual Objectives for Continuous Improvement Personal Performance Commitments: Setting Individual Objectives for Continuous Improvement Gregory C. Kesler Competitive Human Resources Strategies, LLC 284 Briar Brae Road Stamford CT 06903 G.C. Kesler,

More information

RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUES IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION: PROGRAM DESIGN AND CLINICAL BENEFITS

RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUES IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION: PROGRAM DESIGN AND CLINICAL BENEFITS RESTORATIVE TECHNIQUES IN COGNITIVE REHABILITATION: PROGRAM DESIGN AND CLINICAL BENEFITS In the treatment of traumatic brain injury, cognitive rehabilitation is an intervention that seeks to improve cognitive

More information

JOURNAL OF ADDICTIVE DISORDERS

JOURNAL OF ADDICTIVE DISORDERS JOURNAL OF ADDICTIVE DISORDERS Leadership in Clinical Supervision 1 Sally Wynn, MA, MCA, CSC, CAS II Introduction Leadership is an essential element of clinical supervision and leadership skills differ

More information

THE CHOICE OF THE APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLE IN ORDER TO ENHANCE WORK PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

THE CHOICE OF THE APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLE IN ORDER TO ENHANCE WORK PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES THE CHOICE OF THE APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLE IN ORDER TO ENHANCE WORK PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES Jiri Dedina College of Polytechnics Jihlava, Czech Republic jiri.dedina@gmail.com Abstract:

More information

Sample Behavioural Questions by Competency

Sample Behavioural Questions by Competency Competencies that support LEADING PEOPLE Change Leadership Please tell us about a time when you led a significant change in your organization and how you helped others to deal with the change. Tell me

More information

LIST OF SUBJECTS MBA (EXECUTIVE) SEM.I 2011-13 1. Fundamental of Management 2. Organizational Behaviour 3. Accounting for Managers 4.

LIST OF SUBJECTS MBA (EXECUTIVE) SEM.I 2011-13 1. Fundamental of Management 2. Organizational Behaviour 3. Accounting for Managers 4. LIST OF SUBJECTS MBA (EXECUTIVE) SEM.I 2011-13 1. Fundamental of Management 2. Organizational Behaviour 3. Accounting for Managers 4. Statistics for Management 5. Business Communication 6. Managerial Economics

More information