1 Alaí Reyes-Santos Assistant Professor Ethnic Studies University of Oregon
4 Part 1
6 Muerte a los Dominicanos Muerte al Racismo Documented by Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel, Caribe Two Ways
7 Sugar cane industry U.S. occupation of the island ( ) Bateyes (sugar plantations-company towns) Neoliberalization of Dominican and Haitian economies -migration of Dominicans abroad -Haitian migrants find work in construction sites, free trade zones and tourism industries, and the informal economy 2010 earthquake in Haiti (Silié, Segura, Dore Cabral, Corten, Castor, Jarayam, Sagás, Torres-Saillant)
8 Public Policy Impacting the Children of Migrants since 2004
9 Changed the definition of a person-intransit in the Dominican Republic. This law rendered children of migrants born in an irregular situation (i.e. from undocumented parents) as people-intransit who are not Dominican nationals even if they were born in Dominican soil.
10 The Inter-American Court on Human Rights ruled that Dominican Civil Registry officials had violated the human rights of these children by refusing to register their births.
11 Junta Central Electoral (Electoral Council) suspends any documents that appear to be irregular. Many Dominicans of Haitian descent find that their birth certificates and identification documents as Dominican nationals have been rendered invalid by the JCE.
12 "Well, but I understand that laws are not retroactive: and how could it be that after twenty five years you are going to deny me a document that was already given to me and fulfilled all legal requirements" (73). Alfredo Oguisten, who lost the opportunity to go to college on a scholarship "To not be able to have that document is as if I were a foreigner, but in my own land or in my own nation. As if I were someone who left another place and arrived here, but it is not true because I was born, I studied and I was raised here." (74). Rogelio Exil de la Rosa "... if they do not give them to me (the documents), I am from here. Because I am Dominican even if they keep the document: I am Dominican". (74) Feliciana Pelsien Yan
13 Yo soy de aquí
14 Article #18: Determines that Dominicans are: 1)the children of Dominican mothers or fathers; 2)those who already are Dominican nationals before the application of this Constitution; 3)people born in national territory, except the children of foreigners in diplomatic delegations, of foreigners-in-transit or who are undocumented residents of the Dominican territory.
15 It determined that the children of foreignborn parents in an irregular migratory situation since 1929 could not be considered Dominican nationals. The decision applied retroactively.
16 Starts December 1st, 2014 and ends on May 31st, 2015/June 17th, 2015
17 Reports on Resolution and Constitutional Tribunal decision
18 It reinstitutes Dominican nationality to the children of foreign-born residents who were already included in the Dominican Civil Registry before 2007 (group A). It affirms that the state had granted nationality erroneously to those people but it cannot penalize them for the state's mistake. It requires the children of foreigners in an "irregular" migratory situation (group B) who were notregistered in the Civil Registry to be registered in the book for foreigners as established by the General Migration Law # There is no path for naturalization for them.
19 Dominicans of Haitian Descent and the Implementation of these Policies
20 Its implementation was limited by various factors. Reconoci.do: Less than 10,000 were able to submit their paperwork. Officials delayed their response as well as asked for requirements not specified by the law. (Juan Telemín, Reconoci.do)
21 Dominican women of Haitian descent and their children are a particularly vulnerable population.
22 si tus padres no tienen ningún documento, así hayas nacido en República Dominicana y quieras registrarte, no puedes, aunque ellos hagan una declaración jurada, los acompañe un testigo, y tengan un documento del hospital donde nació. A pesar de eso no fue aceptada. Esa joven tiene dos niñas de padre dominicano, él quiere reconocerlas y hacerles la declaración, pero como la madre no tiene documentación aunque es dominicana, no puede registrar a sus niñas, contó la activista. Además, esta mujer no puede registrarse en el Plan Nacional de Regularización porque pierde cualquier tipo de posibilidad de ser reconocida como dominicana, y los requisitos son mucho más difíciles de cumplir; se necesita tener documentación de Haití y debe pagar pesos, el equivalente a 205 dólares.
24 Narratives of Acculturation Reconoci.do Other organizations: Centro Bonó, MUDHA, OBMICA, Kalalú Danza, La Colectiva Mujer y Salud, Group d Appui Aux Rapatriés et Réfugiés, students in New York City Intercultural Education
25 interculturalidad seen this way wants to walk paths of creativity, of exchanges, conviviality, social articulation, celebration of what is beautiful, what is good, what is just, what humanizes all of us. It wants to solidify social relations and contribute to the well-being and knowledge of the other as a person with dignity, capable of transforming society in a positive fashion (Digna María Adames, 2013, 106).
29 Part 2
30 Puerto Rico-unincorporated territory of the United States Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens 1965 U.S. immigration law 1980s economic crisis and political repression in the Dominican Republic 1986 U.S. amnesty Workspaces: Service industry, informal economy, coffee plantations
31 Public Policy Impacting the Children of Dominican Migrants in Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland
32 Anchor babies -derogatory term used to describe children of undocumented women migrants Children negotiate their own status as U.S. citizens and the status of other family members who may be undocumented, residents, or on a tourist or work-related visa.
33 Challenge: Long and expensive process to obtain a green card (be a permanent resident) or become a U.S. citizen.
34 Criminalization and deportation of children of migrants to the Dominican Republic (Yolanda Martín)
35 Criminalization of migrants (Graziano 2013)
36 Si cuando era pequeña en una tienda le faltaban dos centavos nada más y no se lo quisieron dar, porque era dominicana y yo como era nacida aquí, me lo dieron. Cuando uno está allá en Santo Domingo uno cree que Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico también es la gran cosa del mundo que uno viene y ya está en el cielo. Cuando uno está aquí uno es como una basura como otras personas. Y te tratan diferente. Como que te miran así como que tú eres, piensan mal.
37 Why do Dominicans place a quarter on their ears? To listen to Fifty Cents. Why do they do the same with a ketchup bottle? To listen to salsa. Why do they put the computer by the window? To search for Windows. Heard in Cidra, Puerto Rico, December 24, 2004 (Martínez-San Miguel, 2003; Quintero Herencia 1996; Reyes- Santos 2015)
38 RESPONSES Santurce is not for sale
40 Part 3
41 Interethnic Dominican-Puerto Rican Families and Community Development in New York City (with Dr. Ana-Maurine Lara) How do Dominican-Puerto Rican youth explain their sense of belonging and civic engagement? How do they negotiate similarities and differences, solidarity and tensions, amongst Dominican and Puerto Rican communities in NYC? (Raquel Rivera) Sponsors: Dominican Studies Institute and Center for Puerto Rican Studies
42 Female-headed households Familism Endogamous and Exogamous Marriages Claim racial category Other (Ramona Hérnandez, Utku Sezguin, Jorge Duany, Dharma López, Calzada, Gurak, Ginetta Candelario, Anthony Stevens Acevedo, Juan Flores, Carlos Vargas Ramos, 2009 DSI-Baruch survey of Dominicans in NYC)
43 Puerto Ricans-U.S. citizens, do not need a visa to migrate Language retention Enrollment in Higher Education (Ramona Hérnandez and Anthony Stevens Acevedo, Kasinitz et al, Pew Hispanic Survey)
44 Impacting the Children of Dominican and Puerto Rican Migrants in the U.S. Mainland
45 Criminalization Discrimination Gentrification Educational Opportunities Completion of academic degrees, enrollment in graduate programs Support of extended families in both islands and New York City
46 Impacting the Children of Dominican Migrants and other Latin Americans in the U.S.
47 It would grant conditional permanent resident cards.
48 Deferred Action-stops deportation proceedings for undocumented children of migrants for a few years.
49 Seeks in-state tuition fees for undocumented youth who are in college
50 Undocuqueers Dreamers Dominicanos USA NY League of Puerto Rican Women Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigrant Rights Dominican Women's Development Center National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights Puerto Rican Hispanic Youth Leadership Institute
52 Shared Challenges of Children of Caribbean Migrants in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Mainland Methodological Needs of Socially-Relevant Research Pertinent for the Children of Migrants
53 Transcolonial Kinship Transnational Kinship National Kinship Colonial Kinship