MASTER THESIS REPORT MSc IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING WITH EMPHASIS ON TELECOMMUNICATION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MASTER THESIS REPORT MSc IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING WITH EMPHASIS ON TELECOMMUNICATION"

Transcription

1 MEE 09: 17 MASTER THESIS REPORT MSc IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING WITH EMPHASIS ON TELECOMMUNICATION TRASMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN MANET BLEKINGE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MARCH 2009 Author: Muhammad Ijaz Supervisor & Examiner: Adrian Popescu 1

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of greatest All mighty ALLAH who has always bless me with potential knowledge and success. I am thankful to my supervisor Adrain Popescu, my friends who help me during my hard times when I need their assistance during simulation. I am especially thankful to my Parents, Uncles and Grandmother, who had always provided me the courage, strength, best wishes, moral and financial support during my whole career. I also have best regards for BTH faculty including Mikeal Åsman and Lena Magnusson who had been helpful throughout my maters degree. 2

3 Abstract Mobile Ad hoc network routing protocols have been divided in several different categories such as Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocol. The performances of these categories are evaluated in different scenario with TCP variants. We present a comprehensive TCP performance evaluation study to understand the nature of the TCP performance in different scenarios with variable amount of payload and number of nodes. The traffic consists of three different packet sizes i.e. 512, 1000, 1500 bytes each. Three different routing protocols (AODV, DSR and TORA) are to be evaluated with three different TCP variants (Tahoe, Reno and New Reno) in three different scenarios having 3, 5 and 8 nodes. The performances parameters on the basis of which routing protocols are to be graded are mainly throughput, congestion window and delay. Conclusions are drawn based on the simulation results and the comparisons between them have been elaborated. 3

4 LIST OF OBSERVATIONS ABR ACK ALP AODV BER CLR CWND DAG DREAM DSDV DSN DSR FORP FSR GLS GPS GPSR GSR IEEE IP LAN LANMAR LAR LMR LRR MANET MAC MDSR MSS OLSR OPNET PHY RABR Associativity -Based Routing Acknowledgement Adaptive Link-State Protocol Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Bit Error Rate Clear Congestion Window Directed Acyclic Graph Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility Destination Sequence Distance Vector Distance Sequence numbers Dynamic Source Routing Flow Oriented Routing Protocol Fisheye State Routing Grid Location Service Global Positioning System Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Global State Routing Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers Internet Protocol Local Area Network Landmark Ad Hoc Routing Location-Aided Routing Lightweight Mobile Routing Least Resistance Routing Mobile Ad hoc Network Medium Access Control Multipath Dynamic Source Routing Maximum Segment Size Optimized Link State Routing Optimized Network Evaluation Tool Physical Layer Route-Lifetime Assessment Based Routing 4

5 RERRs RIP QRY RREQs RREP RTO RDMAR ROAM RWND SSA STAR SWND TCP TORA TTL UDP WRP ZHLS Route Errors Routing Internet Protocol Query Route Requests Route Reply Retransmission Time Out Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing Routing On demand Acyclic Multipath Advertize Window Signal Stability-Based Adaptive Source Tree Adaptive Routing Send Window Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm Time-To-Live User Datagram Protocol Wireless Routing Protocol Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State 5

6 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE DESCRIPTION PAGE Figure 2.1 Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance Mechanism 15 Figure 2.2 Hidden and Exposed Node Terminal Problem 18 Figure 3.1 Route discovery for target node 23 Figure 3.2 Maintenance for Error Route 24 Figure 3.3 Route Discoveries in TORA QRY Message 26 Figure 3.4 Route Discoveries in TORA Update Message 26 Figure 4.1 Research Methodology 30 Figure 5.1 Simulation Model 32 Figure 5.2 MANET eight node scenarios 33 Figure 5.3 Simulation Flow 34 Figure 5.4 Throughput comparison in three nodes scenario 36 Figure 5.5 Throughput comparison in five nodes scenario 37 Figure 5.6 Throughput comparison in eight nodes scenario 38 Figure 5.7 Delay Comparisons in Different Scenario 39 Figure 5.8 Congestion Window dynamics 40 LIST OF TABLES TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE Table 5.1 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Three Nodes 35 Table 5.2 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Five 36 Table 5.3 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Eight Nodes 37 6

7 LIST OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background Aims/ Objectives Research Questions Thesis Structure Expected Contribution 11 CHAPTER 2 TCP and Ad hoc Networks Types of Wireless Networks Infrastructure Networks Ad hoc Networks TCP working mechanism and Variants of TCP Working Mechanism of TCP Various Flavor of TCP Tahoe Reno New Reno Challenges and Limitation of TCP in Wireless Network Dynamic Topology/Mobility Multi Hopping Differentiating Transmission and Congestion Losses High Bit Errors Channel Contention Hidden and exposed terminal problem Out of Order Packet 19 CHAPTER 3 Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols Proactive routing protocols Reactive routing protocols Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Temporarily Order Routing Algorithm (TORA) 25 CHAPTER 4 Research Methodology Research Methodology Author Approach Research Design Problem Selection / Identification Literature Review for TCP and MANET Building Simulation Environment Simulation Results Simulation Tools 30 7

8 CHAPTER 5 Simulation and Empirical Study Simulation Environment Model OPNET Network Entities and Functions Application Definition Profile Configuration Mobility Configuration Server Mobile Nodes Simulation Configuration Simulation Flow Scenarios 34 CHAPTER 6 Discussion/ Results Conclusions Future Work 43 Appendix 44 Reference 60 8

9 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 9

10 1.1 Background Internet evolution thrives with time and development in the diverse technology improvements. Communication devices and medium have significant impact on overall internet. Numerous networks mixtures are present at the internet and even within these networks different preposition and parametric approaches for implementations are deployed subject organization needs. Overall internet traffic is somehow dependent upon underlying networks and vice versa. To cope with multiple simultaneous data networks internet requires and efficient algorithmic techniques to support data transmission successfully. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has been very effective in data transmission delivery and have also developed variants to possess the possibility to increase performance and multiple packet loss recovery. An important aspect form [1] defines the data flow method that applications are responsible for the selection of the protocols and IP plays a central role all TCP and user datagram protocol (UDP) for data transmission. TCP is reliable and connection oriented protocol developed in It s based on simple sliding window flow control, during the early stages congestion collapses occurred because of lack of congestion control mechanism. With the advent of Jacobson congestion algorithms for TCP as a remedy, TCP is updated to its new version known as TCP Tahoe. Now currently TCP Reno is widely used in Internet. TCP Tahoe congestion Control includes slow start, congestion avoidance and fast retransmission. While in addition to these three algorithms, TCP Reno also adds the fast recovery algorithm. TCP is design for wired network, but with the technology emerging towards wireless medium, the need to implement TCP is of great important but it faces many problems especially in an ad hoc networks. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a famous ad hoc network can be utilized well for emergency situation and military applications. TCP has poor performance in MANTE due to dynamic topology, shared medium, high error ratio; channel connotation and multi hop architecture. As an evident, ad hoc networks are growing dynamically and its true development fact lies in the problems associated with the seamless internet access and connectivity. With evolution in the hardware devices and software that offers wireless access to the internet by means of an intermediate connection through access point ad hoc tends to improve and increase gradually. Mobile ad hoc network is sub field with enormous commercial, industrial and military growth and realistic practical approach for internet access. Most important things to know about the technology is the ability of autonomously establishing and managing the network [2] while the an effective military consensus applications, data exchange based on mobility networks for commercial purpose i.e. business organization or it could be better utilized during emergency within and out of remote areas. This IP based dynamic wireless networks works effectively, reliable and robust data transmissions. Problems are associated with in the MANET performance, an evaluation and optimization techniques are necessary to opt and adhere for the better execution of the transmission medium. Pledged data delivery is TCP utmost drawback in wireless networks but possible solutions are available to recognize the data transmission effects. To measure the performance of different TCP variants, simulation study has been conducted in practice. MANET utilizes TCP and UDP for data transmission and our study focus on different variants of the TCP i.e. particularly Tahoe, Reno and New Reno explicitly using AODV, DSR and TORA protocols in focus. 10

11 1.2 Aims/ Objectives Thesis aims to understand the performance of the TCP variants in MANET and its behavior with respect to different protocols. It focuses following issues in the thesis: Detail literature study for state of the art technology in TCP and MANET. Performance comparison in delay and throughput by increasing number of nodes. Performance comparison between the different protocols used in MANET through congestion window, delay and throughput. Suggest better protocol and TCP variant for MANET. 1.3 Research Questions Q1: What are different TCP variants and its need? Q2: What are important routing protocols used in MANET? Q3: What is the impact on TCP performance during different protocol selection/ implementation in MANET? Q4: Which factors influence the TCP performance and why? 1.4 Thesis Structure Chapter 2 defines wireless networks and an extension to ad hoc networks and its working, it also include the detail study about the TCP flavors and its limitations. Chapter 3 is associated with the study of MANET routing protocols specific to ad hoc networks, their types, working and algorithms. Chapter 4 depicts the overall project flow explicitly starting form problem definition and following it towards solution, implementation, simulation and results hierarchy. Chapter 5 contains simulation environment description, list of figures and assumptions. Chapter 6 holds the brief discussion about the simulation results and future work. 1.5 Expected Contribution The thesis will address the scientific society about the TCP and MANET implementations in reality. It will contribute through using multiple different numbers of nodes to describe the behavior of the TCP performance over different variants; it should reveal the idea to developing commercial and non commercial business project for MANET deployments and the results in reality should have utmost significance. 11

12 Chapter 2 TCP AND AD HOC NETWORKS 12

13 In this chapter first to discuss the taxonomy of wireless networks such is infrastructure networks and ad hoc networks or infrastructure-less networks. Then before to discuss the different challenges transmission control protocol (TCP) is facing in wireless networks, it is better to give a look to the TCP working mechanism and its different variants Types of Wireless Networks One of the unique features of wireless networks is compare to wire network is that data is transmitted from one point to another through wireless links i.e. there is no need of wired link between the two nodes for transmission. They just need to be in the transmission range of each other. Wireless networks or divided into two categories. Infrastructure wireless network and infrastructure less or ad hoc wireless network Infrastructure Networks Infrastructure network have fixed network topology. Wireless nodes connect through the fixed point known as base station or access point. In most cases the access point or base station or connected to the main network through wired link. The base station, or access point, is one of the important elements in such types of networks. All of the wireless connections must pass from the base station. Whenever a node is in the range of several base stations then it connect to any one of them on the bases of some criteria [3] Ad hoc Networks Ad hoc networks also called infrastructure less networks are complex distributed systems consist of wireless links between the nodes and each node also works as a router to forwards the data on behalf of other nodes. The nodes are free to join or left the network without any restriction. Thus the networks have no permanent infrastructure. In ad hoc networks the nodes can be stationary or mobile. Therefore one can say that ad hoc networks basically have two forms, one is static ad hoc networks (SANET) and the other one is called mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). From the introduction of new technologies such as IEEE [4] the commercial implementation of ad hoc network becomes possible [5]. One of the good features of such networks is the flexibility and can be deployed very easily. Thus it is suitable for the emergency situation. But on the other side it is also very difficult to handle the operation of ad hoc networks. Each node is responsible to handle its operation 13

14 independently. Topology changes are very frequent and thus there will be need of an efficient routing protocol, whose construction is a complex task. TCP performances are also very poor in mobile ad hoc network. In coming sections we are discussing the TCP working mechanism and challenges for TCP in ad hoc networks in more detail. 2.2 TCP working mechanism and Variants of TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [6] is a Transport Layer Protocol and originally designed for wired network in The basic responsibility of TCP is to provide reliable transfer of data between the nodes i.e. to ensure that the data is reached the destination correctly without any loss or damage. The data is transmitted in the form of continuous stream of octets. The mechanism is adopted to assign a sequence number to each octet of data and receiver respond with positive acknowledgement to ensure that the data is received correctly. Another aspect of TCP is the tree way handshakes mechanism to establish a connection between the end points (nodes). In case if there are two or more TCP connection between the end points for this TCP uses the port assignment mechanism to differentiate each connection from others Working Mechanism of TCP The congestion control algorithm employed by TCP is window based. It uses three types of windows called congestion window (cwnd), advertize window (rwnd) and send window (swnd). Congestion windows shows the total amount of data the sender is allowed to output to the network without any Acknowledgement (ACK). While on the other hand the advertise window indicates the amount of data the receiver is ready to accept. It is equal to the available buffer size on the receiver. Now the size of the flight window or send window is set to the minimum of the congestion window and advertize window. Basically the congestion control mechanism has two phases the slow start and congestion avoidance phase. When a connection is established the initial size of congestion window is set to One MSS (Maximum Segment Size). Receiving data from the sender the receiver ACK the reception of data to the sender, the receiver is actually indicating the sequence number of next expected data segment in ACK, from this the sender conclude that all the data segments which have sequence number less than the indicated one are delivered correctly. While in case of packet loss, out-of-order packets arrive at the receiver. Then the receiver sends a duplicate 14

15 ACK to the sender in response of each out-of-order packet arrival. When sender receives three duplicates ACK, it is concluded that the packet is lost and retransmission of data packet take place. Congestion Window Slow Start threshold Slow Start Congestion Avoidance Phase Time out Occured Number of Acknowledgement Slow Start threshold Figure 2.1 Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance Mechanism [10] If sender receives non-duplicate ACK Then the congestion window is incremented. In slow start phase exponential incrimination occurs until it reaches to the slow start threshold. While in congestion avoidance phase the cwnd is incremented by one packet. This window growth is limited to a maximum window size. This whole process is depicted in Fig Various Flavor of TCP After the introduction of first version of TCP several different flavors exist, here we are discussing the most famous implementation of TCP called Tahoe, Reno, New Reno and Vegas Tahoe In the first version of TCP there was no congestion control mechanism. So after observing the congestion collapses 1988 Jacobson introduced several Congestion Control algorithms [7] and this version is called TCP-Tahoe. The congestion control algorithms introduced in this version are: 15

16 a) Slow start b) Congestion Avoidance c) Fast Retransmit Reno The fast retransmit phase was first introduced in TCP-Tahoe followed by Slow Start. But TCP-Reno [8] also added the algorithm of Fast Recovery, so that Fast Recovery dictates the sender to perform congestion avoidance directly after fast retransmission rather than immediately reducing the data flow using slow start mechanism New Reno TCP Reno recovers only one lost packet during the recovery process. So TCP-New Reno [9] is just adding the capability to TCP Reno to deals with multiple packets losses to recovery in a single transmission window Challenges and Limitation of TCP in Wireless Network As compare to wired network wireless network have some special characteristic such as Mobility, share medium and signal fading. All these factors are responsible to create different types of challenges that restrict the range, data rate and reliability of the wireless transmission. These challenges are as follow Dynamic Topology/Mobility In contrast to wired network, in wireless ad hoc networks the devices are free to move which leads to frequent topology changes. Then two types of problem occurrence are possible [11]. (a) Path loss (b) Network Partition Path loss leads to the path re-computation at sender side and during this phase there will be no transmission which ultimately causes throughput degradation. Another possibility during this phase is that if path re-computation take more time then may be retransmission time out (RTO) occurs. Thus there will be data retransmission, RTO is increased exponentially and TCP enter to slow start phase. This affect will be more serious in high 16

17 mobility environment. In case of network partition the sender and receiver remains at different network and all the packets will be dropped. In such situation multiple consecutive transmission of the same segment are possible, while the receiver will be disconnected and it is called serial time out Multi-hoping In Ad hoc Network Environment every node is also supporting the responsibility of router to forwards packets on behalf of other nodes. Thus longer flow, in since of hops, having longer round trip time and higher packet dropping probability and high fluctuating end-to-end throughput as compare to flow having small number of hops Differentiating Transmission and Congestion Losses Since wireless network have open medium, signal passing through the medium they have to face different blockage such as building, due to these blockages the transmission signals are reflected, diffracted and scattered and thus causes packets loss. TCP assume that this loss is occurred due to congestion and it activate its congestion control and result in congestion window reduction, which leads to low throughput and low utilization of available bandwidth. So TCP has no such mechanism to differentiate between congestion losses and transmission losses High Bit Errors In wired network the Bit Error Rate (BER) is ranging from 10-6 to 10-8, while in wireless network this range is from 10-3 to Since due to high BER the packet losses are very frequent and TCP reaction to these losses reduces the congestion window. Thus leads to nonoptimal performance [10] Channel Contention Another reason of TCP performance degradation is the channel contention due to increasing number of nodes. It can occur between different flows passing through the same vicinity or between different packets in the same flow. In IEEE802.11, when the number of try for channel access exceeds the predefined limit, then cause to drop the packets and the Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol notifies (wrongly) the upper layer that the path is 17

18 unavailable. In response the upper layer starts the route recovery procedure [12] and TCP stop its transmission and the throughput drop to zero during route recovery process. This channel contention also leads to unfairness problem. The unfairness also occurs between the nodes so that each node has or not the equal access to the medium as compare to other node. If there is no equal access to the medium for each node then the unfairness occurs between the flows passing from different nodes. This unfairness also happens among the flows passing from the same path Hidden and exposed terminal problem Due to the share medium and multi hoping capability the nodes facing the hidden and exposed node problem. Fig: 2.2 representing the hidden and exposed terminal problem of IEEE standard. The circles show the transmission range of A and B, where C is in the transmission range of both A and B. Let A and B both want to transmit data to C, so there will be collision at C, because A and B do not know about the transmission of each other due to hidden node problem. Figure 2.2: Hidden and Exposed Node Terminal Problem Now let that there is a transmission between C and B, while at the same time A wants to transmit data to D, but when A senses the medium, it find that the medium is busy due to C transmission and thus A stops its transmission. Actually in this situation A transmission for D will not going to collide with C transmission, This problem exist in IEEE standard and known as exposed terminal problem. 18

19 2.3.7 Out of Order Packet When a receiver receives out of order packets, the receiver transmits duplicate acknowledgement, after receiving three duplicate ACK the sender retransmit the packets and congestion control is activated. But the problem is that congestion control is activated wrongly most of the time, because out-of-order packet occurrence take place due to different reasons such as multipath routing protocol and rout failure and not only due to congestion. 19

20 Chapter 3 Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols 20

21 In this chapter routing protocols are described. In general route means the way and protocol is the set of rules through which two or more devices (computers, mobile nodes) are communicating with each others. Routes are multi hop in ad hoc networks because the propagation range (250 meters in an open field) of wireless radio is limited. Nodes travel freely and randomly in the network and routes are often find connection or disconnection. Establishing strong routes, maintaining and reconstruction in time are the main task for routing protocols. All the above responsibilities are performed by the routing protocol, except generating excessive control message overhead. Data packets send efficiently must be utilized by control packets and be generated only when needed. Routing protocol efficiency in bandwidth and energy consumption could be made by reducing the control overhead. [13] In generally mobile ad hoc wireless networks routing protocols can be classified by their routing strategy. Pure distance vector algorithms (e.g., Distributed Bellman Ford, Routing Internet Protocol (RIP), etc.) do not give a good result in mobile networks because of some limitation. Then some new protocols were proposed to modify and enhance the distance vector algorithm. Protocols such as Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), Least Resistance Routing (LRR), Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol, and the protocol by Lin and Liu. The protocols which are based on link state algorithms. Theses protocols include Global State Routing (GSR), Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) protocol, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol, Adaptive Link-State Protocol (ALP), Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol, and Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) protocol. The third one is on-demand routing protocols which are planned only for ad hoc network. Route to every destination of the networks on a regular basis is not maintained by on-demand routing protocols. The source establishes routes on demand. The source floods a route request packet to construct a route when it needed. The destination use route selection algorithm and select the best route for which destination receives request. Then route reply packet is sent to the source through new best route. There is no requirements of periodic exchange of route tables and control traffic overhead is greatly reduce by on-demand routing protocols. Several protocols of this type have been propose d. Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) 21

22 routing, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Lightweight Mobile Routing (LMR), Temporarily Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), Route-Lifetime Assessment Based Routing (RABR), Associativity-Based Routing (ABR), Relative Distance Microdiscovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR) protocol, Signal Stability-Based Adaptive (SSA) routing, Multipath Dynamic Source Routing (MDSR), and Routing On demand Acyclic Multipath (ROAM) algorithm are on demand routing protocol. The fourth category is GPS (Global Positioning System), in the early stages protocols was using node location information while building routes have been proposed recently. Through information node position, routing can require more cost to exchange location information. GPS routing protocols are Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM), Grid Location Service (GLS), Location-Aided Routing (LAR), Flow Oriented Routing Protocol (FORP), and Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS). In addition we can say routing protocols are categorized as reactive, proactive and hybrid (combination of both is called hybrid). [13] 3.1 Proactive Routing Protocols This type of protocols has to construct and maintain fresh routing information to all the nodes. This is free of whether or not the route is needed. For this achievement control message are transmitted periodically. Proactive routing protocols are not bandwidth well-organize. Even if there is no data flow, the control message is broadcasted. This type of protocols has some advantages and disadvantages. One of the main advantages is that nodes can get easily routing information and easy to set up a session. The disadvantage is: There is too much data kept by the nodes for route protection and restructure is slow when there is a failure in exacting link. DSDV is an example of proactive routing protocol. 3.2 Reactive Routing Protocols Reactive routing protocols are specially planned for ad hoc networks. Permanent routing information is not kept by these protocols. Routes are built when the source needed. Route request is sending across the network to achieve this. In reactive routing protocols we describe in detail DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) protocol, AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector) protocol, and TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm) protocol. [13] 22

23 3.2.1 Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) DSR was developed at Carnegie Mellon University. It is simple and efficient reactive routing protocol which is specially designed for multi-hop ad hoc network of mobile nodes. The nodes in the network easily join or leave the network without any information. The network using DSR is not requiring existing network infrastructure or administration. The node desiring to transmit a packet define route for the packet because it is based on source routing. DSR works for ad-hoc network of approximately 200 nodes. Each node participating in adhoc network should forward packets and discard the erroneous packets (corrupted). DSR has two mechanisms: route discovery and route maintenance. [13] Route discovery The source starts a route discovery when sending data packet to the destination but have no routing information. To set up a route, the source floods RREQs message with a distinctive request ID. When the destination receives this request message or a node which has destination route information then it transmits RREP message back to the source with route information. Figure 3.1 shows route discovery of DSR. Node 2 is the initiator and node 9 is the target. Figure 3.1: Route discovery for target node, [19] Route Maintenance In LAN routing the main improvement of DSR is in route maintenance and monitoring in the attendance of mobility. DSR based on the acknowledgments of data packets sent to adjacent nodes to monitors the validity of existing routes. This monitoring is achieved by inactively listening for communication of the adjacent to the next hop or sitting a bit in a packet to ask for open acknowledgment. The RERRs packet is sent to the creative sender to raise a new route discovery stage when a node fails to accept an acknowledgment. Nodes receive a REERs message remove any route entry (from their route cache) which uses the out of order link. 23

24 When a node has problem transferring packet during that link then REER message is propagated. So this selective transmission reduces control overhead (if no packets pass through a link), it yields a long delay when a packet wants to go through a new link. [13]. Node 9 cannot be reached by node 6 anymore and a REER is returned to node 2. Figure 3.2: Maintenance for Error Route, [19] DSR main advantages are that it reduce routing overhead and does not need to discover routes to all the nodes in the network. The disadvantage of DSR is low mobility and static networks. Its performance is reduced by high mobility Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol. AODV is designed for ad hoc mobile networks and of both routing, that is unicast and multicast routing. AODV establish routes between different nodes as needed by source nodes. AODV maintain these routes as well as form trees which connect different multicast group members. The group members compose the trees and the members are connected by the nodes. In an ad hoc network when two nodes want to make a connection with each other, AODV enable multihop routes within the nodes. Ad hoc On-demand distance vector is free loop. DSN (Distance Sequence numbers) is used by the AODV to avoid counting to infinity, and this is one of the most important quality and feature of this algorithm. In a network the requested nodes send the DSN with other routing information from the source to the destination. It has also the feature to select optional route which is based on the sequence number. [14] There are three messages which are defined by AODV. These messages are Route Errors (RERRs), Route Request (RREQs) and Route Replies (RREPs). [15]. 24

25 For discovering and maintaining routes in the network these three messages are used, by using UDP packets from source to destination. A node uses its IP address as the source address in the IP header of a message when it request for a route, and for broadcast In the ad hoc network the number of hops a particular routing message is determined by the TTL (Time-To-Live). The RREQ is broadcasted by the requested node when a route is needed to be created to the destination. When the next hop node received the message a new route is determined, or itself by the destination [16]. Routes of the PREQ from the originator to all the stations that receive message are cached in these stations. A RERR message is delivered or generated when there is a failure in the link. The message has all the important information about the node which is not reachable because of the failure. The IP address of the nodes is also mentioned in the message as the next hop for the destination. AODV is table based. All the information about the routes in the network is stored in this table. The routing table has the following entries i.e. DSN, flag, next hop, IP address, State, hop count, the list of precursors, Life time and network interface Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) TORA is a reactive routing algorithm based on the conception of link reversal and used in MANETs to improve the scalability. Highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks can be used by TORA. It is an adaptive routing protocol and used in multi-hop networks. It makes scaled routes between source and destination and Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is used to build in the destination node. A DAG is accomplished for the network by handing over each node i with a height metric i.e. hi. Directional from the link i to j means hi > hi. The height of the node in TORA is defined as quintuple, which contains the unique ID of the node, a propagation ordering parameter, the logical time of a link failure, a reflection indicator bit and a unique ID of the node which defines the new reference level. The first two values identify an offset with respect to the reference level and the last three values jointly represent the reference level. A data packet goes from up flow to down flow according the height difference between nodes. TORA has the capacity that many nodes can send packets to a given destination is provided by DAG. It also guarantees that all routes are loop free. There are three basic functions in TORA, [17 and 20]. Route Creation Route maintenance 25

26 Route erasure A route creation operation start all the nodes height is set to NULL i.e. (-,-,-,-,i) and destination is set to ZERO i.e. (0,0,0,0,dest). The nodes height is flexible according to the topology. A QRY message containing the destination s ID is broadcasted by the source. A non-null height node responds with UPD packet containing its own height. With the reception of UPD packet, a node increment its height with one than that of the UPD generator. The higher height of a node is measured as up flow and lower height of a node is measured as down flow. Then the DAG from source to destination is constructed. Route maintenance operation is a main part of TORA. It has an exclusive quality that control message are contained into a small set of nods near the happening of topology changes. A node generates a new reference level and broadcasts the reference to its neighbours when it loses its last down flow link. Then the links reproduce the topology change and adjust to the new reference level. The route erasure operation in TORA floods CLR packets through the network and remove unacceptable routes, [18]. Figure 3.3 Route Discoveries in TORA QRY Message In this figure node A shows and node B shows destination. Node D and node G is one hop neighbours away from the destination. So they will propagate updates as shown in next figure. Figure 3.4 Route Discoveries in TORA Update Message 26

27 The algorithm [21], contains many flows with most severe in which algorithm extremely depend upon the numbers of nodes during initial stage, which causes dependence on the traffic requirement. It is measured as change in rate with regard to total number of nodes participating in network traffic. In case of gradually positive increase in the network volume, TORA is not considered as better solution. 27

28 Chapter 4 Research Methodology 28

29 4.1 Research Methodology It illustrates the overall thesis work to be carried out in as in the form of research activity. It generalizes the understanding about author concept in developing multiple steps or stages for whole work. Creswell [22] enlighten two major form of research i.e. quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research is carried out by means of inquiry strategies including certain experiments and simulations which produce some form of statistical data for analysis or decisions. Qualitative research is based on the researcher knowledge through participatory and /or constructive perspectives. 4.2 Author approach Thesis is carried out through multiple stages starting form literature review about the state of art technology specific to TCP and MANET and then performing the simulation in OPNET v14.5 tool. So both molds of approaches are necessary to complete the thesis work and have been administered. 4.3 Research Design Author believes that the most of the time is spent in identifying and selecting the problem and conduction literature review. It is also vital to determine that simulation tool also requires some time during configuration and simulation, as results are often indispensable. Author divided the overall research into four stages Problem Selection / Identification In problem selection stage author adhere to only MANET and TCP as focus area of research interest. Problem has been selected in consideration to data performance issues in MANET due to wireless nature of the network Literature Review for TCP and MANET It is necessary to conduct literature study for understand basic and expertise concept regarding TCP variants, Ad hoc networks, MANET protocols and related work. OPNET simulator study is also important to develop the scenario, run simulation and collect result. 29

30 State of art Internet Building Scenario Graph Results Performance Analysis Real Problem State of art study Protocol Selection Problem Identification and Selection Literature Review of TCP and MANET Problem Simulation Implementation Simulation Results Technology Evolution Author Interest Tool Selection Assumption and Conclusions Books TCP Variant Selection Tool Configuration Figure 4.1 Research Methodology Building Simulation Environment This stage is critical to understand as it exhibit deep understanding of how and why these specific nodes and protocols are chosen. Also it conceptually accelerates the whole simulation work efficiently and smoothly Simulation Results The last stage is to grasp the relevant results of interest for research study. Simulation graph results consist of TCP performance for Tahoe, Reno and New Reno relative to each selectable MANET protocol i.e. AODV, DSR and TORA. 4.4 Simulation Tool OPNET is selected as it offer easy graphical interface, possibility to develop and run this simulation environment, validity of the simulation results and the tools is highly reliable, robust and efficient. Another factor of choosing OPNET is the author s familiarity and trust over the tool. 30

31 Chapter 5 Simulation and Empirical Study 31

32 5.1 Simulation Environment This section is the major portion of the thesis, it is important to setup simulation environment to observer TCP behavior over MANET. Quantitative analysis is conducted to with the help of OPNET tool Model Actual problems are simulated through computers by modeling design for actual systems and theoretical described systems, simulations are executed through computers for the collection of relative informational results. Learning by doing [23], is a primary concept about systems in study which requires modeling and operating them. Model Design Execution Analysis Model Execution Figure 5.1: Simulation Model, [23] OPNET Optimized Network Evaluation Tool (OPNET version 14.5) modeler is used in for simulation network design and execution. OPNET technologies Inc [24], offers drag and drop communication devices, maximum technologies, multiple protocols and virtual environment for simulation Network Entities and Functions Simulation network model contain important entities as depicted in the figure below: 32

33 Figure 5.2 MANET eight node scenarios Application Definition In our thesis, this module has been configured to achieve the desired results. Basically we administer application name as FTP_Application and made necessary configurations, [Appendix] Profile Configuration In this configuration I set the profile name with start time offset and starts time, [Appendix] Mobility Configuration This module is required to produce the mobility options for the mobile nodes; I have set default random waypoint and adjusted some parameters, [Appendix] Server This module controls the traffic for MANET, protocol selection and TCP flavor has been selected through this module, [Appendix] Mobile Nodes I have set the mobility options; dynamically allocate the IP addresses to all mobile nodes including server as well as different routing protocols, [Appendix]. 5.2 Simulation Configuration A detail configure is described in [Appendix]. 5.3 Simulation Flow Step by step approach is used to keep the simulation flow clear and easy. Following model for simulation flow is drawn. 33

34 MANET Network design Apply Configuration and Statistics Running/ Executing Simulation Collecting Results Figure 5.3: Simulation Flow MANET network is designed for the simulating the model and configuration statistics are applied on the whole model separately and the with regard to each individual scenario. Simulation is executed multiple times to obtain accurate results describe in each scenario. Results from each scenario are gathered as graphs and stored in.jpg files to further use in the thesis report. Some graphs were plotted one over another and with different protocol selections and TCP flavors to observe the require statistics. 5.4 Scenarios The results obtained during the simulation are depicted in this area. In simulation there are three type of different scenarios based on the number of nodes. Mainly we are concern with throughput of each variant of TCP and to find out which variants out perform with what type of routing protocol. To keep clear analysis let us consider each scenario separately, starting from the three node scenario. Three nodes Scenario The table 5.1 shows the detail of routing protocol and TCP variants in three nodes scenario. Without these three nodes there is a fixed node which working as source. A connection has been established from each node to transfer a file of the same size over each connection. Then to find out that which variants of TCP perform well and what was the underlying protocol. 34

35 Table5.1 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Three Nodes THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages TCP Variants Protocol Number of nodes Speed of Nodes m/s A New Reno AODV 3 10 A New Reno DSR 3 10 A New Reno TORA 3 10 B Reno AODV 3 10 B Reno DSR 3 10 B Reno TORA 3 10 C Tahoe AODV 3 10 C Tahoe DSR 3 10 C Tahoe TORA 3 10 Throughput From figure 5.4, by looking at the throughput performance between AODV and DSR at approximately 25 seconds, AODV has better throughput performance over DSR. Comparing AODV with TORA at the approximation of 95 sec, AODV provides better throughput performance, in all the three graphs. Total time consumed by each protocol for send the data through New Reno, Reno and Tahoe is relatively smaller for AODV followed by DSR and than TORA. It means that TORA has worst throughput performance in each of the three cases for MANET 3 nodes.the cause behind the TORA less performance is considered as the reality of TORA working for route recreation, maintenance and erasure, if dropping of the route occurs, which requires more time and have bad impact in the data performance. 35

36 A B C Figure 5.4: Throughput comparison in three nodes scenario Five Nodes Scenario. For five nodes scenario the detail of different protocols as shown in Table 5.2. There are five nodes working as clients to establish connection with a fixed node working as source, and to transfer a file of the same size over each connection. Table5.2 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Five Nodes THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages TCP Variants Protocol Number of nodes Speed of Nodes m/s A New Reno AODV 5 10 A New Reno DSR 5 10 A New Reno TORA 5 10 B Reno AODV 5 10 B Reno DSR 5 10 B Reno TORA 5 10 C Tahoe AODV 5 10 C Tahoe DSR 5 10 C Tahoe TORA 5 10 Throughput Form figure 5.5, comparing all the three graphs with each other I have more or less same assumption as for node three scenario, but when comparing figure 5.5 with figure 5.4, we observe that as the number of the nodes are increased approximately 75% (3 to 5), throughput has been decreased for every TCP variant and each desired protocols. 36

37 A B C Figure 5.5: Throughput comparison in five nodes scenario Eight Nodes Scenario Different protocols evaluated in this scenario are listed in Table 5.3. Like other scenario depending on the number of clients eight simultaneous connections has been established with a fixed source to download a file of the same size over each connection. Table5.3 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Eight Nodes THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages TCP Variants Protocol Number of nodes Speed of Nodes m/s A New Reno AODV 8 10 A New Reno DSR 8 10 A New Reno TORA 8 10 B Reno AODV 8 10 B Reno DSR 8 10 B Reno TORA 8 10 C Tahoe AODV 8 10 C Tahoe DSR 8 10 C Tahoe TORA 8 10 Throughput From figure 5.6, we conclude that the graph behavior remains same and the assumption made for figure 5.4 are also acknowledgeable. Further we observe that the AODV have the higher throughput in the start in all the three figures (5.4, 5.5, and 5.6) as compared to the DSR and TORA. A small change has been observed in the number of data packets when nodes are increased to 8 in figure 5.6. The highest number of data packets are reduces from approximately 750 to 575, which means that if more and more nodes are added in MANET, 37

38 throughput will reduce. Similarly TORA takes more time when the numbers of nodes are increased to 8, as compared to 3 nodes and 5 nodes. A B C Table 5.6 Throughput comparison in eight nodes scenario Assumptions It has been concluded that throughput performance of DSR and TORA are minutely affected with increase in the number of nodes and due to mobility. In general, MANET could have dynamic number of nodes connectivity in mobility, so it s important to realize that when the number of nodes is higher, DSR and TORA would be avoided. AODV has better throughput performance shown in all three figures as compared to DSR and TORA and is the best solution for MANET. However simulation results for AODV with respect to New Reno, Reno and Tahoe depict that throughput is the same in all the cases, so our proposed solution in this case will be New Reno as it offers multiple packet loss recovery. Delay Figure 5.7 hold the simulation results of each and every TCP variant with respect different routing protocols all together. With three node scenario, TORA has the highest delay as compared to DSR and AODV which validate our simulation results. With 5 node and 8 node scenario, TORA and DSR have approximately same delay, which is not considered as a good perception in wireless networks, as we encounter numerous losses and delays due to SNR, reflection, diffraction and inter symbol interference, so the delay measure is considered highly sensitive. AODV on the other hand have similar delay for 9 results, it maybe because the high resolution graph will show us small difference in each graph subject to 3, 5 and 8 nodes respectively. 38

39 Figure 5.7 Delay Comparisons in Different Scenario 39

40 Congestion Window Figure 5.8 hold 6 graphs define earlier for all the simulated scenarios; there are much dissimilarity within each set of variants and routing protocols. Considering 3 node scenario, congestion window of TORA reaches to the maximum of 160,000 bytes and will remain there which depicts that the exponential increase in the congestion window leads to the delay and lower performance, as there are not enough space in the buffer to manage incoming data and the window remains constant Figure 2.8 Congestion Window dynamics Secondly, DSR have different results in all the six cases, variations for congestion window are found approximately between 65,000 bytes to 80,000 except for case 3, where it had reached around 11,000 bytes. So it s likely to know that DSR congestion window is quite uncertain 40

41 and its use in the MANET network will have severe results. Congestion window will ultimately influence throughput and delay parameters important for the performance evaluation. Third protocol, AODV have similar results during individual 3 nodes and 5 nodes (New Reno, Reno and Tahoe). It explicitly defines that AODV has the formal behavior of TCP as within the normal networks. The congestion window is dynamically increasing and decreasing after receiving reply for the receiver. It is however not much clear whether it doubles the size of the congestion window after each successful data packet transmission or not, but the behavior of the graph exactly resembles with the actual TCP congestion window graph with increase and decrease. We suggest AODV as the best possible solution and recommendation for MANET. 41

42 Chapter 6 Discussions/ Results 42

43 6.1 Conclusion The overall research has been conducted in the well organized way as defined in chapter 4. Research questions 1 and 2 defined in chapter 1 are answered through state of art study and literature review. Research question 3 and four are based on the simulation results and explanations. We adhere to the simulation results as an evident that TCP variants have minor affect on the overall results except in few cases defined earlier, but the major dependence lies on MANET routing protocols. Simulation observation based on AODV, DSR and TORA clearly describe us about the performance evaluation through measuring throughput, delay and congestion window that the best routing protocol for MANET is AODV. 6.2 Future Work As I have selected these numerous MANET routing protocols of interest by simulation in an OPNET tool, another possibility of doing the same work can be done through another tool like NS-2. Also, selection of other routing protocols can be use for the performance evaluation or other parameters of performance could be considered for simulation. 43

44 Appendix: Simulation Steps Open the OPNET simulator. Click on File and select New then click ok Enter name to project and scenario then click ok. Select Create empty scenario and click Next 44

45 Select Campus Network then Click Next X span: 1000 Y span: 1000 Units : Meters then Click Next Select the Technology (MANET) then Click Next 45

46 Now Click Finish From object Palette Tree select one by one Application Config, Profile Config, Mobility Config, Wlan_Server (Fixd Node) and Wlan_wkstn (Mobile node) with the requirements of the user. 46

47 Drag all these object one by one in the working area. Right Click on Application Config, profile Config, mobility Config and Server to set their name. 47

48 Click Ok 1 Application Configuration Right Click on Application Config then Edit Attributes and configure the Application. 48

49 49

50 At last Click Ok 2 Profile Configurations Right Click on Profile Config then Edit Attributes and configure the Profile. 50

51 Select all Nodes and Server Click on Protocol menu IP Addressing Auto- Assign IPv4 Address. Select all Nodes and Server Right Click on Server Edit Attributes Select AD- HOC Routing Protocol.e.g. AODV. In TCP Select the Parameters e.g. Tahoe. Tick Apply to Selected Objects Ok 51

52 3 Server Configurations Right Click on Server Edit Attributes Application set Application Supported Services and Click Ok. 52

53 4 Mobile Node Configurations Select all Nodes Right Click on one Edit Attributes. Click on Applications Application: Destination Preferences and set some parameters. Click on Application: Supported Profiles and set some values Tick Apply to Selected Objects. Click Ok. 53

54 54

55 5 Click Topology menu Select Random Mobility set Mobility Profile Click Continue Click Ok. 6 Mobility Configurations Right Click on Mobility Config Edit Attributes Click Default Random Waypoint Click Random Waypoint Parameters. Click OK. 55

56 7 Save the Project. 8 Click DES Menus Click DES or Right Click on work area and select Individual Statistics. 56

57 Expand Node Statistics a) Expand TCP Connection and Tick the Congestion Window Size (byte). Right Click on it then choose Change Collection Mode then Tick Advance and Select All Values then Click Ok. b) Expand Wireless Lan Tick Delay (sec) and Throughput (bit/sec) then Right Click on both one by one and select Change Collection Mode then Tick Advance and Select All Values then Click Ok. 9 Run the Project Click on DES menu Select Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation.ctrl+R. Here you can set Time in Weeks, Days, Hours, Minuets, and Seconds. Then Click Run. 57

58 When Simulation is Completed then Click Close. 58

59 10 Show the Result Click on DES menu or Right Click on Work area then Select Results then View result 59

Behavior Analysis of TCP Traffic in Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Reactive Routing Protocols

Behavior Analysis of TCP Traffic in Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Reactive Routing Protocols Behavior Analysis of TCP Traffic in Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Reactive Routing Protocols Purvi N. Ramanuj Department of Computer Engineering L.D. College of Engineering Ahmedabad Hiteishi M. Diwanji

More information

Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc

Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc (International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies) Vol. 17, Issue 01 Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc Dr. Khalid Hamid Bilal Khartoum, Sudan dr.khalidbilal@hotmail.com

More information

A Comparison Study of Qos Using Different Routing Algorithms In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Comparison Study of Qos Using Different Routing Algorithms In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks A Comparison Study of Qos Using Different Routing Algorithms In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks T.Chandrasekhar 1, J.S.Chakravarthi 2, K.Sravya 3 Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engg., GIET Engg.

More information

Transport Layer Protocols

Transport Layer Protocols Transport Layer Protocols Version. Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements

More information

Formal Measure of the Effect of MANET size over the Performance of Various Routing Protocols

Formal Measure of the Effect of MANET size over the Performance of Various Routing Protocols Formal Measure of the Effect of MANET size over the Performance of Various Routing Protocols Er. Pooja Kamboj Research Scholar, CSE Department Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (Punjab) Er.

More information

Transport layer issues in ad hoc wireless networks Dmitrij Lagutin, dlagutin@cc.hut.fi

Transport layer issues in ad hoc wireless networks Dmitrij Lagutin, dlagutin@cc.hut.fi Transport layer issues in ad hoc wireless networks Dmitrij Lagutin, dlagutin@cc.hut.fi 1. Introduction Ad hoc wireless networks pose a big challenge for transport layer protocol and transport layer protocols

More information

A Survey: High Speed TCP Variants in Wireless Networks

A Survey: High Speed TCP Variants in Wireless Networks ISSN: 2321-7782 (Online) Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2013 International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsms.com A Survey:

More information

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING CHAPTER 6 CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING 6.1 INTRODUCTION The technical challenges in WMNs are load balancing, optimal routing, fairness, network auto-configuration and mobility

More information

TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Internet Protocol (IP)

TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Internet Protocol (IP) TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) *Slides adapted from a talk given by Nitin Vaidya. Wireless Computing and Network Systems Page

More information

TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks

TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks 1 Outline Introduction to transport layer Introduction to TCP (Internet) congestion control Congestion control in wireless networks 2 Transport Layer v.s. Network Layer

More information

Lecture 2.1 : The Distributed Bellman-Ford Algorithm. Lecture 2.2 : The Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) protocol

Lecture 2.1 : The Distributed Bellman-Ford Algorithm. Lecture 2.2 : The Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) protocol Lecture 2 : The DSDV Protocol Lecture 2.1 : The Distributed Bellman-Ford Algorithm Lecture 2.2 : The Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) protocol The Routing Problem S S D D The routing problem

More information

LIST OF FIGURES. Figure No. Caption Page No.

LIST OF FIGURES. Figure No. Caption Page No. LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Caption Page No. Figure 1.1 A Cellular Network.. 2 Figure 1.2 A Mobile Ad hoc Network... 2 Figure 1.3 Classifications of Threats. 10 Figure 1.4 Classification of Different QoS

More information

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ON -DEMAND MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ON -DEMAND MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK www.ijecs.in International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 2 Issue 5 May, 2013 Page No. 1680-1684 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ON -DEMAND MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK ABSTRACT: Mr.Upendra

More information

A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc network Routing Protocols*

A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc network Routing Protocols* Technical Report (Nr. 2003-08) A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc network Routing Protocols* Changling Liu, Jörg Kaiser {changling.liu, joerg kaiser}@informatik.uni-ulm.de Department of Computer Structures University

More information

Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol

Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol CS: 647 Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks Dr. Baruch Awerbuch & Dr. Amitabh Mishra Department of Computer Science Johns Hopkins 4-1 Reading Chapter

More information

A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Natarajan Meghanathan 1 and Leslie C. Milton 2 1 Jackson State University, 1400 John Lynch

More information

A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS 2

A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS 2 A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS 2 Alex Ali Hamidian January 2003 Department of Communication Systems Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University Box 118 S-221 00 Lund

More information

Fast and Secure Data Transmission by Using Hybrid Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Fast and Secure Data Transmission by Using Hybrid Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 15 (9): 1290-1294, 2013 ISSN 1990-9233 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.9.11514 Fast and Secure Data Transmission by Using Hybrid Protocols

More information

Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hande Bakiler, Aysel Şafak Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Baskent University Ankara, Turkey 21020013@baskent.edu.tr, asafak@baskent.edu.tr

More information

TORA : Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm

TORA : Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm TORA : Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm Invented by Vincent Park and M.Scott Corson from University of Maryland. TORA is an on-demand routing protocol. The main objective of TORA is to limit control

More information

CHAPTER 6. VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs

CHAPTER 6. VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs CHAPTER 6 VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs Multimedia real-time session services such as voice and videoconferencing with Quality of Service support is challenging task on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs).

More information

Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR

Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR GUIDOUM AMINA University of SIDI BEL ABBES Department of Electronics Communication Networks,

More information

Internet Firewall CSIS 4222. Packet Filtering. Internet Firewall. Examples. Spring 2011 CSIS 4222. net15 1. Routers can implement packet filtering

Internet Firewall CSIS 4222. Packet Filtering. Internet Firewall. Examples. Spring 2011 CSIS 4222. net15 1. Routers can implement packet filtering Internet Firewall CSIS 4222 A combination of hardware and software that isolates an organization s internal network from the Internet at large Ch 27: Internet Routing Ch 30: Packet filtering & firewalls

More information

Simulation of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Network Simulator-2

Simulation of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Network Simulator-2 Simulation of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Network Simulator-2 Sulaiman Khalifa Yakhlef, Ismail Shrena, Nasaraldian Ambark Shashoa Azzaytuna University, Faculty of Engineering Tarhuna

More information

SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 4, No. 2 (2009) 243-250 School of Engineering, Taylor s University College SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS SHEENU SHARMA

More information

APPENDIX 1 USER LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF PPATPAN IN LINUX SYSTEM

APPENDIX 1 USER LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF PPATPAN IN LINUX SYSTEM 152 APPENDIX 1 USER LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF PPATPAN IN LINUX SYSTEM A1.1 INTRODUCTION PPATPAN is implemented in a test bed with five Linux system arranged in a multihop topology. The system is implemented

More information

Micro Mobility and Internet Access Performance for TCP Connections in Ad hoc Networks

Micro Mobility and Internet Access Performance for TCP Connections in Ad hoc Networks Micro Mobility and Internet Access Performance for TCP Connections in Ad hoc Networks Anders Nilsson, Ali Hamidian, Ulf Körner Department of Communication Systems Lund University, Sweden Box118,221Lund

More information

Congestion control in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs)

Congestion control in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) Congestion control in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) A REPORT SUBMITTED TO SADIA HAMID KAZI OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF BRAC UNIVERSITY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THESIS

More information

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AODV, DSDV AND AOMDV USING WIMAX IN NS-2

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AODV, DSDV AND AOMDV USING WIMAX IN NS-2 International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 01-08, Article ID: IJCET_07_01_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijcet/issues.asp?jtype=ijcet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Comprehensive Evaluation of AODV, DSR, GRP, OLSR and TORA Routing Protocols with varying number of nodes and traffic applications over MANETs

Comprehensive Evaluation of AODV, DSR, GRP, OLSR and TORA Routing Protocols with varying number of nodes and traffic applications over MANETs IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE) e-issn: 2278-0661, p- ISSN: 2278-8727Volume 9, Issue 3 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 54-61 Comprehensive Evaluation of AODV, DSR, GRP, OLSR and TORA Routing Protocols

More information

Achieving Energy Efficiency in MANETs by Using Load Balancing Approach

Achieving Energy Efficiency in MANETs by Using Load Balancing Approach International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security VOL. 3, NO. 3, MARCH 2015, 88 94 Available online at: www.ijcncs.org E-ISSN 2308-9830 (Online) / ISSN 2410-0595 (Print) Achieving

More information

Lecture Objectives. Lecture 07 Mobile Networks: TCP in Wireless Networks. Agenda. TCP Flow Control. Flow Control Can Limit Throughput (1)

Lecture Objectives. Lecture 07 Mobile Networks: TCP in Wireless Networks. Agenda. TCP Flow Control. Flow Control Can Limit Throughput (1) Lecture Objectives Wireless and Mobile Systems Design Lecture 07 Mobile Networks: TCP in Wireless Networks Describe TCP s flow control mechanism Describe operation of TCP Reno and TCP Vegas, including

More information

SJBIT, Bangalore, KARNATAKA

SJBIT, Bangalore, KARNATAKA A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks S. R. Biradar 1, Subir Kumar Sarkar 2, Puttamadappa C 3 1 Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology,

More information

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK Mukesh Kumar Student (Ph.D) Department of Computer Engineering The Technological Institute of Textile and Science, Bhiwani-127021, Haryana

More information

Security and Scalability of MANET Routing Protocols in Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Networks

Security and Scalability of MANET Routing Protocols in Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Networks Security and Scalability of MANET Routing Protocols in Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Networks T.V.P. Sundararajan 1, Karthik 2, A. Shanmugam 3 1. Assistant Professor, Bannari Amman Institute Of Technology,

More information

Figure 1. The Example of ZigBee AODV Algorithm

Figure 1. The Example of ZigBee AODV Algorithm TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol.12, No.2, February 2014, pp. 1528 ~ 1535 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/telkomnika.v12i2.3576 1528 Improving ZigBee AODV Mesh Routing Algorithm

More information

INTELLIGENT LOAD BALANCING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS. A Thesis by. Varun Khanna. Bachelor of Technology, Kurukshetra University, India, 2004

INTELLIGENT LOAD BALANCING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS. A Thesis by. Varun Khanna. Bachelor of Technology, Kurukshetra University, India, 2004 INTELLIGENT LOAD BALANCING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS A Thesis by Varun Khanna Bachelor of Technology, Kurukshetra University, India, 2004 Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

More information

Congestions and Control Mechanisms n Wired and Wireless Networks

Congestions and Control Mechanisms n Wired and Wireless Networks International OPEN ACCESS Journal ISSN: 2249-6645 Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Congestions and Control Mechanisms n Wired and Wireless Networks MD Gulzar 1, B Mahender 2, Mr.B.Buchibabu 3 1 (Asst

More information

An Efficient QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks *

An Efficient QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks * An Efficient QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks * Inwhee Joe College of Information and Communications Hanyang University Seoul, Korea iwj oeshanyang.ac.kr Abstract. To satisfy the user requirements

More information

A Comprehensive Analysis on Route Discovery and Maintenance Features of DSDV, AODV and IERF Ad-hoc Routing Protocols

A Comprehensive Analysis on Route Discovery and Maintenance Features of DSDV, AODV and IERF Ad-hoc Routing Protocols International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume-4, Issue-2 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 A Comprehensive Analysis on Route Discovery and Maintenance Features of DSDV, AODV

More information

Student, Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India 2 H.O.D (CSE), Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India

Student, Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India 2 H.O.D (CSE), Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com A New Protocol

More information

Security in Ad Hoc Network

Security in Ad Hoc Network Security in Ad Hoc Network Bingwen He Joakim Hägglund Qing Gu Abstract Security in wireless network is becoming more and more important while the using of mobile equipments such as cellular phones or laptops

More information

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR FOR MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORK

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR FOR MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORK http:// PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR FOR MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORK Anjali Sahni 1, Ajay Kumar Yadav 2 1, 2 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Mewar Institute,

More information

VoIP over MANET (VoMAN): QoS & Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Different Audio Codecs

VoIP over MANET (VoMAN): QoS & Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Different Audio Codecs VoIP over MANET (VoMAN): QoS & Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Different Audio Codecs Said El brak Mohammed Bouhorma Anouar A.Boudhir ABSTRACT Voice over IP (VoIP) has become a popular Internet

More information

NetworkPathDiscoveryMechanismforFailuresinMobileAdhocNetworks

NetworkPathDiscoveryMechanismforFailuresinMobileAdhocNetworks Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology: E Network, Web & Security Volume 14 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals

More information

Simulation Analysis of Different Routing Protocols Using Directional Antenna in Qualnet 6.1

Simulation Analysis of Different Routing Protocols Using Directional Antenna in Qualnet 6.1 Simulation Analysis of Different Routing Protocols Using Directional Antenna in Qualnet 6.1 Ankit Jindal 1, Charanjeet Singh 2, Dharam Vir 3 PG Student [ECE], Dept. of ECE, DCR University of Science &

More information

Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation

Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation R.Navaneethakrishnan Assistant Professor (SG) Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal, India.

More information

Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks David B. Johnson David A. Maltz Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 dbj@cs.cmu.edu Abstract

More information

Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Location Information Services in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Tracy Camp, Jeff Boleng, Lucas Wilcox Department of Math. and Computer Sciences Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 841 Abstract In recent

More information

Comparative Study of Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad hoc networks using a proxy node

Comparative Study of Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad hoc networks using a proxy node Comparative Study of Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad hoc networks using a proxy node G. E. RIZOS georizos@teiep.gr D. C. VASILIADIS dvas@teiep.gr E. STERGIOU ster@teiep.gr Abstract: In this paper,

More information

Performance Analysis of Load Balancing in MANET using On-demand Multipath Routing Protocol

Performance Analysis of Load Balancing in MANET using On-demand Multipath Routing Protocol ISSN: 2278 1323 All Rights Reserved 2014 IJARCET 2106 Performance Analysis of Load Balancing in MANET using On-demand Multipath Routing Protocol Monika Malik, Partibha Yadav, Ajay Dureja Abstract A collection

More information

Intelligent Agents for Routing on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Intelligent Agents for Routing on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Intelligent Agents for Routing on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Y. Zhou Dalhousie University yzhou@cs.dal.ca A. N. Zincir-Heywood Dalhousie University zincir@cs.dal.ca Abstract This paper introduces a new agent-based

More information

Study of Network Characteristics Incorporating Different Routing Protocols

Study of Network Characteristics Incorporating Different Routing Protocols Study of Network Characteristics Incorporating Different Routing Protocols Sumitpal Kaur #, Hardeep S Ryait *, Manpreet Kaur # # M. Tech Student, Department of Electronics and Comm. Engineering, Punjab

More information

DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks David B. Johnson David A. Maltz Josh Broch Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891

More information

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOAD SHARING MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOAD SHARING MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOAD SHARING MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS K.V. Narayanaswamy 1, C.H. Subbarao 2 1 Professor, Head Division of TLL, MSRUAS, Bangalore, INDIA, 2 Associate

More information

Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!!

Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!! 1 Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!! Instructions: Put your name and student number on each sheet of paper! The exam is closed book. You have 90 minutes to complete the exam. Be a smart exam taker -

More information

Research Article Ant Colony and Load Balancing Optimizations for AODV Routing Protocol

Research Article Ant Colony and Load Balancing Optimizations for AODV Routing Protocol Ashdin Publishing International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications Vol. 1 (2012), Article ID X110203, 14 pages doi:10.4303/ijsndc/x110203 Research Article Ant Colony and Load Balancing

More information

An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links

An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links Wireless Networks 6 (2000) 375 379 375 An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links Jian Ma a, Jussi Ruutu b and Jing Wu c a Nokia China R&D Center, No. 10, He Ping Li Dong Jie,

More information

10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II

10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II QUESTION BANK 10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II Part A Unit 1 & 2: Packet-Switching Networks 1 and Packet-Switching Networks 2 1. Mention different types of network services? Explain the same. 2. Difference

More information

A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Ioannis Broustis Gentian Jakllari Thomas Repantis Mart Molle Department of Computer Science & Engineering University

More information

IJMIE Volume 2, Issue 7 ISSN: 2249-0558

IJMIE Volume 2, Issue 7 ISSN: 2249-0558 Evaluating Performance of Audio conferencing on Reactive Routing Protocols for MANET Alak Kumar Sarkar* Md. Ibrahim Abdullah* Md. Shamim Hossain* Ahsan-ul-Ambia* Abstract Mobile ad hoc network (MANET)

More information

Study And Comparison Of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Ant Colony Optimization

Study And Comparison Of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Ant Colony Optimization Study And Comparison Of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Ant Colony Optimization 1 Neha Ujala Tirkey, 2 Navendu Nitin, 3 Neelesh Agrawal, 4 Arvind Kumar Jaiswal 1 M. Tech student, 2&3 Assistant Professor,

More information

Wireless Mesh Networks under FreeBSD

Wireless Mesh Networks under FreeBSD Wireless Networks under FreeBSD Rui Paulo rpaulo@freebsd.org The FreeBSD Project AsiaBSDCon 2010 - Tokyo, Japan Abstract With the advent of low cost wireless chipsets, wireless mesh networks became much

More information

Keywords: DSDV and AODV Protocol

Keywords: DSDV and AODV Protocol Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Comparison

More information

A Survey on Reduction in Energy Consumption by Improved AODV on Mobile Ad Hoc Network

A Survey on Reduction in Energy Consumption by Improved AODV on Mobile Ad Hoc Network International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Review Paper Volume-4, Issue-2 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 A Survey on Reduction in Energy Consumption by Improved AODV on Mobile Ad Hoc Network

More information

Keywords- manet, routing protocols, aodv, olsr, grp,data drop parameter.

Keywords- manet, routing protocols, aodv, olsr, grp,data drop parameter. Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Evaluation of

More information

AN IMPROVED SNOOP FOR TCP RENO AND TCP SACK IN WIRED-CUM- WIRELESS NETWORKS

AN IMPROVED SNOOP FOR TCP RENO AND TCP SACK IN WIRED-CUM- WIRELESS NETWORKS AN IMPROVED SNOOP FOR TCP RENO AND TCP SACK IN WIRED-CUM- WIRELESS NETWORKS Srikanth Tiyyagura Department of Computer Science and Engineering JNTUA College of Engg., pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India.

More information

PERA: Ad-Hoc Routing Protocol for Mobile Robots

PERA: Ad-Hoc Routing Protocol for Mobile Robots PERA: Ad-Hoc Routing Protocol for Mobile Robots Carlos Agüero Vicente Matellán Pedro de-las-heras-quirós José M. Cañas DIET (Departamento de Informática, Estadística y Telemática) Universidad Rey Juan

More information

ROUTE MECHANISMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS: -CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPARISON ANALYSIS

ROUTE MECHANISMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS: -CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPARISON ANALYSIS International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 1, No 2, 2012, 72-79 ROUTE MECHANISMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS: -CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPARISON ANALYSIS Ramesh Kait 1, R. K. Chauhan

More information

Performance Comparison of AODV, DSDV, DSR and TORA Routing Protocols in MANETs

Performance Comparison of AODV, DSDV, DSR and TORA Routing Protocols in MANETs International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. Vol., 3 (7), 1429-1436, 2012 Available online at http:// www. irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X 2012 Performance Comparison of AODV, DSDV, DSR and

More information

EXTENDING NETWORK KNOWLEDGE: MAKING OLSR A QUALITY OF SERVICE CONDUCIVE PROTOCOL

EXTENDING NETWORK KNOWLEDGE: MAKING OLSR A QUALITY OF SERVICE CONDUCIVE PROTOCOL EXTENDING NETWORK KNOWLEDGE: MAKING OLSR A QUALITY OF SERVICE CONDUCIVE PROTOCOL by Pedro Eduardo Villanueva-Pena, Thomas Kunz Carleton University January, 2006 This report examines mechanisms to gradually

More information

Delay aware Reactive Routing Protocols for QoS in MANETs: a Review

Delay aware Reactive Routing Protocols for QoS in MANETs: a Review Delay aware Reactive Routing Protocols for QoS in MANETs: a Review Saad M. Adam*, Rosilah Hassan Network and Communication Technology Research Group, Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti

More information

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS 137 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS 8.1 CONCLUSION In this thesis, efficient schemes have been designed and analyzed to control congestion and distribute the load in the routing process of

More information

An Efficient AODV-Based Algorithm for Small Area MANETS

An Efficient AODV-Based Algorithm for Small Area MANETS An Efficient AODV-Based Algorithm for Small Area MANETS Jai Prakash Kumawat 1, Prakriti Trivedi 2 PG Student, Department of Computer Engineering & IT, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, India 1 Assistant

More information

TCP and Wireless Networks Classical Approaches Optimizations TCP for 2.5G/3G Systems. Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme

TCP and Wireless Networks Classical Approaches Optimizations TCP for 2.5G/3G Systems. Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme Chapter 2 Technical Basics: Layer 1 Methods for Medium Access: Layer 2 Chapter 3 Wireless Networks: Bluetooth, WLAN, WirelessMAN, WirelessWAN Mobile Networks: GSM, GPRS, UMTS Chapter 4 Mobility on the

More information

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012 Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Review Questions ٢ Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION 19.1 List

More information

Mobile Ad hoc Networking

Mobile Ad hoc Networking Mobile Ad hoc Networking Carlos de Morais Cordeiro and Dharma P. Agrawal OBR Research Center for Distributed and Mobile Computing, ECECS University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030 USA {cordeicm,

More information

Routing Performance in the Presence of Unidirectional Links in Multihop Wireless Networks

Routing Performance in the Presence of Unidirectional Links in Multihop Wireless Networks Routing Performance in the Presence of Unidirectional Links in Multihop Wireless Networks Mahesh K. Marina Department of ECECS University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 1- USA mmarina@ececs.uc.edu Samir

More information

Study of Different Types of Attacks on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Study of Different Types of Attacks on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Study of Different Types of Attacks on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hoang Lan Nguyen and Uyen Trang Nguyen Department of Computer Science and Engineering, York University 47 Keele Street, Toronto,

More information

Simulation-Based Comparisons of Solutions for TCP Packet Reordering in Wireless Network

Simulation-Based Comparisons of Solutions for TCP Packet Reordering in Wireless Network Simulation-Based Comparisons of Solutions for TCP Packet Reordering in Wireless Network 作 者 :Daiqin Yang, Ka-Cheong Leung, and Victor O. K. Li 出 處 :Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC

More information

TCP for Wireless Networks

TCP for Wireless Networks TCP for Wireless Networks Outline Motivation TCP mechanisms Indirect TCP Snooping TCP Mobile TCP Fast retransmit/recovery Transmission freezing Selective retransmission Transaction oriented TCP Adapted

More information

Step by Step Procedural Comparison of DSR, AODV and DSDV Routing protocol

Step by Step Procedural Comparison of DSR, AODV and DSDV Routing protocol th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET ) IPCSIT vol. () () IACSIT Press, Singapore Step by Step Procedural Comparison of DSR, AODV and DSDV Routing protocol Amith Khandakar

More information

Investigating the Performance of Routing Protocols Using Quantitative Metrics in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Investigating the Performance of Routing Protocols Using Quantitative Metrics in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Investigating the Performance of Routing Protocols Using Quantitative Metrics in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks T. Jagadeepak 1, Dr. B. Prabhakara Rao 2, B. A. S. Roopa Devi 3 PG Student, Dept. of ECE, UCEK, JNTU,

More information

SBSCET, Firozpur (Punjab), India

SBSCET, Firozpur (Punjab), India Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Layer Based

More information

A NOVEL RESOURCE EFFICIENT DMMS APPROACH

A NOVEL RESOURCE EFFICIENT DMMS APPROACH A NOVEL RESOURCE EFFICIENT DMMS APPROACH FOR NETWORK MONITORING AND CONTROLLING FUNCTIONS Golam R. Khan 1, Sharmistha Khan 2, Dhadesugoor R. Vaman 3, and Suxia Cui 4 Department of Electrical and Computer

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY A PATH FOR HORIZING YOUR INNOVATIVE WORK AN OVERVIEW OF MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK: INTRUSION DETECTION, TYPES OF ATTACKS AND

More information

Security for Ad Hoc Networks. Hang Zhao

Security for Ad Hoc Networks. Hang Zhao Security for Ad Hoc Networks Hang Zhao 1 Ad Hoc Networks Ad hoc -- a Latin phrase which means "for this [purpose]". An autonomous system of mobile hosts connected by wireless links, often called Mobile

More information

OPNET Network Simulator

OPNET Network Simulator Simulations and Tools for Telecommunications 521365S: OPNET Network Simulator Jarmo Prokkola Research team leader, M. Sc. (Tech.) VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Kaitoväylä 1, Oulu P.O. Box 1100,

More information

Comparing the Performance of the Ad Hoc Network under Attacks on Different Routing Protocol

Comparing the Performance of the Ad Hoc Network under Attacks on Different Routing Protocol , pp. 195-208 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsia.2015.9.6.19 Comparing the Performance of the Ad Hoc Network under Attacks on Different Routing Protocol Haiyan Liu 1, * and Zhanlei Shang 2 Engineering Training

More information

CSE 473 Introduction to Computer Networks. Exam 2 Solutions. Your name: 10/31/2013

CSE 473 Introduction to Computer Networks. Exam 2 Solutions. Your name: 10/31/2013 CSE 473 Introduction to Computer Networks Jon Turner Exam Solutions Your name: 0/3/03. (0 points). Consider a circular DHT with 7 nodes numbered 0,,...,6, where the nodes cache key-values pairs for 60

More information

Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Sugata Sanyal 1, Ajith Abraham 2, Dhaval Gada 3, Rajat Gogri 3, Punit Rathod 3, Zalak Dedhia 3 and Nirali Mody 3 1 School of Technology and

More information

Mobile Communications Chapter 9: Mobile Transport Layer

Mobile Communications Chapter 9: Mobile Transport Layer Mobile Communications Chapter 9: Mobile Transport Layer Motivation TCP-mechanisms Classical approaches Indirect TCP Snooping TCP Mobile TCP PEPs in general Additional optimizations Fast retransmit/recovery

More information

Chapter 9: Transport Layer and Security Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Chapter 9: Transport Layer and Security Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Chapter 9: Transport Layer and Security Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Introduction Issues Design Goals Classifications TCP Over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Other Transport Layer Protocols Security

More information

Performance Evaluation of Aodv and Dsr Routing Protocols for Vbr Traffic for 150 Nodes in Manets

Performance Evaluation of Aodv and Dsr Routing Protocols for Vbr Traffic for 150 Nodes in Manets Performance Evaluation of Aodv and Dsr Routing Protocols for Vbr Traffic for 150 Nodes in Manets Gurpreet Singh, 1 Atinderpal Singh 2, 1, 2 Department of CSE & IT, BBSBEC, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India

More information

other. A B AP wired network

other. A B AP wired network 1 Routing and Channel Assignment in Multi-Channel Multi-Hop Wireless Networks with Single-NIC Devices Jungmin So + Nitin H. Vaidya Department of Computer Science +, Department of Electrical and Computer

More information

Internet Connectivity for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

Internet Connectivity for Ad hoc Mobile Networks Internet Connectivity for Ad hoc Mobile Networks Yuan Sun Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer Department of Computer Science University of California, Santa Barbara suny, ebelding @cs.ucsb.edu Charles E. Perkins

More information

Optimized Load Balancing Mechanism Using Carry Forward Distance

Optimized Load Balancing Mechanism Using Carry Forward Distance Optimized Load Balancing Mechanism Using Carry Forward Distance Ramandeep Kaur 1, Gagandeep Singh 2, Sahil 3 1 M. Tech Research Scholar, Chandigarh Engineering College, Punjab, India 2 Assistant Professor,

More information

Introduction to LAN/WAN. Network Layer

Introduction to LAN/WAN. Network Layer Introduction to LAN/WAN Network Layer Topics Introduction (5-5.1) Routing (5.2) (The core) Internetworking (5.5) Congestion Control (5.3) Network Layer Design Isues Store-and-Forward Packet Switching Services

More information

A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols

A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols Josh Broch David A. Maltz David B. Johnson Yih-Chun Hu Jorjeta Jetcheva Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University

More information