7. Firewall - Concept

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1 7. - Concept ค อ อ ปกรณ Hardware หร อ Software ซ งถ กต ดต ง เพ อ อน ญาต (permit), ปฏ เสธ(deny) หร อ เป นต วแทน(proxy data) ให ผ านไปย งเคร อข ายท ม ระด บความเช อถ อต างก น

2 7. - Concept components Network policy Service access policy design policy Advance authentication

3 9. Architecture and Type of First generation - packet filters The first paper published on firewall technology was in 1988, when engineers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) developed filter systems known as packet filter firewalls. This fairly basic system was the first generation of what would become a highly evolved and technical internet security feature. At AT&T Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin were continuing their research in packet filtering and developed a working model for their own company based upon their original first generation architecture. Packet filters act by inspecting the "packets" which represent the basic unit of data transfer between computers on the Internet. If a packet matches the packet filter's set of rules, the packet filter will drop (silently discard) the packet, or reject it (discard it, and send "error responses" to the source). This type of packet filtering pays no attention to whether a packet is part of an existing stream of traffic (it stores no information on connection "state"). Instead, it filters each packet based only on information contained in the packet itself (most commonly using a combination of the packet's source and destination address, its protocol, and, for TCP and UDP traffic, which comprises most internet communication, the port number).

4 9. Architecture and Type of Because TCP and UDP traffic by convention uses well known ports for particular types of traffic, a "stateless" packet filter can distinguish between, and thus control, those types of traffic (such as web browsing, remote printing, transmission, file transfer), unless the machines on each side of the packet filter are both using the same non-standard ports.

5 9. Architecture and Type of Second generation - "stateful" filters From three colleagues from AT&T Bell Laboratories, Dave Presetto, Howard Trickey, and Kshitij Nigam developed the second generation of firewalls, calling them circuit level firewalls. Second Generation firewalls do not simply examine the contents of each packet on an individual basis without regard to their placement within the packet series as their predecessors had done, rather they compare some key parts of the trusted database packets. This technology is generally referred to as a 'stateful firewall' as it maintains records of all connections passing through the firewall, and is able to determine whether a packet is the start of a new connection, or part of an existing connection. Though there is still a set of static rules in such a firewall, the state of a connection can in itself be one of the criteria which trigger specific rules. This type of firewall can help prevent attacks which exploit existing connections, or certain Denial-of-service attacks, including the SYN flood which sends improper sequences of packets to consume resources on systems behind a firewall.

6 9. Architecture and Type of Third generation - application layer Publications by Gene Spafford of Purdue University, Bill Cheswick at AT&T Laboratories and Marcus Ranum described a third generation firewall known as application layer firewall, also known as proxy based firewalls. Marcus Ranum's work on the technology spearheaded the creation of the first commercial product. The product was released by DEC who named it the SEAL product. DEC s first major sale was on June 13, 1991 to a chemical company based on the East Coast of the USA. The key benefit of application layer filtering is that it can "understand" certain applications and protocols (such as File Transfer Protocol, DNS or web browsing), and can detect whether an unwanted protocol is being sneaked through on a non-standard port, or whether a protocol is being abused in a known harmful way. This type of filtering can be carried out by proxy servers, but if the filtering is done by a standalone firewall appliance, or in a device for traffic shaping, the technology is likely to be referred to as deep packet inspection.

7 9. Architecture and Type of Type of s Packet Filter Application Filter Proxy NAT

8 9. Architecture and Type of 1. Network layer and packet filters Network layer firewalls, also called packet filters, operate at a relatively low level of the TCP/IP protocol stack, not allowing packets to pass through the firewall unless they match the established ruleset. The firewall administrator may define the rules; or default rules may apply. The term packet filter originated in the context of BSD operating systems. Network layer firewalls generally fall into two sub-categories, stateful and stateless. Stateful firewalls maintain context about active sessions, and use that "state information" to speed up packet processing. Any existing network connection can be described by several properties, including source and destination IP address, UDP or TCP ports, and the current stage of the connection's lifetime (including session initiation, handshaking, data transfer, or completion connection). If a packet does not match an existing connection, it will be evaluated according to the ruleset for new connections. If a packet matches an existing connection based on comparison with the firewall's state table, it will be allowed to pass without further processing.

9 9. Architecture and Type of Network layer and packet filters(ต อ) Stateless firewalls have packet-filtering capabilities, but cannot make more complex decisions on what stage communications between hosts have reached. Stateless firewalls therefore offer less security. Modern firewalls can filter traffic based on many packet attributes like source IP address, source port, destination IP address or port, destination service like WWW or FTP. They can filter based on protocols, TTL values, netblock of originator, domain name of the source, and many other attributes. Commonly used packet filters on various versions of Unix are ipf (various), ipfw (FreeBSD/Mac OS X), pf (OpenBSD, and all other BSDs), iptables/ipchains (Linux).

10 9. Architecture and Type of TCP state diagram

11 9. Architecture and Type of 2. Application-layer Application-layer firewalls work on the application level of the TCP/IP stack (i.e., all browser traffic, or all telnet or ftp traffic), and may intercept all packets traveling to or from an application. They block other packets (usually dropping them without acknowledgement to the sender). In principle, application firewalls can prevent all unwanted outside traffic from reaching protected machines. By inspecting all packets for improper content, firewalls can restrict or prevent outright the spread of networked computer worms and trojans. In practice, however, this becomes so complex and so difficult to attempt (given the variety of applications and the diversity of content each may allow in its packet traffic) that comprehensive firewall design does not generally attempt this approach. The XML firewall exemplifies a more recent kind of application-layer firewall. It performs mainly three functions i.e; simplest. sees only; a- address b- service protocol. auditing is difficult.

12 9. Architecture and Type of 3. Proxy A proxy device (running either on dedicated hardware or as software on a general-purpose machine) may act as a firewall by responding to input packets (connection requests, for example) in the manner of an application, whilst blocking other packets. Proxies make tampering with an internal system from the external network more difficult and misuse of one internal system would not necessarily cause a security breach exploitable from outside the firewall (as long as the application proxy remains intact and properly configured). Conversely, intruders may hijack a publicly-reachable system and use it as a proxy for their own purposes; the proxy then masquerades as that system to other internal machines. While use of internal address spaces enhances security, crackers may still employ methods such as IP spoofing to attempt to pass packets to a target network..

13 9. Architecture and Type of 4. Network Address Translation s often have network address translation (NAT) functionality, and the hosts protected behind a firewall commonly have addresses in the "private address range", as defined in RFC s often have such functionality to hide the true address of protected hosts. Originally, the NAT function was developed to address the limited amount of IPv4 routable addresses that could be used or assigned to companies or individuals as well as reduce both the amount and therefore cost of obtaining enough public addresses for every computer in an organization. Hiding the addresses of protected devices has become an increasingly important defense against network reconnaissance.

14 9. Policy Policy 1. Allow Web traffic (TCP 80/443) from any external address to internal web server 2. Allow DNS (UDP 53) from any external address to internal DNS server 3. Allow SMTP (TCP 25) from any external address to internal POP server 4. Allow Oracle (TCP 1521) from Accounting Dept. to internal DB server 5. Allow Web traffic (TCP 80/443) from Sales Dept. to any address. 6. Allow Web traffic (TCP 80/443) from Marketing Dept. to any address 7. DROP Rule Set Source Src Port Destination Dst Port Protocol Action

15 9. Architecture and Type of

16 9. Architecture and Type of rule-set basic filtering features comparison

17 9. Architecture and Type of rule-set advanced features comparison

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