# Chapter 8 Adjustments to the Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet: 1

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1 Chapter 8 Adjustments to the Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet: 1 Questions 1. Joey s recent business phone bills are as follows: Period covered 1.11.X X X X X X X X5 840 Joey s year end is 31 December. At 31 December 20X5 he estimates that the November and December phone charges (which will not be billed until the end of January 20X6) will amount to 2/12 of the previous 12 months charges. How much is the telephone expense in Joey s profit and loss account for the year ending 31 December 20X5? (work to the nearest ). 2. Jacinta s accrued expenses for the year ending 31 March 20X8 total In her balance sheet this amount: (1) Decreases net current assets (2) Increases net current assets (3) Is included under current liabilities (4) Is deducted from capital. Which of these statements are correct? a) 2 & 3 b) 1 & 4 c) 1 & 3 d) 2 & 4 1

2 3. Per prepares his accounts to 31 January each year. At 31 January 20X4 he has the following balances on electricity and telephone accounts: Electricity Telephone 3118 Per is due to receive an electricity bill in respect of the threemonth period to 31 January 20X4, but it has not yet arrived. By 15 February it has still not arrived and he rings up the electricity company. The customer services representative tells Per that they are having trouble with their computerised billing system, but that the amount of the bill to 31 January 20X4 will be The most recent telephone bill received by Per covered the threemonth period to 30 November 20X3. Usually Per would expect to spend about 300 per month on phone charges and that seems a reasonable estimate for January 20X4. However, he knows that an unusually large number of calls were made just before Christmas, and he estimates that call charges for December were probably in the region of 420. (a) What amount should be included in Per s profit and loss account for electricity and telephone expenses up to 31 January 20X4? (b) What is the total accrual for electricity and telephone at 31 January 20X4? (c) Where is this amount shown in the balance sheet? Khalil runs a decorative tile shop. He imports an exclusive range of tiles from South America upon which import duties have to be paid. Most of Khalil s sales are for cash, but he supplies some trade customers on credit. In order to encourage his debtors to pay within 30 days he offers a discount of 1.5% for early payment. Khalil is concerned because his volume of trade has declined and he thinks it s probable that his margins have worsened over the year. In the year to 31 December 20X3 his gross profit margin was 23.7% and net profit margin was 8.2%. At Khalil s year end, 31 December 20X4, he has the following balances in his account books relating to sales and expenses items: 2

3 Sales returns Opening stock at 1 January 20X Premises rent and rates Bank charges 976 Sundry expenses Sales Service charges on property Telephone Purchases Administration and accountancy Staff wages Purchases returns Discounts allowed 477 Electricity Import duties Closing stock at 31 December 20X Prepare Khalil s profit and loss account for the year ending 31 December 20X4. Calculate his gross and net profit margins. Have they worsened, as Khalil suspects, or have they improved? 5. Ling imports household furnishings and ornaments which she sells on at a profit to retailers. She runs her business from a small warehouse, with an office attached, and she employs a fulltime manager to take care of the day to day running of the business while she is away on buying trips. At Ling s year end, 30 April 20X6, the balances in her accounting records relating to sales and expenses items are as follows: Manager s salary Other staffing costs Sales Discounts received 720 Travelling expenses

4 Sales returns Import duties on purchases Opening stock at 1 May 20X Telephone Interest received Warehouse rental Other premises costs Purchases Delivery charges (for delivery to customers) Administrative expenses Bank charges 360 Closing stock at 30 April 20X Sundry expenses Notes: 1. Of the warehouse rental, 2173 should be accounted for as a prepayment. 2. Telephone charges have been invoiced up to the end of March 20X6. Ling estimates that an accrual of 385 will be required for April s charges. Prepare Ling s profit and loss account for the year ending 30 April 20X6. 6. Linley has a retail business selling bedroom furniture. Two years ago he opened a branch of his business in a nearby town. The day to day management of the branch is delegated to Linley s trusted colleague, Olwen. All the records for the business are kept at the head office. Linley keeps a record of sales made by the branch so that he can pay Olwen a sales-based commission. In the year ending 31 March 20X5 sales at the branch total Linley has agreed to pay Olwen 1% of branch sales as commission, and this must be accrued for in the year end accounts. At the year end, 31 March 20X5, the following amounts are recorded in Linley s books: 4

5 Purchases Closing stock at 31 March 20X Premises rental Electricity Insurance Other staff costs Debtors Cash at bank Drawings Administrative costs Sundry expenses Fixed assets Sales returns Purchases returns Haulage and carriage costs (for delivery of purchases to Linley) Opening stock at 1 April 20X Trade creditors Capital at 1 April 20X Creditors: Inland Revenue and VAT Telephone Sales Notes: 1. The insurance total of 6420 comprises: Charges to 31 December 20X Paid on 1 January 20X The amount paid at the beginning of January covers the year to 31 December 20X5. An adjustment is required for a prepayment. 2. Commission for Olwen must be accrued in accordance with the arrangements explained earlier. 3. The telephone charges of 3860 are for the ten months to 31 January 20X5. An accrual is required for February and March 20X5. Linley s estimate of the total charges for the two months is

6 7. Miles is the sole UK distributor for an extensive range of glassware imported from Ireland. The business was started by Miles father, and is well-established and profitable. Its principal customers are retailers, although Miles sells a small proportion of seconds stock direct to the public from a shop attached to the warehouse. Miles relationships with his customers are generally good and most of them pay within 30 days. Miles offers a fairly generous settlement discount of 1.5% to those customers who settle promptly. Recently, however, Miles has had some trouble extracting payment from Welbrand Furnishers plc, a listed company which has experienced some well-publicised trading difficulties. By 31 December 20X4, Miles year end, the Welbrand debt has built up to Three months ago, Miles refused to make any further supplies to the company. Some of outstanding invoices are now over 9 months old. These days, when Miles rings the accounts department of the company, he gets an answering machine. His calls are never returned. Miles accountant suggests that 100% provision should be made against the debt. She does not think it should be completely written off at present because there is some talk in the financial press of a takeover bid for Welbrand. This could put the company on a secure footing and may mean that Miles debt will eventually be paid. Miles accounting records at 31 December 20X4 show the following balances: Opening stock at 1 January 20X Closing stock at 31 December 20X Business rates Trade creditors Capital at 1 January 20X Water rates & plumbing repairs Secretarial and administrative salaries Discounts allowed Bank interest received Sales Telephone Electricity

7 Warehouse supervisor s salary Other warehouse salaries Accountancy charges Debtors (including owed by Welbrand) Sundry expenses Legal costs Purchase returns Cash at bank Selling costs Drawings Fixed assets: warehouse & equipment Delivery expenses (for deliveries to customers) Fixed assets: delivery vans Sales returns Purchases Notes: 1. An adjustment must be made to the business rates total: 2178 relates to the 20X5 accounting year and should be treated as a prepayment. 2. An accrual of 1497 for electricity charges is required. Prepare Miles profit and loss account and balance sheet at 31 December 20X4. 8. Sharon Sharon runs a business selling cards and novelty items from a busy shop in a large shopping centre. She has the following list of account balances at 31 August 20X1: Administration expenses Purchases Fixed assets Sundry expenses Bank charges Premises rental (including business and water rates) Opening stock at 1 September 20X

8 Sales Subscriptions to trade association 818 Electricity Property services charge Cash at bank Interest received 460 Assistants wages Mobile phone 766 Travelling expenses Phone shop Drawings Insurance Creditors Opening capital at 1 September 20X Accountant s and solicitor s fees Discounts received Closing stock at 31 August 20X Note the following additional information: 1. In a normal year Sharon expects to make a gross profit on sales of 50% and a net profit of 16.3%. 2. An accrual of 1307 for property services charges is required at 31 August 20X1. 3. Not all of the 5237 for insurance relates to the year to 31 August 20X1. Sharon estimates that 465 of the charges relate to the next accounting period. 4. Sharon is still waiting for an electricity bill up to 31 August 20X1. She reads the electricity meter at 31 August and on the basis of the reading estimates that further charges of 1107 will have to be accrued for the year. 5. Some phone charges have not been billed by the year-end. An accrual of 200 should be made. Prepare a profit and loss account for Sharon for the year ending 31 August 20X1 and a balance sheet at that date. Calculate gross and net profit margins and compare them with the expected performance of the business. 8

9 Answers Financial Accounting for Non-Specialists 2nd Edition 1. Joey Telephone expenses for the year ending 31 December 20X5 are calculated as follows: January 20X5 1/3 x February April 20X5 776 May July 20X5 524 August October 20X5 840 ( ) x 2/ Total Jacinta Accruals decrease net current assets (statement 1) and are included under current liabilities (statement 3). The correct answer is (c). 3. Per (a) Electricity: = Telephone: = (b) Total accrual = = (c) The accrual will be shown as part of current liabilities, generally immediately following trade creditors. 4. Khalil Profit and loss account for the year ending 31 December 20X4 Sales Less: returns (1 897) Cost of sales Opening stock Purchases

10 Add: import duties Less: Purchases (2 950) returns Closing stock ( ) Gross profit Expenses Premises rent and rates Service charges on property Staff wages Electricity Telephone Discounts allowed 477 Bank charges 976 Administration and accountancy Sundry expenses Net profit Gross profit margin = 23.6% Net profit margin = 7.0% Both gross and net profit margins are lower than in the previous year. 10

11 5. Ling Profit and loss account for the year ending 30 April 20X6 Sales Less: returns (1 222) Cost of sales Opening stock Purchases Add: import duties Closing stock (13 127) Interest received Discounts received Expenses Warehouse rental Less: prepayment (2 173) Other premises costs Manager s salary Other staff costs Travelling expenses Telephone Add: accrual for 385 telephone charges Delivery charges Administrative expenses Bank charges 360 Sundry expenses

12 Net profit Linley Working 1: insurance Insurance to 31 December 20X Paid on 1 January 20X5 (for one year) Less: prepaid 9/ (2 790) Insurance charge for year to 31 March 20X Profit and loss account for the year ending 31 March 20X5 Sales Less: returns (2 588) Cost of sales Opening stock Purchases Add: haulage and carriage costs Less: Purchases (3 667) returns Closing stock (75 210) Gross profit Expenses Premises rental Electricity Telephone charges Add: accrual Insurance (working 1) Staff costs

13 Administrative costs Sundry expenses Accrued commission Olwen % Net profit Balance sheet at 31 March 20X5 Fixed assets Current assets Stock Debtors Prepayment Cash at bank Current liabilities Trade creditors Creditors: Inland Revenue and VAT Accruals ( ) Net current assets ( ) Capital at 1 April 20X Add: profit for the year Less: drawings (52 000) Miles Profit and loss account for the year ending 31 December 20X4 13

14 Sales Less: returns (8 620) Cost of sales Opening stock Purchases Less: Purchases returns (1 850) Closing stock (73 622) Gross profit Bank interest received Expenses Business rates Less: prepayment (2 178) Telephone Electricity Add: accrual Delivery expenses Water rates & plumbing repairs Secretarial and administrative salaries Warehouse supervisor s salary Other warehouse salaries Accountancy charges Legal costs Discounts allowed Selling costs Sundry expenses

15 Provision for doubtful debt Financial Accounting for Non-Specialists 2nd Edition Net profit Balance sheet at 31 December 20X4 Fixed assets: warehouse & equipment Fixed assets: delivery vans Current assets Stock Debtors Less: provision for (35 270) doubtful debt Prepayment Cash at bank Current liabilities Trade creditors Accrual Net current assets ( ) Capital at 1 January 20X Add: profit for the year Less: drawings (45 000)

16 8. Sharon Profit and loss account for the year ending 31 August 20X1 Sales Cost of sales Opening stock Add: purchases Less: closing stock (46 522) ( ) Gross profit Discounts received Interest received Expenses Premises rental (including business and water rates) Property services charge Add: accrual Electricity Add: accrual Assistants wages Phone shop Add: accrual Mobile phone 766 Insurance Less: prepayment (465) Administration expenses

17 Sundry expenses Subscriptions to trade 818 association Bank charges Accountant s and solicitor s fees Travelling expenses ( ) Net profit Balance sheet at 31 August 20X1 Fixed assets Current assets Stock Prepayment 465 Cash at bank Current liabilities Creditors Accruals ( ) Net current assets ( ) Net assets Capital Opening capital balance 1 September X0 Add: net profit for the year Less: drawings (61 300) Closing capital balance 31 August 20X Sharon s gross profit margin is: = 52%

18 Her net profit margin is: Financial Accounting for Non-Specialists 2nd Edition = 18.5% Business performance has been better than usual in the year to 31 August 20X1. Gross profit margin is generally expected to be 50% but this year it has improved to 52%. Net profit margin is expected to be 16.3% but this year has improved to 18.5%. 18

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