1 WHITE PAPER Security in M2M Communication What is secure enough?
2 Motivation Wireless Machine-To-Machine (M2M) communication has grown dramatically over the past decade and is still growing rapidly. In mobile communication technologies - from short range to cellular - the prices for hardware and data transmission have come down to such a level as to start to boost the numbers of connected devices. There are several groups in the industry trying to achieve standardization of M2M communication protocols. Such standardization promises to enable device makers to reduce variants and make them even more competitive, which in turn brings the cost for M2M Service Providers further down and leads again to more growth. Many things will change when M2M systems are grown and interconnected. As more and more people and organizations come to rely on M2M systems one of the changes we see is that these systems will draw interest from hackers too. This paper is about how the M2M communication industry should prepare for the increasing danger of attack on machine communication. Interconnecting M2M system silos becomes possible through standardization which is a basic requirement to bring the idea of the Internet of Things from a vision into reality. Security in personal computer communication Every day we hear about IT security incidents in the media. We see credit card data being stolen from famous web shops, and we are stunned when we see even big banks or IT companies being successfully hacked. We all receive phishing s aiming to steal the passwords to our bank accounts. Besides this, we still use to send sensitive information, knowing that s can be read by everyone on the way. What are the main reasons for increasing attacks on our personal computers? 1. People doing online banking and shopping mean hundreds of millions of targets for hackers. 2. Software is never error free. Weaknesses of widely used operating systems and application programs are used by hackers to inject their own hidden programs to steal our secrets. 3. Calculation power becomes cheaper. This lowers the cost for brute force attacks. Security algorithms and key length, that were safe in the past, can be cracked today in minutes. 4. Every computer connected to the Internet is under hacking attacks from anywhere. Our Internet connected PCs are under constant attacks of hostile port scanners and we could not properly work anymore without having strong counter measures in place: > We do frequent software updates to fix security leaks, discovered years after release. > We have constantly running firewalls and virus scanners on our PCs. > We do online banking only with a secure browser connection. > We do not open suspicious s nor click on links inside them. > We exchange confidential information via encrypted s or sign digitally to authenticate. We know how to protect our personal communication, but: What about our machines? Are we protecting them as strongly as we protect our computers? 2
3 Security in M2M Communication What is secure enough? How does M2M communication compare to Personal Computer communication? Connected machines are not generally perceived as targets for hackers yet because there is no big money to get from machines and no glory to earn from destroying or manipulating their communication compared to the personal computer world. But, the peaceful times of talking machines are over. Attacks on connected machines do happen and they happen silently, unrecognized by the public. Only exceptional cases such as Stuxnet become public. Threats in the internet today = Threats in M2M tomorrow Increasing Security Threats Billions of targets online Security leaks in software Decreasing cost of attacks Internet as source of attacks M2M vulnerabilities More devices & value PC & Smartphone OS Connectivity indispensable Internet connects machines Threats to computers vs. machines What are the main reasons for increasing attacks on our connected machines? 1. The number of connected devices is growing dramatically. This means we are going to see huge numbers of unguarded targets for hackers with increasing associated value. 2. Standard operating systems are increasingly used in M2M applications. This means similar, well known, weaknesses are present in a large numbers of devices. 3. Communication standards and protocols are the same, so the same hacking methods apply. 4. Machines are connected over the Internet as well - an open door for remote attacks. 5. Continuous 24/7 availability is indispensable for most M2M services. Sudden outages can tear down other connected systems - as we see it - with chain reactions in the power grids. 6. Machines are autonomously running out in the field 24/7. It is much harder to detect an attack quickly and even harder (and costly) to physically access the devices to repair them. There is no real difference, just additional threats in M2M communication. The attacks on our computers today will be the attacks on our machines tomorrow. 3
4 What actually is Security in communication? The word security can mean many different things, from locked doors to guarding real estate or people. Let s examine what security actually means in the communication domain: The basic principles of secure communication: Authentication Availability Confidentiality Integrity?! I always need to know who I m talking to. I must be able to communicate when I need to. Authentication Confidentiality Availability Integrity Nobody else shall get the message. The message must not be manipulated. X X Y Y!! The basic principles of secure communication Authentication means, a communication partner can prove that he really is the one he claims to be. Confidentiality means, nobody but the addressed receiver(s) shall be able to interpret the transmitted information. Integrity means, it must not be possible to manipulate any piece of the information, even if confidentiality is broken. Availability does not look like a principle of secure communication at the first glance. But, if we think of an emergency case, a lack of communication availability means a lack of security. These principles apply for any kind of communication and that is why we have them in mind when we check the security of our machines. Any hacking attack is an attempt to violate one or more of these principles with the goal to: > Prevent, > Intercept or > Manipulate the information on its way between sender and receiver. 4
5 Who are the bad guys? What kind of people would want to launch attacks on M2M systems and why? Usually we don t need to care who is doing an attack and why, we just want to be safe from any kind of hacker. But this question becomes important when we want to understand the benefits of a successful attack. These in turn determine the amount of effort / costs an attacker would be willing to spend. While the buzz and glory hacker may give up quite early, some well equipped teams of secret organizations appear to have unlimited resources when they are aiming to bring a whole country's power grid down. This is a brief overview of some main categories of hackers and their motivations in M2M: Buzz and glory I did it Cyber terrorism Black Hat organization Anonymous - the Friday attacks Virus, malware, system intrusion SHUT DOWN THE LIGHT Consumer electronics Car industry Governmental IT Power grid Governmental IT Cyber criminality Stolen identity Bank account hijacking Commercial IT Finance transaction Fraud Stolen identity for service usage Misuse of cellular connection Utilities Tickets, Vending What is secure enough? Security experts say that 100% security is not possible and they may be right. But, for many M2M services, there is no need for highest security as in banking applications. For many M2M applications, secure authentication is more important than keeping confidentiality. For example it may not be confidential that a door is being unlocked, but it is crucial to accept an unlock-command from authorized senders only. Cost of attack The goal is to keep the required effort for attacks higher than the level of the hacker s motivation. Security demand Security demand = Attack probability * Potential damage 5
6 The limit of time and resources an attacker would spend to achieve his goal depends on his motivation. This means effort to break authentication, confidentiality or even integrity must just be high enough to force the hackers give up before they succeed. For the communications engineer this means he has to implement a system that is secure enough by finding the right balance between effort and benefit of protection measures. End-to-end Security SMS Center Device Sub Systems Micro Controller (M2M app) Cellular Module Mobile Network GGSN (APN) Internet M2M Backend Server Peripheral / Sensors MIM Access Router M2M Device Risk Analysis Attack Probability Cost of attack Potential Damage Defense Analysis Detection possible? Prevention possible? Cost of prevention? How to determine the demand for security? There is no general rule or blueprint how to determine the security demand but there is always a risk analysis and a defense analysis that we have to go through. Risk analysis > Attractiveness Depending on the service and the expected type of hacker motivation, the attractiveness can be very different. It is hard to estimate for the future because some parameters may change over time. > number of devices addressable in one network > value of goods, money or information that can be stolen, manipulated or destroyed > publicity of the company or brand name to be damaged > daily loss of turnover in case of outages of a indispensable system > Technical weakness Check for each node and link of the complete communication chain: Is there any chance to break authentication or confidentiality? What is the time of detection? > Cost of attack For each possible attack vector check, what is the time and cost range of a successful attack? Which level of cost would the expected attacker spent to reach his specific goal? > Damage in case of attack success What damage can be expected at minimum and in worst case if authentication can be violated for one or many devices? What is the loss for one day of outage even if no goods or money are stolen? Defense analysis Check for each found attack vector > Is it possible to detect intrusion or break of authentication? > How can you solve an incident quickly and prevent the same attack to be done a second time? > Which technical measures can be taken to prevent this kind of attack? 6
7 Who defines the level of sufficient security? Among the contributors to M2M systems there is a variety of responsibilities for security. Security Experts Service User Service Provider Component Supplier Device Supplier Network Operator Backend Supplier System Integrator M2M value chain From small to large the chain starts with the active component vendors (chip or processor), and continues with device makers to the integrators who bring configured devices into the field, attach them to the networks and prepare the backend system. Operator of the system is the service provider and the service users. They know the value of their services and devices. Only a fleet manager can evaluate the damage of a break down or the danger of fraud by manipulation of car communication. He has an overview of the attractiveness to various hacker types. That is why in the end service providers and business operators are responsible for defining the security level for the parts of the communication chain. While fleet managers and metering companies are experts in managing fleets or in collecting meter data, they are not experts in communication electronics security. However, there are security experts who have the competences to do a sophisticated risk analysis. Summary > Together with the integrator and the component suppliers, security experts should translate the security demands of the service provider into technical requirements that increase the cost of potential attacks. > Any consulting should happen as early as possible which is as soon as the risk analysis can be done. This should be BEFORE the systems goes into operation, better before design completion or selection of components and protocols because any change later on can mean very high costs which often is a blocking barrier; especially since security is still seen as a cost position that does not pay off in numbers. 7
8 Which measures do increase costs of attacks? The demand for security is very different in various industries. For example nobody may be interested in knowing the fill status of a vending machine, but Point of Sales Terminals have been under attack since they were first introduced, because their bank transactions mean direct access to money. That is why the PoS domain has always implemented the most advanced security in M2M. If there was an easy way to get access to the content of a huge number of similar vending machines without paying, the motivation would be there to find it. To create reasonable cost for an attack, it does not need high tech; if we have to expect high tech attacks, we should rely on state-of-the-art technology. Proprietary encryption There are almost no systems without any protection of authentication and confidentiality. However, many applications still perform obfuscation and encryption by proprietary means. Proprietary protection can create already substantial cost for an attack. However, it depends on the ability of the hacker and his resources how long it takes him to crack it, and such protection has often never been subjected to public scrutiny or proper cryptanalysis. Proven Standards If the probability for an attack is high, there comes a point where we cannot avoid using proven standard methods to authenticate and encrypt. As long as Internet protocols are used to transmit, Transport Layer Security (TLS /SSL) based encryption and certificate based authentication can be used easily, given very high security. Unfortunately the efforts to create and maintain the logistics for key management plus the complexity of this topic, prevent many companies from applying these technologies unless they employ experts in this field. Authenticated Short Message Service Most mobile applications use the convenient cellular feature of texting / short messages. Authentication of the SMS sender was secure within mobile networks where the sender actually is a phone ensuring authentication by the SIM. This was changed when the operators opened their short messaging infrastructure to commercial third-party SMS providers. By offering to send SMSes from outside the operator s network, it became possible to use any phone number as sender address because it cannot be authenticated by the operator's security infrastructure. This may require working with shared keys and hash values in the payload of text messages to ensure authentication of incoming at mobile devices. Tamper resistant mechanics Sometimes simply mechanical constraints prevent interception of signals. If essential functions of a device would be disabled irreversibly, by opening its enclosure, this might help a lot to prevent easy black box analysis by a hacker. Also here the Point-of-Sales terminals have been showing the best security so far. Also certain PCB layout constraints can protect an application to a certain degree from wiretapping. Secure Elements and Trusted Execution Environment Smart cards are a very secure way to protect authentication keys. This technology is proven in SIM cards and banking cards and promoted for other use cases by the GlobalPlatform.org. These smart cards offer a secure storage of key and encryption algorithms. If more calculation power is required also a micro processor with a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) can be the better choice to encapsulate security relevant operations within a protected processing area. If more calculation power is required also a micro processor with a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) can be the better choice to encapsulate security relevant operations within a protected processing area. Summary > Users will face increased numbers of attacks on machine communications > M2M service providers and operators need to define the security demand > Device suppliers need to prepare for increasing security requirements > Integrators can involve security experts to gain knowhow > Security is about prevention not cure, It is an investment without profit but the only way to prevent damage. About the author Michael Schultz is a German telecommunications engineer. He started working in the field of cellular technology in 1999 as a developer for GSM core network software at Siemens Mobile Networks. He changed to Siemens Wireless Modules division in 2004, where he headed projects for complete M2M solutions. In 2008 Siemens spun its Wireless Modules division off and created Cinterion Wireless Modules. Cinterion was acquired by Gemalto in Schultz has worked since 2008 in Technical Sales for the EMEA region and at the end of 2012 he moved into M2M Sales for the German speaking DACH region. 8
9 About Gemalto Gemalto (Euronext NL GTO) is the world leader in digital security with 2011 annual revenues of 2 billion and more than 10,000 employees operating out of 74 offices and 14 Research & Development centers, located in 43 countries. We are at the heart of the rapidly evolving digital society. Billions of people worldwide increasingly want the freedom to communicate, travel, shop, bank, entertain and work anytime, everywhere in ways that are enjoyable and safe. Gemalto delivers on their expanding needs for personal mobile services, payment security, authenticated cloud access, identity and privacy protection, ehealthcare and egovernment efficiency, convenient ticketing and dependable machine-tomachine (M2M) applications. Gemalto develops secure embedded software and secure products which we design and personalize. Our platforms and services manage these secure products, the confidential data they contain and the trusted end-user services they enable. Our innovations enable our clients to offer trusted and convenient digital services to billions of individuals. Gemalto thrives with the growing number of people using its solutions to interact with the digital and wireless world. For more information, please visit m2m.gemalto.com, or on twitter. Gemalto M2M GmbH St.-Martin-Str Munich Germany M2M.gemalto.com Gemalto All rights reserved. Gemalto, the Gemalto logo, are trademarks and service marks of Gemalto and are registered in certain countries. January 2013
Cyber Security Planning Guide The below entities collaborated in the creation of this guide. This does not constitute or imply an endorsement by the FCC of any commercial product, service or enterprise
Cyber Security Planning Guide The below entities collaborated in the creation of this guide. This does not constitute or imply an endorsement by the FCC of any commercial product, service or enterprise
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