Standard Cost Structure for Telecommunications Companies

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1 Standard Cost Structure for Telecommunications Companies 1

2 TELEPHONE RATES 1 Local Exchange Service Flat Rate Residential Business Measured Rate Residential Business Extended Area Service Special Features (Call Waiting, Call Forwarding) Nonrecurring Service Charges/One off charges 2

3 TELEPHONE RATES 2 MOBILE PREPAID POST PAID BUNDLED SERVICES LEASED LINES BANDWIDTH SPACE SEGMENTS 3

4 TELEPHONE RATES 3 Other Local Service Offerings Pay Telephone Service Private Network Link Toll (Long Distance) Service Interregional Intraregional Access Services Switched Access Special Access /POP Interconnection Resale/wholesale 4

5 PRICING METHODOLOGIES Value of Service Basic telephony Premium (special numbers) Data Value Added 5

6 COST OF SERVIECES DIRECT COST INDIRECT COST JOINT COST COMMON COST OTHER COST 6

7 PRICING MARGINAL COST FULLY DISTRIBUTED COST STREAMS: CONNECTION SUBCRIPTION/MONTHLY ACCESS LOCAL CALL DOMESTIC CALL INTERNATIONAL CALL 7

8 DIRECT COSTS Costs that can be attributed solely to the production of a specific item. E.g. access network national switching network national transmission network international switching network international transmission network Salaries and wages at central switching office 8

9 INDIRECT COSTS Opposite of direct cost Shared (incremental and overhead) Common (more than one output e.g telecoms central office switch) Joint (costs that produce more than one product in fixed proportion) 9

10 TYPES Volume sensitive or usage cost costs that vary with output Fixed costs- do not vary with output Sunk costs costs that cannot be avoided Service-specific fixed costs- fixed cost that do not vary with output Stand- alone cost- total cost of a specialised company producing only the service or services in question 10

11 JOINT AND COMMON COSTS JOINT COSTS Arise when the production of one product results in the output of another Requires that the joint products be produced in fixed proportions (ex: beef and hide) COMMON COSTS Again, arise when the production of one product results in the output of another Proportions can vary MUCH CONTROVERY ON HOW THESE COSTS SHOULD BE ALLOCATED TO VARIETY OF SERVICES 11

12 COST ALLOCATION Capital Cost Operation and Maintenance Cost Other Accounting costs To service Network Other Activities 12

13 SEPARATIONS Allocation of cost to identifies how expense, investment, and revenue are assigned to each service of an operator. 13

14 WHAT IS TO BE ALLOCATION General Accounting Plant Expenses Revenues Others Total Cost Total costs are separated between regulated and nonregulated Expenses and investment are placed into functional categories. These costs are then separated between services. 14

15 STANDARD COST STRUCTURE There is none Explanation Movement on federal level to revise many of the per minute charges into flat, fixed charges or revenue based charges Problematic to some states because detrimental impacts to low volume users Making size of phone bill more fixed and customer has less discretion at the size of their overall bill 15

16 STANDARD COST STRUCTURE There is no country in Africa that has done in-depth cost study to determine cost structure, however countries like Tanzania Most countries are continuing with benchmarking of the European model While some countries have charging areas, others use radial structure. Some advocate subsidies for local residential rates by lower residential rates and higher business rates 16

17 UNIVERSAL SERVICE FUNDS US EXAMPLE Federal law states a principle that rates in rural areas should be reasonably comparable to those services provided in urban areas (part of determination of responsible federal universal service fund distributions to companies) Federal law states a principle that Quality services should be available at just, reasonable, and affordable rates 17

18 UNIVERSAL SERVICE FUND The new Nigerian Communications Act 2003 provided for Universal Service Provision Fund Contribution will partly from annual regulatory fee Currently in process of bidding for a pilot project. 18

19 AND How many countries have develop Universal Service Funds? What cost structure is applicable? DISCUSSION 19

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